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Sample records for major rice blast

  1. Survey of rice blast race identity for blast resistance gene identification in the USA and Puerto Rico

    Rice blast disease is a significant threat to stable rice production in the USA and worldwide. The major resistance gene (Pi-ta) located within a cluster of resistance genes on rice chromosome 12 has been demonstrated to confer resistance to the rice blast disease. Katy, a rice cultivar released in ...

  2. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  3. Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

    Yunyu Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs. Keywords: Hybrid rice parental lines, Magnaporthe oryzae, Pi genes, Resistance evaluation, Molecular markers

  4. Use of molecular markers in identification and characterization of resistance to rice blast in India.

    Manoj Kumar Yadav

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive disease causing huge losses to rice yield in different parts of the world. Therefore, an attempt has been made to find out the resistance by screening and studying the genetic diversity of eighty released rice varieties by National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (NRVs using molecular markers linked to twelve major blast resistance (R genes viz Pib, Piz, Piz-t, Pik, Pik-p, Pikm Pik-h, Pita/Pita-2, Pi2, Pi9, Pi1 and Pi5. Out of which, nineteen varieties (23.75% showed resistance, twenty one were moderately resistant (26.25% while remaining forty varieties (50% showed susceptible in uniform blast nursery. Rice varieties possessing blast resistance genes varied from four to twelve and the frequencies of the resistance genes ranged from 0 to 100%. The cluster analysis grouped the eighty NRVs into two major clusters at 63% level of genetic similarity coefficient. The PIC value for seventeen markers varied from 0 to 0.37 at an average of 0.20. Out of seventeen markers, only five markers, 195R-1, Pi9-i, Pita3, YL155/YL87 and 40N23r corresponded to three broad spectrum R genes viz. Pi9, Pita/Pita2 and Pi5 were found to be significantly associated with the blast disease with explaining phenotypic variance from 3.5% to 7.7%. The population structure analysis and PCoA divided the entire 80 NRVs into two sub-groups. The outcome of this study would help to formulate strategies for improving rice blast resistance through genetic studies, plant-pathogen interaction, identification of novel R genes, development of new resistant varieties through marker-assisted breeding for improving rice blast resistance in India and worldwide.

  5. Use of molecular markers in identification and characterization of resistance to rice blast in India.

    Yadav, Manoj Kumar; S, Aravindan; Ngangkham, Umakanta; Shubudhi, H N; Bag, Manas Kumar; Adak, Totan; Munda, Sushmita; Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Jena, Mayabini

    2017-01-01

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive disease causing huge losses to rice yield in different parts of the world. Therefore, an attempt has been made to find out the resistance by screening and studying the genetic diversity of eighty released rice varieties by National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (NRVs) using molecular markers linked to twelve major blast resistance (R) genes viz Pib, Piz, Piz-t, Pik, Pik-p, Pikm Pik-h, Pita/Pita-2, Pi2, Pi9, Pi1 and Pi5. Out of which, nineteen varieties (23.75%) showed resistance, twenty one were moderately resistant (26.25%) while remaining forty varieties (50%) showed susceptible in uniform blast nursery. Rice varieties possessing blast resistance genes varied from four to twelve and the frequencies of the resistance genes ranged from 0 to 100%. The cluster analysis grouped the eighty NRVs into two major clusters at 63% level of genetic similarity coefficient. The PIC value for seventeen markers varied from 0 to 0.37 at an average of 0.20. Out of seventeen markers, only five markers, 195R-1, Pi9-i, Pita3, YL155/YL87 and 40N23r corresponded to three broad spectrum R genes viz. Pi9, Pita/Pita2 and Pi5 were found to be significantly associated with the blast disease with explaining phenotypic variance from 3.5% to 7.7%. The population structure analysis and PCoA divided the entire 80 NRVs into two sub-groups. The outcome of this study would help to formulate strategies for improving rice blast resistance through genetic studies, plant-pathogen interaction, identification of novel R genes, development of new resistant varieties through marker-assisted breeding for improving rice blast resistance in India and worldwide.

  6. Molecular Breeding Strategy and Challenges toward Improvement of Blast Disease Resistance in Rice Crops

    Sadegh eAshkani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a staple and most important security food crop consumed by almost half of the world’s population. More rice production is needed due to the rapid population growth in the world. Rice blast caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop in different part of the world. Breakdown of blast resistance is the major cause of yield instability in several rice growing areas. There is a need to develop strategies providing long-lasting disease resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, giving protection for a long time over a broad geographic area, promising for sustainable rice production in the future. So far, molecular breeding approaches involving DNA markers, such as QTL mapping, marker-aided selection, gene pyramiding, allele mining and genetic transformation have been used to develop new resistant rice cultivars. Such techniques now are used as a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to conventional methods allowing rapid introgression of disease resistance genes into susceptible varieties as well as the incorporation of multiple genes into individual lines for more durable blast resistance. The paper briefly reviewed the progress of studies on this aspect to provide the interest information for rice disease resistance breeding. This review includes examples of how advanced molecular method have been used in breeding programs for improve blast resistance. New information and knowledge gained from previous research on the recent strategy and challenges toward improvement of blast disease such as pyramiding disease resistance gene for creating new rice varieties with high resistance against multiple diseases will undoubtedly provide new insights into the rice disease control.

  7. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  8. Molecular evolution of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta in invasive weedy rice in the USA.

    Seonghee Lee

    Full Text Available The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus, which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH, suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta, not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing.

  9. Molecular Evolution of the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta in Invasive Weedy Rice in the USA

    Lee, Seonghee; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa; Gealy, David R.; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus), which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta) found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH), suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s) required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta), not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing. PMID:22043312

  10. Preliminary report on the rice blast resistance of space-induced mutants derived from rice cultivar 'Taihang-68'

    Zhang Jingxin; Sun Dayuan; Wang Hui; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    To screen the blast resistance mutants, the resistance of SP 1 progenies derived from rice variety Taihang-68 were evaluated after satellite flight by representative blast isolate GD0193 which had a broad pathogenic spectra, and then primary genetic analysis of resistant mutants and mapping of resistance gene, as well as resistance spectra at seedling and neck blast resistance at maturity were performed. The results showed that space-mutation was effective method to change the blast resistance of Taihang-68. The screened resistant mutants TH1 and TH2 showed that resistance to isolate GD0193 no disjunction and separation respectively, and the resistance separation ratio of TH2 indicated that its resistance was controlled by one pair of major genes, which was preliminary mapped on the long arm of chromosome 11. In blast resistance spectra and neck blast resistance, TH1 and TH2 were both enhanced remarkable compared with the wild-type at seedling and maturity, and their resistance could be inherited, the blast resistance of these two mutants were also increased comparing with several main cultivars in South China. (authors)

  11. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  12. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae) Alleviation in the United States.

    Nalley, Lawton; Tsiboe, Francis; Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Shew, Aaron; Thoma, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion) impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in production.

  13. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae Alleviation in the United States.

    Lawton Nalley

    Full Text Available Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in

  14. Genetic diversity for sustainable rice blast management in China: adoption and impact

    Revilla-Molina, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Disease management, genetic diversity, rice interplanting, competition, resource complementarity, technical efficiency, production function, Magnaporthe grisea

    The experience on rice blast in Yunnan Province, China, is one of the most successful and widely publicized examples

  15. Overexpression of Phosphomimic Mutated OsWRKY53 Leads to Enhanced Blast Resistance in Rice

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Masuda, Yuka; Shimizu, Takafumi; Kishi-Kaboshi, Mitsuko; Takahashi, Akira; Nishizawa, Yoko; Minami, Eiichi; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Okada, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been shown to play pivotal roles in the regulation of plant defense responses. We previously reported that OsWRKY53-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced resistance to the rice blast fungus. In this study, we identified OsWRKY53 as a substrate of OsMPK3/OsMPK6, components of a fungal PAMP-responsive MAPK cascade in rice, and analyzed the effect of OsWRKY53 phosphorylation on the regulation of basal defense responses to a virulence race of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae strain Ina86-137. An in vitro phosphorylation assay revealed that the OsMPK3/OsMPK6 activated by OsMKK4 phosphorylated OsWRKY53 recombinant protein at its multiple clustered serine-proline residues (SP cluster). When OsWRKY53 was coexpressed with a constitutively active mutant of OsMKK4 in a transient reporter gene assay, the enhanced transactivation activity of OsWRKY53 was found to be dependent on phosphorylation of the SP cluster. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 (OsWRKY53SD) showed further-enhanced disease resistance to the blast fungus compared to native OsWRKY53-overexpressing rice plants, and a substantial number of defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related protein genes, were more upregulated in the OsWRKY53SD-overexpressing plants compared to the OsWRKY53-overexpressing plants. These results strongly suggest that the OsMKK4-OsMPK3/OsMPK6 cascade regulates transactivation activity of OsWRKY53, and overexpression of the phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 results in a major change to the rice transcriptome at steady state that leads to activation of a defense response against the blast fungus in rice plants. PMID:24892523

  16. Overexpression of phosphomimic mutated OsWRKY53 leads to enhanced blast resistance in rice.

    Tetsuya Chujo

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades have been shown to play pivotal roles in the regulation of plant defense responses. We previously reported that OsWRKY53-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced resistance to the rice blast fungus. In this study, we identified OsWRKY53 as a substrate of OsMPK3/OsMPK6, components of a fungal PAMP-responsive MAPK cascade in rice, and analyzed the effect of OsWRKY53 phosphorylation on the regulation of basal defense responses to a virulence race of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae strain Ina86-137. An in vitro phosphorylation assay revealed that the OsMPK3/OsMPK6 activated by OsMKK4 phosphorylated OsWRKY53 recombinant protein at its multiple clustered serine-proline residues (SP cluster. When OsWRKY53 was coexpressed with a constitutively active mutant of OsMKK4 in a transient reporter gene assay, the enhanced transactivation activity of OsWRKY53 was found to be dependent on phosphorylation of the SP cluster. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing a phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 (OsWRKY53SD showed further-enhanced disease resistance to the blast fungus compared to native OsWRKY53-overexpressing rice plants, and a substantial number of defense-related genes, including pathogenesis-related protein genes, were more upregulated in the OsWRKY53SD-overexpressing plants compared to the OsWRKY53-overexpressing plants. These results strongly suggest that the OsMKK4-OsMPK3/OsMPK6 cascade regulates transactivation activity of OsWRKY53, and overexpression of the phospho-mimic mutant of OsWRKY53 results in a major change to the rice transcriptome at steady state that leads to activation of a defense response against the blast fungus in rice plants.

  17. Studies on induced resistance to blast in rice

    Zhang Mingxian

    1985-01-01

    Eleven rice varieties were treated with 60 Co gamma ray, laser and other mutagens. 154 mutants with different characters were developed. 154 mutants and their parents have been inoculated with blast (Piricularia oryzae) races. It was found that the mutants of disease-resistance could be produced. The disease-resistant mutants with various better cheracters were selected. The frequencies of mutation in disease-resistance are different with different parental varieties. After inoculation with 13 blast physiological races, the results showed that the spectrum of resistance of mutants, other characters were changed, when one character was changed. In order to get a veriety with higher yield and disease-resistance, it is important to take account of other economic charaters

  18. Chloroplast-expressed MSI-99 in tobacco improves disease resistance and displays inhibitory effect against rice blast fungus.

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Wei, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Lin, Chun-Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Yue-Lin; Ma, Jing-Yong; Ma, Jian; Xing, Shao-Chen

    2015-03-02

    Rice blast is a major destructive fungal disease that poses a serious threat to rice production and the improvement of blast resistance is critical to rice breeding. The antimicrobial peptide MSI-99 has been suggested as an antimicrobial peptide conferring resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases. Here, a vector harboring the MSI-99 gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome via particle bombardment. Transformed plants were obtained and verified to be homoplastomic by PCR and Southern hybridization. In planta assays demonstrated that the transgenic tobacco plants displayed an enhanced resistance to the fungal disease. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity revealed that the crude protein extracts from the transgenic plants manifested an antimicrobial activity against E. coli, even after incubation at 120 °C for 20 min, indicating significant heat stability of MSI-99. More importantly, the MSI-99-containing protein extracts were firstly proved in vitro and in vivo to display significant suppressive effects on two rice blast isolates. These findings provide a strong basis for the development of new biopesticides to combat rice blast.

  19. Chloroplast-Expressed MSI-99 in Tobacco Improves Disease Resistance and Displays Inhibitory Effect against Rice Blast Fungus

    Yun-Peng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast is a major destructive fungal disease that poses a serious threat to rice production and the improvement of blast resistance is critical to rice breeding. The antimicrobial peptide MSI-99 has been suggested as an antimicrobial peptide conferring resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases. Here, a vector harboring the MSI-99 gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome via particle bombardment. Transformed plants were obtained and verified to be homoplastomic by PCR and Southern hybridization. In planta assays demonstrated that the transgenic tobacco plants displayed an enhanced resistance to the fungal disease. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity revealed that the crude protein extracts from the transgenic plants manifested an antimicrobial activity against E. coli, even after incubation at 120 °C for 20 min, indicating significant heat stability of MSI-99. More importantly, the MSI-99-containing protein extracts were firstly proved in vitro and in vivo to display significant suppressive effects on two rice blast isolates. These findings provide a strong basis for the development of new biopesticides to combat rice blast.

  20. Molecular Scree ning of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice Germplasms Resistant to Magnaporthe oryzae

    Liang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular screening of major rice blast resistance genes was determined with molecular markers, which showed close-set linkage to 11 major rice blast resistance genes (Pi-d2, Pi-z, Piz-t, Pi-9, Pi-36, Pi-37, Pi5, Pi-b, Pik-p, Pik-h and Pi-ta2, in a collection of 32 accessions resistant to Magnaporthe oryzae. Out of the 32 accessions, the Pi-d2 and Pi-z appeared to be omnipresent and gave positive express. As the second dominant, Pi-b and Piz-t gene frequencies were 96.9% and 87.5%. And Pik-h and Pik-p gene frequencies were 43.8% and 28.1%, respectively. The molecular marker linkage to Pi-ta2 produced positive bands in eleven accessions, while the molecular marker linkage to Pi-36 and Pi-37 in only three and four accessions, respectively. The natural field evaluation analysis showed that 30 of the 32 accessions were resistant, one was moderately resistant and one was susceptible. Infection types were negatively correlated with the genotype scores of Pi-9, Pi5, Pi-b, Pi-ta2 and Pik-p, although the correlation coefficients were very little. These results are useful in identification and incorporation of functional resistance genes from these germplasms into elite cultivars through marker-assisted selection for improved blast resistance in China and worldwide.

  1. First report of multiple races of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in Puerto Rico

    The rice nursery located in the Lajas Valley, in the southwestern corner of Puerto Rico has been used by US rice breeders for the past 43 years to produce one to two extra generations per year. In April, 2015, blast disease lesions were observed on rice breeding lines belonging to the USDA ARS DB NR...

  2. Induced mutation for disease resistance in rice with special reference to blast, bacterial blight and tungro

    Mathur, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Rice varieties Ratna, Pusa 2-21, Vijaya and Pankaj have been treated with gamma rays, EMS or sodium azide to improve their resistance against blast, bacterial leaf blight or tungro virus. For blast and tungro, mutants with improved resistance were selected. Variation in reaction to bacterial leaf blight has been used in crossbreeding to accumulate genes for resistance. (author)

  3. Exploring the Potentiality of Novel Rhizospheric Bacterial Strains against the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Amruta, Narayanappa; Prasanna Kumar, M. K.; Puneeth, M. E.; Sarika, Gowdiperu; Kandikattu, Hemanth Kumar; Vishwanath, K.; Narayanaswamy, Sonnappa

    2018-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease. In the present study, we aimed to identify and evaluate the novel bacterial isolates from rice rhizosphere for biocontrol of M. oryzae pathogen. Sixty bacterial strains from the rice plant’s rhizosphere were tested for their biocontrol activity against M. oryzae under in vitro and in vivo. Among them, B. amyloliquefaciens had significant high activity against the pathogen. The least disease severity and highest germination were recorded in seeds treated with B. amyloliquefaciens UASBR9 (0.96 and 98.00%) compared to untreated control (3.43 and 95.00%, respectively) under in vivo condition. These isolates had high activity of enzymes in relation to growth promoting activity upon challenge inoculation of the pathogen. The potential strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and dominance of these particular genes were associated in Bacillus strains. These strains were also confirmed for the presence of antimicrobial peptide biosynthetic genes viz., srfAA (surfactin), fenD (fengycin), spaS (subtilin), and ituC (iturin) related to secondary metabolite production (e.g., AMPs). Overall, the results suggested that application of potential bacterial strains like B. amyloliquefaciens UASBR9 not only helps in control of the biological suppression of one of the most devastating rice pathogens, M. grisea but also increases plant growth along with a reduction in application of toxic chemical pesticides. PMID:29628819

  4. DNA tagging of blast resistant gene(s in three Brazilian rice cultivars

    S.S. Sandhu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast is the most important fungal disease of rice and is caused by Pyricularia oryzae Sacc. (Telomorph Magnoporthe grisea Barr.. Seven randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers OPA5, OPG17, OPG18, OPG19, OPF9, OPF17 and OPF19 showed very clear polymorphism in resistant cultivar lines which differed from susceptible lines. By comparing different susceptible lines, nine DNA amplifications of seven primers (OPA5(1000, OPA5(1200, OPG17(700, OPG18(850, OPG19(500, OPG19(600, OPF9(600, OPF17(1200 and OPF19(600 were identified as dominant markers for the blast resistant gene in resistant cultivar lines. These loci facilitate the indirect scoring of blast resistant and blast susceptible genotypes. The codomine RAPDs markers will facilitate marker-assisted selection of the blast resistant gene in two blast resistant genotypes of rice (Labelle and Line 11 and will be useful in rice breeding programs.

  5. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  6. Differences in phytoalexin response among rice cultivars of different resistance to blast

    Dillon, V.M.; Overton, J.; Grayer, R.J.; Harborne, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    he production of both flavonoid and diterpenoid phytoalexins after induction by UV irradiation was studied in five rice genotypes of different susceptibility to the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae. Consistent qualitative and quatitative differences were found between the rice cultivars in the phytoalexins produced, and there was a strong correlation between the accumulation of the phytoalexins, sakuranetin, momilactone A and oryzalexin S, and rice resistance to blast. Production of phytoalexins was also investigated in rice genotype Tetep after inoculation with an incompatible race of P. oryzae. Similar levels of sakuranetin and oryzalexin E were formed 3 days after both inoculation and UV irradiation of the leaves, but there were different levels of momilactone A and the other oryzalexins. Although a given rice genotype may respond quite differently in its production of phytoalexins depending on whether it has been irradiated or inoculated with a fungus, and in the latter case on whether a compatible race of the pathogen has been used, the present results indicate that genetic differences in phytoalexin response between rice cultivars are likely to play an important role among the many factors that determine differences in blast resistance between different rice genotypes. (author)

  7. The improvement of rice varieties for major pest and diseases resistance

    Sahi, I.; Silitonga, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1971, the rice breeding program in Indonesia has developed on intensive program to improve varieties for yield potential, resistancy to major pests and diseases, early maturity good grain and eating quality. In recent years, the attacks of insects and diseases are very severe in rice cultivation in Asia. Much of the losses were due to acontinuous planting or certain varieties. Between 1966 and 1973 tungro occured in epidemic proportions on separate occasions in Indonesia, Thailand, Nort East India, Bangladesh, and Philippine. Since 1973, investation of brown planthopper and green leafhopper several damaged rice crop in most parts of Indonesia. Presently, rice improvement are directed to develop high yielding rice varieties that are resistant to brown planthopper, ragged stunt virus, blast, green leafhopper, and gallmidge. Screening for pests and diseases are conducted in the laboratory as well as in the field. The adoption of those improved varieties by farmers has contributed greatly in our efforts to attain self sufficiency in rice production in Indonesia. GH 147 -M-40 krad-Pn-89 (irradiated Barito) showed resistant to brown planthopper biotype 1 and 2 and moderately resistant to biotype 3. Napa 40 krad-St-12 has resistant reaction to blast. (authors). 4 refs, 8 tabs

  8. Rice Blast Control and Polyvarietal Planting in the Philippines: A Study in Genotype by Environment Biogeography

    Daniel J. Falvo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches to biogeography are based on organismic biology. Certain biogeographical phenomena, however, cannot be fully understood using organismic approaches to biogeography. I employed an approach based on molecular biology and biochemistry that I call genotype by environment biogeography in order to provide a more complete understanding of why the dispersal of rice blast disease is less efficient in fields planted with mixtures of rice varieties. In a case study of an upland ricefield in the Philippines, I found that planting varietal mixtures results in a form of effective blast control that I call intrafield gene deployment. I suggest that intrafield gene deployment be used to design more effective methods of blast control in intensive rice agriculture.

  9. Gene Ontology annotation of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae

    Deng Jixin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of blast disease of rice, is the most destructive disease of rice worldwide. The genome of this fungal pathogen has been sequenced and an automated annotation has recently been updated to Version 6 http://www.broad.mit.edu/annotation/genome/magnaporthe_grisea/MultiDownloads.html. However, a comprehensive manual curation remains to be performed. Gene Ontology (GO annotation is a valuable means of assigning functional information using standardized vocabulary. We report an overview of the GO annotation for Version 5 of M. oryzae genome assembly. Methods A similarity-based (i.e., computational GO annotation with manual review was conducted, which was then integrated with a literature-based GO annotation with computational assistance. For similarity-based GO annotation a stringent reciprocal best hits method was used to identify similarity between predicted proteins of M. oryzae and GO proteins from multiple organisms with published associations to GO terms. Significant alignment pairs were manually reviewed. Functional assignments were further cross-validated with manually reviewed data, conserved domains, or data determined by wet lab experiments. Additionally, biological appropriateness of the functional assignments was manually checked. Results In total, 6,286 proteins received GO term assignment via the homology-based annotation, including 2,870 hypothetical proteins. Literature-based experimental evidence, such as microarray, MPSS, T-DNA insertion mutation, or gene knockout mutation, resulted in 2,810 proteins being annotated with GO terms. Of these, 1,673 proteins were annotated with new terms developed for Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO. In addition, 67 experiment-determined secreted proteins were annotated with PAMGO terms. Integration of the two data sets resulted in 7,412 proteins (57% being annotated with 1,957 distinct and specific GO terms. Unannotated proteins

  10. Current Status of Conventional and Molecular Interventions for Blast Resistance in Rice

    Deepti Srivastava

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyricularia oryzae anamorph of Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most notorious fungal pathogens causing severe economic loss in rice production worldwide. Various methods, viz. cultural, biological and molecular approaches, are utilized to counteract this pathogen. Moreover, some tolerant or resistant rice varieties have been developed with the help of breeding programmes. Isolation and molecular characterization of different blast resistance genes now open the gate for new possibilities to elucidate the actual allelic variants of these genes via various molecular breeding and transgenic approaches. However, the behavioral pattern of this fungus breakups the resistance barriers in the resistant or tolerant rice varieties. This host-pathogen barrier will be possibly countered in future research by comparative genomics data from available genome sequence data of rice and M. oryzae for durable resistance. Present review emphasized fascinating recent updates, new molecular breeding approaches, transgenic and genomics approaches (i.e. miRNA and genome editing for the management of blast disease in rice. The updated information will be helpful for the durable, resistance breeding programme in rice against blast pathogen.

  11. Enhanced resistance to blast fungus in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by expressing the ribosome-inactivating protein α-momorcharin.

    Qian, Qian; Huang, Lin; Yi, Rong; Wang, Shuzhen; Ding, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea is one of the three major diseases that seriously affect the rice production. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from Momordica charantia seeds, has antifungal effects in vitro. In this study, the α-MC gene was constitutively expressed under the control of the 2×35S promoter in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. The nine transgenic plants were obtained and confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR, and the four (B2, B4, B7 and B9) of them whose copy numbers were 1, 2, 3 and 3, respectively, were shown to express the α-MC protein by Western blot. The molecular weight of α-MC in transgenic plants was approximately 38 kDa larger than the purified α-MC protein (28 kDa) in vitro. When the confirmed T1 generations were inoculated with a suspension of M. grisea spores for ten days, the lesions on leaves of transgenic plants were much lesser than those found on wild type (WT). According to the criteria of International Rice Research Institute standard, the mean values for morbidity and disease index numbers were 29.8% and 14.9%, respectively, which were lower than for WT. It is unclear whether RIPs could impact plant fitness and however our results suggest that the α-MC protein is an effective antifungal protein preventing rice blast in transgenic rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infectivity of the conidia of the rice blast fungus treated with the different fungicidal solutions

    Hashioka, Y; Ikegami, H

    1959-01-01

    Infectivity of the conidia of Piricularia oryzae (rice blast fungus) which had been treated with different fungicides was examined. Germination of conidia treated with phenylmercuric acetate was severely repressed. Copper sulfate had a mild inhibitory effect. Organosulfur compounds also had a slight inhibitory effect.

  13. Effect of root and leaf applications of soluble silicon on blast development in rice

    Isaias Severino Cacique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is the most important fungal disease of rice worldwide. This study aimed to compare root and foliar supply of soluble silicon (Si on rice resistance to blast. The application of soluble Si to the roots increased Si concentration in leaf tissues as compare to plants grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. There was no increase in leaf Si concentration after soluble Si spray, regardless if the leaves were washed or not before analysis. X-ray microanalysis revealed that Si deposition was very similar on the leaf epidermis of plants sprayed with soluble Si, root amended with soluble Si or grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. The lesion size, the number of lesions per cm² of leaf and the area under blast progress curve were reduced for rice plants grown in soil that received the application of soluble Si or was amended with calcium silicate. The results of this study showed that the supply of soluble Si to the roots or its spray onto to the rice leaves can decrease blast symptoms.

  14. Genetic analysis and identification of SSR markers associated with rice blast disease in a BC2F1 backcross population.

    Hasan, N; Rafii, M Y; Abdul Rahim, H; Nusaibah, S A; Mazlan, N; Abdullah, S

    2017-01-23

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) blast disease is one of the most destructive rice diseases in the world. The fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Development of resistant cultivars is the most preferred method to achieve sustainable rice production. However, the effectiveness of resistant cultivars is hindered by the genetic plasticity of the pathogen genome. Therefore, information on genetic resistance and virulence stability are vital to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of blast disease resistance. The present study set out to elucidate the resistance pattern and identify potential simple sequence repeat markers linked with rice blast disease. A backcross population (BC 2 F 1 ), derived from crossing MR264 and Pongsu Seribu 2 (PS2), was developed using marker-assisted backcross breeding. Twelve microsatellite markers carrying the blast resistance gene clearly demonstrated a polymorphic pattern between both parental lines. Among these, two markers, RM206 and RM5961, located on chromosome 11 exhibited the expected 1:1 testcross ratio in the BC 2 F 1 population. The 195 BC 2 F 1 plants inoculated against M. oryzae pathotype P7.2 showed a significantly different distribution in the backcrossed generation and followed Mendelian segregation based on a single-gene model. This indicates that blast resistance in PS2 is governed by a single dominant gene, which is linked to RM206 and RM5961 on chromosome 11. The findings presented in this study could be useful for future blast resistance studies in rice breeding programs.

  15. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  16. Blast resistance of space-induced variants derived from rice cultivar Hanghui 7

    Zhang Jingxin; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan; Wang Hui; Zeng Liexian; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang

    2010-01-01

    To screen the resistance lines to rice blast, the blast resistance of SP 3 and SP 4 progenies derived from rice variety Hanghui 7 were evaluated after satellite flight, and the genomic DNA polymorphism of the resistant variants selected from SP 3 was compared with the wild type by microsatellite markers. The results indicated that the SP 3 Variant line H24, which was selected from the 250 space-induced lines ( SP 3 ) with excellent agronomic and economical characters, showed resistance segregation (119R : 108S) against blast isolate GD3286. It was demonstrated that the resistance of H24 might be controlled by two dominant and complementary resistance genes. The resistance of H24 was still segregated in SP 4 , but the resistance spectrum of H24 was 84. 4% in SP 5 , much higher than the wild type, 40. 6%, and H24 especially showed resistant against some blast isolates of broad pathogenic spectrum or specialized pathogenicity; further more, the DNA polymorphism wasn't detected between H24 and its wild type by 229 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers covering the rice genome equally. (authors)

  17. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica cv. Katy) for Stable Resistance against Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae)

    Rice blast is a recurring and devastating disease in the USA and worldwide. In the USA, the blast-resistance (R) genes found in a tropical japonica cultivar, Katy, reduce blast damages from 1990 to present. The cultivar is still used as a principal donor of blast R genes in developing numerous elit...

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts from Aloe Vera, Citrus Hystrix, Sabah Snake Grass and Zingiber Officinale against Pyricularia Oryzae that causes Rice Blast Disease in Paddy Plants

    Uda, M. N. A.; Harzana Shaari, N.; Shamiera. Said, N.; Hulwani Ibrahim, Nur; Akhir, Maisara A. M.; Khairul Rabani Hashim, Mohd; Salimi, M. N.; Nuradibah, M. A.; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2018-03-01

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus known as Pyricularia oryzae, has become an important and serious disease of rice worldwide. Around 50% of production may be lost in a field moderately affected by infection and each year the fungus destroys rice, which is enough to feed an estimated 60 million people. Therefore, use of herbal plants offer an alternative for the management of plant diseases. Herbal plant like Aloe vera, Citrus hystrix, Sabah snake grass and Zingiber officinale extracts can be used for controlling disease of rice blast. In this study, these four herbal plants were used for evaluating antimicrobial activity against rice plant fungus Pyricularia oryzae, which causes rice blast disease.

  19. The cell death factor, cell wall elicitor of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) causes metabolic alterations including GABA shunt in rice cultured cells

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    An elicitor derived from the cell wall of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) causes cell death in suspension cultured cells of rice (Oryza sativa L.). To elucidate the role of M. grisea elicitor on metabolic pathway of rice cells, we performed metabolite profiling using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE/MS). Treatment with M. grisea elicitor increased the amounts of antioxidants and free amino acids and decreased the amount of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycl...

  20. Characterization of rue extract and its potential for controlling rice blast

    Karinna Bannach Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to purify and standardize the rue (Ruta graveolens extract and evaluate its effect on Magnaporthe oryzae as an alternative to the integrated management of rice blast. The drug was characterized, the liquid extract was obtained, and the methodology for quantifying the standard markers psoralen and bergapten was validated. Rue extract and the markers, solely or in combination, were assayed in vitro, as well as in greenhouse conditions, for their ability to suppress leaf blast, by the evaluation of mycelial growth, conidial germination, and appressorium formation. Rue extract inhibited M. oryzae mycelial growth (100%, conidial germination (LD50=0.237 mg, and the appressorium formation (LD50=0.121 mg; besides, the extract reduced leaf blast severity by 80.84%. Fluorescence microscopy showed that rue extract did not damage M. oryzae cell wall and plasma membrane, indicating another mode of action. Rue extract has a great potential for controlling rice leaf blast.

  1. Main agronomic traits and resistance to rice blast of space-induced mutant lines of Zhong-er-ruan-zhan

    Xiao Wuming; Wang Hui; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    The main agronomic traits and resistance to rice blast of 34 space-induced lines from an elite rice cultivar, Zhong-er-ruan-zhan were evaluated at their SP 4 . The resistance to blast of the mutant lines had been tested by two blast isolates previously. It was found that the mutant lines showed significant difference in plant height, effective panicles, panicle length and grains per panicle etc. from their parent. The range of variation in 1000-grain weight the largest, followed by the seed-setting rate, and that of effective panicles was the least among all the traits. Except for the line Z34, 33 mutant lines had broader resistance spectra than the wild-type based on the test with 38 different blast isolates, and all the 33 lines were also resistant to the panicle blast in the field. The result confirmed that selection for resistant to blast in lower generations was reliable. Taking account of agronomic traits and blast resistance, promising lines with resistance to blast and good agronomic characters could be selected from those mutant lines. Therefore, the elite rice germplasm with enhanced disease resistance can be produced. (authors)

  2. Introgression of Blast Resistance Genes (Putative Pi-b and Pi-kh) into Elite Rice Cultivar MR219 through Marker-Assisted Selection

    Tanweer, Fatah A.; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Harun A.; Ahmed, Fahim; Ashkani, Sadegh; Latif, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Blast is the most common biotic stress leading to the reduction of rice yield in many rice-growing areas of the world, including Malaysia. Improvement of blast resistance of rice varieties cultivated in blast endemic areas is one of the most important objectives of rice breeding programs. In this study, the marker-assisted backcrossing strategy was applied to improve the blast resistance of the most popular Malaysian rice variety MR219 by introgressing blast resistance genes from the Pongsu Seribu 2 variety. Two blast resistance genes, Pi-b and Pi-kh, were pyramided into MR219. Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified 15 plants homozygous for the Pi-b and Pi-kh genes, and background selection revealed more than 95% genome recovery of MR219 in advanced blast resistant lines. Phenotypic screening against blast disease indicated that advanced homozygous blast resistant lines were strongly resistant against pathotype P7.2 in the blast disease endemic areas. The morphological, yield, grain quality, and yield-contributing characteristics were significantly similar to those of MR219. The newly developed blast resistant improved lines will retain the high adoptability of MR219 by farmers. The present results will also play an important role in sustaining the rice production of Malaysia. PMID:26734013

  3. Identification of blast resistance expression in rice genotypes using ...

    Rice is the second most important cereal crop of developing countries and the staple food of about 65% of the world's population. In this endeavor, it is important to identify resistant gene(s) with the help of markers. Once a gene is tagged with a molecular marker, it can be transferred selectively into different genetic ...

  4. Induced mutations to develop sources of resistance to rice blast, Pyricularia grisea Sacc

    Correa-Victoria, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Pyricularia grisea is the most important disease limiting yields worldwide. The pathogen has many virulent forms or pathotypes, hence durable blast resistance is lacking. Studies on strategy to develop durable blast resistance based on defining the genetic structure of the population, using DNA-fingerprinting, and virulence diversity are described. This strategy is leading to the identification of resistance genes/sources against all isolates within a genetic family of the pathogen. Combinations of genes showing complementary resistance to different genetic families of the fungus exclude any compatible interaction with a blast isolate. Identification of complementary resistance genes is based on detecting those virulence factors whose combinations in individual isolates within the pathogen population have a frequency near zero. Identifying and combining resistance genes to which combinations of corresponding virulence genes are absent in the pathogen population should confer more durable resistance than that previously obtained. The use of induced mutations in the development of resistance was limited, since in most cases single gene changes were responsible for the induced resistance against all the pathogen population. The main objective here is to develop many mutants, each with a gene resistant to just one or a few families of the blast pathogen; and crossing them can accumulate the different resistance genes. A total of 201 Latin American commercial cultivars, including Cuban, Brazilian and Venezuelan were analyzed with different genetic families of the blast pathogen to identify potential sources of resistance to blast and identify complementary resistance sources. Characterization of the resistance of 37 mutants of the Colombian rice cultivar Oryzica 1 was conducted in collaboration with the INEA in Colombia. Results suggested that mutations for resistance to genetic families to which Oryzica 1 is susceptible were induced, although one

  5. In-vitro vs in-vivo Inoculation: Screening for Resistance of Australian Rice Genotypes Against Blast Fungus

    Vineela Challagulla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To assist with rapid screening for rice blast resistance as a precursor in a breeding program, the susceptibility to rice blast of 13 rice genotypes from Australia was evaluated in May to June 2013 using three distinct inoculation methods (spot, filter paper and standard methods at seedling, vegetative and reproductive stages. The results revealed that the spot and filter paper inoculation methods were successful in discerning susceptibility to the rice blast disease (P ≤ 0.05. Disease susceptibility declined significantly from the vegetative to reproductive stages. The standard method was conducted at three different stages for pot plants grown inside the mist house. However, low temperatures did not produce disease symptoms except in a few genotypes. Among the 13 rice genotypes screened, AAT9 expressed a highly resistant response, and AAT4, AAT6, AAT10, AAT11, AAT13, AAT17 and AAT18 expressed resistance at various stages. The results will be useful for selecting elite genotypes for disease tolerance where rice blast is prevalent. In addition, the resistant genotypes can serve as a gene pool used in breeding programmes to develop new resistant genotypes.

  6. Inheritance patterns and identification of microsatellite markers linked to the rice blast resistance in BC2F1 population of rice breeding

    Gous Miah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The BC2F1 population was derived from a cross between rice variety, MR219 (susceptible to blast and Pongsu Seribu 1 (resistant to blast. The objectives of this research were to know the inheritance pattern of blast resistance and to identify the linked markers associated with blast resistance in BC2F1 population. Sixteen microsatellite markers were found as polymorphic between the parents related to blast resistant genes (Pi-genes. Among the selected blast resistant linked markers, two markers RM6836 and RM8225 showed expected testcross ratio (1:1 for single-gene model in the BC2F1 population with the association between resistant and susceptible progeny. A total of 333-BC2F1 plants were challenged with the most virulent pathotype P7.2 of Magnaporthe oryzae. Chi-square (χ2 analysis for phenotypic segregation in single-gene model showed goodness of fit (P = 0.4463 to the expected segregation ratio (1:1. In marker segregation analysis, two polymorphic markers (RM6836 and RM8225 clearly showed goodness of fit to the expected segregation testcross ratio (1:1 for the single-gene model. The marker RM8225 and RM6836 showed significant R2 values higher than 10 for the trait of the blast lesions degree (BLD. The positions of RM6836 and RM8225 markers on rice chromosome 6 and the distance between these two markers is 0.2 cM. We conclude that single dominant gene control the blast resistance in Pongsu Seribu 1 located on chromosome 6, which is linked to RM8225 and RM6836 microsatellite markers. This information could be useful in marker-assisted selection for blast resistance in rice breeding involving Pongsu Seribu 1.

  7. Marker-assisted introgression of broad-spectrum blast resistance genes into the cultivated MR219 rice variety.

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2017-07-01

    The rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor. Marker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of 13 improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype, P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219. The research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease-resistant rice varieties, which in turn will match rising demand and food security worldwide. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Two novel transcriptional regulators are essential for infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Xia Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in regulating plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we report the identification of two novel genes, MoSOM1 and MoCDTF1, which were discovered in an insertional mutagenesis screen for non-pathogenic mutants of M. oryzae. MoSOM1 or MoCDTF1 are both necessary for development of spores and appressoria by M. oryzae and play roles in cell wall differentiation, regulating melanin pigmentation and cell surface hydrophobicity during spore formation. MoSom1 strongly interacts with MoStu1 (Mstu1, an APSES transcription factor protein, and with MoCdtf1, while also interacting more weakly with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (CpkA in yeast two hybrid assays. Furthermore, the expression levels of MoSOM1 and MoCDTF1 were significantly reduced in both Δmac1 and ΔcpkA mutants, consistent with regulation by the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. MoSom1-GFP and MoCdtf1-GFP fusion proteins localized to the nucleus of fungal cells. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that nuclear localization signal sequences in MoSom1 and MoCdtf1 are essential for their sub-cellular localization and biological functions. Transcriptional profiling revealed major changes in gene expression associated with loss of MoSOM1 during infection-related development. We conclude that MoSom1 and MoCdtf1 functions downstream of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and are novel transcriptional regulators associated with cellular differentiation during plant infection by the rice blast fungus.

  9. Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Fernandez, Jessie; Yang, Kuan Ting; Cornwell, Kathryn M.; Wright, Janet D.; Wilson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elaborate bulbous invasive hyphae from primary hyphae, but further in planta growth was aborted. Invasive hyphal growth following rice cell ingress is thus dependent on de novo purine biosynthesis by the pathogen and, moreover, plant sources of purines are neither available to the mutant nor required by the wild type during the early biotrophic phase of infection. This work provides new knowledge about the metabolic interface between fungus and host that might be applicable to other important intracellular fungal pathogens. PMID:23928947

  10. Evidence for biotrophic lifestyle and biocontrol potential of dark septate endophyte Harpophora oryzae to rice blast disease.

    Zhen-Zhu Su

    Full Text Available The mutualism pattern of the dark septate endophyte (DSE Harpophora oryzae in rice roots and its biocontrol potential in rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were investigated. Fluorescent protein-expressing H. oryzae was used to monitor the colonization pattern. Hyphae invaded from the epidermis to the inner cortex, but not into the root stele. Fungal colonization increased with root tissue maturation, showing no colonization in the meristematic zone, slight colonization in the elongation zone, and heavy colonization in the differentiation zone. H. oryzae adopted a biotrophic lifestyle in roots accompanied by programmed cell death. Real-time PCR facilitated the accurate quantification of fungal growth and the respective plant response. The biocontrol potential of H. oryzae was visualized by inoculation with eGFP-tagged M. oryzae in rice. H. oryzae protected rice from M. oryzae root invasion by the accumulation of H2O2 and elevated antioxidative capacity. H. oryzae also induced systemic resistance against rice blast. This systemic resistance was mediated by the OsWRKY45-dependent salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, as indicated by the strongly upregulated expression of OsWRKY45. The colonization pattern of H. oryzae was consistent with the typical characteristics of DSEs. H. oryzae enhanced local resistance by reactive oxygen species (ROS and high antioxidative level and induced OsWRKY45-dependent SA-mediated systemic resistance against rice blast.

  11. Antagonistic activity Trichoderma harzianum Rifai on the causal agent of rice blast (Pyricularia grisea Sacc.

    Ernesto Juniors Pérez Torres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to evaluate the antagonistic activity of T. harzianum (strain A-34 on the causal agent of rice blast (P. grisea, were developed several in vitro experiments. It was evaluated the biocontrol mechanisms such as competition through mounted the percent inhibition of radial growth of hyphae of P. grisea from 24 to 240 hours and the antagonistic capacity. In addition, was evaluated micoparasitism to inclination the observation of events Microscopy winding, penetration, vacuolization, lysis, and antibiosis by observing 24 hours a confrontation between the hyphae of the phytopathogenic fungus and biological control agent. It was obtained at 120 hours 100 % inhibition of micelial growth of causal agent, what corresponded with the degree 1 of antagonistic capacity (scale and is recorded as a hyperparasitic action on P. grisea. It was evidenced an antibiotic effect of metabolites produced by T. harzianum (strain A-34 to 24 hours of confrontation, where there was time interaction between the hyphae of microorganisms with 14,3 % inhibition, also was evidence the micoparasitism events by penetration, vacuolization and lysis in the cells of phytopathogenic fungus. These results demonstrated the ability of T. harzianum (strain A-34 on causal agent of rice blast (P. grisea.

  12. Major QTL Conferring Resistance to Rice Bacterial Leaf Streak

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) is one of the important limiting factors to rice production in southern China and other tropical and sub-tropical areas in Asia. Resistance to BLS was found to be a quantitative trait and no major resistant gene was located in rice until date. In the present study, a new major quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring resistance to BLS was identified from a highly resistant variety Dular by the employment of Dular/Balilla (DB) and Dular/IR24 (DI) segregation populations and was designated qBLSR-11-1. This QTL was located between the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM120 and RM441 on chromosome 11 and could account for 18.1-21.7% and 36.3% of the variance in DB and DI populations, respectively. The genetic pattern of rice resistance to BLS was discussed.

  13. Identification of blast resistance expression in rice genotypes using ...

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... for pyramid resistance genes because the presence of one major gene ... of inoculums. Standard agronomic management practices were .... CSR-27. 80.00 ± 4.46. 85.00 ± 4.62. 2062.50 ± 192.25. 2098.81 ± 193.18. SVT-10.

  14. Comparative analysis of the genomes of two field isolates of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Minfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of rice worldwide. The fungal pathogen is notorious for its ability to overcome host resistance. To better understand its genetic variation in nature, we sequenced the genomes of two field isolates, Y34 and P131. In comparison with the previously sequenced laboratory strain 70-15, both field isolates had a similar genome size but slightly more genes. Sequences from the field isolates were used to improve genome assembly and gene prediction of 70-15. Although the overall genome structure is similar, a number of gene families that are likely involved in plant-fungal interactions are expanded in the field isolates. Genome-wide analysis on asynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates revealed that many infection-related genes underwent diversifying selection. The field isolates also have hundreds of isolate-specific genes and a number of isolate-specific gene duplication events. Functional characterization of randomly selected isolate-specific genes revealed that they play diverse roles, some of which affect virulence. Furthermore, each genome contains thousands of loci of transposon-like elements, but less than 30% of them are conserved among different isolates, suggesting active transposition events in M. oryzae. A total of approximately 200 genes were disrupted in these three strains by transposable elements. Interestingly, transposon-like elements tend to be associated with isolate-specific or duplicated sequences. Overall, our results indicate that gain or loss of unique genes, DNA duplication, gene family expansion, and frequent translocation of transposon-like elements are important factors in genome variation of the rice blast fungus.

  15. Avirulence (AVR) Gene-Based Diagnosis Complements Existing Pathogen Surveillance Tools for Effective Deployment of Resistance (R) Genes Against Rice Blast Disease.

    Selisana, S M; Yanoria, M J; Quime, B; Chaipanya, C; Lu, G; Opulencia, R; Wang, G-L; Mitchell, T; Correll, J; Talbot, N J; Leung, H; Zhou, B

    2017-06-01

    Avirulence (AVR) genes in Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen that causes the devastating rice blast disease, have been documented to be major targets subject to mutations to avoid recognition by resistance (R) genes. In this study, an AVR-gene-based diagnosis tool for determining the virulence spectrum of a rice blast pathogen population was developed and validated. A set of 77 single-spore field isolates was subjected to pathotype analysis using differential lines, each containing a single R gene, and classified into 20 virulent pathotypes, except for 4 isolates that lost pathogenicity. In all, 10 differential lines showed low frequency (95%), inferring the effectiveness of R genes present in the respective differential lines. In addition, the haplotypes of seven AVR genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing, if applicable. The calculated frequency of different AVR genes displayed significant variations in the population. AVRPiz-t and AVR-Pii were detected in 100 and 84.9% of the isolates, respectively. Five AVR genes such as AVR-Pik-D (20.5%) and AVR-Pik-E (1.4%), AVRPiz-t (2.7%), AVR-Pita (0%), AVR-Pia (0%), and AVR1-CO39 (0%) displayed low or even zero frequency. The frequency of AVR genes correlated almost perfectly with the resistance frequency of the cognate R genes in differential lines, except for International Rice Research Institute-bred blast-resistant lines IRBLzt-T, IRBLta-K1, and IRBLkp-K60. Both genetic analysis and molecular marker validation revealed an additional R gene, most likely Pi19 or its allele, in these three differential lines. This can explain the spuriously higher resistance frequency of each target R gene based on conventional pathotyping. This study demonstrates that AVR-gene-based diagnosis provides a precise, R-gene-specific, and differential line-free assessment method that can be used for determining the virulence spectrum of a rice blast pathogen population and for predicting the

  16. A review of microsatellite markers and their applications in rice breeding programs to improve blast disease resistance.

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Islam, Kh Nurul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2013-11-14

    Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), and they are typically composed of 1-6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS) can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS in rice breeding

  17. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR, and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS

  18. Tagging microsatellite marker to a blast resistance gene in the irrigated rice cultivar Cica-8

    Thiago Martins Pinheiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The rice cultivar Cica-8 exhibit differential reaction to several pathotypes of Magnaporthe oryzae. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the number of alleles involved in the expression of resistance to leaf blast and identify microsatellite markers linked to these alleles. A cross between cultivar Metica-1 and Cica-8 susceptible and resistant, respectively, to pathotype IB-1 (Py1049 was made to obtain F1, F2, BC1:1 and BC1:2 progenies. Greenhouse tests for leaf blast reaction showed that resistance is controlled by a monogenic dominant gene. For testing microsatellite markers, DNA of both resistant and susceptible parents and F1 and F2 populations was extracted. As expected for single dominant gene the F2 populations segregated at a ratio of 3:1. Of the 11 microsatellite markers tested, one marker RM 7102 was found to be closely linked to the resistant allele at a distance of 2.7 cM, in the cultivar Cica-8 to pathotype IB-1.

  19. Evidence for a transketolase-mediated metabolic checkpoint governing biotrophic growth in rice cells by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Jessie Fernandez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae threatens global food security through the widespread destruction of cultivated rice. Foliar infection requires a specialized cell called an appressorium that generates turgor to force a thin penetration hypha through the rice cuticle and into the underlying epidermal cells, where the fungus grows for the first days of infection as a symptomless biotroph. Understanding what controls biotrophic growth could open new avenues for developing sustainable blast intervention programs. Here, using molecular genetics and live-cell imaging, we dismantled M. oryzae glucose-metabolizing pathways to reveal that the transketolase enzyme, encoded by TKL1, plays an essential role in facilitating host colonization during rice blast disease. In the absence of transketolase, Δtkl1 mutant strains formed functional appressoria that penetrated rice cuticles successfully and developed invasive hyphae (IH in rice cells from primary hyphae. However, Δtkl1 could not undertake sustained biotrophic growth or cell-to-cell movement. Transcript data and observations using fluorescently labeled histone H1:RFP fusion proteins indicated Δtkl1 mutant strains were alive in host cells but were delayed in mitosis. Mitotic delay could be reversed and IH growth restored by the addition of exogenous ATP, a metabolite depleted in Δtkl1 mutant strains. We show that ATP might act via the TOR signaling pathway, and TOR is likely a downstream target of activation for TKL1. TKL1 is also involved in controlling the migration of appressorial nuclei into primary hyphae in host cells. When taken together, our results indicate transketolase has a novel role in mediating--via ATP and TOR signaling--an in planta-specific metabolic checkpoint that controls nuclear migration from appressoria into primary hyphae, prevents mitotic delay in early IH and promotes biotrophic growth. This work thus provides new information about the metabolic strategies employed by M

  20. Tagging of blast resistance gene(s) to DNA markers and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice improvement

    Zhuang, J.Y.; Lu, J.; Qian, H.R.; Lin, H.X.; Zheng, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports progress made on the tagging of blast resistance gene(s) to DNA markers and on the initiation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for blast resistance in rice improvement. A pair of near isogenic lines, K8OR and K79S, were developed using a Chinese landrace Hong-jiao-zhan as the resistance donor. Ten putatively positive markers were identified by screening 177 mapped DNA markers. Using the F 2 population of 143 plants and the derived F 3 lines, three Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) markers (RG81, RG869 and RZ397) on chromosome 12 of rice were identified to be closely linked to the blast resistance gene Pi-12(t). The genetic distance between Pi-12(t) and the closest marker RG869 was 5.1 cM. By employing the bulk segregant analysis (BSA) procedure, six of 199 arbitrary primers were found to produce positive Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) bands. Tight linkage between Pi-12(t) and three RAPD bands, each from a different primer, was confirmed after amplification of DNA of all F 2 individuals. Two fragments were cloned and sequenced, and two sequence characterised amplified re-ion (SCAR) markers were established. In two other F 3 populations, Xian-feng I/Tetep and Xian-feng, 1/Hong-jiao-zhan, the blast resistance was found to be controlled by interactions of two or more genes. One resistance gene was located in the vicinity of RG81 in both populations. Work to identify other gene(s) is currently under way. Marker assisted selection for blast resistance was initiated. Crosses were made between elite varieties and blast resistance donors to develop populations for DNA marker-assisted selection of blast resistance. In addition, 48 varieties widely used in current rice breeding programs were provided by rice breeders. DNA marker-based polymorphism among, these varieties and resistance donors were analysed to produce a database for future MAS program. (author)

  1. Equol, a Clinically Important Metabolite, Inhibits the Development and Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae, the Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease

    Jiaoyu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Equol, a metabolite of soybean isoflavone daidzein, has been proven to have various bioactivities related to human health, but little is known on its antifungal activity to plant fungal pathogens. Magnaporthe oryzae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes rice blast, a devastating disease on rice. Here, we demonstrated that equol influences the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Equol showed a significant inhibition to the mycelial growth, conidial generation and germination, and appressorial formation of M. oryzae. As a result, equol greatly reduced the virulence of M. oryzae on rice and barley leaves. The antifungal activity of equol was also found in several other plant fungal pathogens. These findings expand our knowledge on the bioactivities of equol.

  2. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L.D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •N-ion beam bombarded Thai jasmine rice seeds to induce mutation. •Mutants with blast-disease resistance and high yield were screened. •Gene involved in the blast-disease resistance was analyzed. •The gene responsible for the resistance was linked to Spotted leaf protein 11. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60–80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 10 16 –2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 10 6 spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11)

  3. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Phanchaisri, B. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@frnf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: burinka@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •N-ion beam bombarded Thai jasmine rice seeds to induce mutation. •Mutants with blast-disease resistance and high yield were screened. •Gene involved in the blast-disease resistance was analyzed. •The gene responsible for the resistance was linked to Spotted leaf protein 11. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60–80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 10{sup 16}–2 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 10{sup 6} spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11)

  4. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L. D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60-80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 1016-2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 106 spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11).

  5. Induction of resistance to blast disease in an elite rice cultivar 'IR 50'

    Sarma, N.P.; Rao, G.J.N.; Row, K.V.S.R.K.

    2001-01-01

    to total susceptibility of the parent to the disease. The mutants were tested at different 'hot spot' locations of blast like Hazaribag in Bihar, Maruteru in Andhra Pradesh and Jagdalpur in Madhya Pradesh. In addition, they were also screened under greenhouse conditions at the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad. Experimental data from all these centers support the earlier finding that variation for tolerance to blast exist in these mutant lines. The relatively highly tolerant mutant lines were further evaluated under artificial screening at CRRI and highly tolerant individual plants with individual scores of 1 and 2 as against the parent variety score of 7 to 9 (in the IRRI disease score scale of 1 to 9) were selected. After seed multiplication, yield evaluation trials were conducted on fourteen different individual plant derived lines. The field evaluation data on the selected fourteen mutant lines i.e. CRM 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 and 58) indicate that all these mutant lines yielded either at par or higher than the parent. The mutants were further tested for their suitability in the replacement of the parent variety in the State of Assam. In the yield evaluation and adaptation trials conducted at Kokilabari Farm, Assam, the mutants performed consistently with a yield of over 3 t/ha. Further evaluation of CRM mutant lines over a four year period at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Assam Agricultural University, Diphu, Assam revealed that three mutant selections, i.e. CRM 49, 51 and 53, consistently yielded double that of the parent (2.5t/ha in comparison to 1.25t/ha for parent). Further, in the trials conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station of Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Jagdalpur, the CRM mutants performed well for both yield and the disease scores. Based on the performance of these mutants, the Government of Assam is proposing the release of three mutants namely, CRM 49, 51 and 53 and wishes to replace the

  6. Two Rab5 Homologs Are Essential for the Development and Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Cheng D. Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, infects many economically important cereal crops, particularly rice. It has emerged as an important model organism for studying the growth, development, and pathogenesis of filamentous fungi. RabGTPases are important molecular switches in regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. MoRab5A and MoRab5B are Rab5 homologs in M. oryzae, but their functions in the fungal development and pathogenicity are unknown. In this study, we have employed a genetic approach and demonstrated that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are crucial for vegetative growth and development, conidiogenesis, melanin synthesis, vacuole fusion, endocytosis, sexual reproduction, and plant pathogenesis in M. oryzae. Moreover, both MoRab5A and MoRab5B show similar localization in hyphae and conidia. To further investigate possible functional redundancy between MoRab5A and MoRab5B, we overexpressed MoRAB5A and MoRAB5B, respectively, in MoRab5B:RNAi and MoRab5A:RNAi strains, but neither could rescue each other’s defects caused by the RNAi. Taken together, we conclude that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are necessary for the development and pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, while they may function independently.

  7. Subcellular compartmentation, interdependency and dynamics of the cyclic AMP-dependent PKA subunits during pathogenic differentiation in rice blast.

    Selvaraj, Poonguzhali; Tham, Hong Fai; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Naqvi, Naweed I

    2017-08-01

    The cAMP-dependent PKA signalling plays a central role in growth, asexual development and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. Here, we functionally characterised RPKA, the regulatory subunit of cAMP/PKA and studied the dynamics and organisation of the PKA subunits in the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The RPKA subunit was essential for proper vegetative growth, asexual sporulation and surface hydrophobicity in M. oryzae. A spontaneous suppressor mutation, SMR19, that restored growth and conidiation in the RPKA deletion mutant was isolated and characterised. SMR19 enhanced conidiation and appressorium formation but failed to suppress the pathogenesis defects in rpkAΔ. The PKA activity was undetectable in the mycelial extracts of SMR19, which showed a single mutation (val242leu) in the highly conserved active site of the catalytic subunit (CPKA) of cAMP/PKA. The two subunits of cAMP/PKA showed different subcellular localisation patterns with RpkA being predominantly nucleocytoplasmic in conidia, while CpkA was largely cytosolic and/or vesicular. The CpkA anchored RpkA in cytoplasmic vesicles, and localisation of PKA in the cytoplasm was governed by CpkA in a cAMP-dependant or independent manner. We show that there exists a tight regulation of PKA subunits at the level of transcription, and the cAMP signalling is differentially compartmentalised in a stage-specific manner in rice blast. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Machine learning techniques in disease forecasting: a case study on rice blast prediction

    Kapoor Amar S

    2006-11-01

    developed a SVM-based web server for rice blast prediction, a first of its kind worldwide, which can help the plant science community and farmers in their decision making process. The server is freely available at http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/rbpred/.

  9. Host-Induced Gene Silencing of Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Pathogenicity Genes Mediated by the Brome Mosaic Virus.

    Zhu, Lin; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Zhixue; Wang, Zhengyi; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Hong

    2017-09-26

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating plant pathogen, which has a detrimental impact on rice production worldwide. Despite its agronomical importance, some newly-emerging pathotypes often overcome race-specific disease resistance rapidly. It is thus desirable to develop a novel strategy for the long-lasting resistance of rice plants to ever-changing fungal pathogens. Brome mosaic virus (BMV)-induced RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a useful tool to study host-resistance genes for rice blast protection. Planta-generated silencing of targeted genes inside biotrophic pathogens can be achieved by expression of M. oryzae -derived gene fragments in the BMV-mediated gene silencing system, a technique termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). In this study, the effectiveness of BMV-mediated HIGS in M. oryzae was examined by targeting three predicted pathogenicity genes, MoABC1, MoMAC1 and MoPMK1 . Systemic generation of fungal gene-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules induced by inoculation of BMV viral vectors inhibited disease development and reduced the transcription of targeted fungal genes after subsequent M. oryzae inoculation. Combined introduction of fungal gene sequences in sense and antisense orientation mediated by the BMV silencing vectors significantly enhanced the efficiency of this host-generated trans-specific RNAi, implying that these fungal genes played crucial roles in pathogenicity. Collectively, our results indicated that BMV-HIGS system was a great strategy for protecting host plants against the invasion of pathogenic fungi.

  10. MoDUO1, a Duo1-like gene, is required for full virulence of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Peng, Haowen; Feng, Youjun; Zhu, Xiaohui; Lan, Xiuwan; Tang, Mei; Wang, Jinzi; Dong, Haitao; Chen, Baoshan

    2011-12-01

    Duo1, a major component of the Dam1 complex which has been found in two species of yeast (the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe), is involved in mitosis-related chromosome segregation, while its relevance to pathogenicity in filamentous fungi remains unclear. This report elucidated this very fact in the case of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. A gene designated MoDUO1 that encodes a Duo1-like homolog (MoDuo1) was discovered in the M. oryzae genome. Two types of MoDUO1 mutants were obtained using genetic approaches of Agrobacterium-mediated gene disruption and homologous recombination. Both disruption and deletion of MoDUO1 can exert profound effects on the formation pattern of conidiophores and conidial morphology, such as abnormal nucleic numbers in conidia and delayed extension of infectious hyphae. Intriguingly, plant infection assays demonstrated that inactivation of MoDUO1 significantly attenuates the virulence in its natural host rice leaves, and functional complementation can restore it. Subcellular localization assays showed that MoDuo1 is mainly distributed in the cytosol of fungal cells. Proteomics-based investigation revealed that the expression of four mitosis-related proteins is shut down in the MoDUO1 mutant, suggesting that MoDuo1 may have a function in mitosis. In light of the fact that Duo1 orthologs are widespread in plant and human fungal pathogens, our finding may represent a common mechanism underlying fungal virulence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of linking a Duo1-like homolog to the pathogenesis of a pathogenic fungus, which might provide clues to additional studies on the role of Dam1 complex in M. oryzae and its interaction with rice.

  11. A major QTL controlling deep rooting on rice chromosome 4.

    Uga, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kanno, Noriko; Kawai, Sawako; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Fukuoka, Shuichi

    2013-10-24

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress that hinders rice production under rainfed conditions. Breeding for deep rooting is a promising strategy to improve the root system architecture in shallow-rooting rice cultivars to avoid drought stress. We analysed the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the ratio of deep rooting (RDR) in three F₂ mapping populations derived from crosses between each of three shallow-rooting varieties ('ARC5955', 'Pinulupot1', and 'Tupa729') and a deep-rooting variety, 'Kinandang Patong'. In total, we detected five RDR QTLs on chromosomes 2, 4, and 6. In all three populations, QTLs on chromosome 4 were found to be located at similar positions; they explained from 32.0% to 56.6% of the total RDR phenotypic variance. This suggests that one or more key genetic factors controlling the root growth angle in rice is located in this region of chromosome 4.

  12. Improving Blast Resistance of a Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice Line GD-8S by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection

    Wu-ge LIU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi-1, from donor line BL122, was introduced into a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line GD-8S, which possessed good grain quality but high susceptibility to rice blast, by using backcross breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection. Five elite improved male sterile lines, RGD8S-1, RGD8S-2, RGD8S-3, RGD8S-4 and RGD8S-5, were selected based on the results of molecular marker analysis, spikelet sterility, recovery rate of genetic background and agronomic traits. Thirty-three representative blast isolates collected from Guangdong Province, China were used to inoculate the improved lines and the original line GD-8S artificially. The resistance frequencies of the improved lines ranged from 76.47% to 100%, much higher than that of the original line GD-8S (9.09%. On the agronomic characters, there were no significant differences between the improved lines and GD-8S except for flag leaf length and panicle number per plant. The improved lines could be used for breeding hybrid rice with high blast resistance.

  13. Plant Pathology: A Life and Death Struggle in Rice Blast Disease.

    Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-09-26

    The fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae causes severe disease symptoms and yield losses on rice plants. A new study shows that this fungus elicits disease lesions by co-opting a host protein and reveals how rice plants fight back. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase AGT1 is indispensable for appressorium function of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Vijai Bhadauria

    Full Text Available The role of β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1 in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the Δagt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(++pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the β-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD(+ in

  15. A novel blast resistance gene, Pi54rh cloned from wild species of rice, Oryza rhizomatis confers broad spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Das, Alok; Soubam, D; Singh, P K; Thakur, S; Singh, N K; Sharma, T R

    2012-06-01

    The dominant rice blast resistance gene, Pi54 confers resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in different parts of India. In our effort to identify more effective forms of this gene, we isolated an orthologue of Pi54 named as Pi54rh from the blast-resistant wild species of rice, Oryza rhizomatis, using allele mining approach and validated by complementation. The Pi54rh belongs to CC-NBS-LRR family of disease resistance genes with a unique Zinc finger (C(3)H type) domain. The 1,447 bp Pi54rh transcript comprises of 101 bp 5'-UTR, 1,083 bp coding region and 263 bp 3'-UTR, driven by pathogen inducible promoter. We showed the extracellular localization of Pi54rh protein and the presence of glycosylation, myristoylation and phosphorylation sites which implicates its role in signal transduction process. This is in contrast to other blast resistance genes that are predicted to be intracellular NBS-LRR-type resistance proteins. The Pi54rh was found to express constitutively at basal level in the leaves, but upregulates 3.8-fold at 96 h post-inoculation with the pathogen. Functional validation of cloned Pi54rh gene using complementation test showed high degree of resistance to seven isolates of M. oryzae collected from different geographical locations of India. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that a rice blast resistance gene Pi54rh cloned from wild species of rice provides broad spectrum resistance to M. oryzae hence can be used in rice improvement breeding programme.

  16. Intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Tamogitake mushroom, confers resistance to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in transgenic rice.

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Suzuki, Junko; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, one of the most devastating rice pathogens in the world, shows biotin-dependent growth. We have developed a strategy for creating disease resistance to M. oryzae whereby intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Pleurotus cornucopiae occurs in transgenic rice plants. The gene that encodes tamavidin 1, fused to the sequence for a secretion signal peptide derived from rice chitinase gene, was connected to the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and the resultant construct was introduced into rice. The tamavidin 1 was accumulated at levels of 0.1-0.2% of total soluble leaf proteins in the transgenic rice and it was localized in the intercellular space of rice leaves. The tamavidin 1 purified from the transgenic rice was active, it bound to biotin and inhibited in vitro growth of M. oryzae by causing biotin deficiency. The transgenic rice plants showed a significant resistance to M. oryzae. This study shows the possibility of a new strategy to engineer disease resistance in higher plants by taking advantage of a pathogen's auxotrophy.

  17. Factors affecting the income from major crops in rice-wheat ecological zone

    Ashfaq, M.; Naseer, M.Z.; Hassan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector of our economy. About twenty-two percent of national income and 44.8 percent of total employment is generated by this sector. About 66 percent of country's population is living in rural areas and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. It also supplies raw materials to industry. The rice-wheat zone of Punjab covers 1.1 million hectare, 72% of wheat is grown in rotation with rice. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of different factors on the productivity and ultimately on income from of major crops (wheat, rice and sugar-cane) in rice-wheat ecological zone. The results show that for wheat crop, land preparation, use of fertilizer and chemicals, for Sugarcane crop, area under cultivation, fertilizer and chemical costs and for rice crop, applications of chemicals, irrigation and land holding were the main determinants of productivity and crop income. (author)

  18. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    You Hoon Jeon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods : Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF] was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and immunoglobulin E (IgE immunoblots. The patients’ medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results : Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heattreated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion : The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms.

  19. HYR1-mediated detoxification of reactive oxygen species is required for full virulence in the rice blast fungus.

    Kun Huang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During plant-pathogen interactions, the plant may mount several types of defense responses to either block the pathogen completely or ameliorate the amount of disease. Such responses include release of reactive oxygen species (ROS to attack the pathogen, as well as formation of cell wall appositions (CWAs to physically block pathogen penetration. A successful pathogen will likely have its own ROS detoxification mechanisms to cope with this inhospitable environment. Here, we report one such candidate mechanism in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, governed by a gene we refer to as MoHYR1. This gene (MGG_07460 encodes a glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx domain, and its homologue in yeast was reported to specifically detoxify phospholipid peroxides. To characterize this gene in M. oryzae, we generated a deletion mutantΔhyr1 which showed growth inhibition with increased amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂. Moreover, we observed that the fungal mutants had a decreased ability to tolerate ROS generated by a susceptible plant, including ROS found associated with CWAs. Ultimately, this resulted in significantly smaller lesion sizes on both barley and rice. In order to determine how this gene interacts with other (ROS scavenging-related genes in M. oryzae, we compared expression levels of ten genes in mutant versus wild type with and without H₂O₂. Our results indicated that the HYR1 gene was important for allowing the fungus to tolerate H₂O₂ in vitro and in planta and that this ability was directly related to fungal virulence.

  20. Major QTLs Control Resistance to Rice Hoja Blanca Virus and Its Vector Tagosodes orizicolus

    Romero, Luz E.; Lozano, Ivan; Garavito, Andrea; Carabali, Silvio J.; Triana, Monica; Villareal, Natalia; Reyes, Luis; Duque, Myriam C.; Martinez, César P.; Calvert, Lee; Lorieux, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Rice hoja blanca (white leaf) disease can cause severe yield losses in rice in the Americas. The disease is caused by the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV), which is transmitted by the planthopper vector Tagosodes orizicolus. Because classical breeding schemes for this disease rely on expensive, time-consuming screenings, there is a need for alternatives such as marker-aided selection. The varieties Fedearroz 2000 and Fedearroz 50, which are resistant to RHBV and to the feeding damage caused by T. orizicolus, were crossed with the susceptible line WC366 to produce segregating F2:3 populations. The F3 families were scored for their resistance level to RHBV and T. orizicolus. The F2:3 lines of both crosses were genotyped using microsatellite markers. One major QTL on the short arm of chromosome 4 was identified for resistance to RHBV in the two populations. Two major QTL on chromosomes 5 and 7 were identified for resistance to T. orizicolus in the Fd2000 × WC366 and Fd50 × WC366 crosses, respectively. This comparative study using two distinct rice populations allowed for a better understanding of how the resistance to RHBV and its vector are controlled genetically. Simple marker-aided breeding schemes based on QTL information can be designed to improve rice germplasm to reduce losses caused by this important disease. PMID:24240781

  1. Deciphering Cis-Regulatory Element Mediated Combinatorial Regulation in Rice under Blast Infected Condition.

    Arindam Deb

    Full Text Available Combinations of cis-regulatory elements (CREs present at the promoters facilitate the binding of several transcription factors (TFs, thereby altering the consequent gene expressions. Due to the eminent complexity of the regulatory mechanism, the combinatorics of CRE-mediated transcriptional regulation has been elusive. In this work, we have developed a new methodology that quantifies the co-occurrence tendencies of CREs present in a set of promoter sequences; these co-occurrence scores are filtered in three consecutive steps to test their statistical significance; and the significantly co-occurring CRE pairs are presented as networks. These networks of co-occurring CREs are further transformed to derive higher order of regulatory combinatorics. We have further applied this methodology on the differentially up-regulated gene-sets of rice tissues under fungal (Magnaporthe infected conditions to demonstrate how it helps to understand the CRE-mediated combinatorial gene regulation. Our analysis includes a wide spectrum of biologically important results. The CRE pairs having a strong tendency to co-occur often exhibit very similar joint distribution patterns at the promoters of rice. We couple the network approach with experimental results of plant gene regulation and defense mechanisms and find evidences of auto and cross regulation among TF families, cross-talk among multiple hormone signaling pathways, similarities and dissimilarities in regulatory combinatorics between different tissues, etc. Our analyses have pointed a highly distributed nature of the combinatorial gene regulation facilitating an efficient alteration in response to fungal attack. All together, our proposed methodology could be an important approach in understanding the combinatorial gene regulation. It can be further applied to unravel the tissue and/or condition specific combinatorial gene regulation in other eukaryotic systems with the availability of annotated genomic

  2. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    Mejía, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA, granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and microstructure. The findings showed that the agro-industrial by-product can be used to yield alkali-activated materials with 7-day mechanical strengths on the order of 42 MPa. The study confirmed that both amorphous silica and part of the crystalline silica present in RHA participate in the alkaline activation process, providing the alkalinity is suitably adjusted.Este estudio evalúa la viabilidad de utilizar un subproducto agroindustrial, la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA proveniente de un equipo combustor de una empresa Arrocera en Colombia, como reemplazo total de la sílice aportada por el silicato de sodio comercial en sistemas cementicios activados alcalinamente. Se prepararon pastas de ceniza volante (FA, de escoria de alto horno (GBFS y un sistema binario 50FA:50GBFS, que fueron activadas por una mezcla de silicato de sodio e hidróxido de sodio, y por dos tipos de RHA. Las mezclas se caracterizaron mecánica, mineralógica y microestructuralmente. Los resultados demuestran que es posible obtener materiales activados alcalinamente con resistencias mecánicas del orden de 42 MPa, a 7 días de curado, utilizando el subproducto agroindustrial. Este estudio corrobora que tanto la sílice amorfa como parte de la sílice cristalina presente en RHA tienen la posibilidad de participar en el proceso de activación alcalina, siempre y cuando las condiciones de alcalinidad estén adecuadamente ajustadas.

  3. Evaluation of mating type distribution and genetic diversity of three Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence genes, PWL-2, AVR-Pii and Avr-Piz-t, in Thailand rice blast isolates

    Thanyaluk Sirisathaworn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease, caused by the filamentous ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae, has been ranked among the most important diseases of rice. The molecular mechanisms against this fungus follow the idea of “gene-for-gene interaction”, in which a plant resistance (R gene product recognizes a fungal avirulence (Avr effector and triggers the defense response. However, the Avr genes have been shown to be rapidly evolving resulting in high levels of genetic diversity. This study investigated genetic diversity that is influenced by sexual recombination and mutation for the adaptation of rice blast fungus to overcome the defense response. Mating type distribution and the nucleotide sequence variation of three avirulence genes were evaluated—PWL-2, Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t. In total, 77 rice blast isolates collected from infected rice plants in northern, northeastern and central Thailand in 2005, 2010 and 2012, were used in the analysis with mating type and avirulence gene-specific primers. The results revealed that all the tested blast isolates belonged to the mating type MAT1-2, suggesting a lack of sexual recombination within the population. The successful rates of PWL-2, Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t gene-specific primer amplification were 100%, 60% and 54%, respectively. Base substitution mutation was observed in coding regions of the Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t genes. Although these results showed a low level of genetic diversity in Thai rice blast isolates, non-synonymous mutations did occur which revealed common mechanisms of selective pressure that are prone to adaptation of Avr genes. The information on nucleotide sequence variation and the genetic diversity of Avr genes obtained from this study could be useful for planning novel strategies in the development of rice breeding programs in Thailand.

  4. Over-Expression of the Pikh Gene with a CaMV 35S Promoter Leads to Improved Blast Disease (Magnaporthe oryzae) Tolerance in Rice

    Azizi, Parisa; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Abdullah, Siti N. A.; Hanafi, Mohamed M.; Maziah, M.; Sahebi, Mahbod; Ashkani, Sadegh; Taheri, Sima; Jahromi, Mohammad F.

    2016-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a rice blast fungus and plant pathogen that causes a serious rice disease and, therefore, poses a threat to the world's second most important food security crop. Plant transformation technology has become an adaptable system for cultivar improvement and to functionally analyze genes in plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects (through over-expressing and using the CaMV 35S promoter) of Pikh on MR219 resistance because it is a rice variety that is susceptible to the blast fungus pathotype P7.2. Thus, a full DNA and coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the Pikh gene, 3172 bp, and 1206 bp in length, were obtained through amplifying the gDNA and cDNA template from a PH9-resistant rice variety using a specific primer. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technology was also used to introduce the Pikh gene into the MR219 callus. Subsequently, transgenic plants were evaluated from the DNA to protein stages using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), semi-quantitative RT-PCR, real-time quantitative PCR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Transgenic plants were also compared with a control using a real-time quantification technique (to quantify the pathogen population), and transgenic and control plants were challenged with the local most virulent M. oryzae pathotype, P7.2. Based on the results, the Pikh gene encodes a hydrophilic protein with 18 sheets, 4 helixes, and 21 coils. This protein contains 401 amino acids, among which the amino acid sequence from 1 to 376 is a non-cytoplasmic region, that from 377 to 397 is a transmembrane region, and that from 398 to 401 is a cytoplasmic region with no identified disordered regions. The Pikh gene was up-regulated in the transgenic plants compared with the control plants. The quantity of the amino acid leucine in the transgenic rice plants increased significantly from 17.131 in the wild-type to 47.865 mg g−1 in transgenic plants. The M. oryzae population was constant at 31, 48

  5. Over-Expression of the Pikh Gene with a CaMV 35S Promoter Leads to Improved Blast Disease (Magnaporthe oryzae) Tolerance in Rice.

    Azizi, Parisa; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Siti N A; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Maziah, M; Sahebi, Mahbod; Ashkani, Sadegh; Taheri, Sima; Jahromi, Mohammad F

    2016-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a rice blast fungus and plant pathogen that causes a serious rice disease and, therefore, poses a threat to the world's second most important food security crop. Plant transformation technology has become an adaptable system for cultivar improvement and to functionally analyze genes in plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects (through over-expressing and using the CaMV 35S promoter) of Pikh on MR219 resistance because it is a rice variety that is susceptible to the blast fungus pathotype P7.2. Thus, a full DNA and coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the Pikh gene, 3172 bp, and 1206 bp in length, were obtained through amplifying the gDNA and cDNA template from a PH9-resistant rice variety using a specific primer. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technology was also used to introduce the Pikh gene into the MR219 callus. Subsequently, transgenic plants were evaluated from the DNA to protein stages using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), semi-quantitative RT-PCR, real-time quantitative PCR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Transgenic plants were also compared with a control using a real-time quantification technique (to quantify the pathogen population), and transgenic and control plants were challenged with the local most virulent M. oryzae pathotype, P7.2. Based on the results, the Pikh gene encodes a hydrophilic protein with 18 sheets, 4 helixes, and 21 coils. This protein contains 401 amino acids, among which the amino acid sequence from 1 to 376 is a non-cytoplasmic region, that from 377 to 397 is a transmembrane region, and that from 398 to 401 is a cytoplasmic region with no identified disordered regions. The Pikh gene was up-regulated in the transgenic plants compared with the control plants. The quantity of the amino acid leucine in the transgenic rice plants increased significantly from 17.131 in the wild-type to 47.865 mg g(-1) in transgenic plants. The M. oryzae population was constant at 31, 48

  6. Multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of six major bacterial pathogens of rice.

    Cui, Z; Ojaghian, M R; Tao, Z; Kakar, K U; Zeng, J; Zhao, W; Duan, Y; Vera Cruz, C M; Li, B; Zhu, B; Xie, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for rapid, sensitive and simultaneous detection of six important rice pathogens: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae. Specific primers were designed through a bioinformatics pipeline. Sensitivity of detection was established using both traditional PCR and quantitative real-time PCR on isolated DNA and on bacterial cells both in vitro and in simulated diseased seeds and the parameters were optimized for an mPCR assay. A total of 150 bacterial strains were tested for specificity. The mPCR assay accurately predicted the presence of pathogens among 44 symptomatic and asymptomatic rice seed, sheath and leaf samples. This study confirmed that this mPCR assay is a rapid, reliable and simple tool for the simultaneous detection of six important rice bacterial pathogens. This study is the first report of a method allowing simultaneous detection of six major rice pathogens. The ability to use crude extracts from plants without bacterial isolation or DNA extraction enhances the value of this mPCR technology for rapid detection and aetiological/epidemiological studies. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Glycogen Metabolic Genes Are Involved in Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase-Mediated Regulation of Pathogenicity by the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Wilson, Richard A.; Wang, Zheng-Yi; Kershaw, Michael J.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Here we show that glycogen metabolic genes play an important role in plant infection by M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGL1 and GPH1, which encode amyloglucosidase and glycogen phosphorylase, respectively, prevented mobilisation of glycogen stores during appressorium development and caused a significant reduction in the ability of M. oryzae to cause rice blast disease. By contrast, targeted mutation of GSN1, which encodes glycogen synthase, significantly reduced the synthesis of intracellular glycogen, but had no effect on fungal pathogenicity. We found that loss of AGL1 and GPH1 led to a reduction in expression of TPS1 and TPS3, which encode components of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase complex, that acts as a genetic switch in M. oryzae. Tps1 responds to glucose-6-phosphate levels and the balance of NADP/NADPH to regulate virulence-associated gene expression, in association with Nmr transcriptional inhibitors. We show that deletion of the NMR3 transcriptional inhibitor gene partially restores virulence to a Δagl1Δgph1 mutant, suggesting that glycogen metabolic genes are necessary for operation of the NADPH-dependent genetic switch in M. oryzae. PMID:24098112

  8. Manejo integrado da brusone em arroz no plantio direto e convencional Integrated rice blast disease management under direct drilling and conventional tillage

    Gisele Barata da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver medidas adequadas para o manejo da brusone (Pyricularia grisea, integrando a resistência da cultivar, práticas culturais e o controle químico. Foram realizados dois experimentos no campo, um no plantio direto (PD e outro no plantio convencional (PC, nos anos agrícolas 1998/1999 e 1999/2000. Os tratamentos, num total de 16, em esquema fatorial 2(4, consistiram de duas cultivares, Carajás e Primavera, duas doses de N, 30 e 60 kg ha-1, sementes não tratadas e tratadas com fungicida pyroquilon e parcelas sem pulverização e com duas pulverizações, na parte aérea das plantas, da mistura dos fungicidas benomyl e difenoconazole. A incidência e a severidade da brusone nas folhas e nas panículas foram significativamente menores no PD em relação ao PC. A cultivar Primavera apresentou maior suscetibilidade à brusone nas folhas, independentemente do sistema de plantio. A dose de 60 kg ha-1 de N contribuiu para aumento da brusone nas folhas, no PD e no PC, no segundo ano. As pulverizações com a mistura de fungicidas reduziram a severidade da brusone nas panículas nos dois sistemas de plantio. A produtividade foi maior no PC do que no PD e a cultivar Carajás foi superior à Primavera.The objective of this work was to develop adequate measures for rice blast (Pyricularia grisea management integrating cultivar resistance, cultural practices and chemical control. Two field experiments were carried out, one under direct drilling and the other one under conventional tillage, during two consecutive rice growing seasons, 1998/1999 and 1999/2000. The treatments totaling 16, in a factorial scheme 2(4, included two cultivars, Carajás and Primavera, two levels of N, 30 and 60 kg ha-1, nontreated seed and seed treated with pyroquilon, plots nonsprayed and sprayed with two applications of fungicide mixture benomyl and difenoconazole. The incidence and severity of leaf and panicle blast were significantly lower

  9. Pyramiding of blast and bacterial leaf blight resistance genes into ...

    Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Hebert) Barr. and bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) are two major diseases of rice (Oryza sativa). The use of varietal resistance is the most appropriate strategy for controlling the diseases, and molecular assisted selection can ...

  10. Gene manipulation for salt tolerance and blast resistance through in vitro techniques in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Reddy, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Rice calli generally lose regenerating ability in about 90 days. However, plant regeneration (60-70%) from 1500 day old embryo calli of 'Thellahamsa' cultivar has been established with 3% sorbitol/mannitol on LS media for efficient genetic manipulation at the cellular level. Matured embryo calli of four susceptible cultivars, 'Tellahamsa', 'Jaya', 'HR-2' and 'Zenith' were irradiated (0.1-0.5 kR) and challenged with Pyricularia oryzae spore suspensions (10 5 /ml) and with the major toxin d-picolinic acid (125-200 ppm). A total of 514 plants were regenerated from the resistant calli. The TC-2 plants exhibited varying degrees of resistance (66-78%). The genetic basis of resistance of regenerated plants and their progeny may help in understanding the mechanism. Rice embryo calli of nine scented and non-scented cultivars were challenged with NaCI (0.5-2%) and 25-50% sea water with or without proline. A total of 222 plants were regenerated. The progeny of TC-2 plants were evaluated with normal and saline soil (EC 13.5 ds/m) for yield parameters. These studies suggested that stable tolerant TC-2 plants under stress exhibited superior yield parameters and the salinity index ranged from 89.4-98.4. (author)

  11. Gene manipulation for salt tolerance and blast resistance through in vitro techniques in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Reddy, G M [Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Rice calli generally lose regenerating ability in about 90 days. However, plant regeneration (60-70%) from 1500 day old embryo calli of 'Thellahamsa' cultivar has been established with 3% sorbitol/mannitol on LS media for efficient genetic manipulation at the cellular level. Matured embryo calli of four susceptible cultivars, 'Tellahamsa', 'Jaya', 'HR-2' and 'Zenith' were irradiated (0.1-0.5 kR) and challenged with Pyricularia oryzae spore suspensions (10{sup 5}/ml) and with the major toxin d-picolinic acid (125-200 ppm). A total of 514 plants were regenerated from the resistant calli. The TC-2 plants exhibited varying degrees of resistance (66-78%). The genetic basis of resistance of regenerated plants and their progeny may help in understanding the mechanism. Rice embryo calli of nine scented and non-scented cultivars were challenged with NaCI (0.5-2%) and 25-50% sea water with or without proline. A total of 222 plants were regenerated. The progeny of TC-2 plants were evaluated with normal and saline soil (EC 13.5 ds/m) for yield parameters. These studies suggested that stable tolerant TC-2 plants under stress exhibited superior yield parameters and the salinity index ranged from 89.4-98.4. (author)

  12. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Herbivores and Its Stimulation to Major Insect Pests in Rice

    Zhong-xian LU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most important factors in development of herbivore populations. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in plants can normally increase herbivore feeding preference, food consumption, survival, growth, reproduction, and population density, except few examples that nitrogen fertilizer reduces the herbivore performances. In most of the rice growing areas in Asia, the great increases in populations of major insect pests of rice, including planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and stem borers (Scirpophaga incertulas, Chilo suppressalis, S. innotata, C. polychrysus and Sesamia inferens were closely related to the long-term excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers. The optimal regime of nitrogen fertilizer in irrigated paddy fields is proposed to improve the fertilizer-nitrogen use efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution.

  13. The rice terpene synthase gene OsTPS19 functions as an (S)-limonene synthase in planta, and its overexpression leads to enhanced resistance to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Chen, Xujun; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Joshua S; Köllner, Tobias G; Chen, Yuying; Guo, Yufen; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xinlu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Fu, Jianyu; Nebenführ, Andreas; Guo, Zejian; Chen, Feng

    2018-03-06

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most devastating disease of rice. In our ongoing characterization of the defence mechanisms of rice plants against M. oryzae, a terpene synthase gene OsTPS19 was identified as a candidate defence gene. Here, we report the functional characterization of OsTPS19, which is up-regulated by M. oryzae infection. Overexpression of OsTPS19 in rice plants enhanced resistance against M. oryzae, while OsTPS19 RNAi lines were more susceptible to the pathogen. Metabolic analysis revealed that the production of a monoterpene (S)-limonene was increased and decreased in OsTPS19 overexpression and RNAi lines, respectively, suggesting that OsTPS19 functions as a limonene synthase in planta. This notion was further supported by in vitro enzyme assays with recombinant OsTPS19, in which OsTPS19 had both sesquiterpene activity and monoterpene synthase activity, with limonene as a major product. Furthermore, in a subcellular localization experiment, OsTPS19 was localized in plastids. OsTPS19 has a highly homologous paralog, OsTPS20, which likely resulted from a recent gene duplication event. We found that the variation in OsTPS19 and OsTPS20 enzyme activities was determined by a single amino acid in the active site cavity. The expression of OsTPS20 was not affected by M. oryzae infection. This indicates functional divergence of OsTPS19 and OsTPS20. Lastly, (S)-limonene inhibited the germination of M. oryzae spores in vitro. OsTPS19 was determined to function as an (S)-limonene synthase in rice and plays a role in defence against M. oryzae, at least partly, by inhibiting spore germination. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Suppressive effects of mycoviral proteins encoded by Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 strain A on conidial germination of the rice blast fungus.

    Urayama, Syun-Ichi; Kimura, Yuri; Katoh, Yu; Ohta, Tomoko; Onozuka, Nobuya; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Komatsu, Ken; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-09-02

    Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 strain A (MoCV1-A) is the causal agent of growth repression and attenuated virulence (hypovirulence) of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. We previously revealed that heterologous expression of the MoCV1-A ORF4 protein resulted in cytological damage to the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans. Since the ORF4 protein is one of the components of viral particles, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of the purified virus particle against the conidial germination of M. oryzae, and confirmed its suppressive effects. Recombinant MoCV1-A ORF4 protein produced in Pichia pastoris was also effective for suppression of conidial germination of M. oryzae. MoCV1-A ORF4 protein sequence showed significant similarity to 6 related mycoviral proteins; Botrysphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1, two Fusarium graminearum viruses, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mycovirus 1, Penicillium janczewski chrysovirus and Agaricus bisporus virus 1 in the Chrysoviridae family. Multiple alignments of the ORF4-related protein sequences showed that their central regions (210-591 aa in MoCV1-A ORF4) are relatively conserved. Indeed, yeast transformants expressing the conserved central region of MoCV1-A ORF4 protein (325-575 aa) showed similar impaired growth phenotypes as those observed in yeasts expressing the full-length MoCV1-A ORF4 protein. These data suggest that the mycovirus itself and its encoded viral protein can be useful as anti-fungal proteins to control rice blast disease caused by M. oryzae and other pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China.

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Liu, Yinglie; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Pingli; Huang, Taiqing

    2015-12-02

    Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. Accordingly, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in oil rape-rice-rice and wheat-rice (representing DR and UR, respectively) systems with straw incorporation (0, 3 and 6 t/ha) during the rice-growing seasons. Compared with the UR system, the annual CH4, N2O, grain yield and NGWP were significantly increased in the DR system, though little effect on SOC sequestration or GHGI was observed without straw incorporation. Straw incorporation increased CH4 emission and SOC sequestration but had no significant effect on N2O emission in both systems. Averaged over the three study years, straw incorporation had no significant effect on NGWP and GHGI in the UR system, whereas these parameters were greatly increased in the DR system, i.e., by 108% (3 t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI.

  16. Differences in net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity between major rice-based cropping systems in China

    Xiong, Zhengqin; Liu, Yinglie; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Pingli; Huang, Taiqing

    2015-01-01

    Double rice (DR) and upland crop-single rice (UR) systems are the major rice-based cropping systems in China, yet differences in net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) between the two systems are poorly documented. Accordingly, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) in oil rape-rice-rice and wheat-rice (representing DR and UR, respectively) systems with straw incorporation (0, 3 and 6 t/ha) during the rice-growing seasons. Compared with the UR system, the annual CH4, N2O, grain yield and NGWP were significantly increased in the DR system, though little effect on SOC sequestration or GHGI was observed without straw incorporation. Straw incorporation increased CH4 emission and SOC sequestration but had no significant effect on N2O emission in both systems. Averaged over the three study years, straw incorporation had no significant effect on NGWP and GHGI in the UR system, whereas these parameters were greatly increased in the DR system, i.e., by 108% (3 t/ha) and 180% (6 t/ha) for NGWP and 103% (3 t/ha) and 168% (6 t/ha) for GHGI. PMID:26626733

  17. The variety mixture strategy assessed in a G × G experiment with rice and the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Gallet, Romain; Bonnot, François; Milazzo, Joëlle; Tertois, Christophe; Adreit, Henri; Ravigné, Virginie; Tharreau, Didier; Fournier, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Frequent and devastating epidemics of parasites are one of the major issues encountered by modern agriculture. To manage the impact of pathogens, resistant plant varieties have been selected. However, resistances are overcome by parasites requiring the use of pesticides and causing new economical and food safety issues. A promising strategy to maintain the epidemic at a low level and hamper pathogen's adaptation to varietal resistance is the use of mixtures of varieties such that the mix will form a heterogeneous environment for the parasite. A way to find the good combination of varieties that will actually constitute a heterogeneous environment for pathogens is to look for genotype × genotype (G × G) interactions between pathogens and plant varieties. A pattern in which pathogens have a high fitness on one variety and a poor fitness on other varieties guarantees the efficiency of the mixture strategy. In the present article, we inoculated 18 different genotypes of the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae on three rice plant varieties showing different levels of partial resistance in order to find a variety combination compatible with the requirements of the variety mixture strategy, i.e., showing appropriate G × G interactions. We estimated the success of each plant-fungus interaction by measuring fungal fitness and three fungal life history traits: infection success, within-host growth, sporulation capacity. Our results show the existence of G × G interactions between the two varieties Ariete and CO39 on all measured traits and fungal fitness. We also observed that these varieties have different resistance mechanisms; Ariete is good at controlling infection success of the parasite but is not able to control its growth when inside the leaf, while CO39 shows the opposite pattern. We also found that Maratelli's resistance has been eroded. Finally, correlation analyses demonstrated that not all infectious traits are positively correlated.

  18. The variety mixture strategy assessed in a GXG experiment with rice and the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Romain eGallet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent and devastating epidemics of parasites are one of the major issues encountered by modern agriculture. To manage the impact of pathogens, resistant plant varieties have been selected. However, resistances are overcome by parasites requiring the use of pesticides and causing new economical and food safety issues. A promising strategy to maintain the epidemic at a low level and hamper pathogen’s adaptation to varietal resistance is the use of mixtures of varieties such that the mix will form a heterogeneous environment for the parasite. A way to find the good combination of varieties that will actually constitute a heterogeneous environment for pathogens is to look for genotype x genotype (GxG interactions between pathogens and plant varieties. A pattern in which pathogens have a high fitness on one variety and a poor fitness on other varieties guarantees the efficiency of the mixture strategy.In the present article, we inoculated 18 different genotypes of the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae on three rice plant varieties showing different levels of partial resistance in order to find a variety combination compatible with the requirements of the variety mixture strategy, i.e. showing appropriate GxG interactions. We estimated the success of each plant-fungus interaction by measuring fungal fitness and three fungal life history traits: infection success, within-host growth, sporulation capacity. Our results show the existence of GxG interactions between the two varieties Ariete and CO39 on all measured traits and fungal fitness. We also observed that these varieties have different resistance mechanisms; Ariete is good at controlling infection success of the parasite but is not able to control its growth when inside the leaf, while CO39 show the opposite pattern. We also found that Maratelli’s resistance has been eroded. Finally, correlation analyses demonstrated that not all infectious traits are positively correlated.

  19. Genetic Variation and Association Analysis of the SSR Markers Linked to the Major Drought-Yield QTLs of Rice.

    Tabkhkar, Narjes; Rabiei, Babak; Samizadeh Lahiji, Habibollah; Hosseini Chaleshtori, Maryam

    2018-02-24

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses, which hampers the production of rice worldwide. Informative molecular markers are valuable tools for improving the drought tolerance in various varieties of rice. The present study was conducted to evaluate the informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in a diverse set of rice genotypes. The genetic diversity analyses of the 83 studied rice genotypes were performed using 34 SSR markers closely linked to the major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of grain yield under drought stress (qDTYs). In general, our results indicated high levels of polymorphism. In addition, we screened these rice genotypes at the reproductive stage under both drought stress and nonstressful conditions. The results of the regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between 11 SSR marker alleles and the plant paddy weight under stressful conditions. Under the nonstressful conditions, 16 SSR marker alleles showed a significant correlation with the plant paddy weight. Finally, four markers (RM279, RM231, RM166, and RM231) demonstrated a significant association with the plant paddy weight under both stressful and nonstressful conditions. These informative-associated alleles may be useful for improving the crop yield under both drought stress and nonstressful conditions in breeding programs.

  20. Effector-mediated suppression of chitin-triggered immunity by Magnaporthe oryzae is necessary for rice blast disease

    Mentlak, T.A.; Kombrink, A.; Shinya, T.; Ryder, L.S.; Otomo, I.; Saitoh, H.; Terauchi, R.; Nishizawa, Y.; Shibuya, N.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Talbot, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Plants use pattern recognition receptors to defend themselves from microbial pathogens. These receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate signaling pathways that lead to immunity. In rice (Oryza sativa), the chitin elicitor binding protein (CEBiP) recognizes

  1. DNA markers linked to the major salinity tolerance locus of traditional rice, Pokkali (abstract)

    Rehman, S.; Seraj, Z.I.; Das, D.K.; Salam, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The major QTL for salinity tolerance traits, of the traditional rice salt tolerant benchmark Pokkali, referred to as 'Saltol' was located within a large 16cM loci of rice chromosome 1 by previous workers at IRRI. This was done by using a recombinant inbred population between Pokkali and sensitive IR29 (Total RILs=275). These workers had identified the flanking markers, RM23 and RM9, as the limits of 'Saltol'. By designing primers between these two markers, and using a subset of the same RILs, we were able to identify a 5cM region, which was completely linked to the tolerance of seedlings. Further work with a subset of another NIL population raised at IRRI between Pokkali and recurring IR29 at the BC/sub 3/F/sub 2/ stage has narrowed down the linked region to about 0.3cM, each at 4 different locations within the 5cM loc. This was done by scoring the tolerance of the seedlings and determining the percent of progeny that showed the tolerant allele at the specified maker locus. Thirty seedlings from each of 10 BC/sub 3/F/sub 2/ progeny were scored. Only the most tolerant and sensitive seedlings were used for DNA isolation and amplification. The work was derived from complex crosses involving Pokkali as the tolerance donor. Three common loci linked to salinity tolerance were found to be the same in the NILs and the breeding population. DNA markers homologous to these 3 loci will be confirmed for their ability to identify tolerant progeny in breeding populations. (author)

  2. Comparative proteomic analyses reveal that the regulators of G-protein signaling proteins regulate amino acid metabolism of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Zhang, Haifeng; Ma, Hongyu; Xie, Xin; Ji, Jun; Dong, Yanhan; Du, Yan; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2014-11-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae encodes eight regulators of G-protein (GTP-binding protein) signaling (RGS) proteins MoRgs1-MoRgs8 that orchestrate the growth, asexual/sexual production, appressorium differentiation, and pathogenicity. To address the mechanisms by which MoRgs proteins function, we conducted a 2DE proteome study and identified 82 differentially expressed proteins by comparing five ∆Morgs mutants with wild-type Guy11 strain. We found that the abundances of eight amino acid (AA) biosynthesis or degradation associated proteins were markedly altered in five ∆Morgs mutants, indicating one of the main collective roles for the MoRgs proteins is to influence AA metabolism. We showed that MoRgs proteins have distinct roles in AA metabolism and nutrient responses from growth assays. In addition, we characterized MoLys20 (Lys is lysine), a homocitrate synthase, whose abundance was significantly decreased in the ∆Morgs mutants. The ∆Molys20 mutant is auxotrophic for lys and exogenous lys could partially rescue its auxotrophic defects. Deletion of MoLYS20 resulted in defects in conidiation and infection, as well as pathogenicity on rice. Overall, our results indicate that one of the critical roles for MoRgs proteins is to regulate AA metabolism, and that MoLys20 may be directly or indirectly regulated by MoRgs and participated in lys biosynthesis, thereby affecting fungal development and pathogenicity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Optimization of the HyPer sensor for robust real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide in the rice blast fungus.

    Huang, Kun; Caplan, Jeff; Sweigard, James A; Czymmek, Kirk J; Donofrio, Nicole M

    2017-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and breakdown have been studied in detail in plant-pathogenic fungi, including the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae; however, the examination of the dynamic process of ROS production in real time has proven to be challenging. We resynthesized an existing ROS sensor, called HyPer, to exhibit optimized codon bias for fungi, specifically Neurospora crassa, and used a combination of microscopy and plate reader assays to determine whether this construct could detect changes in fungal ROS during the plant infection process. Using confocal microscopy, we were able to visualize fluctuating ROS levels during the formation of an appressorium on an artificial hydrophobic surface, as well as during infection on host leaves. Using the plate reader, we were able to ascertain measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels in conidia as detected by the MoHyPer sensor. Overall, by the optimization of codon usage for N. crassa and related fungal genomes, the MoHyPer sensor can be used as a robust, dynamic and powerful tool to both monitor and quantify H 2 O 2 dynamics in real time during important stages of the plant infection process. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Reflectance-Based Non-Invasive Quantification of Blast, Bacterial Blight and Drought Stresses in Rice

    Šebela, David; Quiňones, C.; Cruz, C.; Ona, I.; Olejníčková, Julie; Jagadish, K. S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2018), s. 30-43 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284443 - EPPN Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : marker-assisted selection * oryza-sativa l. * water -stress * magnaporthe-grisea * disease resistance * photosynthetic efficiency * spectral reflectance * carotenoid content * eucalyptus leaves * diurnal changes * Bacterial blight * Chlorophyll fluorescence * Drought stress * Reflectance * Rice bast Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.760, year: 2016

  5. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  6. Dro1, a major QTL involved in deep rooting of rice under upland field conditions.

    Uga, Yusaku; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2011-05-01

    Developing a deep root system is an important strategy for avoiding drought stress in rice. Using the 'basket' method, the ratio of deep rooting (RDR; the proportion of total roots that elongated through the basket bottom) was calculated to evaluate deep rooting. A new major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling RDR was detected on chromosome 9 by using 117 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between the lowland cultivar IR64, with shallow rooting, and the upland cultivar Kinandang Patong (KP), with deep rooting. This QTL explained 66.6% of the total phenotypic variance in RDR in the RILs. A BC(2)F(3) line homozygous for the KP allele of the QTL had an RDR of 40.4%, compared with 2.6% for the homozygous IR64 allele. Fine mapping of this QTL was undertaken using eight BC(2)F(3) recombinant lines. The RDR QTL Dro1 (Deeper rooting 1) was mapped between the markers RM24393 and RM7424, which delimit a 608.4 kb interval in the reference cultivar Nipponbare. To clarify the influence of Dro1 in an upland field, the root distribution in different soil layers was quantified by means of core sampling. A line homozygous for the KP allele of Dro1 (Dro1-KP) and IR64 did not differ in root dry weight in the shallow soil layers (0-25 cm), but root dry weight of Dro1-KP in deep soil layers (25-50 cm) was significantly greater than that of IR64, suggesting that Dro1 plays a crucial role in increased deep rooting under upland field conditions.

  7. Accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia: evaluation of clinical criteria as predictors of survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase

    Vanessa Fiorini Furtado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published criteria defining the accelerated phase in chronic myeloid leukemia are heterogeneous and little is known about predictors of poor outcome.METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 139 subjects in the accelerated phase of chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib at a single center in Brazil. The objective was to identify risk factors for survival, major cytogenetic response and progression to blast phase in this population. The factors analyzed were: blasts 10-29%, basophils ≥ 20%, platelets > 1 × 106/µL or 1 × 105/µL in the peripheral blood, as well as clonal evolution, splenomegaly, hemoglobin 12 months (p-value = 0.030.CONCLUSION: These data indicate that patients with the above risk factors have a worse prognosis. This information can guide the therapy to be used.

  8. Transcriptomics of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in response to the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes reveals candidate fungal defense response genes.

    Sandra M Mathioni

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have evolved a first line of defense response to pathogens called innate or basal immunity. While basal defenses in these organisms are well studied, there is almost a complete lack of understanding of such systems in fungal species, and more specifically, how they are able to detect and mount a defense response upon pathogen attack. Hence, the goal of the present study was to understand how fungi respond to biotic stress by assessing the transcriptional profile of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, when challenged with the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes. Based on microscopic observations of interactions between M. oryzae and wild-type L. enzymogenes strain C3, we selected early and intermediate stages represented by time-points of 3 and 9 hours post-inoculation, respectively, to evaluate the fungal transcriptome using RNA-seq. For comparative purposes, we also challenged the fungus with L. enzymogenes mutant strain DCA, previously demonstrated to be devoid of antifungal activity. A comparison of transcriptional data from fungal interactions with the wild-type bacterial strain C3 and the mutant strain DCA revealed 463 fungal genes that were down-regulated during attack by C3; of these genes, 100 were also found to be up-regulated during the interaction with DCA. Functional categorization of genes in this suite included those with roles in carbohydrate metabolism, cellular transport and stress response. One gene in this suite belongs to the CFEM-domain class of fungal proteins. Another CFEM class protein called PTH11 has been previously characterized, and we found that a deletion in this gene caused advanced lesion development by C3 compared to its growth on the wild-type fungus. We discuss the characterization of this suite of 100 genes with respect to their role in the fungal defense response.

  9. Principles of Carbon Catabolite Repression in the Rice Blast Fungus: Tps1, Nmr1-3, and a MATE–Family Pump Regulate Glucose Metabolism during Infection

    Hartline, David; Quispe, Cristian F.; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Wilson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic pathways that regulate how pathogenic fungi respond to their environment is paramount to developing effective mitigation strategies against disease. Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a global regulatory mechanism found in a wide range of microbial organisms that ensures the preferential utilization of glucose over less favourable carbon sources, but little is known about the components of CCR in filamentous fungi. Here we report three new mediators of CCR in the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae: the sugar sensor Tps1, the Nmr1-3 inhibitor proteins, and the multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE)–family pump, Mdt1. Using simple plate tests coupled with transcriptional analysis, we show that Tps1, in response to glucose-6-phosphate sensing, triggers CCR via the inactivation of Nmr1-3. In addition, by dissecting the CCR pathway using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated mutagenesis, we also show that Mdt1 is an additional and previously unknown regulator of glucose metabolism. Mdt1 regulates glucose assimilation downstream of Tps1 and is necessary for nutrient utilization, sporulation, and pathogenicity. This is the first functional characterization of a MATE–family protein in filamentous fungi and the first description of a MATE protein in genetic regulation or plant pathogenicity. Perturbing CCR in Δtps1 and MDT1 disruption strains thus results in physiological defects that impact pathogenesis, possibly through the early expression of cell wall–degrading enzymes. Taken together, the importance of discovering three new regulators of carbon metabolism lies in understanding how M. oryzae and other pathogenic fungi respond to nutrient availability and control development during infection. PMID:22570632

  10. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of trace and major elements in rice plant (Oryza Sativa) at Kalpakkam

    Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajaram, S.; Thulasi Brindha, J.; Venkataraman, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of trace and major elements in rice plant (Oryza Sativa) which is the staple diet of the public at Kalpakkam. The transfer factor from soil to various parts of plant was also studied. Trace and major elements such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb , Sr, K, Ca and Mg were selected based on their role in nutrition and also to study the behaviour of their radioactive counterparts. Among the trace elements Fe concentration was observed to be maximum in soil, the mean value of which was 18394 mg/kg dry wt. Cadmium concentration was observed to be minimum with the mean value of 2 mg/kg dry wt. The maximum and minimum concentration observed in the rice grain were due to Zn and Cd and the values were found to be 9 and 0.044 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. In the stem and leaves part the maximum and minimum concentration was due to Fe and Cd and the values were found to be 26.8 and 0.12 mg/kg dry wt. Similarly in the root part Fe and Cd concentrations were found to be maximum and minimum, respectively. Among the different parts of the rice plant, trace elements concentration in root was maximum and in stem and leaves major elements concentration was maximum. Transfer factor from soil to plant parts was computed. In general, the transfer factor was maximum in root, followed by stem and leaves and grain for trace elements. The transfer factor computed for whole rice plant was maximum for Zn and minimum for Sr which is a significant observation from radiological point of view. (author)

  11. Concentrations of major and trace elements in polished rice and paddy soils collected in Aomori, Japan

    Tsukada, H.; Hasegawa, H.; Takeda, A.; Hisamatsu, S.

    2005-01-01

    Rice is a staple food in most Asian countries including Japan, and it is important to evaluate the intake of elements through polished rice ingestion in daily life. Rice grain samples and surface paddy soil samples were collected from 20 sites throughout Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Rice grains were threshed and then polished to 90% of the total weight of brown rice. The polished rice samples for the determination of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) were dried at 50 degree C and those of the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) were ashed at a temperature below 450 degree C to avoid loss of alkali metals. The soil samples were dried at 50 degree C and were pulverized with an agate ball mill. The concentrations of As, Cl and I in the polished rice and As, Cl, I, Ti and Zr in the soils were determined by the NAA. The concentrations of 22 elements in the polished rice and 28 elements in the soils were determined by the ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of essential elements in the polished rice such as K, Mg, Cl, Ca, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Mo were 720, 270, 160, 54, 16, 9.7, 2.3, 21 and 0.47 mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively, and the range of each element was within one order of magnitude. However, the ranges of most trace elements in the polished rice including Al, Ni, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cr, I, Ag and Cs were more than one order of magnitude. The mean concentrations of non-essential elements in the polished rice were as follows: Na, 11; Al, 3.9; Rb, 1.2; Ni, 0.11; As, Sr, Ba, Cd, V and Pb, 0.1-0.01; Cr, I, Co, Ag, Se and Cs, O.Ol-0.001 mg kg -1 dry weight. The concentration ranges of elements, except for I, in the paddy soils were within one order of magnitude. The mean concentrations of elements in the soils were as follows: Al, Fe, Ca and Na, 100000-10000; Mg, K and Ti, 10000-1000; Mn, Ba, Cl, Zr, Sr and Zn, 1000-100; V, Ce, Cr, Rb, Cu, Pb, Sc, La, As and Ni, 100-10; Co, Th, Cs, I, U, Mo and Se, 10-1; Sb, Cd and Ag, 1-0.1 mg kg -1 . The mean concentrations of

  12. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  13. Identification of qSOR1, a major rice QTL involved in soil-surface rooting in paddy fields.

    Uga, Yusaku; Hanzawa, Eiko; Nagai, Shinsei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Specific Indonesian lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars elongate thick primary roots on the soil surface of paddy fields. To clarify the genetic factors controlling soil-surface rooting, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 124 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Gemdjah Beton, an Indonesian lowland rice cultivar with soil-surface roots, and Sasanishiki, a Japanese lowland rice cultivar without soil-surface roots. These cultivars and the RILs were tested for soil-surface rooting in a paddy field. We identified four regions of chromosomes 3, 4, 6, and 7 that were associated with soil-surface rooting in the field. Among them, one major QTL was located on the long arm of chromosome 7. This QTL explained 32.5-53.6% of the total phenotypic variance across three field evaluations. To perform fine mapping of this QTL, we measured the basal root growth angle of crown roots at the seedling stage in seven BC(2)F(3) recombinant lines grown in small cups in a greenhouse. The QTL was mapped between markers RM21941 and RM21976, which delimit an 812-kb interval in the reference cultivar Nipponbare. We have designated this QTL qSOR1 (quantitative trait locus for SOIL SURFACE ROOTING 1).

  14. Overview of major hazards. Part 2: Source term; dispersion; combustion; blast, missiles, venting; fire; radiation; runaway reactions; toxic substances; dust explosions

    Vilain, J.

    Approaches to major hazard assessment and prediction are reviewed. Source term: (phenomenology/modeling of release, influence on early stages of dispersion); dispersion (atmospheric advection, diffusion and deposition, emphasis on dense/cold gases); combustion (flammable clouds and mists covering flash fires, deflagration, transition to detonation; mostly unconfined/partly confined situations); blast formation, propagation, interaction with structures; catastrophic fires (pool fires, torches and fireballs; highly reactive substances) runaway reactions; features of more general interest; toxic substances, excluding toxicology; and dust explosions (phenomenology and protective measures) are discussed.

  15. Mapping and pyramiding of two major genes for resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens [St?l]) in the rice cultivar ADR52

    Myint, Khin Khin Marlar; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Sonoda, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (St?l), is one of the most serious and destructive pests of rice, and can be found throughout the rice-growing areas of Asia. To date, more than 24 major BPH-resistance genes have been reported in several Oryza sativa ssp. indica cultivars and wild relatives. Here, we report the genetic basis of the high level of BPH resistance derived from an Indian rice cultivar, ADR52, which was previously identified as resistant to the whitebacked planthoppe...

  16. Diverse Rice Landraces of North-East India Enables the Identification of Novel Genetic Resources for Magnaporthe Resistance.

    Umakanth, Bangale; Vishalakshi, Balija; Sathish Kumar, P; Rama Devi, S J S; Bhadana, Vijay Pal; Senguttuvel, P; Kumar, Sudhir; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Prasad, M S; Madhav, Maganti S

    2017-01-01

    North-East (NE) India, the probable origin of rice has diverse genetic resources. Many rice landraces of NE India were not yet characterized for blast resistance. A set of 232 landraces of NE India, were screened for field resistance at two different hotspots of rice blast, viz., IIRR-UBN, Hyderabad and ICAR-NEH, Manipur in two consecutive seasons. The phenotypic evaluation as well as gene profiling for 12 major blast resistance genes ( Pitp , Pi33 , Pi54 , Pib , Pi20 , Pi38 , Pita2 , Pi1 , Piz , Pi9 , Pizt , and Pi40 ) with linked as well as gene-specific markers, identified 84 resistant landraces possessing different gene(s) either in singly or in combinations and also identified seven resistant landraces which do not have the tested genes, indicating the valuable genetic resources for blast resistance. To understand the molecular diversity existing in the population, distance and model based analysis were performed using 120 SSR markers. Results of both analyses are highly correlated by forming two distinct subgroups and the existence of high diversity (24.9% among the subgroups; 75.1% among individuals of each subgroup) was observed. To practically utilize the diversity in the breeding program, a robust core set having an efficiency index of 0.82 which consists of 33 landraces were identified through data of molecular, blast phenotyping, and important agro-morphological traits. The association of eight novel SSR markers for important agronomic traits which includes leaf and neck blast resistance was determined using genome-wide association analysis. The current study focuses on identifying novel resources having field resistance to blast as well as markers which can be explored in rice improvement programs. It also entails the development of a core set which can aid in representing the entire diversity for efficiently harnessing its properties to broaden the gene pool of rice.

  17. Molecular mapping of qBK1 WD , a major QTL for bakanae disease resistance in rice

    Lee, Sais-Beul; Hur, Yeon-Jae; Cho, Jun-Hyeon; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Heon; Cho, Soo-Min; Song, You-Chun; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan; Kim, Tae-sung; Park, Yong-Jin; Oh, Myung-Kyu; Park, Dong-Soo

    2018-01-01

    Background Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring ba...

  18. Major gaseous and PAH emissions from a fluidized-bed combustor firing rice husk with high combustion efficiency

    Janvijitsakul, Kasama; Kuprianov, Vladimir I.

    2008-01-01

    This experimental work investigated major gaseous (CO and NO x ) and PAH emissions from a 400 kW th fluidized-bed combustor with a cone-shaped bed (referred to as 'conical FBC') firing rice husk with high, over 99%, combustion efficiency. Experimental tests were carried out at the fuel feed rate of 80 kg/h for different values of excess air (EA). As revealed by the experimental results, EA had substantial effects on the axial CO and NO x concentration profiles and corresponding emissions from the combustor. The concentration (mg/kg-ash) and specific emission (μg/kW h) of twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were quantified in this work for different size fractions of ash emitted from the conical FBC firing rice husk at EA = 20.9%. The total PAHs emission was found to be predominant for the coarsest ash particles, due to the effects of a highly developed internal surface in a particle volume. The highest emission was shown by acenaphthylene, 4.1 μg/kW h, when the total yield of PAHs via fly ash was about 10 μg/kW h. (author)

  19. Nucleotide diversity analysis of three major bacterial blight resistance genes in rice.

    Waikhom Bimolata

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequence polymorphisms among R gene alleles influence the process of co-evolutionary interaction between host and pathogen by shaping the response of host plants towards invading pathogens. Here, we present the DNA sequence polymorphisms and diversities present among natural alleles of three rice bacterial blight resistance genes, Xa21, Xa26 and xa5. The diversity was examined across different wild relatives and cultivars of Oryza species. Functional significance of selected alleles was evaluated through semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and real time PCR. The greatest nucleotide diversity and singleton variable sites (SVS were present in Xa26 (π = 0.01958; SVS = 182 followed by xa5 and Xa21 alleles. The highest frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in Xa21 alleles and least in xa5. Transition bias was observed in all the genes and 'G' to 'A' transitions were more favored than other form of transitions. Neutrality tests failed to show the presence of selection at these loci, though negative Tajima's D values indicate the presence of a rare form of polymorphisms. At the interspecies level, O. nivara exhibited more diversity than O. sativa. We have also identified two nearly identical resistant alleles of xa5 and two sequentially identical alleles of Xa21. The alleles of xa5 showed basal levels of expression while Xa21 alleles were functionally not expressed.

  20. Role of LOX3 Gene in Alleviating Adverse Effects of Drought and Pathogens in Rice

    LIU Nan-nan; JIANG Ling; ZHANG Wen-wei; LIU Ling-long; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min

    2008-01-01

    Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) is a major component of the LOX isozymes in mature rice seeds. To investigate the role of LOX3 gene under stresses, a plant expression vector containing antisense cDNA of LOX3 was constructed. Rice varieties Wuyunjing 7 and Kasalath were transformed by the Agrobacterium-mediated method and transgenic rice plants were generated. PCR and Southern blot results showed that the antisense LOX3 gene was integrated into the rice genome. Analyses of embryo LOX3 deletion and semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the antisense suppression of LOX3 gene in transgenic plants. The T2 antisense plants of LOX3 were sensitive to drought stress, rice blast and bacterial blight compared with non-transgenic plants. These results suggest that the LOX3 gene might function in response to stresses.

  1. Premature Tapetum Degeneration: a Major Cause of Abortive Pollen Development in Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male Sterility in Rice

    Yinlian Shi; Sha Zhao; Jialing Yao

    2009-01-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile (PSGMS) rice (Oryza sativa L.), a natural mutant found in the rice cultivar Nongken 58, is very useful for the development of hybrid rice cultivars. Despite its widespread use in breeding programs, the initial stage of the abortive development of PSGMS rice and the possible cytological mechanisms of pollen abortion have not been determined. In the present study, a systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of PSGMS rice with its normal fertile counterpart is conducted. The results show that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice first occurs before the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage, and continues during the entire process of pollen development until pollen degradation. The abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of the tapetum. Although tapetum degeneration in PSGMS rice initiates already at the PMC stage, it proceeds slowly and does not complete until the breakdown of the pollen. Such cytological observations were supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, which detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD), indicating that the premature tapetum degeneration is in the process of PCD.

  2. Blast management

    Shouraki, Mohammad Kargar; Naserkheil, Ali Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Blast Management (BM) is composed of the combination of human resources management (HRM) principles and concepts and various methods of quality management (QM) with a financial approach. BM is made up of three aspects: hard, soft and concept and BLAST means an explosive shift in organization's mindset and thought and rapid action against it. The first aspect, hard, includes a set of managerial toots and philosophies to improve the quality and productivity with a financial approach.

  3. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  4. Evolving of mutant lines resistant to lodging, blast, and high yield in rice by induce mutation using gamma ray (physical mutagen)

    Majd, F.; Rahimi, M.; Rezazadeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    Induction of mutation for the purpose of producing variations in the gene pool has been used in recent years. In this experiment the locally adapted rice C V Moosa-Tarom was used as a high quality, tall and very lodging susceptible mutation material. The main purpose of this project was to evolve lodging resistant mutants of high yielding. The elite seeds of Moosa-Tarom variety after moisture regulation were exposed to 100, 200 and 300 Gy from Cobalt 60 source at the Nuclear Research Center. The irradiated seeds were sown in the field along with a comparable number of unirradiated seeds taken as control. All the first panicles of M1 plants were individually harvested and classified according to the dose rate as M2 material . Among M2 plant populations 203 plants that appeared from the agronomic point of view, along with a number of on unirradiated seeds, were selected and moved to the next generations. During subsequent screening for three generations (M 3-M 5) and due to lodging resistant, height and efficient factors of yield potential some mutant lines were harvested. From these lines in a preliminary and advanced randomized complete design agronomic traits, 13 promising lines were selected. From the experiment, line 43-3 were confirmed, which is characterized by lodging resistant and high yield. This line showed relative superiority and introduced to Rice Research Institute

  5. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular mapping of qBK1 WD , a major QTL for bakanae disease resistance in rice.

    Lee, Sais-Beul; Hur, Yeon-Jae; Cho, Jun-Hyeon; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Heon; Cho, Soo-Min; Song, You-Chun; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Park, Yong-Jin; Oh, Myung-Kyu; Park, Dong-Soo

    2018-01-10

    Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring bakanae disease resistance from the highly resistant japonica variety Wonseadaesoo. A primary QTL study using the genotypes/phenotypes of the recombinant inbred lines (RILs) indicated that the locus qBK1 WD conferring resistance to bakanae disease from Wonseadaesoo was located in a 1.59 Mb interval delimited on the physical map between chr01_13542347 (13.54 Mb) and chr01_15132528 (15.13 Mb). The log of odds (LOD) score of qBK1 WD was 8.29, accounting for 20.2% of the total phenotypic variation. We further identified a gene pyramiding effect of two QTLs, qBK WD and previously developed qBK1. The mean proportion of healthy plant for 31 F 4 RILs that had no resistance genes was 35.3%, which was similar to that of the susceptible check variety Ilpum. The proportion of healthy plants for the lines with only qBK WD or qBK1 was 66.1% and 55.5%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of the lines without resistance genes and that of Ilpum. The mean proportion of the healthy plant for 15 F 4 RILs harboring both qBK WD and qBK1 was 80.2%, which was significantly higher than that of the lines with only qBK WD or qBK1. Introducing qBK WD or pyramiding the QTLs qBK WD and qBK1 could provide effective tools for breeding rice with bakanae disease resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a gene pyramiding effect that provides higher resistance against bakanae disease.

  7. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Tan, Chin Ping; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Wee Fang, Evelyn Koh

    2014-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p -oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying. PMID:26785067

  8. Developing climate resilient rice through genomics assisted breeding

    Valarmathi Muthu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the major cereal food crops whose production has to be doubled to achieve the projected demand [1] and current yield trends are not sufficient to meet the projected growth in production. Increasing the rice production by 30% during 2030 needs overcoming challenges viz., yield plateau, declining land, water and labor resources and predicted effects of global climate change. Development of high performance rice genotypes with enhanced yield potential and resilience to climate change will help in sustained increase in rice production. Deployment of genomic technologies can accelerate development and delivery of improved germplasm with enhanced resilience and adaptability [2, 3]. In this context, the present study was undertaken with an aim of developing rice genotypes pyramided with QTLs/genes controlling tolerance against various biotic and abiotic stresses viz., bacterial leaf blight (xa13, Xa21, blast (Pi9, Gall midge (Gm4, drought (qDTY1.1 qDTY2.1, submergence (Sub1 and salinity (Saltol. CBMAS14065 an elite culture harboring QTLs controlling tolerance against drought, salinity and submergence was crossed with a donor harboring BLB, Blast and Gall midge resistant genes. True F1s were backcrossed with CBMAS14065 and BC1F1 progenies were subjected to foreground selection using markers linked to the target traits. Superior plants (18 of BC1F1 generation were subjected to background selection which revealed 71.42 - 86.90% recurrent parent (CBMAS14065 genome recovery. Selected BC1F1 plants were advanced to BC2F1 generation backcrossing with CBMAS14065. In BC2F1 generation, through foreground selection 6-8 QTL/gene positive plants have been selected and advanced for further evaluation. The superior lines with desired QTLs/genes will be subjected to rigorous phenotypic evaluation against target stresses and advanced further.

  9. Transcriptome profiling and physiological studies reveal a major role for aromatic amino acids in mercury stress tolerance in rice seedlings.

    Yun-An Chen

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants.

  10. Transcriptome profiling and physiological studies reveal a major role for aromatic amino acids in mercury stress tolerance in rice seedlings.

    Chen, Yun-An; Chi, Wen-Chang; Trinh, Ngoc Nam; Huang, Li-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Teng; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp) and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants.

  11. Brain injuries from blast.

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is

  12. Mapping and pyramiding of two major genes for resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens [Stål]) in the rice cultivar ADR52.

    Myint, Khin Khin Marlar; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Sonoda, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2012-02-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most serious and destructive pests of rice, and can be found throughout the rice-growing areas of Asia. To date, more than 24 major BPH-resistance genes have been reported in several Oryza sativa ssp. indica cultivars and wild relatives. Here, we report the genetic basis of the high level of BPH resistance derived from an Indian rice cultivar, ADR52, which was previously identified as resistant to the whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera [Horváth]). An F(2) population derived from a cross between ADR52 and a susceptible cultivar, Taichung 65 (T65), was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Antibiosis testing showed that multiple loci controlled the high level of BPH resistance in this F(2) population. Further linkage analysis using backcross populations resulted in the identification of BPH-resistance (antibiosis) gene loci from ADR52. BPH25 co-segregated with marker S00310 on the distal end of the short arm of chromosome 6, and BPH26 co-segregated with marker RM5479 on the long arm of chromosome 12. To characterize the virulence of the most recently migrated BPH strain in Japan, preliminary near-isogenic lines (pre-NILs) and a preliminary pyramided line (pre-PYL) carrying BPH25 and BPH26 were evaluated. Although both pre-NILs were susceptible to the virulent BPH strain, the pre-PYL exhibited a high level of resistance. The pyramiding of resistance genes is therefore likely to be effective for increasing the durability of resistance against the new virulent BPH strain in Japan.

  13. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Azizah Abdul Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO and rice bran oil (RBO during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α-tocopherol, gamma (γ-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05, while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying.

  14. Profiling of phytohormones and their major metabolites in rice using binary solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Cao, Zhao-Yun; Sun, Li-Hua; Mou, Ren-Xiang; Zhang, Lin-Ping; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ming-Xue

    2016-06-17

    A high-throughput method was developed using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the profiling and quantification of 43 phytohormones and their major metabolites, including auxins, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, cytokinins and gibberellins in a single sample extract. Considerable matrix effects (MEs) were observed (with most ME values in the range of 29%-84%, but maximum MEs of more than 115%, even up to 206%, existed) in sample extracts for most of the compounds studied. The application of the proposed binary solid-phase extraction using polymer anion and polymer cation exchange resins, was performed to purify 25 acidic and 18 alkaline phytohormones and their major metabolites prior to the LC-MS/MS analysis, which markedly reduced the MEs to acceptable levels, with ME values in the range of ±15%. Moreover, all of the isomers of cytokinins and their metabolites were fully separated on a sub-2μm particle C18 reverse-phase column with the optimized mobile phase consisting of methanol and 5mM ammonium formate. The method showed good linearity for all 43 analytes with regression coefficients (R(2))>0.991. Limits of detection ranged from 0.19 to 7.57 fmol for auxin, gibberellins, abscisic acid and their metabolites, 29.7 fmol for jasmonic acid, 18.1 fmol for salicylic acid, and from 0.03 to 0.31 fmol for cytokinins and their metabolites. The mean recoveries for all of the analytes were from 70.7 to 118.5%, and the inter-day precisions (n=6) were less than 18.7%, with intra-day precisions (n=6) within 25.4%. Finally, 20 compounds were successfully quantified in rice sample profiles using the proposed method, which will greatly facilitate the understanding of hormone-related regulatory networks that influence rice growth and development. To our knowledge, there are limited reports that measure this level of phytohormone species in rice samples using a single analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-genera transferability of rice and finger millet genomic SSRs to barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.).

    Kalyana Babu, B; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Dinesh; Joshi, Anjeli; Pattanayak, A; Kant, Lakshmi; Upadhyaya, H D

    2018-02-01

    Barnyard millet ( Echinochloa spp.) is an important crop from nutritional point of view, nevertheless, the genetic information is very scarce. In the present investigation, rice and finger millet genomic SSRs were used for assessing cross transferability, identification of polymorphic markers, syntenic regions, genetic diversity and population structure analysis of barnyard millet genotypes. We observed 100% cross transferability for finger millet SSRs, of which 91% were polymorphic, while 71% of rice markers were cross transferable with 48% polymorphic out of them. Twenty-nine and sixteen highly polymorphic finger millet and rice SSRs yielded a mean of 4.3 and 3.38 alleles per locus in barnyard millet genotypes, respectively. The PIC values varied from 0.27 to 0.73 at an average of 0.54 for finger millet SSRs, whereas it was from 0.15 to 0.67 at an average of 0.44 for rice SSRs. High synteny was observed for markers related to panicle length, yield-related traits, spikelet fertility, plant height, root traits, leaf senescence, blast and brown plant hopper resistance. Although the rice SSRs located on chromosome 10 followed by chromosome 6 and 11 were found to be more transferable to barnyard millet, the finger millet SSRs were more polymorphic and transferable to barnyard millet genotypes. These SSR data of finger millet and rice individually as well as combined together grouped the 11 barnyard millet genotypes into 2 major clusters. The results of population structure analysis were similar to cluster analysis.

  16. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  18. Fine mapping and introgressing qFIS1-2, a major QTL for kernel fissure resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring increases breakage during milling and decreases the value of processed rice. This study employed molecular gene tagging methods to fine-map a fissure resistance (FR) locus in ‘Cybonnet’, a semidwarf tropical japonica cultivar, as well as transfer this trait to...

  19. DNA marker characterization for allele mining of blast and bacterial ...

    admiistrator

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... very useful for the analysis and detection of QTLs (Sabouri et al., 2011). ... Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthae grisea (Ou ... The DNA was quantified at 260 nm wavelength using a UV spectro- photometer ...

  20. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  1. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    S. H Peyman; A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi; A Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important ...

  2. Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Han, Qiang; Zi, Qian; Lv, Shun; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.

  3. Rice microstructure

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  4. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research.

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Zheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Blast injury has become the major life- and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares. There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), which has been proved as one of the "signature wounds" in modern battlefield. We reviewed the recent progresses in bTBI-related researches and concluded that the new era of blast injury research has shifted from the traditional physical impairments to cognitive dysfunctional/mental disorders that are proved to be more related to the outcome of combat casualty care.

  5. Equipment Specific Optimum Blast-Design Using Genetic Algorithm

    Rahul Upadhyay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Design of blasting parameters plays an important role in the optimization of mining cost as well as cost of subsequent processing of ore. Drilling and handling costs are the major mining cost. This work presents an indirect optimization model for mining cost through optimization of blasting parameters for a particular set of drilling and loading equipment.

  6. Experimental Study and Engineering Practice of Pressured Water Coupling Blasting

    J. X. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overburden strata movement in large space stope is the major reason that induces the appearance of strong mining pressure. Presplitting blasting for hard coal rocks is crucial for the prevention and control of strong pressure in stope. In this study, pressured water coupling blasting technique was proposed. The process and effect of blasting were analyzed by orthogonal test and field practice. Results showed that the presence of pressure-bearing water and explosive cartridges in the drill are the main influence factors of the blasting effect of cement test block. The high load-transmitting performance of pore water and energy accumulation in explosive cartridges were analyzed. Noxious substances produced during the blasting process were properly controlled because of the moistening, cooling, and diluting effect of pore water. Not only the goal of safe and static rock fragmentation by high-explosive detonation but also a combination of superdynamic blast loading and static loading effect of the pressured water was achieved. Then the practice of blasting control of hard coal rocks in Datong coal mine was analyzed to determine reasonable parameters of pressured water coupling blasting. A good presplitting blasting control effect was achieved for the hard coal rocks.

  7. Linking blast physics to biological outcomes in mild traumatic brain injury: Narrative review and preliminary report of an open-field blast model.

    Song, Hailong; Cui, Jiankun; Simonyi, Agnes; Johnson, Catherine E; Hubler, Graham K; DePalma, Ralph G; Gu, Zezong

    2018-03-15

    Blast exposures are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-induced TBIs are common injuries affecting military personnel. Department of Defense and Veterans Administration (DoD/VA) reports for TBI indicated that the vast majority (82.3%) has been mild TBI (mTBI)/concussion. mTBI and associated posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) have been called "the invisible injury" of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries induce varying degrees of neuropathological alterations and, in some cases, chronic cognitive, behavioral and neurological disorders. Appropriate animal models of blast-induced TBI will not only assist the understanding of physical characteristics of the blast, but also help to address the potential mechanisms. This report provides a brief overview of physical principles of blast, injury mechanisms related to blast exposure, current blast animal models, and the neurological behavioral and neuropathological findings related to blast injury in experimental settings. We describe relationships between blast peak pressures and the observed injuries. We also report preliminary use of a highly reproducible and intensity-graded blast murine model carried out in open-field with explosives, and describe physical and pathological findings in this experimental model. Our results indicate close relationships between blast intensities and neuropathology and behavioral deficits, particularly at low level blast intensities relevant to mTBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of varieties in sustainable rice production in Malaysia

    Othman Omar; Saad Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of Malaysians. Rice production in Malaysia is concentrated in granary areas, which are provided with irrigation facilities. There is no plan to increase the size or the number of these granary areas, thus productivity per unit area must be increased to sustain the current level of self-sufficiency. Variety determines the potential productivity; environment and crop management determine how much of this potential is realized. Crop management is very important, as any drop in the level of management will effect productivity. However there are characteristics / factors that can be incorporated into varieties which can buffer the effect of environment and crop management. Pests and diseases can result in severe yield loss and lead to non-sustainable production. Varietal resistance to some of these diseases can be incorporated into rice varieties. Active breeding to incorporate rice resistance to blast, PMV (tungro), bacterial blight and brown planthopper is being currently carried out Factors that determine or justify the active breeding status are: importance of Oe pests diseases, resistance sources and the availability of efficient screening procedure. Sheath blight is also an important disease in direct seeded crops as it can cause severe yield loss, but good resistant sources are not available for incorporation and the screening procedure is also not very efficient. Biotechnologists are working hard to introduce resistance from other crops and also develop other resistance mechanisms for sheath blight. Water, shortage or excess, is a major cause of non-sustainable production. The breeding of short-term varieties can overcome water problems or shortages. Negative interaction between varietal characteristics and environment do occur. Finally farmers have to decide which factors of the environment cannot be easily controlled, and choose the correct varieties in order to achieve sustainable production. (Author)

  9. Expression of cold and drought regulatory protein (CcCDR) of pigeonpea imparts enhanced tolerance to major abiotic stresses in transgenic rice plants.

    Sunitha, Mellacheruvu; Srinath, Tamirisa; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2017-06-01

    Transgenic rice expressing pigeonpea Cc CDR conferred high-level tolerance to different abiotic stresses. The multiple stress tolerance observed in CcCDR -transgenic lines is attributed to the modulation of ABA-dependent and-independent signalling-pathway genes. Stable transgenic plants expressing Cajanus cajan cold and drought regulatory protein encoding gene (CcCDR), under the control of CaMV35S and rd29A promoters, have been generated in indica rice. Different transgenic lines of CcCDR, when subjected to drought, salt, and cold stresses, exhibited higher seed germination, seedling survival rates, shoot length, root length, and enhanced plant biomass when compared with the untransformed control plants. Furthermore, transgenic plants disclosed higher leaf chlorophyll content, proline, reducing sugars, SOD, and catalase activities, besides lower levels of MDA. Localization studies revealed that the CcCDR-GFP fusion protein was mainly present in the nucleus of transformed cells of rice. The CcCDR transgenics were found hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and showed reduced seed germination rates as compared to that of control plants. When the transgenic plants were exposed to drought and salt stresses at vegetative and reproductive stages, they revealed larger panicles and higher number of filled grains compared to the untransformed control plants. Under similar stress conditions, the expression levels of P5CS, bZIP, DREB, OsLEA3, and CIPK genes, involved in ABA-dependent and-independent signal transduction pathways, were found higher in the transgenic plants than the control plants. The overall results amply demonstrate that the transgenic rice expressing CcCDR bestows high-level tolerance to drought, salt, and cold stress conditions. Accordingly, the CcCDR might be deployed as a promising candidate gene for improving the multiple stress tolerance of diverse crop plants.

  10. Analysis of nucleotide diversity among alleles of the major bacterial blight resistance gene Xa27 in cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) and its wild relatives.

    Bimolata, Waikhom; Kumar, Anirudh; Sundaram, Raman Meenakshi; Laha, Gouri Shankar; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Reddy, Gajjala Ashok; Ghazi, Irfan Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    Xa27 is one of the important R-genes, effective against bacterial blight disease of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Using natural population of Oryza, we analyzed the sequence variation in the functionally important domains of Xa27 across the Oryza species. DNA sequences of Xa27 alleles from 27 rice accessions revealed higher nucleotide diversity among the reported R-genes of rice. Sequence polymorphism analysis revealed synonymous and non-synonymous mutations in addition to a number of InDels in non-coding regions of the gene. High sequence variation was observed in the promoter region including the 5'UTR with 'π' value 0.00916 and 'θ w ' = 0.01785. Comparative analysis of the identified Xa27 alleles with that of IRBB27 and IR24 indicated the operation of both positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1) and neutral selection (Ka/Ks ≈ 0). The genetic distances of alleles of the gene from Oryza nivara were nearer to IRBB27 as compared to IR24. We also found the presence of conserved and null UPT (upregulated by transcriptional activator) box in the isolated alleles. Considerable amino acid polymorphism was localized in the trans-membrane domain for which the functional significance is yet to be elucidated. However, the absence of functional UPT box in all the alleles except IRBB27 suggests the maintenance of single resistant allele throughout the natural population.

  11. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  12. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux

    Thorsten Langner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae, which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17 reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases.

  13. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  14. Comparative studies on physical-chemical properties and major nutritional components of rice grain in dwarf mutant resistant to insect pests and its parent

    Cui Hairui; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Shu Qingyao

    2004-01-01

    Starch characteristics and key nutritional compositions in the dwarf mutant from transgenic rice with crylAb gene were compared with its original parent, Xiushuill. It was found that peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and cool paste viscosity of RVA profile between the dwarf mutant and its parent were significantly different at 1% level, but apparent amylose content, gel consistence existed and breakdown viscosity of RVA profile were similar, and no significant differences existed in contents of crude protein, crude fat, total ash, amino acids and mineral compositions. It was suggested that no notable changes occurred in grain quality traits in the dwarf mutant with insect resistance. (authors)

  15. An Economic Risk Analysis of Weed Suppressive Rice Cultivars in Rice Production

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the United States, most rice cultivars are not inherently weed-suppressive and require substantial herbicide inputs to achieve agronomic and economic viability. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in...

  16. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Candidacy of a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive gene for a major locus affecting plant height in rice that is closely linked to Green Revolution gene sd1.

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Zhang, Yushan; Yu, Sibin; Yang, Gaiyu; Yan, Wenhao; Xing, Yongzhong

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate plant height is crucial for lodging resistance to improve the rice crop yield. The application of semi-dwarf 1 led to the green revolution in the 1960s, by predominantly increasing the rice yield. However, the frequent use of single sd1 gene sources may cause genetic vulnerability to pests and diseases. Identifying useful novel semi-dwarf genes is important for the genetic manipulation of plant architecture in practical rice breeding. In this study, introgression lines derived from two parents contrasting in plant height, Zhenshan 97 and Pokkali were employed to locate a gene with a large effect on plant height by the bulk segregant analysis method. A major gene, ph1, was mapped to a region closely linked to sd1 on chromosome 1; the additive effects of ph1 were more than 50 cm on the plant height and 2 days on the heading date in a BC(4)F(2) population and its progeny. ph1 was then fine mapped to BAC AP003227. Gene annotation indicated that LOC_OS01g65990 encoding a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive protein (CIGR), which belongs to the GRAS family, might be the right candidate gene of ph1. Co-segregation analysis of the candidate gene-derived marker finally confirmed its identity as the candidate gene. A higher expression level of the CIGR was detected in all the tested tissues in tall plants compared to those of short plants, especially in the young leaf sheath containing elongating tissues, which indicated its importance role in regulating plant height. ph1 showed a tremendous genetic effect on plant height, which is distinct from sd1 and could be a new resource for breeding semi-dwarf varieties.

  18. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) resistant to leaf blast disease.

    Ignacimuthu, S; Ceasar, S Antony

    2012-03-01

    Finger millet plants conferring resistance to leaf blast disease have been developed by inserting a rice chitinase (chi11) gene through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plasmid pHyg-Chi.11 harbouring the rice chitinase gene under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter was introduced into finger millet using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (pSB1). Transformed plants were selected and regenerated on hygromycin-supplemented medium. Transient expression of transgene was confirmed by GUS histochemical staining. The incorporation of rice chitinase gene in R0 and R1 progenies was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Expression of chitinase gene in finger millet was confirmed by Western blot analysis with a barley chitinase antibody. A leaf blast assay was also performed by challenging the transgenic plants with spores of Pyricularia grisea. The frequency of transient expression was 16.3% to 19.3%. Stable frequency was 3.5% to 3.9%. Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of 3.1 kb chitinase gene. Western blot analysis detected the presence of 35 kDa chitinase enzyme. Chitinase activity ranged from 19.4 to 24.8. In segregation analysis, the transgenic R1 lines produced three resistant and one sensitive for hygromycin, confirming the normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Transgenic plants showed high level of resistance to leaf blast disease compared to control plants. This is the first study reporting the introduction of rice chitinase gene into finger millet for leaf blast resistance.

  19. Pyricularia graminis-tritici, a new Pyricularia species causing wheat blast

    Castroagudín, V.L.; Moreira, S.I.; Pereira, D.A.S.; Moreira, S.S.; Brunner, P.C.; Maciel, J.L.N.; Crous, P.W.; McDonald, B.A.; Alves, E.; Ceresini, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pyricularia oryzae is a species complex that causes blast disease on more than 50 species of poaceous plants. Pyricularia oryzae has a worldwide distribution as a rice pathogen and in the last 30 years emerged as an important wheat pathogen in southern Brazil. We conducted phylogenetic analyses

  20. Studies to identify genes and their expression for resistance to blast ...

    aps

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for more than half of the world population of Asia. Also, the genetic and functional syntenies observed among cereal crops over ..... action for the leaf rust of wheat. Sandhu et al. (2003) suggested a polygenic control for blast resistance. Naqvi and Chattoo (1996) also ...

  1. Transgene Flow from Glufosinate-Resistant Rice to Improved and Weedy Rice in China

    Yong-liang LU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic rice with novel traits in China can increase rice productivity, but transgene flow to improved or weedy rice has become a major concern. We aimed to evaluate the potential maximum frequencies of transgene flow from glufosinate-resistant rice to improved rice cultivars and weedy rice. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the Center for Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection for Genetically Modified Plants, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Glufosinate-resistant japonica rice 99-1 was the pollen donor. The pollen recipients were two inbred japonica rice (Chunjiang 016 and Xiushui 09, two inbred indica rice (Zhongzu 14 and Zhongzao 22, two indica hybrid rice (Zhongzheyou 1 and Guodao 1, and one weedy indica rice (Taizhou weedy rice. The offspring of recipients were planted in the field and sprayed with a commercial dose of glufosinate. Leaf tissues of survivors were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the transgene. The frequency of gene flow ranged from 0 to 0.488%. In 2009, the order of gene flow frequency was as follows: weedy rice > Chunjiang 016 > Xiushui 09 and Zhongzu 14 > Guodao 1, Zhongzheyou 1 and Zhongzao 22. Gene flow frequencies were generally higher in 2009 than in 2010, but did not differ significantly among rice materials. Gene flow frequency was the highest in weedy rice followed by the inbred japonica rice. The risk of gene flow differed significantly between years and year-to-year variance could mask risk differences among pollen recipients. Gene flow was generally lesser in taller pollen recipients than in shorter ones, but plant height only accounted for about 30% of variation in gene flow. When flowering synchrony was maximized, as in this study, low frequencies of gene flow occurred from herbicide-resistant japonica rice to other cultivars and

  2. UV-B effects on crops: response of the irrigated rice ecosystem

    Olszyk, D.; Dai, Q.; Teng, P.; Leung, H.; Luo, Y.; Peng, S.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation resulting from depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer could have damaging effects on crops. This paper reviews recent findings on direct effects of UV-B on rice growth and yield as well as indirect effects via impacts on other organisms in the rice (Oryza sativa) agroecosystem. The findings are based on research by scientists at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Los Baños, the Philippines, and their collaborators in China and the United States; with comparison to research by scientists in other countries. Current results indicate that while enhanced UV-B directly impacts many aspects of rice growth, physiology, and biochemistry under controlled phytotron conditions; in general rice growth and yield are not affected under natural field conditions. The difference in response may be related both to the levels of UV-B exposure used in phytotron vs. field studies and the lower ratio of UV-A to UV-B in the phytotron compared to field. In terms of indirect effects on rice blast disease, enhanced UV-B affected both the fungus itself (Pyricularia grisea) and the susceptibility of the rice plant to the fungus. Based on these data, simulation models estimated potential impacts of higher UV-B levels on blast severity and rice yield in different countries of southeast and east Asia. Ultimately, results from rice studies can be used to identify strategies to minimize any negative effects of UV-B on rice productivity

  3. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  4. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    Heng-mu ZHANG; Hua-di WANG; Jian YANG; Michael J ADAMS; Jian-ping CHEN

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurren...

  5. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  6. The BLAST experiment

    Hasell, D.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems.

  7. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  8. Salinity alters the protein composition of rice endosperm and the physicochemical properties of rice flour.

    Baxter, Graeme; Zhao, Jian; Blanchard, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to production of rice and other agricultural crops worldwide. Although numerous studies have shown that salinity can severely reduce rice yield, little is known about its impact on the chemical composition, processing and sensory characteristics of rice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of salinity on the pasting and textural properties of rice flour as well as on the protein content and composition of rice endosperm. Rice grown under saline conditions had significantly lower yields but substantially higher protein content. The increase in protein content was mainly attributed to increases in the amount of glutelin, with lesser contributions from albumin. Salinity also altered the relative proportions of the individual peptides within the glutelin fraction. Flours obtained from rice grown under saline conditions showed significantly higher pasting temperatures, but lower peak and breakdown viscosities. Rice gels prepared from the flour showed significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values, compared to the freshwater controls. Salinity can significantly affect the pasting and textural characteristics of rice flour. Although some of the effects could be attributed to changes in protein content of the rice flour, especially the increased glutelin level, the impact of salinity on the physicochemical properties of rice is rather complex and may involve the interrelated effects of other rice components such as starch and lipids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk.

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Islam, M R; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Novel Kasugamycin 2′-N-Acetyltransferase Gene aac(2′)-IIa, Carried by the IncP Island, Confers Kasugamycin Resistance to Rice-Pathogenic Bacteria

    Yoshii, Atsushi; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Kasugamycin (KSM), a unique aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been used in agriculture for many years to control not only rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea but also rice bacterial grain and seedling rot or rice bacterial brown stripe caused by Burkholderia glumae or Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, respectively. Since both bacterial pathogens are seed-borne and cause serious injury to rice seedlings, the emergence of KSM-resistant B. glumae and A. avenae isolates highlights the ...

  11. (PGMS) rice

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  12. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  13. Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo ...

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...

  14. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  15. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  16. Study of the action of blast deck charge in rocky soils

    Boiko V.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blasting (B in the industry, including the mining extraction of minerals, are carried out mostly with the use of blasthole charges that systematically distributed on the block that is undermined, by individual groups. The latter are blasted according to the scheme of short-delay firing (SDF through the intervals that are accepted not less than 20 Ms. Thus, the seismic effect of group charge explosion, consisting of individual blasthole charges and that actually is a group located charge determined by the formula of concentrated charge. Blast deck charges are effectively used in the driving of the trenches in the mining, formation of screens and cracks near the security objects. Only this method of performing blasting allows to define seismic effect in the transition from one diameter of a charge to another, as well as to determine the actual number of detonated charges in one group, which may differ from the calculated in drilling and blasting project. The work analyzes the physical essence of processes happened while blasting of blast deck charges. The effect of the orientation of the seismic action of blasting of blast deck charges towards the allocation line of charges is investigated. The results of generalized dependence of the speed of the displacement of the ground by the blast parameters and epicentral distance are obtained. We demonstrate with specific examples that blast deck charges that blasting simultaneously make a major chain of the career massive explosions at mining. Keywords: seismic fluctuations; the number of charges; the interaction of charges; the distance between the charges; the coefficients of the seismicity and the attenuation of the intensity of the waves; the unit charge; blast deck and blasthole charges; phase shifting; effective charge.

  17. Analysis of effect of aluminized canfo on fragmentation and economics of quarry blast

    Shoukat, M.R.; Akram, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the explosive cost for drilling and blasting operations conducted at limestone quarries is a major concern for every mine operator. In Pakistan, to reduce explosive cost, Calcium Ammonium Nitrate with Fuel Oil (CANFO) is commonly used in explosive column charge in place of Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO). However, fragmentation of the blast has to be compromised over cost reduction. Hence it is desired to enhance the performance of CANFO. In this study, Aluminum (AL) is added into Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) to analyze its effect on fragmentation and economics of blast at a limestone quarry. Experimental shots were held using rectangular drilling pattern (current practice), using CANFO and ALCANFO in separate shots, while all other blast design factors were kept constant. Post blast analysis for all shots was done in terms of fragmentation and cost. The shots using ALCANFO proved to be better fragmentation wise, and also assured a saving of 1.6% in drilling and blasting costs. (author)

  18. Blasting agent package

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  19. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  20. Blasting technology advances

    1990-04-01

    Nitroglycerine explosives are increasingly giving way to emulsions and low cost Anfo compositions, the latter sometimes incorporating emulsion in order to improve water resistance and performance. The aim is to produce an explosive which is extremely efficient, relatively safe and can be tailored to meet user requirements. Discussion is presented of emulsion delivery systems, initiation systems, electronic detonators, computer blast modelling, directional explosives, underground automation, and the development of Soviet explosives. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  1. ?-Oryzanols of North American Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman; Rudzinska, Magdalena; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    ?-Oryzanol, a natural mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are an important bioactive components present in rice bran oil. In light of the recent increase in the popularity of wild rice among consumers, and the possibility of a direct relationship between ?-oryzanol composition and its bioactivity, the oryzanol profile of major wild rice (Zizania palustris) grown in North America was studied and compared to regular brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). A total of twenty-...

  2. Organic rice of Bangladesh: focus on disease control

    Hossain, Shaikh Tanveer

    2012-01-01

    Diseases play an important role in rice production. In modern agriculture, application of hazardous chemicals is a common practice allover the world. But organic rice production system does not allow synthetic agro-chemicals due to its adverse effect on environment as well as human health. Thirty six fungal, twenty one viral, six bacterial and six nematode diseases have been recorded in rice. In Bangladesh, 31 rice diseases have been so far identified of which ten are considered as major. She...

  3. Blasting Impact by the Construction of an Underground Research Tunnel in KAERI

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    The underground research tunnel, which is under construction in KAERI for the validation of HLW disposal system, is excavated by drill and blasting method using high-explosives. In order not to disturb the operation at the research facilities such as HANARO reactor, it is critical to develop a blasting design , which will not influence on the facilities, even though several tens of explosives are detonated almost simultaneously. To develop a reasonable blasting design, a test blasting at the site should be performed. A preliminary analysis for predicting the expected vibration and noise by the blasting for the construction of the underground research tunnel was performed using a typical empirical equation. From the study, a blasting design could be developed not to influence on the major research facilities in KAERI. For the validation of the blasting design, a test blasting was carried out at the site and the parameters of vibration equation could be determined using the measured data during the test blasting. Using the equation, it was possible to predict the vibration at different locations at KAERI and to conclude that the blasting design would meet the design criteria at the major facilities in KAERI. The study would verify the applicability of blasting method for the construction of a research tunnel in a rock mass and that would help the design and construction of large scale underground research laboratory, which might be carried out in the future. It is also meaningful to accumulate technical experience for enhancing the reliability and effectiveness of the design and construction of the HLW disposal repository, which will be constructed in deep underground by drill and blasting technique

  4. World market integration of Vietnamese rice markets during the 2008 food price crisis

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. In mid 2008, prices reached levels never seen before. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice and rice is also the main staple food of the country. Given the importance of rice for domestic food security, the Vietnamese

  5. In planta functions of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes in the phytocassane biosynthetic gene cluster on rice chromosome 2.

    Ye, Zhongfeng; Yamazaki, Kohei; Minoda, Hiromi; Miyamoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Sho; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Yajima, Arata; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Okada, Kazunori

    2018-06-01

    In response to environmental stressors such as blast fungal infections, rice produces phytoalexins, an antimicrobial diterpenoid compound. Together with momilactones, phytocassanes are among the major diterpenoid phytoalexins. The biosynthetic genes of diterpenoid phytoalexin are organized on the chromosome in functional gene clusters, comprising diterpene cyclase, dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes. Their functions have been studied extensively using in vitro enzyme assay systems. Specifically, P450 genes (CYP71Z6, Z7; CYP76M5, M6, M7, M8) on rice chromosome 2 have multifunctional activities associated with ent-copalyl diphosphate-related diterpene hydrocarbons, but the in planta contribution of these genes to diterpenoid phytoalexin production remains unknown. Here, we characterized cyp71z7 T-DNA mutant and CYP76M7/M8 RNAi lines to find that potential phytoalexin intermediates accumulated in these P450-suppressed rice plants. The results suggested that in planta, CYP71Z7 is responsible for C2-hydroxylation of phytocassanes and that CYP76M7/M8 is involved in C11α-hydroxylation of 3-hydroxy-cassadiene. Based on these results, we proposed potential routes of phytocassane biosynthesis in planta.

  6. Breeding of a new special rice variety Hangxiangnuo

    Zhou Hanqin; Pang Dajian; Fan Zhilan; Liu Chuanguang; Li Chen; Chen Jianyou

    2011-01-01

    A new special rice variety Hangxiangnuo was bred by several generation selections of the progeny of the rice variety Nanfengnuo which was carried by the spacecraft Shenzhou No 4. Hangxiangnuo was permitted to release by the Crop Examination and Approval Committee of Guangdong Province in January, 2009. Compared with its parent variety Nanfengnuo, Hangxiangnuo has better resistance to blast, greater length-width ratio of grain, more panicles per plant, filled grains per panicle and fragrance. The efficiency of space mutation breeding and the generation at which mutant traits become homozygous were also discussed in the paper. (authors)

  7. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  8. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  9. Numerical simulation of muzzle blast

    Tyler-Street, M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large

  10. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  11. Control blasting of reinforced concrete

    Nagase, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    With the need of decommissioning nuclear power plants, it is urgently required to establish its methods and standards. In Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., experimental feasibility studies have been made on explosive demolition method i.e. the controlled blasting for the massive concrete structures peculiar to nuclear power plants, considering low radiation exposure, safety and high efficiency. As such, four techniques of line drilling, cushion blasting, pre-splitting and guide hole blasting, respectively, are described with photographs. Assuming the selective demolition of activated concrete structures, the series of experiments showed the good results of clear-cut surfaces and the effect of blasting was confined properly. Moreover, the scattering of debris in blasting was able to be entirely prevented by the use of rubber belts. The generation of gas and dust was also little due to the small amount of the charge used. (J.P.N.)

  12. NCBI BLAST+ integrated into Galaxy.

    Cock, Peter J A; Chilton, John M; Grüning, Björn; Johnson, James E; Soranzo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The NCBI BLAST suite has become ubiquitous in modern molecular biology and is used for small tasks such as checking capillary sequencing results of single PCR products, genome annotation or even larger scale pan-genome analyses. For early adopters of the Galaxy web-based biomedical data analysis platform, integrating BLAST into Galaxy was a natural step for sequence comparison workflows. The command line NCBI BLAST+ tool suite was wrapped for use within Galaxy. Appropriate datatypes were defined as needed. The integration of the BLAST+ tool suite into Galaxy has the goal of making common BLAST tasks easy and advanced tasks possible. This project is an informal international collaborative effort, and is deployed and used on Galaxy servers worldwide. Several examples of applications are described here.

  13. Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations derived ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... Molecular profiling of interspecific lowland rice populations ... Both cluster and principal component analyses revealed two major groups ...... simulations. Theor ... inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics.

  14. Blast from the past

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Forget dynamite or hydraulic and mechanical drills. Industrial and federal researchers have started boring holes with rocket fuel. In a cooperative arrangement between Sandia National Laboratory, Global Environmental Solutions, and Universal Tech Corp., scientists and engineers extracted fuel from 200 rocket motors and used it as a mining explosive. In a demonstration completed last fall, researchers used 4950 kg of solid rocket propellant to move more than 22,500 metric tons of rock from the Lone Star Quarry in Prairie, Oklahoma. They found that the fuel improved blast energy and detonation velocity over traditional explosives, and it required fewer drill holes.

  15. Trouble shooting problem blasts

    Konya, K.D. [Society of Explosive Engineers, Montville, OH (United States)

    1996-02-01

    There have been many occurrences of water-gel or emulsion explosives or heavy Anfo`s (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil) either not detonating in some blast holes in surface coal mining operations, or producing yellow or reddish-brown fumes upon reaction. The explosives rely on entrapped gas to detonate properly. It is important to control the size of the bubble and the dispersion of gas bubbles throughout the explosive. The article discusses and compares the use of microspheres and of gassing agents for detonation control.

  16. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  17. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Increasing rice production in Malaysia: Department of Agriculture approach

    Asna Booty Othman; Chua Lee Kiang; Rathinam Thiagarajan; Aziziah Md Jan

    2002-01-01

    Increasing rice productivity will continue to be an important agenda in the agricultural development program of the country. This represents a challenge to the Department of Agriculture. To address this challenge, it calls for creativity, innovation, ideas and initiatives in the use of technologies that consist of land leveling, in the field water management, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), production and distribution of quality seeds, effective fertilizer usage and value added activities. Rice areas which have been leveled using laser guided technology have shown yield increase from 3.3 t/ha to 5.1 t/ha. In-field water management increases rice yield, reduces water wastage and ensures timeliness of operations and improve soil water bearing capacity. IPM has proven highly beneficial in the control of field rats, reducing the incidence of diseases such as rice blast, lowering the occurrence of insect pest outbreaks and weed infestation. Fish rearing and fattening of ducklings to adulthood in the rice fields have also been undertaken as profitable enterprises in the rice farming system. In its effort to modernise and increase rice productivity, the Department of Agriculture approach in acquisition of technology from research agencies, and its adaptation and adoption are discussed. Any technology promoted must be economically viable, socially acceptable and technologically feasible for effective implementation. (Author)

  19. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    Favreau, R.F.; Kuzyk, G.W.; Babulic, P.J.; Tienkamp, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. Good wall quality is desirable in any excavation. In excavations required for nuclear waste disposal, the objective will be to minimize blast-induced fractures which may complicate the sealing requirements necessary to control subsequent movement of groundwater around a sealed disposal vault. The construction of the URL has provided an opportunity for the development of controlled blasting methods, especially for drilling accuracy and optimization of explosive loads in the perimeter and cushion holes. The work has been assisted by the use of blast simulations with the mathematical model Blaspa. This paper reviews the results of a recent project to develop a controlled method of full-face blasting, and compares the observed field results with the results of a blast simulator called Blaspa. Good agreement is found between the two, and the Blaspa results indicate quantitatively how the blasting may induce damage in the final excavation surface. In particular, the rock in the final wall may be stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes. Bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate. In practice, these findings indicate that quantitative rock stress and rock burst-out velocity criteria can be established to minimize wall damage and bootleg. Thus, blast simulations become an efficient way to design controlled blasting and to optimize quality of the excavation surface

  20. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  1. Virulence Types of Magnaporthe oryzae to Hybrid Rice in Sichuan, China

    Yu-lian BAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 638 isolates of rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae were isolated in 2002–2009 from different rice varieties in different regions of Sichuan, China and inoculated onto seven rice varieties (Lijiangxintuanheigu, IR24, Minghui 63, Duohui 1, Chenghui 448, Neihui 99-14 and RHR-1 to differentiate the virulence types of the fungus and trace the changes. The virulence to the seven varieties was respectively scored at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64. The total scores of individual M. grisea isolates which were the sum of scores infecting differential varieties could, in turn, be used for the nomenclature of the virulence types due to their accordance to the special virulence patterns. The 638 tested isolates were then differentiated into 56 different virulence types. Type 15 virulent to Lijiangxintuanheigu, IR24 and Minghui 63, and Type 127 virulent to all of the seven varieties were the most dominant virulence types respectively with the occurrence frequencies of 15.99% and 15.83%. Type 19 and other seven virulence types were not monitored during 2002–2009. Type 15 was the predominant virulence type in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2007, whereas Type 127 had been the most dominant virulence type after 2005 except for the year 2007 when the province underwent severe drought. Five hundred and seven out of the 638 tested isolates were virulent to Minghui 63, and 89.58% of the 384 isolates virulent to either Duohui 1, Chenghui 448 or Neihui 99-14 were virulent to Minghui 63, which indicated the impact of the extensive plantation of hybrid rice Minghui 63 as the restorer line on the virulence evolution of M. oryzae in Sichuan. The virulence pattern of the dominant virulence types suggested that the acquiring of virulence to all the major resistant restorer lines was the main routes of the evolution in virulence of M. oryzae to hybrid rice in Sichuan. The virulence frequencies of the 638 tested isolates to IR24, Minghui 63, Duohui 1, Chenghui 448, Neihui 99

  2. Emergence of wheat blast in Bangladesh was caused by a South American lineage of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Islam, M Tofazzal; Croll, Daniel; Gladieux, Pierre; Soanes, Darren M; Persoons, Antoine; Bhattacharjee, Pallab; Hossain, Md Shaid; Gupta, Dipali Rani; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Mahboob, M Golam; Cook, Nicola; Salam, Moin U; Surovy, Musrat Zahan; Sancho, Vanessa Bueno; Maciel, João Leodato Nunes; NhaniJúnior, Antonio; Castroagudín, Vanina Lilián; Reges, Juliana T de Assis; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar; Ravel, Sebastien; Kellner, Ronny; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; McDonald, Bruce A; Stitt, Timothy; Swan, Daniel; Talbot, Nicholas J; Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-10-03

    In February 2016, a new fungal disease was spotted in wheat fields across eight districts in Bangladesh. The epidemic spread to an estimated 15,000 hectares, about 16 % of the cultivated wheat area in Bangladesh, with yield losses reaching up to 100 %. Within weeks of the onset of the epidemic, we performed transcriptome sequencing of symptomatic leaf samples collected directly from Bangladeshi fields. Reinoculation of seedlings with strains isolated from infected wheat grains showed wheat blast symptoms on leaves of wheat but not rice. Our phylogenomic and population genomic analyses revealed that the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh was most likely caused by a wheat-infecting South American lineage of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Our findings suggest that genomic surveillance can be rapidly applied to monitor plant disease outbreaks and provide valuable information regarding the identity and origin of the infectious agent.

  3. Centrifugal shot blast system

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997

  4. Exogenous superoxide dismutase may lose its antidotal ability on rice leaves

    Leaf diffusates of the resistant rice cultivars suppressed spore germination of blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). Bovine Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) added to the diffusate abolished its toxicity. However, the enzyme added to the inoculum did not affect the toxicity of the diffusate. Even the s...

  5. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  6. Early detection of rice blast ( Pyricularia ) at seedling stage in ...

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the images and the distribution of PCA scores within individual leaf were measured to develop linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models for predicting the infected leaves from healthy leaves. An LDA model classified all the leaves into infected and healthy categories, ...

  7. Blast Exposure, White Matter Integrity, and Cognitive Function in Iraq and Afghanistan Combat Veterans

    Erin A. Hazlett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of blast exposure are a major health concern for combat veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. We used an optimized diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm to assess white matter (WM fractional anisotropy (FA in blast-exposed Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 40 scanned on average 3.7 years after deployment/trauma exposure. Veterans diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI were compared to combat veterans with blast exposure but no TBI diagnosis. Blast exposure was associated with decreased FA in several WM tracts. However, total blast exposure did not correlate well with neuropsychological testing performance and there were no differences in FA based on mTBI diagnosis. Yet, veterans with mTBI performed worse on every neurocognitive test administered. Multiple linear regression across all blast-exposed veterans using a six-factor prediction model indicated that the amount of blast exposure accounted for 11–15% of the variability in composite FA scores such that as blast exposure increased, FA decreased. Education accounted for 10% of the variability in composite FA scores and 25–32% of FA variability in the right cingulum, such that as level of education increased, FA increased. Total blast exposure, age, and education were significant predictors of FA in the left cingulum. We did not find any effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on cognition or composite FA. In summary, our findings suggest that greater total blast exposure is a contributing factor to poor WM integrity. While FA was not associated with neurocognitive performance, we hypothesize that FA changes in the cingulum in veterans with multiple combat exposures and no head trauma prior to deployment may represent a marker of vulnerability for future deficits. Future work needs to examine this longitudinally.

  8. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Reliability of engineered basements as blast shelters

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.; Robinson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the probability of failure of structures by considering multiple failure modes was formulated. It was applied to the analysis of a reinforced concrete slab when subjected to a uniformly distributed blast load over its surface. Currently available criteria for failure due to flexure and shear were used in predicting the probability of failure. This method is capable of considering all major components of a structure, the respective failure modes of each component, and of predicting the probability of failure of the structure as a whole

  10. Transcriptional Changes in the Mouse Retina after Ocular Blast Injury: A Role for the Immune System.

    Struebing, Felix L; King, Rebecca; Li, Ying; Chrenek, Micah A; Lyuboslavsky, Polina N; Sidhu, Curran S; Iuvone, P Michael; Geisert, Eldon E

    2018-01-01

    Ocular blast injury is a major medical concern for soldiers and explosion victims due to poor visual outcomes. To define the changes in gene expression following a blast injury to the eye, we examined retinal ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression in 54 mouse strains 5 days after a single 50-psi overpressure air wave blast injury. We observe that almost 40% of genes are differentially expressed with a false discovery rate (FDR) of immune system are activated. Accompanied by lymphocyte invasion into the inner retina, blast injury also results in progressive loss of visual function and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Collectively, these data demonstrate how systems genetics can be used to put meaning to the transcriptome changes following ocular blast injury that eventually lead to blindness.

  11. Laboratory Screening for Resistance in Rice to Rice Stem Borer Chilo Suppressalis Walker

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2004-01-01

    Rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker is one of the major insect pests in rice in Indonesia. The use of insect pest resistant variety of rice is one of the effective techniques against pests. Breeding of resistance to insect pests rice crops often faced difficulties in obtaining a lot of insect amounts due to the unavailability of enough number insects pests in the field so that a laboratory bioassay is needed. In this experiments five rice varieties were used: a Pelita I/1, Atomita I, Cisadane, Cisanggarung, and IR 36. Rice seedling 7 days of age were put in 1 liter plastic vials for rice resistance test against the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. The parameters observed were larval and pupal viability, pupal weight, and eggs production. The larval and pupal viability which were reared on of Pelita I/1 and Atomita I rice seedlings were 68.5 % - 55.5 % and 57.3 % - 46.7 % respectively. The respective lowest percentages were found in IR 36 which was about 41.3 % - 29.8 % .The experiment results on the parameters of pupal weight and egg production showed similar results to that on the parameters of larval and pupal viability. Rice variety of IR 36 showed more resistance to the other varieties, while Pelita I/1 and Atomita I showed the most susceptible to the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. (author)

  12. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  13. Analysis of rice purchase decision on rice consumer in Bandung city

    Kusno, K.; Imannurdin, A.; Syamsiyah, N.; Djuwendah, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted at three kinds of purchase location which were traditional market, rice kiosk, and supermarket in Bandung City, with survey data of 108 respondents which were selected by systematic random sampling. The aim of this study is to (1) identify consumer characteristics, (2) identify which atribute is considered by consumer in buying rice, and (3) analyze the relationship between purchase decision and income class. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Chi Square test. The results showed most consumers in the traditional market were middle-educated and lower middle-income, at the rice kiosk, the consumer were generally middle-educated and middle-income, and in the supermarkets, the majority were high-educated and upper middle-income consumers. “Kepulenan” be the first priority of most consumers, but for the lower-middle class, the main priority was price. Thus, in case of scarcity and rice price increase, the government should immediately arrange market operations which targeting to lower-middle class consumers. There was a significant relationship between (1) the quality of rice consumed, (2) the frequency of rice purchase per month, and (3) attitudes toward rice price increase; each with the income class. Although the price of rice increase, consumers of middle and upper-middle were remain loyal to the quality of rice they consumed. This indicates rice market in Bandung city is an ideal market for premium rice so that traders and producers are expected to maintain the quality of rice, such as keep using superior seeds and applying good cultivation based on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) rules.

  14. Glufosinate Ammonium-Induced Pathogen Inhibition and Defense Responses Culminate in Disease Protection in bar-Transgenic Rice1[C

    Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2008-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium diminished developments of rice (Oryza sativa) blast and brown leaf spot in 35S:bar-transgenic rice. Pre- and postinoculation treatments of this herbicide reduced disease development. Glufosinate ammonium specifically impeded appressorium formation of the pathogens Magnaporthe grisea and Cochliobolus miyabeanus on hydrophobic surface and on transgenic rice. In contrast, conidial germination remained unaffected. Glufosinate ammonium diminished mycelial growth of two pathogens; however, this inhibitory effect was attenuated in malnutrition conditions. Glufosinate ammonium caused slight chlorosis and diminished chlorophyll content; however, these alterations were almost completely restored in transgenic rice within 7 d. Glufosinate ammonium triggered transcriptions of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in transgenic rice and PR1 transcription in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type ecotype Columbia harboring 35S:bar construct. All transgenic Arabidopsis showed robust hydrogen peroxide accumulation by glufosinate ammonium. This herbicide also induced PR1 transcription in etr1 and jar1 expressing bar; however, no expression was observed in NahG and npr1. Fungal infection did not alter transcriptions of PR genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation induced by glufosinate ammonium. Infiltration of glufosinate ammonium did not affect appressorium formation of M. grisea in vivo but inhibited blast disease development. Hydrogen peroxide scavengers nullified blast protection and transcriptions of PR genes by glufosinate ammonium; however, they did not affect brown leaf spot progression. In sum, both direct inhibition of pathogen infection and activation of defense systems were responsible for disease protection in bar-transgenic rice. PMID:17981989

  15. Glufosinate ammonium-induced pathogen inhibition and defense responses culminate in disease protection in bar-transgenic rice.

    Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2008-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium diminished developments of rice (Oryza sativa) blast and brown leaf spot in 35S:bar-transgenic rice. Pre- and postinoculation treatments of this herbicide reduced disease development. Glufosinate ammonium specifically impeded appressorium formation of the pathogens Magnaporthe grisea and Cochliobolus miyabeanus on hydrophobic surface and on transgenic rice. In contrast, conidial germination remained unaffected. Glufosinate ammonium diminished mycelial growth of two pathogens; however, this inhibitory effect was attenuated in malnutrition conditions. Glufosinate ammonium caused slight chlorosis and diminished chlorophyll content; however, these alterations were almost completely restored in transgenic rice within 7 d. Glufosinate ammonium triggered transcriptions of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in transgenic rice and PR1 transcription in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type ecotype Columbia harboring 35S:bar construct. All transgenic Arabidopsis showed robust hydrogen peroxide accumulation by glufosinate ammonium. This herbicide also induced PR1 transcription in etr1 and jar1 expressing bar; however, no expression was observed in NahG and npr1. Fungal infection did not alter transcriptions of PR genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation induced by glufosinate ammonium. Infiltration of glufosinate ammonium did not affect appressorium formation of M. grisea in vivo but inhibited blast disease development. Hydrogen peroxide scavengers nullified blast protection and transcriptions of PR genes by glufosinate ammonium; however, they did not affect brown leaf spot progression. In sum, both direct inhibition of pathogen infection and activation of defense systems were responsible for disease protection in bar-transgenic rice.

  16. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    Favreau, R.F.; Kuzzyk, G.W.; Babulic, P.J.; Morin, R.A.; Tienkamp, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    An underground research laboratory (URL) has been constructed as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in deep crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. This paper reviews the results of the program to develop controlled blasting for the full-face method, comparing the field observed results achieved with the simulated theoretical results. The simulated results indicate how the blasting may damage the excavation surface. Results suggest that the rock around the final wall is stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes and that bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate

  17. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  18. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  19. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  20. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  1. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    2010-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well insulated...

  2. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Ekwealor, Chito Clare; Oyeka, Christie Amechi

    2013-01-01

    Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples col...

  3. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  4. A rice husk gasifier for paddy drying

    Mirani, A.A.; Kalwar, S.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to energy crisis and constant increase in the price of fossil fuels, the world's trend changes to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass gasification. Substantial biomass potential is available in Pakistan in the form of agriculture or forest residue (rice straw, rice husk, cotton stalks, corn cobs, wood chips, wood saw, etc.). These can be best utilised for the production of producer gas or synthetic gas that can be used for drying of agricultural crops. The drying process is an important activity of post harvest processing for long-term storage. Rice husk is nowadays commonly used for biomass gasification and its heat content value is about 15MJ/kg. It constitutes about 30 percent of rice production. A rice husk gasifier was developed and evaluated on paddy drying at Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tsukuba International Center (TBIC), Japan. Rice husk gasifier has following major components; husk feeding system, ash chamber, burner, centrifugal fan, drying chamber, gasifier reactor, air duct and an electric motor of 0.37kW. The average drying plenum air temperature was recorded as 45 degree C during the drying process. The paddy 'IR 28' from initial moisture content of 24% was dried up to 14% moisture content for about 3.33h consuming 3kg/h of rice husk. The efficiency was found to be 58%. The rice husk gasifier can also be used for drying the fruits and vegetables, provided that heat exchanger should be attached with it. The overall performance of rice husk gasifier was satisfactory and will be beneficial for small scale farmers, food processors and millers as well. (author)

  5. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  6. Porcine head response to blast.

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  7. Water in the blast hole

    Pilshaw, S.R. [Pilshaw Associates, KS (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Water in the blast area is a considerable problem in US opencast coal mining. While gelatin dynamite was reasonably water resistant, Anfo is not. All potential solutions to this problem: the use of Anfo and emulsion (Heavy Anfo), pumping, draining, and the use of water bags, involve considerable extra cost. With small amounts of water an alternative solution has been formulated: the use of a self inflating gas bag to exclude water, and loading the Anfo from the water line up to the stemming level of the blasthole. Quite substantial water columns may be sealed off in this manner, with little or no deleterious effect on blast effects.

  8. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  9. Genomic diversity and introgression in O. sativa reveal the impact of domestication and breeding on the rice genome.

    Keyan Zhao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa was a complex process punctuated by episodes of introgressive hybridization among and between subpopulations. Deep genetic divergence between the two main varietal groups (Indica and Japonica suggests domestication from at least two distinct wild populations. However, genetic uniformity surrounding key domestication genes across divergent subpopulations suggests cultural exchange of genetic material among ancient farmers.In this study, we utilize a novel 1,536 SNP panel genotyped across 395 diverse accessions of O. sativa to study genome-wide patterns of polymorphism, to characterize population structure, and to infer the introgression history of domesticated Asian rice. Our population structure analyses support the existence of five major subpopulations (indica, aus, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and GroupV consistent with previous analyses. Our introgression analysis shows that most accessions exhibit some degree of admixture, with many individuals within a population sharing the same introgressed segment due to artificial selection. Admixture mapping and association analysis of amylose content and grain length illustrate the potential for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in domesticated plant populations.Genes in these regions control a myriad of traits including plant stature, blast resistance, and amylose content. These analyses highlight the power of population genomics in agricultural systems to identify functionally important regions of the genome and to decipher the role of human-directed breeding in refashioning the genomes of a domesticated species.

  10. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  11. Economics of weed suppressive rice cultivars in flood- and furrow-irrigated systems

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the U.S, weeds in rice are controlled primarily with synthetic herbicides. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in environmental pollution, human health concerns, and development of weed resistance. B...

  12. Impact of land fragmentation on rice producers' technical efficiency in South-East China

    Tan, S.; Heerink, N.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Qu Futian, F.

    2010-01-01

    Rice farming is important for income generation in large parts of China and Asia. This paper uses detailed household, crop- and plot-level data to investigate the levels and determinants of rice producers’ technical efficiency for three villages with different characteristics in a major rice-growing

  13. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  14. Field trial of GABA-fortified rice plants and oral administration of milled rice in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Kowaka, Emi; Shimajiri, Yasuka; Kawakami, Kouhei; Tongu, Miki; Akama, Kazuhito

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the most critical risk factors accompanying cardiovascular diseases. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a major neurotransmitter in mammals and also as a blood-pressure lowering agent. We previously produced GABA-fortified rice lines of a popular Japonica rice cultivar 'Koshihikari' by genetic manipulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In the study reported here, we grew these same novel rice lines in a field trial and administered the milled rice orally to rats. The yield parameters of the transgenic rice plants were almost unchanged compared to those of untransformed cv. 'Koshihikari' plants, while the rice grains of the transgenic plants contained a high GABA content (3.5 g GABA/kg brown rice; 0.75-0.85 GABA g/kg milled rice) in a greenhouse trial. Oral administration of a diet containing 2.5% GABA-fortified rice, with a daily intake for 8 weeks, had an approximately 20 mmHg anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. These results suggest that GABA-fortified rice may be applicable as a staple food to control or prevent hypertension.

  15. Fungi and some mycotoxins contaminating rice ( Oryza Sativa ) in ...

    The major fungal genera contaminating rice were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Curvularia, elminthosporium and Cladosporium. The most prevalent fungal species on rice were .Penicillium spp., A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger, Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp. and Alternaria spp.

  16. Evaluation of Price Linkages within the Supply Chain of Rice ...

    This paper evaluates price linkages within the supply chain of rice markets in Cross River State using weekly prices in three urban markets located in major rice producing areas of the State. The Johansen cointegration test indicated one cointegrating vector both at the 1% and 5% level of significance. The results of the ...

  17. The potential of natural enemies to suppress rice leaffolder populations

    Kraker, de J.

    1996-01-01


    Rice leaffolders Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are considered major pests in many Asian countries. Insecticide use against leaffolders is wide-spread, but may not be justified due to tolerance of the rice

  18. NOBLAST and JAMBLAST: New Options for BLAST and a Java Application Manager for BLAST results.

    Lagnel, Jacques; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-03-15

    NOBLAST (New Options for BLAST) is an open source program that provides a new user-friendly tabular output format for various NCBI BLAST programs (Blastn, Blastp, Blastx, Tblastn, Tblastx, Mega BLAST and Psi BLAST) without any use of a parser and provides E-value correction in case of use of segmented BLAST database. JAMBLAST using the NOBLAST output allows the user to manage, view and filter the BLAST hits using a number of selection criteria. A distribution package of NOBLAST and JAMBLAST including detailed installation procedure is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/JAMBLAST/ and http://sourceforge.net/projects/NOBLAST. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  20. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  1. PERFORMANCE OF YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING CHARACTERISTICS OF BC2F3 POPULATION WITH ADDITION OF BLAST RESISTANT GENE

    Muhammad Mahmudul Hasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe study was carried out in the University Putra Malaysia (UPM Rice Research Centre to evaluate the yield performance of newly developed selected blast resistant plants of BC2F3 generations derived from a cross between MR263, a high yielding rice variety but blast susceptible and Pongsu Seribu 1, donor with blast resistant (Pi-7(tand Pi-d (t1, Pir2-3(tgenes and qLN2 QTL, Malaysian local variety. On the basis of assessed traits, the plants 12, 6, 7, 5, 21, 22, 5, 26, 11, 8, 10, 13 and 15 had the higher yield, blast resistant and good morphological traits. More than 70% heritability was found in days to maturity, plant height, tiller numbers per hill, and panicle per hill, 80% heritability was found in filled grain and yield per hill and more than 90% heritability was found in grain length, grain width and seed weight. Cluster analysis based on the traits grouped 30 plants along with MR263 into seven clusters. According to PCA, the first four principal components account for about 69.3% total variation for all measured traits and exhibited high correlation among the characteristics analyzed.

  2. Role of mutation in improving rice productivity-retrospect and prospect

    Chakrabarti, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    With the recent development in the hybrid rice breeding and rice biotechnology, the role of mutation induction in genetic manipulation deserves special importance. In many instances, the major constraint in hybrid rice breeding is lack of suitable cytoplasmic male sterile line. There is immense scope for developing such male sterile lines through use of mutation tool. In this paper improvement of rice productivity with particular reference to attainments in India have been discussed. 50 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Effect of cultural practices on the incidence and carry over of insect pests in rice-wheat system

    Ramzan, M.; Akhtar, M.; Hussain, S.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in cultural practices in rice-wheat system like mechanical transplanted rice, broadcasting (parachute method) of rice seedlings, direct seeding of rice, bed planting of rice and wheat and zero-till wheat sowing may affect population of insect pests and their natural enemies. The population of insect pests and their damage intensity on rice and wheat crops were determined for resource conservation technologies in rice-wheat system. Unploughed fallow fields and those planted with berseem are the major over-wintering sites of rice stem borers (RSB). Growing of wheat after rice, either by conventional or zero-tillage minimizes RSB problem. The effect of technological shifts in rice-wheat systems was discussed on leaffolder (LF) and white backed planthopper (WBPH) populations. Conservation tillage might take on preventive management as the diversity and population size of many beneficial organisms, especially soil-inhabiting predators, can be increased. (author)

  4. An analysis of the heap construction by long hole blasting for in-situ leaching of blasted ore

    Yang Shijiao

    1999-01-01

    The author establishes specific requirements for heap construction by blasting on the basis of the mechanism for in situ leaching of blasted ore, analyses the feasibility of heap construction by long hole blasting, selection of the blast plan and the relevant technological problems, and gives a case of heap construction by long hole blasting in Renhua uranium mine

  5. Radio controlled detonators and sequential real time blast applications

    Bernard, T.; Laboz, J.M. [Delta Caps International, Nice (France)

    1995-12-31

    Among the numerous technical evolutions in the blasting environment the authors are going to describe below the concept of electronic detonator sequenced by radio waves, and also its numerous applications. Three major technologies are used in the initiation environment: fused-initiated detonators; electric detonators; and non-electric detonators. The last two technologies were made available under multiple variants. Two major innovations are going to substantially change the way traditional detonators operate: pyrotechnic delays are replaced by electronic delays (greater accuracy); and triggering orders, passing through a cable, is now replaced by radio-waves transmission (possibility to do real time delay pattern). Such a new product provided all the features offered by current detonators, but also allows mastering specific cases that were difficult to control with the current technology, such as: vibration control; underground blast; and building demolition.

  6. 40 CFR Table 2a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500...

    2010-07-01

    ... Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP and New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE â¥250 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions 2a Table 2a to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63... 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP and New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE...

  7. SSR allelic variation of rice variety Hangxiangnuo bred by space mutation

    Yang Tifeng; Liu Chuanguang; Pan Dajian; Fan Zhilan; Li Chen; Chen Jianyou; Liu Bin; Jiang Yijun; Gao Yun; Zhou Hanqin

    2011-01-01

    Hangxiangnuo, an indica fragrant glutinous rice mutant, was induced by space environment. Comparing with its wild type Nanfengnuo, the yield and blast resistance of Hangxiangnuo are improved significantly and the grain shape became slender and with fragrance. To understand the mechanisms of space mutation and identify the changes at molecular level associated with phenotypic variations, SSR allelic variation analysis were performed on Hangxiangnuo and Nanfengnuo in this study. The results showed that 45 loci were polymorphic among the 156 SSR loci tested throughout the genome, the frequency of variation was 28.85%. Among the polymorphic loci, 42 loci only showed variations in the molecular weight of the amplified bands, only on locus increased the number of amplification bands in Hangxiangnuo and two loci were differed by heterozygous loci (with two amplification bands at one locus) detected in Nanfengnuo and homozygous loci in Hangxiangnuo. It suggests that the change of some loci in mutants was due to the normal segregation and recombination of heterozygous loci of the wild type. The variation frequencies among different chromosomes were quite different, with the highest one at 50.00% detected on chromosomes 7, 8 and 12, and the lowest at 6.25% on chromosome 6. The polymorphic loci were clustered on chromosomes throughout the genome indicating that large DNA segments mutation is one of the major variation patterns induced by space environment. Some of reported QTLs involved in grain shape, yield, fragrance and blast resistance were found to be located exactly in the mutated regions. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm that these QTLs are responsible for the trait variations. (authors)

  8. Diversity and population dynamics of pests and predators in irrigated rice fields with treated and untreated pesticide.

    Rattanapun, W

    2012-01-01

    The monitoring of rice pests and their predators in pesticide untreated and treated rice fields was conducted at the southern of Thailand. Twenty-two species in 15 families and 6 orders of rice pests were sampled from untreated rice field. For treated rice field, 22 species in 14 families and 5 orders of rice pest were collected. Regardless of treatment type, dominant species and individual number of rice pest varied to physiological stage of rice. Lepidopteran pests had highest infestation during the vegetative stage of rice growth, while hemipteran pests composed of hopper species (Hemipetra: Auchenorrhyncha) and heteropteran species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) were dominant groups during the reproductive stage and grain formation and ripening stage of rice growth. In contrast, dominant species of predator did not change throughout rice growing season. There were 35 species in 25 families and seven orders and 40 species in 29 families and seven orders of predators collected from untreated and treated rice field, respectively. Major predators of both rice fields were Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Tetragnatha sp. (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) and Agriocnemis pygmaea Rambur (Odonata: Agrionidae). The population dynamic of predators were not related with rice pest population in both treatments. However, the fluctuation of population pattern of rice pests in the untreated treatment were more distinctly synchronized with their predators than that of the treated treatment. There were no significant differences in the total number of rice pest and predator between two treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages of rice growth. Untreated rice field had a higher population number of predator and a lower population number of rice pest than that of treated rice field during grain formation and ripening stages. These results indicated the ago-ecosystem balance in rice fields could be produced through minimal pesticide application, in order to allow

  9. Comparative genomics and association mapping approaches for blast resistant genes in finger millet using SSRs.

    B Kalyana Babu

    Full Text Available The major limiting factor for production and productivity of finger millet crop is blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea. Since, the genome sequence information available in finger millet crop is scarce, comparative genomics plays a very important role in identification of genes/QTLs linked to the blast resistance genes using SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 58 genic SSRs were developed for use in genetic analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes. The 58 SSRs yielded ninety five scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.186 to 0.677 at an average of 0.385. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.208 to 0.726 with an average of 0.487. Association mapping for blast resistance was done using 104 SSR markers which identified four QTLs for finger blast and one QTL for neck blast resistance. The genomic marker RM262 and genic marker FMBLEST32 were linked to finger blast disease at a P value of 0.007 and explained phenotypic variance (R² of 10% and 8% respectively. The genomic marker UGEP81 was associated to finger blast at a P value of 0.009 and explained 7.5% of R². The QTLs for neck blast was associated with the genomic SSR marker UGEP18 at a P value of 0.01, which explained 11% of R². Three QTLs for blast resistance were found common by using both GLM and MLM approaches. The resistant alleles were found to be present mostly in the exotic genotypes. Among the genotypes of NW Himalayan region of India, VHC3997, VHC3996 and VHC3930 were found highly resistant, which may be effectively used as parents for developing blast resistant cultivars in the NW Himalayan region of India. The markers linked to the QTLs for blast resistance in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of blast resistant alleles into locally adapted cultivars.

  10. Comparative genomics and association mapping approaches for blast resistant genes in finger millet using SSRs.

    Babu, B Kalyana; Dinesh, Pandey; Agrawal, Pawan K; Sood, S; Chandrashekara, C; Bhatt, Jagadish C; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The major limiting factor for production and productivity of finger millet crop is blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea. Since, the genome sequence information available in finger millet crop is scarce, comparative genomics plays a very important role in identification of genes/QTLs linked to the blast resistance genes using SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 58 genic SSRs were developed for use in genetic analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes. The 58 SSRs yielded ninety five scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.186 to 0.677 at an average of 0.385. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.208 to 0.726 with an average of 0.487. Association mapping for blast resistance was done using 104 SSR markers which identified four QTLs for finger blast and one QTL for neck blast resistance. The genomic marker RM262 and genic marker FMBLEST32 were linked to finger blast disease at a P value of 0.007 and explained phenotypic variance (R²) of 10% and 8% respectively. The genomic marker UGEP81 was associated to finger blast at a P value of 0.009 and explained 7.5% of R². The QTLs for neck blast was associated with the genomic SSR marker UGEP18 at a P value of 0.01, which explained 11% of R². Three QTLs for blast resistance were found common by using both GLM and MLM approaches. The resistant alleles were found to be present mostly in the exotic genotypes. Among the genotypes of NW Himalayan region of India, VHC3997, VHC3996 and VHC3930 were found highly resistant, which may be effectively used as parents for developing blast resistant cultivars in the NW Himalayan region of India. The markers linked to the QTLs for blast resistance in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of blast resistant alleles into locally adapted cultivars.

  11. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    2016-10-01

    injury conditions (blast and acceleration vs acceleration alone) undergo neurobehavioral and histopathological assessments to comprehensively... reversal . To facilitate mid-air blasts, a release mechanism was devised. Balls were attached to the bail of the mechanism. The blast wave would cause

  12. CrocoBLAST: Running BLAST efficiently in the age of next-generation sequencing.

    Tristão Ramos, Ravi José; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cézar; da Silva Delgado, Gabrielle; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Silva, Rosane; Koca, Jaroslav

    2017-11-15

    CrocoBLAST is a tool for dramatically speeding up BLAST+ execution on any computer. Alignments that would take days or weeks with NCBI BLAST+ can be run overnight with CrocoBLAST. Additionally, CrocoBLAST provides features critical for NGS data analysis, including: results identical to those of BLAST+; compatibility with any BLAST+ version; real-time information regarding calculation progress and remaining run time; access to partial alignment results; queueing, pausing, and resuming BLAST+ calculations without information loss. CrocoBLAST is freely available online, with ample documentation (webchem.ncbr.muni.cz/Platform/App/CrocoBLAST). No installation or user registration is required. CrocoBLAST is implemented in C, while the graphical user interface is implemented in Java. CrocoBLAST is supported under Linux and Windows, and can be run under Mac OS X in a Linux virtual machine. jkoca@ceitec.cz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. A multiscale approach to blast neurotrauma modeling:Part II: Methodology for inducing blast injury to in vitro models

    Gwen B. Effgen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI results from the translation of a shock wave in air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull-brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530  17.7 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017 ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581  10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ms ± 0.006 ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI.

  14. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study.

  15. The Impact of Herbicide-Resistant Rice Technology on Phenotypic Diversity and Population Structure of United States Weedy Rice1[W][OPEN

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D.; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E.; Gealy, David R.; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. PMID:25122473

  16. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice. PMID:24804068

  17. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  18. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  19. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  20. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  1. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  2. Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma

    2015-08-27

    and services to assist recovery . Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. Taylor, PA and Ford, CC. 2009. "Simulation of Blast-Induced Early-Time...reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite... Warden 2006). As of 2008 it was estimated that approximately 19% or 320,000 OIF/OEF veterans had sustained a TBI (Tanielian et al. 2008). In 2011 a

  3. Transgenic rice plants expressing synthetic cry2AX1 gene exhibits resistance to rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis).

    Manikandan, R; Balakrishnan, N; Sudhakar, D; Udayasuriyan, V

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a major source of insecticidal genes imparting insect resistance in transgenic plants. Level of expression of transgenes in transgenic plants is important to achieve desirable level of resistance against target insects. In order to achieve desirable level of expression, rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence was fused with synthetic cry2AX1 gene to target its protein in chloroplasts. Sixteen PCR positive lines of rice were generated by Agrobacterium mediated transformation using immature embryos. Southern blot hybridization analysis of T 0 transgenic plants confirmed the integration of cry2AX1 gene in two to five locations of rice genome and ELISA demonstrated its expression. Concentration of Cry2AX1 in transgenic rice events ranged 5.0-120 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue. Insect bioassay of T 0 transgenic rice plants against neonate larvae of rice leaffolder showed larval mortality ranging between 20 and 80 % in comparison to control plant. Stable inheritance and expression of cry2AX1 gene was demonstrated in T 1 progenies through Southern and ELISA. In T 1 progenies, the highest concentration of Cry2AX1 and mortality of rice leaffolder larvae were recorded as 150 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue and 80 %, respectively. The Cry2AX1 expression even at a very low concentration (120-150 ng/g) in transgenic rice plants was found effective against rice leaffolder larvae.

  4. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding.

    Mariafe Calingacion

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a 'one size fits all' crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market.

  6. Diversity of Global Rice Markets and the Science Required for Consumer-Targeted Rice Breeding

    Calingacion, Mariafe; Laborte, Alice; Nelson, Andrew; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Concepcion, Jeanaflor Crystal; Daygon, Venea Dara; Mumm, Roland; Reinke, Russell; Dipti, Sharifa; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Manful, John; Sophany, Sakhan; Lara, Karla Cordero; Bao, Jinsong; Xie, Lihong; Loaiza, Katerine; El-hissewy, Ahmad; Gayin, Joseph; Sharma, Neerja; Rajeswari, Sivakami; Manonmani, Swaminathan; Rani, N. Shobha; Kota, Suneetha; Indrasari, Siti Dewi; Habibi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Tavasoli, Fatemeh; Suzuki, Keitaro; Umemoto, Takayuki; Boualaphanh, Chanthkone; Lee, Huei Hong; Hung, Yiu Pang; Ramli, Asfaliza; Aung, Pa Pa; Ahmad, Rauf; Wattoo, Javed Iqbal; Bandonill, Evelyn; Romero, Marissa; Brites, Carla Moita; Hafeel, Roshni; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Cheaupun, Kunya; Jongdee, Supanee; Blanco, Pedro; Bryant, Rolfe; Thi Lang, Nguyen; Hall, Robert D.; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a ‘one size fits all’ crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market. PMID:24454799

  7. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At

    2001-01-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  8. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At [Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  9. The Polycistronic miR166k-166h Positively Regulates Rice Immunity via Post-transcriptional Control of EIN2

    Raquel Salvador-Guirao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs acting as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, most miRNAs are generated from independent transcriptional units, and only a few polycistronic miRNAs have been described. miR166 is a conserved miRNA in plants targeting the HD-ZIP III transcription factor genes. Here, we show that a polycistronic miRNA comprising two miR166 family members, miR166k and miR166h, functions as a positive regulator of rice immunity. Rice plants with activated MIR166k-166h expression showed enhanced resistance to infection by the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agents of the rice blast and bakanae disease, respectively. Disease resistance in rice plants with activated MIR166k-166h expression was associated with a stronger expression of defense responses during pathogen infection. Stronger induction of MIR166k-166h expression occurred in resistant but not susceptible rice cultivars. Notably, the ethylene-insensitive 2 (EIN2 gene was identified as a novel target gene for miR166k. The regulatory role of the miR166h-166k polycistron on the newly identified target gene results from the activity of the miR166k-5p specie generated from the miR166k-166h precursor. Collectively, our findings support a role for miR166k-5p in rice immunity by controlling EIN2 expression. Because rice blast is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice worldwide, unraveling miR166k-166h-mediated mechanisms underlying blast resistance could ultimately help in designing appropriate strategies for rice protection.

  10. Water in blast holes can improve blasting efficiency and cut costs

    O' Regan, G.

    1983-08-01

    Water in blast holes has been a traditional problem faced by blasting engineers and foremen in surface mining. Presently accepted techniques for blasting in water-filled holes include the use of more expensive water-gel explosives which are denser than water, dewatering of holes by pumping, and blowing out the water with a small charge before loading the main ANFO charge column. These methods involve considerable expense and delay to the normal charge-loading procedure. The author describes a method of using the water in blast holes to improve blasting efficiency and reduce the consumption of explosive.

  11. Rice Cluster I, an Important Group of Archaea Producing Methane in Rice Fields

    Conrad, R.

    2006-12-01

    Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is a major degradation product of organic matter in the anoxic soil, is partially oxidized in the rhizosphere and is emitted into the atmosphere through the aerenchyma system of the plants. Anaerobic degradation of organic matter by fermenting bacteria eventually results in the production of acetate and hydrogen, the two major substrates for microbial methanogenesis. The community of methanogenic archaea consists of several major orders or families including hydrogen-utilizing Rice Cluster-I (RC-I). Environmental conditions affect the methanogenic degradation process and the community structure of the methanogenic archaea in soil and rhizosphere. For example, populations of acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae are enhanced by low and high acetate concentrations, respectively. Stable isotope probing of 16S rRNA showed that RC-I methanogens are mainly active on rice roots and at low H2 concentrations. Growth and population size is largely consistent with energetic conditions. RC-I methanogens on roots seem to be responsible for methane production from plant photosynthates that account for a major part of the emitted methane. Populations of RC-I methanogens in rice field soil are also enhanced at elevated temperatures (40-50°C). Moderately thermophilic members of RC-I methanogens or other methanogenic families were found to be ubiquitously present in soils from rice fields and river marshes. The genome of a RC-I methanogen was completely sequenced out of an enrichment culture using a metagenome approach. Genes found are consistent with life in the rhizosphere and in temporarily drained, oxic soil. We found that the methanogenic community structure on the rice roots is mainly determined by the respective community structure of the soil, but is in addition affected by the rice cultivar. Rice microcosms in which soil and rice roots are mainly colonized by RC-I methanogens produce

  12. A Reference Genome for US Rice

    The development of reference genomes for rice has served as means for understanding the allelic diversity and genetic structure of a cereal grain that feeds half of the world. It has long been understood that Oryza sativa diverged into two major sub-populations Indica and Japonica, over 400 K years ...

  13. Recurrent parent genome recovery analysis in a marker-assisted backcrossing program of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-02-01

    Backcross breeding is the most commonly used method for incorporating a blast resistance gene into a rice cultivar. Linkage between the resistance gene and undesirable units can persist for many generations of backcrossing. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. The MABC approach was employed to incorporate (a) blast resistance gene(s) from the donor parent Pongsu Seribu 1, the blast-resistant local variety in Malaysia, into the genetic background of MR219, a popular high-yielding rice variety that is blast susceptible, to develop a blast-resistant MR219 improved variety. In this perspective, the recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 375 SSR markers, 70 markers were found polymorphic between the parents, and these markers were used to evaluate the plants in subsequent generations. Background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 75.40% to 91.3% and from 80.40% to 96.70% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations, respectively. In this study, the recurrent parent genome content in the selected BC2F2 lines ranged from 92.7% to 97.7%. The average proportion of the recurrent parent in the selected improved line was 95.98%. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in backcross generations. The application of MAS with the MABC breeding program accelerated the recovery of the RP genome, reducing the number of generations and the time for incorporating resistance against rice blast. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Arsenic accumulation and phosphorus status in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars surveyed from fields in South China

    Lu Ying; Dong, Fei; Deacon, Claire; Chen Huojun; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major inorganic arsenic exposure pathway in S.E. Asia. A multi-location survey was undertaken in Guangdong Province, South China to assess arsenic accumulation and speciation in 2 rice cultivars, one an Indica and the other a hybrid Indica. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in rice tissue increased in the order grain < husk < straw < root. Rice grain arsenic content of 2 rice cultivars was significant different and correlated with phosphorus concentration and molar ratio of P/As in shoot, being higher for the Indica cultivar than for the hybrid Indica, which suggests altering shoot phosphorus status as a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic. Speciation of grain arsenic, performed using HPLC-ICP-MS, identified inorganic arsenic as the dominant arsenic species present in the rice grain. - Altering rice shoot phosphorus status is a promising route for breeding rice cultivars with reduced grain arsenic.

  15. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  16. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S.; Bjorklund, E.A.; Burns, M.J.; Carr, G.; Faucett, John Allen; Hayden, D.J.; Lusk, M.D.; Merl, R.B.; Potter, J.M.; Reynolds, J.A.; Romero, D.B.; Shelley, F.E.

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  17. Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study.

  18. The use of blast furnace slag

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  19. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  20. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structrures

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. Since the blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade, it is

  1. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structures

    Varas, J.M.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. The blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade. In particular

  2. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from...

  3. INVENTORY OF IRRIGATED RICE ECOSYSTEM USING POLARIMETRIC SAR DATA

    P. Srikanth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made in the current study to assess the potential of polarimetric SAR data for inventory of kharif rice and the major competing crop like cotton. In the process, physical process of the scattering mechanisms occurring in rice and cotton crops at different phonological stages was studied through the use of temporal Radarsat 2 Fine quadpol SAR data. The temporal dynamics of the volume, double and odd bounce, entropy, anisotropy, alpha parameters and polarimertic signatures, classification through isodata clustering and Wishart techniques were assessed. The Wishart (H-a classification showed higher overall as well as rice and cotton crop accuracies compared to the isodata clustering from Freeman 3-component decomposition. The classification of temporal SAR data sets independently showed that the rice crop forecasting can be advanced with the use of appropriate single date polarimetric SAR data rather than using temporal SAR amplitude data sets with the single polarization in irrigated rice ecosystems

  4. Responses of endogenous proline in rice seedlings under chromium exposure

    X.Z. Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were performed to exam the dynamic change of endogenous proline in rice seedlings exposed to potassium chromate chromium (VI or chromium nitrate chromium (III. Although accumulation of both chromium species in rice seedlings was obvious, more chromium was detected in plant tissues of rice seedlings exposed to chromium (III than those in chromium (VI, majority being in roots rather than shoots. Results also showed that the accumulation capacity of chromium by rice seedlings was positively correlated to chromium concentrations supplied in both chromium variants and the accumulation curve depicted an exponential trend in both chromium treatments over the entire period of exposure. Proline assays showed that both chromium variants induced the change of endogenous proline in shoots and roots of rice seedlings. Chromium (VI of 12.8 mg/L increased proline content significantly (p

  5. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using...

  6. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    Won-in, K.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  7. Actual and potential salt-related soil degradation in an irrigated rice scheme in the Sahelian zone of Mauritania

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Barbi'ro, L.; Wopereis, M.C.S.; Maeght, J.L.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Salt-related soil degradation due to irrigation activities is considered a major threat to the sustainability of rice cropping under semi-arid conditions in West Africa. Rice productivity problems related to soil salinity, alkalinity and topographic position were observed in an irrigated rice scheme

  8. Fine-mapping of qRL6.1, a major QTL for root length of rice seedlings grown under a wide range of NH4+ concentrations in hydroponic conditions

    Tamura, Wataru; Ebitani, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Tadashi; Yamaya, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Root system development is an important target for improving yield in cereal crops. Active root systems that can take up nutrients more efficiently are essential for enhancing grain yield. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in root system development by measuring root length of rice seedlings grown in hydroponic culture. Reliable growth conditions for estimating the root length were first established to renew nutrient solutions daily and supply NH4+ as a single nitrogen source. Thirty-eight chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between ‘Koshihikari’, a japonica variety, and ‘Kasalath’, an indica variety, were used to detect QTL for seminal root length of seedlings grown in 5 or 500 μM NH4+. Eight chromosomal regions were found to be involved in root elongation. Among them, the most effective QTL was detected on a ‘Kasalath’ segment of SL-218, which was localized to the long-arm of chromosome 6. The ‘Kasalath’ allele at this QTL, qRL6.1, greatly promoted root elongation under all NH4+ concentrations tested. The genetic effect of this QTL was confirmed by analysis of the near-isogenic line (NIL) qRL6.1. The seminal root length of the NIL was 13.5–21.1% longer than that of ‘Koshihikari’ under different NH4+ concentrations. Toward our goal of applying qRL6.1 in a molecular breeding program to enhance rice yield, a candidate genomic region of qRL6.1 was delimited within a 337 kb region in the ‘Nipponbare’ genome by means of progeny testing of F2 plants/F3 lines derived from a cross between SL-218 and ‘Koshihikari’. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1328-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20390245

  9. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  10. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13 Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed...

  11. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.

  12. The Rice Mitochondria Proteome and its Response During Development and to the Environment

    Shaobai eHuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is both a major crop species and the key model grass for molecular and physiological research. Mitochondria are important in rice, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth. However, the practical significance of understanding the function of mitochondria in rice is increased by the widespread farming practice of using hybrids to boost rice production. This relies on cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS lines with abortive pollen caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. We provide an overview of what is known about the mitochondrial proteome of rice seedlings. To date, more than 320 proteins have been identified in purified rice mitochondria using mass spectrometry. The insights from this work include a broad understanding of the major subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and TCA cycle enzymes, carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes as well as details of the supporting machinery for biogenesis and the subset of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins. Many proteins with unknown functions have also been found in rice mitochondria. Proteomic analysis has also revealed the features of rice mitochondrial protein presequences required for mitochondrial targeting, as well as cleavage site features for processing of precursors after import. Changes in the abundance of rice mitochondrial proteins in response to different stresses, especially anoxia and light, are summarized. Future research on quantitative analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level, its response to environmental stresses and recent advances in understanding of basis of rice CMS systems are highlighted.

  13. Anorectal injury in pelvic blast.

    Brogden, Tom G; Garner, J P

    2013-03-01

    The signature injury of the Afghanistan campaign has, amongst other things, included an increased incidence of destructive anorectal injury. There is no significant body of evidence about this type of injury on which to base management strategies. This review examines the historical military data, later civilian reports, many of which have challenged the military dogmas of Vietnam, and the spartan contemporaneous military data which does not particularly address pelviperineal blast injury. There is no evidence to support a move away from the doctrine of the four D's (diversion, distal washout, drainage and direct repair), but sound surgical judgement remains the mainstay of managing these challenging and highly morbid injuries.

  14. SP-LL-37, human antimicrobial peptide, enhances disease resistance in transgenic rice.

    Lee, In Hye; Jung, Yu-Jin; Cho, Yong Gu; Nou, Ill Sup; Huq, Md Amdadul; Nogoy, Franz Marielle; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo

    2017-01-01

    Human LL-37 is a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide of cathelicidin family. It has been shown in recent studies that it can serve as a host's defense against influenza A virus. We now demonstrate in this study how signal peptide LL-37 (SP-LL-37) can be used in rice resistance against bacterial leaf blight and blast. We synthesized LL-37 peptide and subcloned in a recombinant pPZP vector with pGD1 as promoter. SP-LL-37 was introduced into rice plants by Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Stable expression of SP-LL-37 in transgenic rice plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and ELISA analyses. Subcellular localization of SP-LL-37-GFP fusion protein showed evidently in intercellular space. Our data on testing for resistance to bacterial leaf blight and blast revealed that the transgenic lines are highly resistant compared to its wildtype. Our results suggest that LL-37 can be further explored to improve wide-spectrum resistance to biotic stress in rice.

  15. Induction of mutations in Thai rice varieties and subsequent selection and testing of beneficial mutant lines

    Dasananda, S; Khambanonda, P [Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1970-03-01

    Ionizing radiations were first used in the Thailand Rice Breeding Program in 1955 when seeds of two recommended varieties were sent to the United States of America for treatment. As a result, five promising mutant lines are at present in regional yield tests where they are being considered for recommendation to rice growers. During the period 1960-1961 an unsuccessful attempt was made to induce resistance to blast in three susceptible varieties by exposing seeds to a local source of ionizing radiation In 1964, after an elapse of about 4 years, another attempt was made to utilize ionizing radiations in the breeding program by treating seeds of two recommended varieties. In 1965, a co-ordinated rice mutation breeding program was initiated under the auspices of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture which resulted in treating seeds of twelve different rice varieties with both ethyl methane sulphonate and gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co gamma cell. The results so far indicate that mutagenic agents have been successful in producing genetic variability. Differences in heading date, mature plant height and plant type are frequently observed in the M{sub 2} and M{sub 3} generations. Several lines obtained from two of the irradiated varieties have exhibited a higher degree of resistance to blast than the parental material. From 15-kR treatments of non-glutinous varieties, mutants with glutinous endosperm have been obtained. Not all varieties gave the same response to treatment. (author)

  16. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  17. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE...

    2010-07-01

    ... Reconstructed 2SLB and Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions, Existing Non-Emergency Compression Ignition Stationary RICE >500 HP, and New and Reconstructed 4SLB Burn Stationary RICE â¥250 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions 2b Table 2b to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63...

  18. Development of new semidwarf sources for rice with different cytoplasms (CV Basmati 370 and Gloria)

    Deus, J E; Suarez, E [Instituto de Investigaciones del Arroz, Bauta, Havana (Cuba); Fuentes, J L; Alvarez, A; Padron, E [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, Miramar, Playa, Havana (Cuba)

    2001-05-01

    In Cuba semidwarf rice varieties grow on 98% of the area. Virtually all carry the same Dee-geo-won-gen dwarfing gene. Also, most if not all the cultivars have the same cytoplasm. The induced mutations approach was undertaken in order to generate alternative genetic sources of dwarfing with different cytoplasms and to improve the grain quality of Cuban rice. The seeds of two varieties, Basmati 370 and Gloria, were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma rays. In several generations of selection, progeny testing and preliminary yield tests 10 mutants (6 from Basmati 370 and 4 from Gloria), whose yields exceeded the source cultivars, have been advanced to replicated yield trials. Some of the mutant lines are also resistant to lodging and to blast (Pyricularis grisea). It is concluded the induced mutations can be used successfully to improve plant type and other agronomic traits in rice. The induced mutants will be used also in hybridization programs. (author)

  19. Development of new semidwarf sources for rice with different cytoplasms (CV Basmati 370 and Gloria)

    Deus, J.E.; Suarez, E.; Fuentes, J.L.; Alvarez, A.; Padron, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Cuba semidwarf rice varieties grow on 98% of the area. Virtually all carry the same Dee-geo-won-gen dwarfing gene. Also, most if not all the cultivars have the same cytoplasm. The induced mutations approach was undertaken in order to generate alternative genetic sources of dwarfing with different cytoplasms and to improve the grain quality of Cuban rice. The seeds of two varieties, Basmati 370 and Gloria, were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays. In several generations of selection, progeny testing and preliminary yield tests 10 mutants (6 from Basmati 370 and 4 from Gloria), whose yields exceeded the source cultivars, have been advanced to replicated yield trials. Some of the mutant lines are also resistant to lodging and to blast (Pyricularis grisea). It is concluded the induced mutations can be used successfully to improve plant type and other agronomic traits in rice. The induced mutants will be used also in hybridization programs. (author)

  20. The Potential of Polarimetric and Compact SAR Data in Rice Identification

    Shao, Y; Li, K; Liu, L; Yang, Z; Brisco, B

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major food staple in the world, and provides food for more than one-third of the global population. The monitoring and mapping of paddy rice in a timely and efficient manner is very important for governments and decision makers. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been proved to be a significant data source in rice monitoring. In this study, RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data were used to simulate compact polarimetry data. The simulated compact data and polarimetric data were then used to evaluate the information content for rice identification. The results indicate that polarimetric SAR can be used for rice identification based on the scattering mechanisms. The compact polarization RH and the RH/RL ratio are very promising for the discrimination of transplanted rice and direct-sown rice. These results require verification in further research

  1. Herbivory by resident geese: The loss and recovery of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Well known for a fall spectacle of maturing wild rice (Zizania aquatica) and migrant waterbirds, the tidal freshwater marshes of the Patuxent River, Maryland, USA, experienced a major decline in wild rice during the 1990s. We conducted experiments in 1999 and 2000 with fenced exclosures and discovered herbivory by resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Grazing by geese eliminated rice outside exclosures, whereas protected plants achieved greater size, density, and produced more panicles than rice occurring in natural stands. The observed loss of rice on the Patuxent River reflects both the sensitivity of this annual plant to herbivory and the destructive nature of an overabundance of resident geese on natural marsh vegetation. Recovery of rice followed 2 management actions: hunting removal of approximately 1,700 geese during a 4-year period and reestablishment of rice through a large-scale fencing and planting program.

  2. Transcriptome analysis highlights defense and signaling pathways mediated by rice pi21 gene with partial resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae

    Yu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. The pi21 gene confers partial and durable resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of resistance mediated by the loss-of-function of Pi21. In this study, comparative transcriptome profiling of the Pi21-RNAi transgenic rice line and Nipponbare with M. oryzae infection at different time points (0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hpi were investigated using RNA sequencing. The results generated 43,222 unique genes mapped to the rice genome. In total, 1,109 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the Pi21-RNAi line and Nipponbare with M. oryzae infection, with 103, 281, 209, 69, and 678 DEGs at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hpi, respectively. Functional analysis showed that most of the DEGs were involved in metabolism, transport, signaling, and defense. Among the genes assigned to plant–pathogen interaction, we identified 43 receptor kinase genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition and calcium ion influx. The expression levels of brassinolide-insensitive 1, flagellin sensitive 2 and elongation factor Tu receptor, ethylene (ET biosynthesis and signaling genes, were higher in the Pi21-RNAi line than Nipponbare. This suggested that there was a more robust PTI response in Pi21-RNAi plants and that ET signaling was important to rice blast resistance. We also identified 53 transcription factor genes, including WRKY, NAC, DOF, and ERF families that show differential expression between the two genotypes. This study highlights possible candidate genes that may serve a function in the partial rice blast resistance mediated by the loss-of-function of Pi21 and increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in partial resistance against M. oryzae.

  3. Isolation and Manipulation of Quantitative Tra it Loci for DIsease Resistance in Rice Using a Candid ate Gene Approach

    Ke-Ming Hu; De-Yun Qiu; Xiang-Ling Shen; Xiang-Hua Li; Shi-Ping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice,a main staple food for approximately 50%of the world's population.Application of host resistance to these pathogens iS the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem.Quantitative trait loci(QTLs)controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad.spectrum and durable disease resistance.Although large numbers of QTLs for bacteriaI blight and blast resistance have been identified.these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic controI of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown.To isolate disease resistance QTLs,we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map,expression profile,and functionaI complementation analyses.This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals.Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL.Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes,whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signaI transduction pathways,may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacteriaI blight and blast.

  4. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    1997-01-01

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration

  5. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection

    Yiming Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10 by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05 in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.

  7. Solophos fertilizer improved rice plant growth in aerobic soil

    NIE, Lixiao; PENG, Shaobing; BOUMAN, Bas A.M.; HUANG, Jianliang; CUI, Kehui; VISPERAS, Romeo M.; PARK, Hong-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Yield decline of continuous monocropping of aerobic rice is the major constraint to the wide adoption of aerobic rice technology. This study was conducted to determine if solophos fertilizer could be used to reverse the yield decline of this cropping system using pot and micro-plot experiments. The soil for the pot experiment was collected from a field where aerobic rice has been grown continuously for 11 seasons at the IRRI farm. Four rates (4, 6, 8, and 10gpot^) of solophos application were...

  8. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development

    Park, Myoungryoul

    2010-09-28

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development.

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Yun, Kil-Young; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B; Yun, Song-Joong; De Los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-12-01

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Primary blast survival and injury risk assessment for repeated blast exposures.

    Panzer, Matthew B; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Rafaels, Karin A; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce P

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of explosives by modern insurgents and terrorists has increased the potential frequency of blast exposure in soldiers and civilians. This growing threat highlights the importance of understanding and evaluating blast injury risk and the increase of injury risk from exposure to repeated blast effects. Data from more than 3,250 large animal experiments were collected from studies focusing on the effects of blast exposure. The current study uses 2,349 experiments from the data collection for analysis of the primary blast injury and survival risk for both long- and short-duration blasts, including the effects from repeated exposures. A piecewise linear logistic regression was performed on the data to develop survival and injury risk assessment curves. New injury risk assessment curves uniting long- and short-duration blasts were developed for incident and reflected pressure measures and were used to evaluate the risk of injury based on blast over pressure, positive-phase duration, and the number of repeated exposures. The risk assessments were derived for three levels of injury severity: nonauditory, pulmonary, and fatality. The analysis showed a marked initial decrease in injury tolerance with each subsequent blast exposure. This effect decreases with increasing number of blast exposures. The new injury risk functions showed good agreement with the existing experimental data and provided a simplified model for primary blast injury risk. This model can be used to predict blast injury or fatality risk for single exposure and repeated exposure cases and has application in modern combat scenarios or in setting occupational health limits. .Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  11. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  12. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.

  13. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  14. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    Yang, Z; Fries, R J

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small. (paper)

  15. Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The article discusses the reasons why conventional blasting operations, mainly that of explosive products, drilling and initiation methods are inefficient, and suggests new methods and materials to overcome the problems of the conventional operations. The author suggests that the use of bulk ANFO for casting, instead of high energy and density explosives with high velocity detonation is more effective in producing heave action results. Similarly the drilling of smaller blast holes than is conventional allows better loading distribution of explosives in the rock mass. The author also suggests that casting would be more efficient if the shot rows were loaded differently to produce a variable burden blasting pattern.

  16. Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization

    Huang Yingjin; Liu Yibai; Kuang Huiyun; Xu Zhengjin

    2005-01-01

    Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

  17. Membranes replace irradiated blast cells as growth requirement for leukemic blast progenitors in suspension culture

    Nara, N.; McCulloch, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) may be considered as a renewal population, maintained by blast stem cells capable of both self-renewal and the generation of progeny with reduced or absent proliferative potential. This growth requires that two conditions be met: first, the cultures must contain growth factors in media conditioned either by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes (PHA-LCM), or by cells of the continuous bladder carcinoma line HTB9 (HTB9-CM). Second, the cell density must be maintained at 10(6) blasts/ml; this may be achieved by adding irradiated cells to smaller numbers of intact blasts. The authors are concerned with the mechanism of the feeding function. They present evidence that (a) cell-cell contact is required. (b) Blasts are heterogeneous in respect to their capacity to support growth. (c) Fractions containing membranes from blast cells will substitute for intact cells in promoting the generation of new blast progenitors in culture. (d) This membrane function may be specific for AML blasts, since membranes from blasts of lymphoblastic leukemia or normal marrow cells were inactive

  18. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  19. Mapping paddy rice distribution using multi-temporal Landsat imagery in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China

    XIAO, Xiangming; DONG, Jinwei; QIN, Yuanwei; WANG, Zongming

    2016-01-01

    Information of paddy rice distribution is essential for food production and methane emission calculation. Phenology-based algorithms have been utilized in the mapping of paddy rice fields by identifying the unique flooding and seedling transplanting phases using multi-temporal moderate resolution (500 m to 1 km) images. In this study, we developed simple algorithms to identify paddy rice at a fine resolution at the regional scale using multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Sixteen Landsat images from 2010–2012 were used to generate the 30 m paddy rice map in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China—one of the major paddy rice cultivation regions in China. Three vegetation indices, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), were used to identify rice fields during the flooding/transplanting and ripening phases. The user and producer accuracies of paddy rice on the resultant Landsat-based paddy rice map were 90% and 94%, respectively. The Landsat-based paddy rice map was an improvement over the paddy rice layer on the National Land Cover Dataset, which was generated through visual interpretation and digitalization on the fine-resolution images. The agricultural census data substantially underreported paddy rice area, raising serious concern about its use for studies on food security. PMID:27695637

  20. Blast Mitigation Using Water - A Status Report

    Kailasanath, K

    2002-01-01

    ..., and aggressive research and development', this report reviews the current knowledge base on blast mitigation using water and identifies the key issues that need to be resolved in order to develop...

  1. International blast furnace hearth and raceway symposium

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented discussed some of the physical and chemical processes occuring in the raceway and hearths of blast furnaces. The injection of coal or fuel slurries to replace some of the coke was also covered. Fourteen papers are abstracted separately.

  2. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BLAST finds regions of similarity between biological sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the...

  3. A Software Framework for Blast Event Simulation

    Swensen, D. A; Denison, M. K; Guilkey, James; Harman, Todd; Goetz, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... The BCF will provide a virtual test-bed where disparate computational models can seamlessly interact with one another to provide a unified modeling solution for blast-vehicle-occupant scenarios...

  4. Bomb blast imaging: bringing order to chaos.

    Dick, E A; Ballard, M; Alwan-Walker, H; Kashef, E; Batrick, N; Hettiaratchy, S; Moran, C G

    2018-06-01

    Blast injuries are complex, severe, and outside of our everyday clinical practice, but every radiologist needs to understand them. By their nature, bomb blasts are unpredictable and affect multiple victims, yet require an immediate, coordinated, and whole-hearted response from all members of the clinical team, including all radiology staff. This article will help you gain the requisite expertise in blast imaging including recognising primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. It will also help you understand the fundamental role that imaging plays during mass casualty attacks and how to avoid radiology becoming a bottleneck to the forward flow of severely injured patients as they are triaged and treated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. On firework blasts and qualitative parameter dependency.

    Zohdi, T I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to qualitatively simulate the progressive time-evolution of a blast from a simple firework. Estimates are made for the blast radius that one can expect for a given amount of detonation energy and pyrotechnic display material. The model balances the released energy from the initial blast pulse with the subsequent kinetic energy and then computes the trajectory of the material under the influence of the drag from the surrounding air, gravity and possible buoyancy. Under certain simplifying assumptions, the model can be solved for analytically. The solution serves as a guide to identifying key parameters that control the evolving blast envelope. Three-dimensional examples are given.

  6. Blast effects physical properties of shock waves

    2018-01-01

    This book compiles a variety of experimental data on blast waves. The book begins with an introductory chapter and proceeds to the topic of blast wave phenomenology, with a discussion Rankine-Hugoniot equations and the Friedlander equation, used to describe the pressure-time history of a blast wave. Additional topics include arrival time measurement, the initiation of detonation by exploding wires, a discussion of TNT equivalency, and small scale experiments. Gaseous and high explosive detonations are covered as well. The topics and experiments covered were chosen based on the comparison of used scale sizes, from small to large. Each characteristic parameter of blast waves is analyzed and expressed versus scaled distance in terms of energy and mass. Finally, the appendix compiles a number of polynomial laws that will prove indispensable for engineers and researchers.

  7. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  8. A Comparative Study of Ground and Underground Vibrations Induced by Bench Blasting

    Xiuzhi Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations originating from bench blasting may cause damage to slopes, structures, and underground workings in close proximity to an operating open-pit mine. It is important to monitor and predict ground vibration levels induced by blasting and to take measures to reduce their hazardous effects. The aims of this paper are to determine the weaker protection objects by comparatively studying bench blasting induced vibrations obtained at surface and in an underground tunnel in an open-pit mine and thus to seek vibration control methods to protect engineering objects at the site. Vibrations arising from measurement devices at surface and in an underground tunnel at the Zijinshan Open-Pit Mine were obtained. Comparative analysis of the peak particle velocities shows that, in the greatest majority of cases, surface values are higher than underground values for the same vibration distance. The transmission laws of surface and underground vibrations were established depending on the type of rock mass, the explosive charge, and the distance. Compared with the Chinese Safety Regulations for Blasting (GB6722-2014, the bench blasting induced vibrations would not currently cause damage to the underground tunnel. According to the maximum allowable peak particle velocities for different objects, the permitted maximum charges per delay are obtained to reduce damage to these objects at different distances.

  9. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors' experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its' incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced

  10. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A. [Blasting Technology, Inc., Maui, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors` experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its` incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced.

  11. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    Burns, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  12. BLAST: Building energy simulation in Hong Kong

    Fong, Sai-Keung

    1999-11-01

    The characteristics of energy use in buildings under local weather conditions were studied and evaluated using the energy simulation program BLAST-3.0. The parameters used in the energy simulation for the study and evaluation include the architectural features, different internal building heat load settings and weather data. In this study, mathematical equations and the associated coefficients useful to the industry were established. A technology for estimating energy use in buildings under local weather conditions was developed by using the results of this study. A weather data file of Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) has been compiled for building energy studies by analyzing and evaluating the weather of Hong Kong from the year 1979 to 1988. The weather data file TMY and the example weather years 1980 and 1988 were used by BLAST-3.0 to evaluate and study the energy use in different buildings. BLAST-3.0 was compared with other building energy simulation and approximation methods: Bin method and Degree Days method. Energy use in rectangular compartments of different volumes varying from 4,000 m3 to 40,000 m3 with different aspect ratios were analyzed. The use of energy in buildings with concrete roofs was compared with those with glass roofs at indoor temperature 21°C, 23°C and 25°C. Correlation relationships among building energy, space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation were derived and investigated. The effects of space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation on building energy were evaluated. The coefficients of the mathematical relationships between space volume and energy use in a building were computed and found satisfactory. The calculated coefficients can be used for quick estimation of energy use in buildings under similar situations. To study energy use in buildings, the cooling load per floor area against room volume was investigated. The case of an air-conditioned single compartment with 5 m ceiling height was

  13. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  14. Succession of methanogenic archaea in rice straw incorporated into a Japanese rice field: estimation by PCR-DGGE and sequence analyses

    Atsuo Sugano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The succession and phylogenetic profiles of methanogenic archaeal communities associated with rice straw decomposition in rice-field soil were studied by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis followed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Nylon bags containing either leaf sheaths or blades were buried in the plowed layer of a Japanese rice field under drained conditions during the off-crop season and under flooded conditions after transplanting. In addition, rice straw samples that had been buried in the rice field under drained conditions during the off-crop season were temporarily removed during spring plowing and then re-buried in the same rice field under flooded conditions at transplanting. Populations of methanogenic archaea were examined by amplification of the 16S rRNA genes in the DNA extracted from the rice straw samples. No PCR product was produced for samples of leaf sheath or blade prior to burial or after burial under drained conditions, indicating that the methanogen population was very small during decomposition of rice straw under oxic conditions. Many common bands were observed in rice straw samples of leaf sheath and blade during decomposition of rice straw under flooded conditions. Cluster analysis based on DGGE patterns divided methanogenic archaeal communities into two groups before and after the mid-season drainage. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands that were commonly present were closely related to Methanomicrobiales and Rice cluster I. Methanomicrobiales, Rice cluster I and Methanosarcinales were major members before the mid-season drainage, whereas the DGGE bands that characterized methanogenic archaeal communities after the mid-season drainage were closely related to Methanomicrobiales. These results indicate that mid-season drainage affected the methanogenic archaeal communities irrespective of their location on rice straw (sheath and blade and the previous history of decomposition

  15. POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RICE SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN INDONESIA

    Sri Nuryanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice self-sufficiency is an important programme in Indonesia. The programme has four major targets, i.e. increasing production, stabilizing prices and reserve stocks, and minimizing import. For that purpose, the government gave a mandate to a parastatal, namely National Logistic Agency (Bulog in implementing the rice policies. Some studies found that involvement of such a parastatal could lead to government failure in budget allocation. The study aimed to estimate social cost of rice self-sufficiency programme based on the implementation of rice instrument policies by Bulog. The study used the national annual data of 2002–2014 period. The method used was the political preference function model to estimate economic rent and dead-weight loss using rice price elasticity of demand and supply. The result showed that in terms of percentage of food security budget, the average of economic rent reached IDR 6.37 trillion per annum (18.54%, while the average of dead-weight loss amounted at IDR 0.90 trillion per annum (2.34%. It proved that rice self-sufficiency programme along with the involvement of Bulog was economically inefficient. The government should provide better agricultural infrastructure, review governmental procurement prices, and stop rice import policy to remedy market failure.

  16. Blasting in hot zone - a case study

    Nabiullah, B.M.P.; Pingua, J.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    A significant quantity of coking coal reserves in the country are under fire particularly in Jharia coalfield. To control the fire and prevent loss of coal, an opencast mining method is adopted. The main problem with these opencast mines is drilling in hot strata and selection of suitable explosives and blasting in the fire zone. Trial blasts were conducted at two open cast mines. The problem was tackled by quenching the hot blast holes with water. Temperature of blast holes were recorded soon after drilling, after quenching with water and just before charging with explosives. The rise in temperature of charged explosives with time was also recorded until blasting. The thermal behaviour of commercially available explosives (including slurry, emulsion, ANFO and detonating cord) was investigated in laboratory and field simulated conditions. Emulsion, slurry compositions and detonating cord were found safe to use in hot holes up to 120{degree}C for duration of two hours. This paper describes the blasting practices adopted in the fire zones. 4 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  18. The second generation of electronic blasting systems

    Hammelmann, F.; Petzold, J. [Dynamit Nobel GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    8 years after the market introduction of the first commercial electronic detonator - DYNATRONIC - the paper describes a new area of electronic blasting systems Made in Germany: i-kon. The results of a joint development between Dynamit Nobel and Orica is a unique universal electronic detonator, which is as simple to use as a standard non-electric detonator. The delay time or delay interval is not factory preprogrammed and the system is not based on a numbered system like conventional detonators. The miner or Blaster decides on site which delay timing he likes to use and is programming the whole blast on site. The new i-kon system allows delay times between 0 and 8000 ms by increments of 1 ms. With the control equipment it is possible to blast up to 1600 detonators in a single blast. The paper describes the construction and functionality of this new electronic blasting system - manufactured and developed by Precision Blasting Systems, a joint venture between Orica and Dynamic Nobel. (orig.)

  19. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    Simon Swapna; Korukkanvilakath Samban Shylaraj

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000), and followed by the pot...

  20. Genetic mapping of the rice resistance-breaking gene of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Hattori, Makoto; Jairin, Jirapong; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo; Matsumura, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Host plant resistance has been widely used for controlling the major rice pest brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). However, adaptation of the wild BPH population to resistance limits the effective use of resistant rice varieties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted to identify resistance-breaking genes against the anti-feeding mechanism mediated by the rice resistance gene Bph1. QTL analysis in iso-female BPH lines with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers d...

  1. A Rice Gene Homologous to Arabidopsis AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE1 Participates in Disease Resistance Response against Infection with Magnaporthe oryzae

    Ga Young Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ALD1 (ABERRANT GROWTH AND DEATH2 [AGD2]-LIKE DEFENSE1 is one of the key defense regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. In these model plants, ALD1 is responsible for triggering basal defense response and systemic resistance against bacterial infection. As well ALD1 is involved in the production of pipecolic acid and an unidentified compound(s for systemic resistance and priming syndrome, respectively. These previous studies proposed that ALD1 is a potential candidate for developing genetically modified (GM plants that may be resistant to pathogen infection. Here we introduce a role of ALD1-LIKE gene of Oryza sativa, named as OsALD1, during plant immunity. OsALD1 mRNA was strongly transcribed in the infected leaves of rice plants by Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus. OsALD1 proteins predominantly localized at the chloroplast in the plant cells. GM rice plants over-expressing OsALD1 were resistant to the fungal infection. The stable expression of OsALD1 also triggered strong mRNA expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEIN1 genes in the leaves of rice plants during infection. Taken together, we conclude that OsALD1 plays a role in disease resistance response of rice against the infection with rice blast fungus.

  2. Effect of blasting on output increase of bucket wheel excavators

    Musil, P.

    1987-12-01

    In brown coal surface mines, consolidated sediments become a problem as mining operations advance into greater depth below the original terrain. Owing to higher digging resistance, the output of bucket wheel excavators drops. This problem may be solved by blasting technology and using drilling machines with higher digging force. This paper describes the blasting operations at the Nastup Mines in Tusmice, Czechoslovakia. About 60% of blasting explosives used is a simple mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel (ANFO), the rest falls on classic blasting gelatines and blasting explosives plasticized by slurry. It is found that blasting improves output by 30% while electric energy consumption is reduced.

  3. Proceedings of the twenty-seventh annual conference on explosives and blasting techniques

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Various aspects of explosives and blasting techniques are covered. Those of particular interest to the coal industry buffer blasting versus cast blasting, post-blast cast profile shape prediction, fragmentation model to estimate ROM size distribution of soft rocks, blasting accidents, blast vibrations, ANFO explosives and carbon monoxide poisoning.

  4. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in tropical rice soils.

    Das, Subhasis; Adhya, Tapan K

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) phosphorothioate] is used worldwide as an agricultural insecticide against a broad spectrum of insect pests of economically important crops including rice, and soil application to control termites. The insecticide mostly undergoes hydrolysis to diethyl thiophosphoric acid (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), and negligible amounts of other intermediate products. In a laboratory-cum-greenhouse study, chlorpyrifos, applied at a rate of 10 mg kg(-1) soil to five tropical rice soils of wide physico-chemical variability, degraded with a half-life ranging from 27.07 to 3.82 days. TCP was the major metabolite under both non-flooded and flooded conditions. Chlorpyrifos degradation had significant negative relationship with electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and sand contents of the soils under non-flooded conditions. Results indicate that degradation of chlorpyrifos was accelerated with increase in its application frequency, across the representative rice soils. Management regimes including moisture content and presence or absence of rice plants also influenced the process. Biotic factors also play an important role in the degradation of chlorpyrifos as demonstrated by its convincing degradation in mineral salts medium inoculated with non-sterile soil suspension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A rice kinase-protein interaction map.

    Ding, Xiaodong; Richter, Todd; Chen, Mei; Fujii, Hiroaki; Seo, Young Su; Xie, Mingtang; Zheng, Xianwu; Kanrar, Siddhartha; Stevenson, Rebecca A; Dardick, Christopher; Li, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Fahong; Bartley, Laura E; Chern, Mawsheng; Bart, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuhua; Zhu, Lihuang; Farmerie, William G; Gribskov, Michael; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Fromm, Michael E; Ronald, Pamela C; Song, Wen-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Plants uniquely contain large numbers of protein kinases, and for the vast majority of the 1,429 kinases predicted in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome, little is known of their functions. Genetic approaches often fail to produce observable phenotypes; thus, new strategies are needed to delineate kinase function. We previously developed a cost-effective high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system. Using this system, we have generated a protein interaction map of 116 representative rice kinases and 254 of their interacting proteins. Overall, the resulting interaction map supports a large number of known or predicted kinase-protein interactions from both plants and animals and reveals many new functional insights. Notably, we found a potential widespread role for E3 ubiquitin ligases in pathogen defense signaling mediated by receptor-like kinases, particularly by the kinases that may have evolved from recently expanded kinase subfamilies in rice. We anticipate that the data provided here will serve as a foundation for targeted functional studies in rice and other plants. The application of yeast two-hybrid and TAPtag analyses for large-scale plant protein interaction studies is also discussed.

  6. DYNAMIC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF BLAST RESISTANT DOOR USING BLAST LOAD MODELED AS IMPACT LOAD

    Y. A. Pranata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A blast resistant single door was designed to withstand a 0.91 bar blast pressure and 44 ms blast duration. The analysis was done using Dynamic Time History Analysis using Blast Load modeled as Impact Load for given duration. The material properties used have been modified to accommodate dynamic effects. The analysis was done using dynamic finite element method (fem for time of the blast duration, and the maximum/minimum internal forces and displacement were taken from the time history output, in order to know the behavior under blast load and estimate the safety margin of the door. Results obtained from this research indicated that the maximum z-displacement is 1.709 mm, while in the term of serviceability, the permitted is 25 mm. The maximum reaction force is 73,960 N, while the maximum anchor capacity is 82,069 N. On blast condition, the maximum frame stress is 71.71 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 45.28 MPa. While on rebound condition, the maximum frame stress is 172.11 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 29.46 MPa. The maximum door edge rotation is 0.44 degree, which is not exceed the permitted boundary (1.2 degree. Keywords: Dynamic time history, blast resistant door, single door, finite element method.

  7. Raydet non-electric blast initiation system for efficient and environment-friendly surface blasts

    Sarathy, M.O. [IDL Chemicals Ltd., Hyderabad (India). Technical Services Cell

    1995-08-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using the Raydet shock tube based blast initiation system and reviews research work carried out on release of explosive energy in the drillhole, effect of stemming retention (stemming effectiveness) and advantages of `true bottom hole initiation` of drillholes in surface blasting. Some case studies are presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Gasification of rice husks

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  9. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  10. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers for rice

    Roger, Pierre-Armand; Grant, I.F.; Reddy, P.M.; Watanabe, I.

    1987-01-01

    The photosynthetic biomass that develops in the floodwater of wetland rice fields affects nitrogen dynamics in the ecosystem. This review summarizes available data on the nature, productivity, and composition of the photosynthetic aquatic biomass, and its major activities regarding the nitrogen cycle, i.e., nitrogen fixation by free living blue-green algae and #Azolla$, nitrogen trapping, nitrogen accumulation at the soil surface, its effect on nitrogen losses by ammonia volatilization, nitro...

  11. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  12. Fat-soluble bioactive components in colored rice varieties.

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Han, Sang-Ik; Aldini, Giancarlo; Colzani, Mara; Matthan, Nirupa R; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Bioactive components in rice vary depending on the variety and growing condition. Fat-soluble components such as γ-oryzanol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, and fatty acids were analyzed in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties using established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC methodologies. In addition, these colored rice varieties were further analyzed using a high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) to identify the [M-H](-) ions of γ-oryzanol, ranging from m/z 573.3949 to 617.4211. The highest content of tocopherols (α-, 1.5; γ-, 0.5 mg/100 g) and carotenoids (lutein 244; trans-β carotene 25 μg/100 g) were observed in black rice; tocotrienols (α-, 0.07; γ-, 0.14 mg/100 g) in red rice, and γ-oryzanol (115 mg/100 g) in sugary brown rice. In all colored rice varieties, the major fatty acids were palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1n-9), and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids. When the γ-oryzanol components were further analyzed by LC-MS/MS, 3, 10, 8, and 8 triterpene alcohols or sterol ferulates were identified in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties, respectively. Such structural identification can lead to the elucidation of biological function of each component at the molecular level. Consumption of colored rice rich in beneficial bioactive compounds may be a useful dietary strategy for achieving optimal health.

  13. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  14. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  15. Diseases of wild rice

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  16. Promising rice mutants

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  17. Molecular evolution of shattering loci in U.S. weedy rice.

    Thurber, Carrie S; Reagon, Michael; Gross, Briana L; Olsen, Kenneth M; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated rice fields worldwide are plagued with weedy rice, a conspecific weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). The persistence of weedy rice has been attributed, in part, to its ability to shatter (disperse) seed prior to crop harvesting. In the United States, separately evolved weedy rice groups have been shown to share genomic identity with exotic domesticated cultivars. Here, we investigate the shattering phenotype in a collection of U.S. weedy rice accessions, as well as wild and cultivated relatives. We find that all U.S. weedy rice groups shatter seeds easily, despite multiple origins, and in contrast to a decrease in shattering ability seen in cultivated groups. We assessed allelic identity and diversity at the major shattering locus, sh4, in weedy rice; we find that all cultivated and weedy rice, regardless of population, share similar haplotypes at sh4, and all contain a single derived mutation associated with decreased seed shattering. Our data constitute the strongest evidence to date of an evolution of weeds from domesticated backgrounds. The combination of a shared cultivar sh4 allele and a highly shattering phenotype, suggests that U.S. weedy rice have re-acquired the shattering trait after divergence from their progenitors through alternative genetic mechanisms.

  18. Global Rice Watch: Spatial-temporal dynamics, driving factors, and impacts of paddy rice agriculture in the world

    Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.; Xin, F.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice croplands account for more than 12% of the global cropland areas, and provide food to feed more than 50% of the world population. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands have changed remarkably in the past decades, driven by growing human population and their changing diet structure, land use (e.g., urbanization, industrialization), climate, markets, and technologies. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive review of our current knowledge on (1) the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands from agricultural statistics data and remote sensing approaches; (2) major driving factors for the observed changes in paddy rice areas, including social, economic, climate, land use, markets, crop breeding technology, and farming technology; and (3) major impacts on atmospheric methane concentration, land surface temperature, water resources and use, and so on. We will highlight the results from a few case studies in China and monsoon Asia. We will also call for a global synthesis analysis of paddy rice agriculture, and invite researchers to join the effort to write and edit a book that provides comprehensive and updated knowledge on paddy rice agriculture.

  19. Numerical Analyses of the Influence of Blast-Induced Damaged Rock Around Shallow Tunnels in Brittle Rock

    Saiang, David; Nordlund, Erling

    2009-06-01

    Most of the railway tunnels in Sweden are shallow-seated (rock cover) and are located in hard brittle rock masses. The majority of these tunnels are excavated by drilling and blasting, which, consequently, result in the development of a blast-induced damaged zone around the tunnel boundary. Theoretically, the presence of this zone, with its reduced strength and stiffness, will affect the overall performance of the tunnel, as well as its construction and maintenance. The Swedish Railroad Administration, therefore, uses a set of guidelines based on peak particle velocity models and perimeter blasting to regulate the extent of damage due to blasting. However, the real effects of the damage caused by blasting around a shallow tunnel and their criticality to the overall performance of the tunnel are yet to be quantified and, therefore, remain the subject of research and investigation. This paper presents a numerical parametric study of blast-induced damage in rock. By varying the strength and stiffness of the blast-induced damaged zone and other relevant parameters, the near-field rock mass response was evaluated in terms of the effects on induced boundary stresses and ground deformation. The continuum method of numerical analysis was used. The input parameters, particularly those relating to strength and stiffness, were estimated using a systematic approach related to the fact that, at shallow depths, the stress and geologic conditions may be highly anisotropic. Due to the lack of data on the post-failure characteristics of the rock mass, the traditional Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was assumed and used. The results clearly indicate that, as expected, the presence of the blast-induced damage zone does affect the behaviour of the boundary stresses and ground deformation. Potential failure types occurring around the tunnel boundary and their mechanisms have also been identified.

  20. 40 CFR Table 1a to Subpart Zzzz of... - Emission Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP... Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a... emission limitations for existing, new and reconstructed 4SRB stationary RICE at 100 percent load plus or...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE...

    2010-07-01

    ..., New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP... Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed Spark Ignition, 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a... following operating emission limitations for existing, new and reconstructed 4SRB stationary RICE >500 HP...

  2. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  3. Transgenic rice plants harboring an introduced potato proteinase inhibitor II gene are insect resistant.

    Duan, X; Li, X; Xue, Q; Abo-el-Saad, M; Xu, D; Wu, R

    1996-04-01

    We introduced the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PINII) gene (pin2) into several Japonica rice varieties, and regenerated a large number of transgenic rice plants. Wound-inducible expression of the pin2 gene driven by its own promoter, together with the first intron of the rice actin 1 gene (act1), resulted in high-level accumulation of the PINII protein in the transgenic plants. The introduced pin2 gene was stably inherited in the second, third, and fourth generations, as shown by molecular analyses. Based on data from the molecular analyses, several homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. Bioassay for insect resistance with the fifth-generation transgenic rice plants showed that transgenic rice plants had increased resistance to a major rice insect pest, pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens). Thus, introduction of an insecticidal proteinase inhibitor gene into cereal plants can be used as a general strategy for control of insect pests.

  4. Evaluation of Mercury Uptake and Distribution in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Hang, Xiaoshuai; Gan, Fangqun; Chen, Yudong; Chen, Xiaoqin; Wang, Huoyan; Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2018-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in soil-rice systems from industry, mining and agriculture has received increasing attention recently in China. Pot experiments were conducted to research the Hg accumulation capacity of rice under exogenous Hg in the soil and study the major soil factors affecting translocation of Hg from soil to plant. Soil treated with 2 mg kg -1 Hg decreased rice grain yield and inhibited the growth of rice plants. With increased Hg contamination of the rice, the enrichment rate of Hg was significantly higher in the rice grain than that in the stalk and leaf. Soil pH and cation exchange capacity are the key factors controlling Hg bioavailability in soils.

  5. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  6. Conversion of the fungicide, ziram in rice plants

    Kumarasamy, R.; Raghu, K.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) is a toliar fungicide used for the control of the blast disease of rice caused by Pyricularia oryzae, and is also used for the control of the plant diseases in crops like groundnut, cotton, etc. Since there is lack of data on the conversion products of this fungicide. This investigation was carried out. The results of the author's recent studies with 35 S-labelled ziram in rice seedlings were reported. The 35 S-Labelled ziram (specific activity 1.5 m Ci/m mole) was sprayed on the rice seedlings of 25 days old. At different intervals of time, the seedlings were removed, washed thoroughly, cut into pieces, and extracted with 80% ethanol. By the method described in ''K. Raghu et al., Origin and fate of chemical residents in food, agriculture and fisheries, I.A.E.A., Vienna, 1975, pp. 137-148,'' the segments corresponding to the standards of dimethyl dithio carbamate-alanine (DDCA), DDC-glucoside (DDCG), thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carbamic acid (TTCA), unidentified divolent fungicide (X), and ziram were cut out and the radioactivity was counted in cocktail D scintillation fluid using an LS-100 Beckmann liquid scintillation counter. It is indeed interesting to note that ziram is converted in plant tissues into dimethyldithiocarbamate derivatives like DDCG, DDCA, TTCA and X within 24 hr after spraying. The amounts of these derivatives varied in the course of sampling up to 8 days after spraying. Further studies are needed as to the quantitative nature of these products, but the present report clearly demonstrates the formation of these conversion products in the rice leaves treated with ziram. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Breeding of new rice varieties by gamma-rays

    Toda, Masayuki

    1980-01-01

    The breeding procedure for and the agronomic characteristics of some new rice varieties are reported. The seeds of the non-waxy variety ''Toyonishiki'' were exposed to 20 kR of gamma-ray. Two out of 20,000 panicles produced on these plants had waxy grain, and one of these brought forth a new commercial variety, ''Miyuki-mochi''. The yield of the new variety was reduced by 8% as compared with the original variety, but the heading date, culm length, panicle length and the number of panicles of the new variety were almost the same as those of the original variety. If compared with the old leading waxy variety, ''Shinano-mochi'', ''Miyuki-mochi'' is superior in yield by 15% and has high resistance to lodging and to rice blast. Seven other rice varieties were irradiated to obtain waxy mutants, and the frequency of R 1 panicles carrying waxy grains was found to be 1/10,000. There was marked difference in the 1,000 grain weight of these mutants relative to those of the respective original varieties and in amylose content among the waxy mutant strains. A new Saka-mai variety (for Sake brewing), ''Miyamanishiki'', was obtained from ''Takanenishiki'' (30 kR exposure of dry seeds). The most important character for Saka-mai is to have white-core grains. An experiment with several rice varieties showed that the frequency of white core grains was about 0.15% in the control and about 0.21% in the R 1 plants after irradiation. A desirable large grain strain, ''Shinho No. 12'', from ''Todorokiwase'', and a desirable mutant strain suitable as feed for domestic animals, ''Shinho No. 38'', from ''Toyonishiki'' were also obtained by gamma-ray irradiation. (Kaihara, S.)

  8. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Marker-assisted improvement of the elite restorer line of rice, RPHR ...

    V. ABHILASH KUMAR

    Introduction. Rice plays an important role in feeding the world's popula- ... requirement of the increasing population. This can be ... the gene has shown promising levels of durable resistance ... of fertility-linked alleles with respect to the major fertility restorer ..... in India. In Hybrid rice for food security, poverty alleviation and.

  10. Reducing Potential Disaster Impacts in Irrigated Rice Fields in West Java

    Sianturi, R.S.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing global population inevitably demands for stable food production. As an important food crop, rice plays a major role in maintaining food security. However, irrigated rice fields are increasingly suffered from natural hazard occurrences worldwide, disrupting livelihoods of millions of

  11. Genetic Architecture of Grain Chalk in Rice and Interactions with a Low Phytic Acid Locus

    Grain quality characteristics have a major impact on the value of the harvested rice crop. In addition to grain dimensions which determine rice grain market classes, translucent milled kernels are also important for assuring the highest grain quality and crop value. Over the last several years, ther...

  12. Blast densification trials for oilsands tailings

    Port, A. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martens, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Eaton, T. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Shell Canada Muskeg River Mine External Tailings Facility (ETF) is an upstream constructed tailings facility located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Raises have incrementally stepped out over the beach since construction of the starter dam and deposition within standing water has left some parts of the beach in a loose state. In order to assess the effectiveness of blast densification, a blast densification trial program that was conducted in 2006 at the ETF. The primary purpose of the test program was to determine the effectiveness of blast densification in tailings containing layers and zones of bitumen. The paper described the site characterization and explosive compaction trial program, with particular reference to test layout; drilling methodology; and blasting and timing sequence. The paper also described the instrumentation, including the seismographs; high pressure electric piezometers; low pressure electric piezometers; vibrating wire piezometers; inclinometers; settlement gauges; and surveys. Trial observations and post-trial observations were also presented. It was concluded that controlled blasting techniques could be used to safely induce liquefaction in localized areas within the tailings deposit, with a resulting increase in the tailings density. 5 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  13. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  14. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. Spalling is caused by the free surface reflection of the shock wave induced in the wall by high pressure air blast and occurs whenever the dynamic tensile rupture strength is exceeded. While a complex process, reasonable analytical spall estimates can be obtained for brittle materials with low tensile strengths, such as concrete, by assuming elastic material behavior and instantaneous spall formation. Specifically, the spall thicknesses and velocities for both normal and oblique incidence of the shock wave on the back face of the wall are calculated. The complex exponential decay wave forms of the air blast are locally approximated by simple power law expressions. Variations of blast wave strength with distance to the wall, charge weight and angle of incidence are taken into consideration. The shock wave decay in the wall is also accounted for by assuming elastic wave propagation. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. The spall predictions based on elastic theory are in overall agreement with experimntal results and provide a rapid means of estimating spalling trends of concrete walls subjected to air blast. (Auth.)

  15. Rice Production Vulnerability to Climate Change in Indonesia: An Overview on Community-based Adaptation

    Komaladara, A. A. S. P.; Budiasa, I. W.; Ambarawati, I. G. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rice remains to be a major crop and staple food in Indonesia. The task to ensure that rice production meets the demand of a growing population continues to engage the attention of national planners and policy makers. However, the adverse effects of climate change on agriculture production have presented Indonesia with yet another significant challenge. The exposure of rice crops to climate-related hazards such as temperature stress, floods, and drought, may lead to lower yield and self-sufficiency rate. This study explores the vulnerability of rice production to the effects of climate change in Indonesia. Considering the vast geographical span of the country and varying exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to climate change at regional level, this study emphasize the importance of community-based adaptation. Results from a simulation based on production and climate data from 1984 to 2014 indicates that rice production is sensitive to variation in growing season temperature and precipitation. A projection of these climate factors in 2050 has a significant impact on the major rice crop. To manage the impact of climate change, this study turns to the potential roles of farmer organizations, such as Subak, in adaptation strategies. The Subak in Bali is recognized for its cultural and organizational framework that highlights the sharing of knowledge and local wisdom in rice production. This is demonstrated by its efficient community-based irrigation management system, leading to sustainable rice production. Keywords: rice production, climate change, community-based adaptation, Indonesia

  16. Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation

    Thapat Silalertruksa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is a vital economic sector of many countries in Asia, including Thailand, with the well-being of people relying significantly on selling rice commodities. Water-intensive rice cultivation is facing the challenge of water scarcity. The study assessed the volumetric freshwater use and water scarcity footprint of the major and second rice cultivation systems in the Chao Phraya, Tha Chin, Mun, and Chi watersheds of Thailand. The results revealed that a wide range of freshwater use, i.e., 0.9–3.0 m3/kg of major rice and 0.9–2.3 m3/kg of second rice, and a high water use of rice was found among the watersheds in the northeastern region, like the Mun and Chi watersheds. However, the water scarcity footprint results showed that the second rice cultivation in watersheds, like in Chao Phraya and Tha Chin in the central region, need to be focused for improving the irrigation water use efficiency. The alternate wetting and drying (AWD method was found to be a promising approach for substituting the pre-germinated seed broadcasting system to enhance the water use efficiency of second rice cultivation in the central region. Recommendations vis-à-vis the use of the water stress index as a tool for agricultural zoning policy were also discussed.

  17. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  18. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    2010-07-01

    ... two working faces are approaching each other, cutting, drilling and blasting shall be done at only one... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1316 Preparation...

  19. Divide and Conquer (DC BLAST: fast and easy BLAST execution within HPC environments

    Won Cheol Yim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is currently faced with very large-scale data sets that lead to computational jobs, especially sequence similarity searches, that can take absurdly long times to run. For example, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST and BLAST+ suite, which is by far the most widely used tool for rapid similarity searching among nucleic acid or amino acid sequences, is highly central processing unit (CPU intensive. While the BLAST suite of programs perform searches very rapidly, they have the potential to be accelerated. In recent years, distributed computing environments have become more widely accessible and used due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing (HPC systems. Therefore, simple solutions for data parallelization are needed to expedite BLAST and other sequence analysis tools. However, existing software for parallel sequence similarity searches often requires extensive computational experience and skill on the part of the user. In order to accelerate BLAST and other sequence analysis tools, Divide and Conquer BLAST (DCBLAST was developed to perform NCBI BLAST searches within a cluster, grid, or HPC environment by using a query sequence distribution approach. Scaling from one (1 to 256 CPU cores resulted in significant improvements in processing speed. Thus, DCBLAST dramatically accelerates the execution of BLAST searches using a simple, accessible, robust, and parallel approach. DCBLAST works across multiple nodes automatically and it overcomes the speed limitation of single-node BLAST programs. DCBLAST can be used on any HPC system, can take advantage of hundreds of nodes, and has no output limitations. This freely available tool simplifies distributed computation pipelines to facilitate the rapid discovery of sequence similarities between very large data sets.

  20. Studies on the radiation drying method for grain, 2: A good drying method of paddy rice from the viewpoint of the drying rate and the crack generation of rice

    Horibe, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Tohjo, T.

    1990-01-01

    A drying rate of paddy rice in a solar heat drying plant was studied. Solar-heated air at the upper part of a plastic house was blasted to the surface of the layer of paddy rice which was piled on the floor of the house. The drying rate increased with higher wind velocity, but it was found that the velocity was limited to 6m/s by the crack generation of the paddy rice. The effects of the layer thickness, the number of layer agitations and the heat supplied on the drying rate at a given wind velocity (6m/s) were expressed with a multiple regression equation. Then, the equation positively proposed appropriate conditions for effective operation of the plant in fine days

  1. New techniques for improved performance in surface blasting operation and optimisation of blast design parameters

    Roy, P.P. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental blasts were conducted for optimisation of blasting parameters using separate technologies involving non-electric initiation systems, air decking accessories in conjunction with different explosive products like emulsion (cartridge and site-mixed), slurries (cartridge and site-mixed) and ANFO. The cost associated with each such technology was then compared with the conventional methods of drilling and blasting operations. The results of cost analyses are given. Theoretical and practical aspects of such technologies and their best possible usage in order to establish the desired fragmentation, muck profile, wall control and ultimately the accepted level of costs are mentioned in subsequent sections. 16 refs., 17 figs., 8 plates, 11 tabs.

  2. Agronomic and molecular evaluation of induced mutant rice (oryza sativa l.) lines in Egypt

    Sshehzad, T.; Allah, A.; Aallah, E.A.; Ammar, M.H.; Abdelkhalik, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted at the farm of the Rice Research and Training Center, Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2000-2007 rice sowing seasons. Five rice varieties viz., Giza 171, Giza 175, Giza 176, Giza 181 and GZ 1368 were the most widely grown Japonica and Indica types in Egypt during the last period, possesses at that time many positive agronomic characteristics including wide adaptability, high yield potential, tolerance to stresses and good eating quality. But with the passage of time it has lost its vigor. In Rice Research Program, Egypt, dry seeds of the above mentioned varieties were treated with different doses of gamma rays (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 Gy) for raising M1 generation. M1 plants were established by transplanting in the year 2000 season. One hundred independent lines have been advanced to M5 generation enabling evaluation of quantitative traits by replicated trials and promising lines were selected and tested in multi-location trials as M6, M7 and M8 generations. Morphological variations at vegetative and reproductive stages including plant type and various physiological characters were observed in the five populations. The mutant lines characteristics consisted of better resistance to lodging, blast disease, high yield potential, as well as early maturity. Results from yield trials and molecular assessments indicated that the mutants differed genetically from their parents. So, these mutants could be used as a donor parents in rice breeding program and some of them can be recommended as new rice varieties suitable for rice belt in Egypt. (author)

  3. The influence of soil water status on Oryza Sativa Var. MR220 in KADA rice agroecosystem

    Nashriyah Mat; Ismail Che Haron; Mazleha Maskin; Mohd Razi Ismail

    2006-01-01

    A study to determine the influence of soil water status on rice plant Oryza sativa var. MR220 after panicle initiation stage was carried out at Ladang Merdeka Mulong Lating in the Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA) area, Kelantan. Five water management treatments imposed on direct seeded rice were; T1. Continuous flooding, T2. Early flooding up to panicle initiation stage followed by saturated (F55-saturated), T3. Early flooding for the first month followed by saturated (F-30 saturated), T4. Continuous saturated, and T5. Continuous field capacity condition throughout the growth stage. The treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Results showed significant differences in soil moisture content in the order of T1>T2>T3>T4>T5. Significant differences were also observed in rice plant water content at 68 DAS (days after seeding) in the order of T2>T3>T4>T1>T5. Moisture content also showed significant differences between replicates in the order of R1>R2>R3>R4 and R2>R1>R3>R4; in rice plant and ricefield soil, respectively. Results however showed no significant difference in leaf stomatal conductance due to water stress. Rice plant moisture, soil moisture and leaf stomatal conductance showed no interaction. Published results show that even though overall crop yield was reduced by sheath blight and panicle blast incidence that occur at later stage in 2004-2005 field trials, highest grain yields were obtained from T2 (off season) and T4 (main season). Saturated condition seems to be the most suitable method of growing rice under minimal water input in KADA rice agroecosystem. (Author)

  4. Coincidence in map positions between pathogen-induced defense-responsive genes and quantitative resistance loci in rice

    熊敏; 王石平; 张启发

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative disease resistance conferred by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is presumably of wider spectrum and durable. Forty-four cDNA clones, representing 44 defense-responsive genes, were fine mapped to 56 loci distributed on 9 of the 12 rice chromosomes. The locations of 32 loci detected by 27 cDNA clones were associated with previously identified resistance QTLs for different rice diseases, including blast, bacterial blight, sheath blight and yellow mottle virus. The loci detected by the same multiple-copy cDNA clones were frequently located on similar locations of different chromosomes. Some of the multiple loci detected by the same clones were all associated with resistance QTLs. These results suggest that some of the genes may be important components in regulation of defense responses against pathogen invasion and they may be the candidates for studying the mechanism of quantitative disease resistance in rice.

  5. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  6. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  7. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  8. Evaluation of potential effects of soil available phosphorus on soil arsenic availability and paddy rice inorganic arsenic content.

    Jiang, Wei; Hou, Qingye; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhong, Cong; Zheng, Guodong; Yang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jie

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of arsenic from paddy field to rice is a major exposure route of the highly toxic element to humans. The aim of our study is to explore the effects of soil available phosphorus on As uptake by rice, and identify the effects of soil properties on arsenic transfer from soil to rice under actual field conditions. 56 pairs of topsoil and rice samples were collected. The relevant parameters in soil and the inorganic arsenic in rice grains were analyzed, and then all the results were treated by statistical methods. Results show that the main factors influencing the uptake by rice grain include soil pH and available phosphorus. The eventual impact of phosphorus is identified as the suppression of As uptake by rice grains. The competition for transporters from soil to roots between arsenic and phosphorus in rhizosphere soil has been a dominant feature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Evolutionary Basis of Naturally Diverse Rice Leaves Anatomy.

    Jolly Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Rice contains genetically and ecologically diverse wild and cultivated species that show a wide variation in plant and leaf architecture. A systematic characterization of leaf anatomy is essential in understanding the dynamics behind such diversity. Therefore, leaf anatomies of 24 Oryza species spanning 11 genetically diverse rice genomes were studied in both lateral and longitudinal directions and possible evolutionary trends were examined. A significant inter-species variation in mesophyll cells, bundle sheath cells, and vein structure was observed, suggesting precise genetic control over these major rice leaf anatomical traits. Cellular dimensions, measured along three growth axes, were further combined proportionately to construct three-dimensional (3D leaf anatomy models to compare the relative size and orientation of the major cell types present in a fully expanded leaf. A reconstruction of the ancestral leaf state revealed that the following are the major characteristics of recently evolved rice species: fewer veins, larger and laterally elongated mesophyll cells, with an increase in total mesophyll area and in bundle sheath cell number. A huge diversity in leaf anatomy within wild and domesticated rice species has been portrayed in this study, on an evolutionary context, predicting a two-pronged evolutionary pathway leading to the 'sativa leaf type' that we see today in domesticated species.

  10. Drilling-and-blasting method of demolition

    Sinitsyn Denis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the experience and gives the examples of dismantling and demolition of the construction structures of the buildings and facilities using the drilling-and-blasting method. The drilling-and-blasting method is widely used in construction and reconstruction. The demolition means may be classified according to impact on a material of structures to be demolished and to forces application, where, by virtue of an impact energy type, we choose the blasting method. This method is used during the complete demolition or fragmentation of concrete, reinforced concrete, masonry structures, of old buildings and facilities demolition to their base or in the intended direction. Blasting method may be used as well during the steel and reinforced concrete structures demolition to the smaller easy-to-move parts. Reviewed are the organizational-process activities, which are performed during the various structures dismantling. Given are the areas of application for the various methods of structures demolition. Given is the example of demolition of “Sevemaya” boiler house brick chimney at the territory of Murmansk DSK using the blast in confined spaces of the operating company. Subject of research: methods of construction structures demolition in alarm situations and acts of God. Objects: determination of the most efficient demolition methods in the present conditions of construction operations development. Materials and methods: the developed activities on the construction structures dismantling are given. Results: the most efficient methods and ways of construction structures demolition are defined. Conclusions: it is required for improvement of methods and ways of the structures drilling-and-blasting demolition.

  11. Azolla planting reduces methane emission and nitrogen fertilizer application in double rice cropping system in southern China

    Xu, Heshui; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jingna

    2017-01-01

    Rice paddies are a major source of methane. How to reduce the methane emission in the paddy field without decreasing the yield has become a major concern of scientists, environmental groups, and agricultural policymakers worldwide. Azolla, used as a dual crop in rice cultivation, has multiple agr...

  12. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Photodegradation of clothianidin under simulated California rice field conditions.

    Mulligan, Rebecca A; Redman, Zachary C; Keener, Megan R; Ball, David B; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2016-07-01

    Photodegradation can be a major route of dissipation for pesticides applied to shallow rice field water, leading to diminished persistence and reducing the risk of offsite transport. The objective of this study was to characterize the aqueous-phase photodegradation of clothianidin under simulated California rice field conditions. Photodegradation of clothianidin was characterized in deionized, Sacramento River and rice field water samples. Pseudo-first-order rate constants and DT50 values in rice field water (mean k = 0.0158 min(-1) ; mean DT50 = 18.0 equivalent days) were significantly slower than in deionized water (k = 0.0167 min(-1) ; DT50 = 14.7 equivalent days) and river water (k = 0.0146 min(-1) ; DT50 = 16.6 equivalent days) samples. Quantum yield ϕc values demonstrate that approximately 1 and 0.5% of the light energy absorbed results in photochemical transformation in pure and field water respectively. Concentrations of the photodegradation product thiazolymethylurea in aqueous photolysis samples were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and accounted for ≤17% in deionized water and ≤8% in natural water. Photodegradation rates of clothianidin in flooded rice fields will be controlled by turbidity and light attenuation. Aqueous-phase photodegradation may reduce the risk of offsite transport of clothianidin from flooded rice fields (via drainage) and mitigate exposure to non-target organisms. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR

    Fen Lu; Huiqin Wang; Shanzhi Wang; Wendi Jiang; Changlin Shan; Bin Li; Jun Yang; Shiyong Zhang; Wenxian Sun

    2015-01-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifical y recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cel cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activa-tion in the AtEFR transgenic rice cel s and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatical y in transgenic rice plant and cel lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 trig-gered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Col ectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots.

  15. Spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading

    Foglar M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcomes of the blast field tests of FRC and reinforced concrete specimens, which were performed in cooperation with the Czech Army corps and Police of the Czech Republic in the military training area Boletice. The numerical evaluation of the experiments focused on the spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading started after the first set of the tests, took almost 3 years and required further small-scale experiments performed in the labs of the Czech Technical University.

  16. Implementations of BLAST for parallel computers.

    Jülich, A

    1995-02-01

    The BLAST sequence comparison programs have been ported to a variety of parallel computers-the shared memory machine Cray Y-MP 8/864 and the distributed memory architectures Intel iPSC/860 and nCUBE. Additionally, the programs were ported to run on workstation clusters. We explain the parallelization techniques and consider the pros and cons of these methods. The BLAST programs are very well suited for parallelization for a moderate number of processors. We illustrate our results using the program blastp as an example. As input data for blastp, a 799 residue protein query sequence and the protein database PIR were used.

  17. Dry blasting decontaminating method for radioactive waste

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In the present invention, when abrasives are dry blasted on the surface of radioactive wastes and the recovered abrasives are classified for re-use, abrasives having a microvicker's hardness (HMV) of greater than 600 and a grain size of greater than 1mm are used in a case where the radioactive wastes to be abraded are stainless steels. This enables dry blasting decontamination for stainless steels which has been considered to be impossible. In addition since the amount of secondary wastes are reduced, it is extremely effective. (T.M.)

  18. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  19. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  20. Deciphering the Environmental Impacts on Rice Quality for Different Rice Cultivated Areas.

    Li, Xiukun; Wu, Lian; Geng, Xin; Xia, Xiuhong; Wang, Xuhong; Xu, Zhengjin; Xu, Quan

    2018-01-19

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in a wide range of climatic conditions, and is one of mankind's major staple foods. The interaction of environmental factors with genotype effects major agronomic traits such as yield, quality, and resistance in rice. However, studies on the environmental factors affecting agronomic traits are often difficult to conduct because most environmental factors are dynamic and constantly changing. A series of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an indica/japonica cross were planted into four typical rice cultivated areas arranging from latitude N22° to N42°. The environmental data from the heading to mature (45 days) stages were recorded for each RIL in the four areas. We determined that light, temperature, and humidity significantly affected the milling quality and cooking quality overall the four areas. Within each area, these environmental factors mainly affected the head rice ratio, grain length, alkali consumption, and amylose and protein content. Moreover, the effect of these environmental factors dynamically changed from heading to mature stage. Compared to light and humidity, temperature was more stable and predictable, and night temperature showed a stronger correlation efficiency to cooking quality than day temperature, and the daily temperature range had contrary effects compared to day and night temperature on grain quality. The present study evaluated the critical phase during the grain filling stage by calculating the dynamic changes of correlation efficiency between the quality traits and climate parameters. Our findings suggest that the sowing date could be adjusted to improve rice quality so as to adjust for environmental changes.

  1. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  2. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  3. Low-cost blast wave generator for studies of hearing loss and brain injury: blast wave effects in closed spaces.

    Newman, Andrew J; Hayes, Sarah H; Rao, Abhiram S; Allman, Brian L; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C; Salvi, Richard

    2015-03-15

    Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198dB SPL (159.3kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188dB peak SPL (50.4kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural dynamic and resistance to nuclear air blast

    Qureshi, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    A need exists to design protective shelters attached to specialized facilities against nuclear airbursts, explosive shocks and impacting projectiles. Designing such structures against nuclear and missile impact is a challenging task that needs to be looked into for design methodology formulation and practicability. Structures can be designed for overpressure pulsed generated by a nuclear explosion as well as the scabbing and perforation/punching of an impacting projectile. This paper discuses and formulates the methods of dynamic analysis and design required to undertake such a task. Structural resistance to peak overpressure pulse for a 20 KT weapons and smaller tactical nuclear weapons of 1 KT (16 psi, overpressure) size as a direct air blast overpressure has been considered in design of walls, beams and slabs of a special structure under review. The design of shear reinforcement as lacing is also carried out. Adopting the philosophy of strengthening and hardening can minimize the effect of air blast overpressure and projectile impact. The objective is to avoid a major structural failure. The structure then needs to be checked against ballistic penetration by a range of weapons or be required to resist explosive penetration from the charge detonated in contact with the structure. There is also a dire need to formulate protective guidelines for all existing and future critical facilities. (author)

  5. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  6. A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

    2014-01-01

    Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit.

  7. Blast noise classification with common sound level meter metrics.

    Cvengros, Robert M; Valente, Dan; Nykaza, Edward T; Vipperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-08-01

    A common set of signal features measurable by a basic sound level meter are analyzed, and the quality of information carried in subsets of these features are examined for their ability to discriminate military blast and non-blast sounds. The analysis is based on over 120 000 human classified signals compiled from seven different datasets. The study implements linear and Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) support vector machines (SVM) to classify blast sounds. Using the orthogonal centroid dimension reduction technique, intuition is developed about the distribution of blast and non-blast feature vectors in high dimensional space. Recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is then used to eliminate features containing redundant information and rank features according to their ability to separate blasts from non-blasts. Finally, the accuracy of the linear and RBF SVM classifiers is listed for each of the experiments in the dataset, and the weights are given for the linear SVM classifier.

  8. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

    Guohui eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  9. Identification of rice supply chain risk to DKI Jakarta through Cipinang primary rice market

    Sugiarto, D.; Ariwibowo, A.; Mardianto, I.; Surjasa, D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper identifies several sources of risks in DKI Jakarta rice supply chain that through Cipinang Primary Rice Market (CPRM). Secondary data from several sources were collected and analysed using pareto chart and time series analysis. Based on the pareto analysis, it was known that there was a change in the order of suppliers whereas in 2011, 80% of the supply came only from Cirebon, Karawang and Bandung (West Java Province). While in 2015 the main source of supply changed to Cirebon, Central Java and Karawang. Linear trend equation using decomposition model for Cirebon and Karawang showed trend of decreasing monthly supply while Central Java had a positive trend. Harvest area of wetland paddy in Cirebon and Karawang showed a negative trend in the last 6 years. The data also showed that West Java Province was the province with the largest rice crop area affected by plant organism attack and drought disaster in 2015. DKI Jakarta had several potential supply chain risks from rice supply, drought risk and pests risk where the province of West Java, which previously could become a major supplier began to require supply assistance from other provinces, especially Central Java.

  10. Proteomic analysis of seed storage proteins in wild rice species of the Oryza genus.

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tengqiong; Zhong, Qiaofang; Shen, J Qingxi; Huang, Xingqi

    2014-01-01

    The total protein contents of rice seeds are significantly higher in the three wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon Grill., Oryza officinalis Wall. and Oryza meyeriana Baill.) than in the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is still no report regarding a systematic proteomic analysis of seed proteins in the wild rice species. Also, the relationship between the contents of seed total proteins and rice nutritional quality has not been thoroughly investigated. The total seed protein contents, especially the glutelin contents, of the three wild rice species were higher than those of the two cultivated rice materials. Based on the protein banding patterns of SDS-PAGE, O. rufipogon was similar to the two cultivated rice materials, followed by O. officinalis, while O. meyeriana exhibited notable differences. Interestingly, O. meyeriana had high contents of glutelin and low contents of prolamine, and lacked 26 kDa globulin band and appeared a new 28 kDa protein band. However, for O. officinali a 16 kDa protein band was absent and a row of unique 32 kDa proteins appeared. In addition, we found that 13 kDa prolamine band disappeared while special 14 kDa and 12 kDa protein bands were present in O. officinalis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis revealed remarkable differences in protein profiles of the wild rice species and the two cultivated rice materials. Also, the numbers of detected protein spots of the three wild rice species were significantly higher than those of two cultivated rice. A total of 35 differential protein spots were found for glutelin acidic subunits, glutelin precursors and glutelin basic subunits in wild rice species. Among those, 18 protein spots were specific and 17 major spots were elevated. Six differential protein spots for glutelin acidic subunits were identified, including a glutelin type-A 2 precursor and five hypothetical proteins. This was the first report on proteomic analysis of the three wild rice species

  11. Development and assessment of a lysophospholipid-based deep learning model to discriminate geographical origins of white rice.

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Lim, Dong Kyu; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-17

    Geographical origin determination of white rice has become the major issue of food industry. However, there is still lack of a high-throughput method for rapidly and reproducibly differentiating the geographical origins of commercial white rice. In this study, we developed a method that employed lipidomics and deep learning to discriminate white rice from Korea to China. A total of 126 white rice of 30 cultivars from different regions were utilized for the method development and validation. By using direct infusion-mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics, 17 lysoglycerophospholipids were simultaneously characterized within minutes per sample. Unsupervised data exploration showed a noticeable overlap of white rice between two countries. In addition, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) were prominent in white rice from Korea while lysophosphatidylethanolamines (lysoPEs) were enriched in white rice from China. A deep learning prediction model was built using 2014 white rice and validated using two different batches of 2015 white rice. The model accurately discriminated white rice from two countries. Among 10 selected predictors, lysoPC(18:2), lysoPC(14:0), and lysoPE(16:0) were the three most important features. Random forest and gradient boosting machine models also worked well in this circumstance. In conclusion, this study provides an architecture for high-throughput classification of white rice from different geographical origins.

  12. Using NOAA/AVHRR based remote sensing data and PCR method for estimation of Aus rice yield in Bangladesh

    Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Akhand, Kawsar; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Rice is a dominant food crop of Bangladesh accounting about 75 percent of agricultural land use for rice cultivation and currently Bangladesh is the world's fourth largest rice producing country. Rice provides about two-third of total calorie supply and about one-half of the agricultural GDP and one-sixth of the national income in Bangladesh. Aus is one of the main rice varieties in Bangladesh. Crop production, especially rice, the main food staple, is the most susceptible to climate change and variability. Any change in climate will, thus, increase uncertainty regarding rice production as climate is major cause year-to-year variability in rice productivity. This paper shows the application of remote sensing data for estimating Aus rice yield in Bangladesh using official statistics of rice yield with real time acquired satellite data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and Principal Component Regression (PCR) method was used to construct a model. The simulated result was compared with official agricultural statistics showing that the error of estimation of Aus rice yield was less than 10%. Remote sensing, therefore, is a valuable tool for estimating crop yields well in advance of harvest, and at a low cost.

  13. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  14. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  15. Persistence of malathion residues in stored milled rice: Direct and indirect applications

    Arshad, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out: (i) to study the persistence of malathion residues in stored milled rice following multiple applications of 14 C-malathion to the bagged rice and (ii) to determine the degradation of malathion in stored milled rice and stored paddy following direct and single application of 14 C-malathion. The storage conditions were similar to those found in the local rice godowns. Three applications of malathion to the bagged milled rice resulted in the accumulation of malathion and its metabolites in and/or on the rice grains over the storage period. After 9 months' storage, ca. 4% of the total applied radioactivity, which amounted to 10 μg/g equivalent of 14 C residues, were found in and/or on the grains. About one fourth of the residue remained as the unchanged parent compound. On the other hand, when 14 C-malathion at the 10 ppm level was mixed directly with the milled rice or paddy prior to storage, the amount of malathion (recovered in the chloroform extracts) decreased from 6.2 μg/g at zero time to 2.9 μg/g after 3 months' storage for the milled rice samples. The major metabolite in the milled rice and paddy samples was malathion monocarboxylic acid with trace amounts of malathion dicarboxylic acid and malaoxon. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  16. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice

    Ye Wenling; Khan, M. Asaduzzaman; McGrath, Steve P.; Zhao Fangjie

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in food crops such as rice is of major concern. To investigate whether phytoremediation can reduce As uptake by rice, the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was grown in five contaminated paddy soils in a pot experiment. Over a 9-month period P. vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total soil As, and decreased phosphate-extractable As and soil pore water As by 11-38% and 18-77%, respectively. Rice grown following P. vittata had significantly lower As concentrations in straw and grain, being 17-82% and 22-58% of those in the control, respectively. Phytoremediation also resulted in significant changes in As speciation in rice grain by greatly decreasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In two soils the concentration of inorganic As in rice grain was decreased by 50-58%. The results demonstrate an effective stripping of bioavailable As from contaminated paddy soils thus reducing As uptake by rice. - Highlights: → Pteris vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total As from five contaminated paddy soils. → P. vittata decreased phosphate-extractable and soil solution As to a greater extent. → P. vittata reduced As concentration in rice grain by 18-83%. → P. vittata decreased methylated As in rice grain more than inorganic As. - Phytoremediation with P. vittata significantly reduced arsenic uptake by rice from contaminated paddy soils.

  17. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    Simon Swapna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000, and followed by the pot planted experiments in the rain-out-zone. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, relative water content, cell membrane stability, photosynthetic pigments, proline content, along with plant growth parameters of the varieties under drought condition were evaluated. Moreover, the standard scores of these rice varieties were assessed under stress and recovery conditions based on the scoring scale of the Standard Evaluation System for rice. Among the 42 rice varieties, we identified 2 rice varieties, Swarnaprabha and Kattamodan, with less leaf rolling, better drought recovery ability as well as relative water content, increased membrane stability index, osmolyte accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities pointed towards their degree of tolerance to drought stress. The positive adaptive responses of these rice varieties towards drought stress can be used in the genetic improvement of rice drought resistance breeding program.

  18. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice

    Ye Wenling [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Khan, M. Asaduzzaman [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207 (Bangladesh); McGrath, Steve P. [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhao Fangjie, E-mail: Fangjie.Zhao@bbsrc.ac.uk [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in food crops such as rice is of major concern. To investigate whether phytoremediation can reduce As uptake by rice, the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata was grown in five contaminated paddy soils in a pot experiment. Over a 9-month period P. vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total soil As, and decreased phosphate-extractable As and soil pore water As by 11-38% and 18-77%, respectively. Rice grown following P. vittata had significantly lower As concentrations in straw and grain, being 17-82% and 22-58% of those in the control, respectively. Phytoremediation also resulted in significant changes in As speciation in rice grain by greatly decreasing the concentration of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In two soils the concentration of inorganic As in rice grain was decreased by 50-58%. The results demonstrate an effective stripping of bioavailable As from contaminated paddy soils thus reducing As uptake by rice. - Highlights: > Pteris vittata removed 3.5-11.4% of the total As from five contaminated paddy soils. > P. vittata decreased phosphate-extractable and soil solution As to a greater extent. > P. vittata reduced As concentration in rice grain by 18-83%. > P. vittata decreased methylated As in rice grain more than inorganic As. - Phytoremediation with P. vittata significantly reduced arsenic uptake by rice from contaminated paddy soils.

  19. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  20. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  1. Consideration on local blast vibration control by delay blasting; Danpatsu happa ni yoru kyokuchiteki shindo seigyo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Mogi, Gento; Adachi, Tsuyoshi; Yamatomi, Jiro [The University of Tokyo School of Engineering Department of Geosystem Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, Tatsuya [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-31

    In this research, local blast vibration control based on the theory of superposition of waves was investigated. Firstly, the influence of delay time errors of conventional electric detonators upon the level of local blast vibration was examined. Secondly, for a further effective local blast vibration control, a new delay blasting design concept 'combined delay blasting' that postulates the use of electronic detonators, which virtually have no delay time errors, is proposed. For a delay blasting with uniform detonation time intervals, an optimum time interval to minimize the local PPV (Peak Particle Velocity) is obtained based on the relationship between the PPV and the time interval, which is derived by superposing identical vibration time histories of each single hole shot. However, due to the scattering of the actual delay time caused by errors, PPV of a production blast seldom coincides with the estimated one. Since the expected value and the variance of PPV mainly depend on sensitivity of PPV around the nominal delay time, it is proposed that not only the optimum but also several sub-optimum candidates of delay time should be examined taking error into consideration. Concerning the 'combined delay blasting', its concept and some simulation results are presented. The estimated reduction effect of blast vibration of a delay blast based on this concept was quite favorable, indicating a possibility for further effective local blast vibration control. (author)

  2. Decontamination of surfaces by blasting with crystals of H2O and CO2

    Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy during the 1990s is site and environmental cleanup. In pursuit of this mission, numerous remediation projects are under way and many others are being planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this report, tests using two proposed methods for decontaminating surfaces one using water ice crystals [Crystalline Ice Blast (CIB)], the other using dry ice crystals (CO 2 Cleanblast trademark) -- are described. Both methods are adaptations of the commonly used sand blasting technology. The two methods tested differ from sand blasting in that the particles are not particularly abrasive and do not accumulate as particles in the wastes. They differ from each other in that the CO 2 particles sublime during and after impact and the ice particles melt. Thus, the two demonstrations provide important information about two strong candidate decontamination methodologies. Each process was tested at ORNL using contaminated lead bricks and contaminated tools and equipment. Demonstrations with the prototype Crystalline Ice Blast and the CO 2 Cleanblast systems showed that paint, grease, and oil can be removed from metal, plastic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces. Furthermore, removal of contamination from lead bricks was highly effective. Both processes were found to be less effective, under the conditions tested, with contaminated tools and equipment that had chemically bonded contamination or contamination located in crevices since neither technology abrades the substrates or penetrates deeply into crevices to remove particulates. Some process improvements are recommended

  3. Breeding for earliness, high yield and disease resistance in rice by means of induced mutations

    Haq, M S; Ali, S M; Maniruzzaman, A F.M.; Mansur, A; Islam, R [Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Pakistan)

    1970-03-01

    Ten varieties of Boro, Aus and Aman rice were treated with 30 kR of gamma rays from the 500-Ci {sup 60}Co source of the Atomic Energy Centre of Dacca. In addition, two rice varieties were treated with EMS and dES. To suppress tillering, the seeds were sown late and at a high seed rate. 300 normal-looking fertile M{sub 1} plants from each variety were harvested at random. The M{sub 2} progenies were sown on a plant-to-row basis to select for high yield, earliness, blast resistance and response to large doses of nitrogen fertilizer. Characters like plant height, number of tillers, fertile tillers, length of panicle and time from sowing to maturity were checked. As the results showed great variability in the mutagen-treated material the chances for successful selection are promising. (author)

  4. Breeding of Hangtian 36-an early-maturing variety of japonica rice by space mutation technique

    Wang Junmin; Luo Rongting; Bao Genliang; Zhang Mingxian; Xu Jianlong; Wu Wei

    2007-01-01

    Hangtian 36; an early-maturing late Japonica rice variety with high grain quality and disease resistance was developed from the mutagenesis progeny of Bing 1067 carried by the recoverable satellite. Hangtian 36 has advantages over the original variety Bing 1067 in mature duration, grain quality and blast resistance. It has strong tolerant ability to late sow, varying from sowing date of single cropping to the end of July. So it is an ideal variety suitable for the use of emergency situation, such as in the natural disaster year resulting from typhoon. This variety was officially registered by Zhejiang Committee on Variety Registration in 2006, and is adaptable in the region of Zhejiang province and the Yangtze River delta. The successful breeding of Hangtian 36 showed that space mutation is an effective method of simultaneous improvement for multiple traits of rice. (authors)

  5. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn. Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses.

    M Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of

  6. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses.

    Ramakrishnan, M; Antony Ceasar, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Vinod, K K; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N A; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  7. 8 Museve NBI BombBlast.indd

    Professionals, executives, managers, semi professionals and skilled workers comprised 89.5% of the victims when ... dependants. Being inside a building and within 100 metres from the blast carried the largest risk of injury. A ... Kenya had never experienced a suicidal terrorist bombing ..... Rapid assessment of Injuries.

  8. Ice blasting device for washing pump

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, when the inside of a pump casing such as a recycling pump is scrubbed, since operator's safety should be ensured, it requires a large-scaled operation. Then, a cover is attached to a flange of the pump casing, in which a driving portion is disposed passing through the cover vertically movably and rotatably, an arm is disposed bendably to the top end of the arm, and a blast nozzle is disposed to the top end of the arm for jetting ice particles, with a camera being disposed to the blast nozzle. The inside of the casing can be scrubbed safely and rapidly by an ice blast method by remote operation while monitoring the state of scrubbing for the inside of the casing by a camera. Further, since the flange of the pump casing for installing the ice blast device is covered by the cover, mists are not scattered to the outside. In addition, mists may be sucked and removed by an exhaustion duct. (N.H.)

  9. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  10. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.

  11. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies

  12. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    2010-07-01

    ...) After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine, the leading wires shall be immediately... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting...

  13. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  14. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    El-Hissewy, A.A.; Abd Allah, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  15. Effect of Neem Seed Kernel Extracts in the Management of Rice ...

    user

    conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of neem seed kernel ... sustainable production of rice and are generally not affordable to African peasant farmers. ... system where the use of natural enemies are being emphasized as a major ...

  16. Allele mining across DREB1A and DREB1B in diverse rice ...

    Low temperature stress is one of the major limiting factors affecting rice productivity in higher altitudes. DREB1A and ..... to isolate useful alleles from related genotypes. A total of ... work also suggests that DREB induction and cold response.

  17. Molecular Basis on Nitrogen Utilization in Rice(Recent Topics of the Agricultunal Biological Science in Tohoku University)

    Toshihiko, HAYAKAWA; Soichi, KOJIMA; Mayumi, TABUCHI; Toru, KUDO; Tomoyuki, YAMAYA; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University

    2008-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major provision for half of the world population and is the important model crop in terms of synteny. Nitrogen is a massive prerequisite element for rice during its life span. During evolutionary processes, rice has acquired strategic systems of nitrogen metabolism for the survival, i.e., the highly efficient ammonium assimilation in roots and nitrogen remobilization (nitrogen recycling). In our laboratory, research is underway to elucidate molecular mechanisms, ...

  18. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    Workman, J.L.; Fletcher, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  19. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  20. Role of cooperative companies in sustainable rice production and ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... poverty in Guilan state of Iran, thus cooperative companies should be organized and supported by government. Key words: Cooperative companies, rural households, rice, income, employment. INTRODUCTION. Almost half ... education and trainnig, neglect of agriculture and low investment are major ...

  1. EVALUATION OF SOME RICE GENOTYPES FOR INCIDENCE OF ...

    African rice gall midge (AfRGM), Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagne, is one of the major ... TOG 7106 a induit le niveau le plus élevé de résistance parmi toutes les ..... Percentage tiller infestation. Field test. 0. No damage. 1. Less than 1 %. 3.

  2. Organic rice IPM research update in the United States

    U.S. organic rice production has steadily increased over the past decade, with a majority of the acreage being grown in the southern region. Because of the warm and humid environments and the long growing season in the region, weed, disease and insect pests are among the primary factors limiting org...

  3. Linkage Mechanisms among key Actors in Rice Innovation System ...

    In assessment of linkage mechanisms among key actors in rice innovation system in southeast Nigeria, actors were classified into six major groups according to their main activity in the system namely research agency, policy personnel, technology transfer agencies, farmers, marketers and consumers. These constituted the ...

  4. Some Physco-thermal properties of Rice Bran | Obetta | Global ...

    Some of these properties were combined for study on their effect on thermal conductivity which was one of the thermal properties studied. Mean values of the thermal conductivity determined ranged from 0.2456 to 0.5764 W/m oC depending on the moisture content of the raw rice bran and the variety. The two major varieties ...

  5. Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces

    Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section

  6. Concepts and strategies for clinical management of blast-induced traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2013-01-01

    After exposure of the human body to blast, kinetic energy of the blast shock waves might be transferred into hydraulic energy in the cardiovascular system to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of blood (a volumetric blood surge). The volumetric blood surge moves through blood vessels from the high-pressure body cavity to the low-pressure cranial cavity, causing damage to tiny cerebral blood vessels and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Large-scale cerebrovascular insults and BBB damage that occur globally throughout the brain may be the main causes of non-impact, blast-induced brain injuries, including the spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The volumetric blood surge may be a major contributor not only to blast-induced brain injuries resulting from physical trauma, but may also be the trigger to psychiatric disorders resulting from emotional and psychological trauma. Clinical imaging technologies, which are able to detect tiny cerebrovascular insults, changes in blood flow, and cerebral edema, may help diagnose both TBI and PTSD in the victims exposed to blasts. Potentially, prompt medical treatment aiming at prevention of secondary neuronal damage may slow down or even block the cascade of events that lead to progressive neuronal damage and subsequent long-term neurological and psychiatric impairment.

  7. A Novel Approach for Blast-Induced Flyrock Prediction Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

    Marto, Aminaton; Jahed Armaghani, Danial; Tonnizam Mohamad, Edy; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir

    2014-01-01

    Flyrock is one of the major disturbances induced by blasting which may cause severe damage to nearby structures. This phenomenon has to be precisely predicted and subsequently controlled through the changing in the blast design to minimize potential risk of blasting. The scope of this study is to predict flyrock induced by blasting through a novel approach based on the combination of imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and artificial neural network (ANN). For this purpose, the parameters of 113 blasting operations were accurately recorded and flyrock distances were measured for each operation. By applying the sensitivity analysis, maximum charge per delay and powder factor were determined as the most influential parameters on flyrock. In the light of this analysis, two new empirical predictors were developed to predict flyrock distance. For a comparison purpose, a predeveloped backpropagation (BP) ANN was developed and the results were compared with those of the proposed ICA-ANN model and empirical predictors. The results clearly showed the superiority of the proposed ICA-ANN model in comparison with the proposed BP-ANN model and empirical approaches. PMID:25147856

  8. A Novel Approach for Blast-Induced Flyrock Prediction Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

    Aminaton Marto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flyrock is one of the major disturbances induced by blasting which may cause severe damage to nearby structures. This phenomenon has to be precisely predicted and subsequently controlled through the changing in the blast design to minimize potential risk of blasting. The scope of this study is to predict flyrock induced by blasting through a novel approach based on the combination of imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA and artificial neural network (ANN. For this purpose, the parameters of 113 blasting operations were accurately recorded and flyrock distances were measured for each operation. By applying the sensitivity analysis, maximum charge per delay and powder factor were determined as the most influential parameters on flyrock. In the light of this analysis, two new empirical predictors were developed to predict flyrock distance. For a comparison purpose, a predeveloped backpropagation (BP ANN was developed and the results were compared with those of the proposed ICA-ANN model and empirical predictors. The results clearly showed the superiority of the proposed ICA-ANN model in comparison with the proposed BP-ANN model and empirical approaches.

  9. Primary Blast-Induced Changes in Akt and GSK3β Phosphorylation in Rat Hippocampus

    Yushan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast from improvised explosive devices has been a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the mechanisms of primary blast-induced TBI are not well understood. The Akt signal transduction pathway has been implicated in various brain pathologies including TBI. In the present study, the effects of simulated primary blast waves on the phosphorylation status of Akt and its downstream effector kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β, in rat hippocampus, were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (350–400 g were exposed to a single pulse shock wave (25 psi; ~7 ms duration and sacrificed 1 day, 1 week, or 6 weeks after exposure. Total and phosphorylated Akt, as well as phosphorylation of its downstream effector kinase GSK3β (at serine 9, were detected with western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results showed that Akt phosphorylation at both serine 473 and threonine 308 was increased 1 day after blast on the ipsilateral side of the hippocampus, and this elevation persisted until at least 6 weeks postexposure. Similarly, phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9, which inhibits GSK3β activity, was also increased starting at 1 day and persisted until at least 6 weeks after primary blast on the ipsilateral side. In contrast, p-Akt was increased at 1 and 6 weeks on the contralateral side, while p-GSK3β was increased 1 day and 1 week after primary blast exposure. No significant changes in total protein levels of Akt and GSK were observed on either side of the hippocampus at any time points. Immunohistochemical results showed that increased p-Akt was mainly of neuronal origin in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and once phosphorylated, the majority was translocated to the dendritic and plasma membranes. Finally, electrophysiological data showed that evoked synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor activity was

  10. Development of a Continuous Drill and Blast Tunneling Concept, Phase II

    1974-05-01

    A spiral drilling pattern is described which offers high efficiency drill and blast tunnelling via frequent small blasts rather than occasional large blasts. Design work is presented for a machine which would stay at the face to provide essentially c...

  11. 77 FR 31878 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting...

    2012-05-30

    ... requirements designed to protect covered employees working with and around blasting operations. Inventories of... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting Operations and Use of Explosives Standard ACTION: Notice... (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Blasting Operations and Use of...

  12. A salivary EF-hand calcium-binding protein of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens functions as an effector for defense responses in rice

    Ye, Wenfeng; Yu, Haixin; Jian, Yukun; Zeng, Jiamei; Ji, Rui; Chen, Hongdan; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (St?l) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca2+-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice ...

  13. The use of HANDIDET reg-sign non-electric detonator assemblies to reduce blast-induced overpressure at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory

    Onagi, D.P.; Keith, S.G.; Kuzyk, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    A number of aspects of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal are being assessed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in a series of experiments at its Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. One of the major objectives of the work being carried out at the URL is to develop and evaluate the methods and technology to ensure safe, permanent disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. In 1994, AECL excavated access tunnels and a laboratory room for the Quarried Block Fracture Migration Experiment (QBFME) at the 240 Level of the URL. This facility will be used to study the transport of radionuclides in natural fractures in quarried blocks of granite under in-situ groundwater conditions. The experiment is being carried out under a cooperative agreement with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The excavation of the QBFME access tunnels and laboratory was carried out using controlled blasting techniques that minimized blast-induced overpressure which could have damaged or interrupted other ongoing experiments in the vicinity. The majority of the blasts used conventional long delay non-electric detonators but a number of blasts were carried out using HANDIDET 250/6000 non-electric long delay detonator assemblies and HTD reg-sign non-electric short delay trunkline detonator assemblies. The tunnel and laboratory excavation was monitored to determine the levels of blast-induced overpressure. This paper describes the blasting and monitoring results of the blasts using HANDIDET non-electric detonator assemblies and the effectiveness of these detonators in reducing blast-induced overpressure

  14. The use of HANDIDET{reg_sign} non-electric detonator assemblies to reduce blast-induced overpressure at AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory

    Onagi, D.P.; Keith, S.G.; Kuzyk, G.W. [AECL, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Underground Research Lab.; Proudfoot, D.F. [ICI Explosives Canada, North Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    A number of aspects of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal are being assessed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in a series of experiments at its Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. One of the major objectives of the work being carried out at the URL is to develop and evaluate the methods and technology to ensure safe, permanent disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste. In 1994, AECL excavated access tunnels and a laboratory room for the Quarried Block Fracture Migration Experiment (QBFME) at the 240 Level of the URL. This facility will be used to study the transport of radionuclides in natural fractures in quarried blocks of granite under in-situ groundwater conditions. The experiment is being carried out under a cooperative agreement with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The excavation of the QBFME access tunnels and laboratory was carried out using controlled blasting techniques that minimized blast-induced overpressure which could have damaged or interrupted other ongoing experiments in the vicinity. The majority of the blasts used conventional long delay non-electric detonators but a number of blasts were carried out using HANDIDET 250/6000 non-electric long delay detonator assemblies and HTD{reg_sign} non-electric short delay trunkline detonator assemblies. The tunnel and laboratory excavation was monitored to determine the levels of blast-induced overpressure. This paper describes the blasting and monitoring results of the blasts using HANDIDET non-electric detonator assemblies and the effectiveness of these detonators in reducing blast-induced overpressure.

  15. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  16. Safety management system during rock blasting at FRFCF construction site

    Vijayakumaran, C.; Kandasamy, S.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Blasting is an important activity during rock excavation to reach required depth for obtaining stability of the civil structure. For the construction of various Plant Buildings of Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF), IGCAR at Kalpakkam, based on the geological survey it is required to reach a depth of 21.4 meters from existing ground level. This paper details about the procedures and precaution adopted during the rock blasting activities at FRFCF site. The volume of rock removed by blasting was 3 lakh cubic meters. The total number of blasting carried out was 304 using 105.73 tons of blasting material. The entire blasting work could be completed within 174 days without any incident. (author)

  17. Speciation of Six-Arsenic Species of Rice in Korea by HPLC/ICPMS

    Kim J.Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Determination of arsenic (As speciation in rice is necessary because inorganic As species are more toxic than organic As. Arsenic levels of rice in Korea were determined by microwave extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The extraction method showed a high recovery and low Limit of Detection (LOD and Limit of Quantitation (LOQ. Most of the As species in rice were noticed to be inorganic [Arsenite (AsIII, Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA]. The percentage of inorganic As/total As is 69.01 % (36.40-87.86 %. Arsenite and DMA were the major compounds in rice in Korea when compare to U.S. rice. The order and percentage of As species showed were AsIII (56-70 %>DMA (23-38 %>AsV (5 %>MMA(1 %.

  18. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, control of blast effects in sensitive areas, blasthole deviation, regulatory impact when blasting at Superfund sites, computer-aided blast design and monitoring, tunneling techniques, shaft excavations, video camera analysis of blasting operations, soil densification, cost optimization, mine blasting accidents, non-electric initiation systems, and delay detonators. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  20. A climatological analysis on the recent declining trend of rice quality in Japan

    Okada, M.; Iizumi, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Yokozawa, M.

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable declining trend in rice quality has already been observed in western Japan and the future global warming associated with climate change is likely to exacerbate such risk. In this study, a simple statistical model was constructed to estimate the rice quality, which is defined as the proportion of white immature grains on a prefectural scale, in terms of two major climate variables during the grain-filling stage: the cumulative weighted effective temperature delta and the cumulative solar radiation SR. In order to account for the uncertainties included in the processes involved, Bayesian inference was used to estimate the model parameters. The modeled time changes in rice quality correlated well to those observed. Specifically, the reproducibility of rice quality since 2000 was particularly high. These results suggested that a combination of the two climate factors was responsible for the recent variability in rice quality on a prefectural scale. Subsequently, the elasticity of rice quality relative to delta and SR was examined based on the model. The elasticity represents the relative change in rice quality in response to a change in delta or SR, with a positive (negative) sign indicating increased (decreased) quality. Consequently, the mean elasticity of the rice quality relative to SR was larger than that to delta in Kyushu. Moreover, the time changes of rice quality in Kyushu synchronized with that of SR under high temperature conditions, suggesting that rice plants become more sensitive to conditions of insufficient radiation if exposed to high temperatures. Consequently, it was concluded that the contribution of the radiation condition to the variation in rice quality become relatively larger along with the recent increase in temperature

  1. Remotely sensed rice yield prediction using multi-temporal NDVI data derived from NOAA's-AVHRR.

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha(-1). Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

  2. Rice Bran Metabolome Contains Amino Acids, Vitamins & Cofactors, and Phytochemicals with Medicinal and Nutritional Properties.

    Zarei, Iman; Brown, Dustin G; Nealon, Nora Jean; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2017-12-01

    Rice bran is a functional food that has shown protection against major chronic diseases (e.g. obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer) in animals and humans, and these health effects have been associated with the presence of bioactive phytochemicals. Food metabolomics uses multiple chromatography and mass spectrometry platforms to detect and identify a diverse range of small molecules with high sensitivity and precision, and has not been completed for rice bran. This study utilized global, non-targeted metabolomics to identify small molecules in rice bran, and conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed literature to determine bioactive compounds. Three U.S. rice varieties (Calrose, Dixiebelle, and Neptune), that have been used for human dietary intervention trials, were assessed herein for bioactive compounds that have disease control and prevention properties. The profiling of rice bran by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 453 distinct phytochemicals, 209 of which were classified as amino acids, cofactors & vitamins, and secondary metabolites, and were further assessed for bioactivity. A scientific literature search revealed 65 compounds with health properties, 16 of which had not been previously identified in rice bran. This suite of amino acids, cofactors & vitamins, and secondary metabolites comprised 46% of the identified rice bran metabolome, which substantially enhanced our knowledge of health-promoting rice bran compounds provided during dietary supplementation. Rice bran metabolite profiling revealed a suite of biochemical molecules that can be further investigated and exploited for multiple nutritional therapies and medical food applications. These bioactive compounds may also be biomarkers of dietary rice bran intake. The medicinal compounds associated with rice bran can function as a network across metabolic pathways and this

  3. Mediators of the effects of rice intake on health in individuals consuming a traditional Japanese diet centered on rice.

    Koga, Minori; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Miyazaki, Akane; Nakai, Yukiei; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Kubo, Chizuru; Suzuki, Junko; Ohkubo, Iwao; Shimizu, Mari; Musashi, Manabu; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the Japanese diet is believed to be balanced and healthy, its benefits have been poorly investigated, especially in terms of effects on mental health. We investigated dietary patterns and physical and mental health in the Japanese population using an epidemiological survey to determine the health benefits of the traditional Japanese diet. Questionnaires to assess dietary habits, quality of life, sleep quality, impulsivity, and depression severity were distributed to 550 randomly selected middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants with any physical or mental disease were excluded. Two-hundred and seventy-eight participants were selected for the final statistical analysis. We determined rice to be one of the most traditional foods in Japanese cuisine. Scores for each questionnaire were computed, and the correlations between rice intake and health indices were assessed. When analyzing the direct correlations between rice intake and health indices, we found only two correlations, namely those with quality of life (vitality) and sleep quality. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the association between rice intake and health, with indirect effects included in the model. Additional associations between rice intake and health were explained using this model when compared to those using direct correlation analysis. Path analysis was used to identify mediators of the rice-health association. These mediators were miso (soybean paste) soup, green tea, and natto (fermented soybean) intake. Interestingly, these mediators have been major components of the Japanese diet since 1975, which has been considered one of the healthiest diets since the 1960s. Our results indicate that the combination of rice with other healthy foods, which is representative of the traditional Japanese diet, may contribute to improvements in physical and mental health.

  4. Mediators of the effects of rice intake on health in individuals consuming a traditional Japanese diet centered on rice.

    Minori Koga

    Full Text Available Although the Japanese diet is believed to be balanced and healthy, its benefits have been poorly investigated, especially in terms of effects on mental health. We investigated dietary patterns and physical and mental health in the Japanese population using an epidemiological survey to determine the health benefits of the traditional Japanese diet. Questionnaires to assess dietary habits, quality of life, sleep quality, impulsivity, and depression severity were distributed to 550 randomly selected middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants with any physical or mental disease were excluded. Two-hundred and seventy-eight participants were selected for the final statistical analysis. We determined rice to be one of the most traditional foods in Japanese cuisine. Scores for each questionnaire were computed, and the correlations between rice intake and health indices were assessed. When analyzing the direct correlations between rice intake and health indices, we found only two correlations, namely those with quality of life (vitality and sleep quality. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the association between rice intake and health, with indirect effects included in the model. Additional associations between rice intake and health were explained using this model when compared to those using direct correlation analysis. Path analysis was used to identify mediators of the rice-health association. These mediators were miso (soybean paste soup, green tea, and natto (fermented soybean intake. Interestingly, these mediators have been major components of the Japanese diet since 1975, which has been considered one of the healthiest diets since the 1960s. Our results indicate that the combination of rice with other healthy foods, which is representative of the traditional Japanese diet, may contribute to improvements in physical and mental health.

  5. Pathological Fingerprints, Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Blast Brain Injury

    2010-06-01

    changes after blast injury. J. Trauma 56, 393–403. Murthy, J.M., Chopra, J.S., and Gulati, D.R. (1979). Subdural hematoma in an adult following a blast...neuronal damage), diffuse brain injury, and subdural hemorrhage. It is still controversial whether primary blast forces directly damage the brain, and if...emboli, leading to infarction (Guy et al., 2000a; Guy et al., 2000b). The most common types of TBI are diffuse axonal injury, contusion, and subdural

  6. Persistence behavior of metamifop and its metabolite in rice ecosystem.

    Barik, Suhrid Ranjan; Ganguly, Pritam; Patra, Sandip; Dutta, Swaraj Kumar; Goon, Arnab; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2018-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the persistence of metamifop in transplanted rice crop for two seasons. Metamifop 10% EC was applied at two doses: 100 g a.i. ha -1 and 200 g a.i. ha -1 at 2-3 leaf stage of Echinochloa crusgalli. The residues of metamifop along with its major metabolite, N-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-N-methylpropionamide (HFMPA), were estimated in rice plant, field water and soil using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method for both the compounds were set at 0.003 μg g -1 and 0.010 μg g -1 respectively. Metamifop showed less persistence in field water and rice plant as compared to soil samples. Presence of HFMPA was recorded in rice plant and soil. Both the compounds were found below level of quantification in harvest samples of straw, grains, husk and soil. A safe waiting period of 52 d was suggested for harvesting of rice when metamifop was applied at 100 g a.i. ha -1 (recommended dose). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Marker-assisted backcrossing: a useful method for rice improvement.

    Hasan, Muhammad Mahmudul; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Mahmood, Maziah; Rahim, Harun A; Alam, Md Amirul; Ashkani, Sadegh; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-03-04

    The world's population is increasing very rapidly, reducing the cultivable land of rice, decreasing table water, emerging new diseases and pests, and the climate changes are major issues that must be addressed to researchers to develop sustainable crop varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, recent scientific discoveries and advances particularly in genetics, genomics and crop physiology have opened up new opportunities to reduce the impact of these stresses which would have been difficult if not impossible as recently as the turn of the century. Marker assisted backcrossing (MABC) is one of the most promising approaches is the use of molecular markers to identify and select genes controlling resistance to those factors. Regarding this, MABC can contribute to develop resistant or high-yielding or quality rice varieties by incorporating a gene of interest into an elite variety which is already well adapted by the farmers. MABC is newly developed efficient tool by which using large population sizes (400 or more plants) for the backcross F 1 generations, it is possible to recover the recurrent parent genotype using only two or three backcrosses. So far, many high yielding, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance, quality and fragrance rice varieties have been developed in rice growing countries through MABC within the shortest timeframe. Nowadays, MABC is being used widely in plant breeding programmes to develop new variety/lines especially in rice. This paper reviews recent literature on some examples of variety/ line development using MABC strategy.

  8. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    Prasad, S.C.; Sinha, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  9. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. RICE CROP MAPPING USING SENTINEL-1A PHENOLOGICAL METRICS

    C. F. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the most important food crop in Vietnam, providing food more than 90 million people and is considered as an essential source of income for majority of rural populations. Monitoring rice-growing areas is thus important to developing successful strategies for food security in the country. This paper aims to develop an approach for crop acreage estimation from multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (e.g., winter–spring, summer–autumn in the Mekong River Delta (MRD, Vietnam through three main steps: (1 data pre-processing, (3 rice classification based on crop phenological metrics, and (4 accuracy assessment of the mapping results. The classification results compared with the ground reference data indicated the overall accuracy of 86.2% and Kappa coefficient of 0.72. These results were reaffirmed by close correlation between the government’s rice area statistics for such crops (R2 > 0.95. The values of relative error in area obtained for the winter–spring and summer–autumn were -3.6% and 6.7%, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential application of multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data for rice crop mapping using information of crop phenology in the study region.

  11. SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE)

    Raimadoya, M.

    2013-12-01

    The study of SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE) was held in Indonesia on 2012, as part of Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE), which is a component for the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The study was expected to give a breakthrough result, by using radar technology and paradigm shift of the standard production estimation system from list frame to area frame approach. This initial product estimation system is expected to be refined (fine tuning) in 2013, by participating as part of Technical Demonstration Site (Phase -1A) of Asia-RICE. The implementation period of this initial study was from the date of March 12 to December 10, 2012. The implementation of the study was done by following the approach of the BIMAS-21 framework, which has been developed since 2008. The results of this study can be briefly divided into two major components, namely: Rice-field Baseline Mapping (PESBAK - Peta Sawah Baku) and Crop Growth Monitoring. Rice-fields were derived from the mapping results of the Ministry of Agriculture (Kemtan), and validated through Student Extension Campaign of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). While for the crop growth, it was derived from the results of image analysis process. The analysis was done, either on radar/Radarsat-2 (medium resolution) or optical/ MODIS (low resolution), based on the Planting Calendar (KATAM) of Kemtan. In this case, the planting season II/2012-2013 of rice production centers in West Java Province (Karawang, Subang and Indramayu counties). The selection of crop season and county were entirely dependent on the quality of the available PESBAK and procurement process of radar imagery. The PESBAK is still in the form of block instead of fields, so it can not be directly utilized in this study. Efforts to improve the PESBAK can not be optimal because the provided satellite image (ECW format) is not the original one. While the procurement process of

  12. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  13. Development and evaluation of a high-throughput, low-cost genotyping platform based on oligonucleotide microarrays in rice

    Liu Bin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the development of a microarray platform for rapid and cost-effective genetic mapping, and its evaluation using rice as a model. In contrast to methods employing whole-genome tiling microarrays for genotyping, our method is based on low-cost spotted microarray production, focusing only on known polymorphic features. Results We have produced a genotyping microarray for rice, comprising 880 single feature polymorphism (SFP elements derived from insertions/deletions identified by aligning genomic sequences of the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar 93-11. The SFPs were experimentally verified by hybridization with labeled genomic DNA prepared from the two cultivars. Using the genotyping microarrays, we found high levels of polymorphism across diverse rice accessions, and were able to classify all five subpopulations of rice with high bootstrap support. The microarrays were used for mapping of a gene conferring resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, the causative organism of rice blast disease, by quantitative genotyping of samples from a recombinant inbred line population pooled by phenotype. Conclusion We anticipate this microarray-based genotyping platform, based on its low cost-per-sample, to be particularly useful in applications requiring whole-genome molecular marker coverage across large numbers of individuals.

  14. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H2O2 and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice. PMID:27258255

  15. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Jiayi Huangfu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA or salicylic acid (SA. The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky enhanced BPH-induced levels of H2O2 and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice.

  16. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-05-31

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H₂O₂ and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice.

  17. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  18. Dynamical roguing model for controlling the spread of tungro virus via Nephotettix Virescens in a rice field

    Blas, Nikki; David, Guido

    2017-10-01

    Rice tungro disease is described as a cancer due to its major impact on the livelihood of farmers and the difficulty of controlling it. Tungro is a semi-persistent virus transmitted by green leafhoppers called Nephotettix Virescens. In this paper, we presented a compartmental plant-vector model of the Nephotettix Virescens - rice plant interaction based on a system of ordinary differential equations to simulate the effects of roguing in controlling the spread of Tungro virus in a model rice field of susceptible rice variety (Taichung Native 1).

  19. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  20. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  1. Collapse of rocks by blasting. Razrusheniye gornykh porod Vzryvom

    Sukhanov, A F; Kutuzov, B N

    1983-01-01

    Information is provided about drilling boreholes and wells, explosives and the means for initiating them, storage, transporting and calculation of the explosive materials. Physical essence of the destructive, scientific and air effect of the blast are presented, principles of arrangement and calculation of the charges, reasons for malfunctions and methods of eliminating them, measures for protecting the surrounding objects from harmful effect of the industrial blast. Questions are examined of planning, organization and safety of the blasting operations. The second edition (first edition 1967) has been revised with regard for changes that occurred in the field of blasting operations.

  2. Water-Depth-Based Prediction Formula for the Blasting Vibration Velocity of Lighthouse Caused by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    Wenbin Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighthouses are the most important hydraulic structures that should be protected during underwater drilling blasting. Thus, the effect of blasting vibration on lighthouse should be studied. On the basis of the dimensional analysis, we deduced a revised formula for water depth based on Sodev’s empirical formula and established the linear fitting model. During the underwater reef project in the main channel of Shipu Harbor in the Ningbo–Zhoushan Port, the blasting vibration data of the lighthouse near the underwater blasting area were monitored. The undetermined coefficient, resolvable coefficient, and F value of the two formulas were then obtained. The comparison of the data obtained from the two formulas showed that they can effectively predict the blasting vibration on the lighthouse. The correction formula that considers water depth can obviously reduce prediction errors and accurately predict blasting vibration.

  3. TaWRKY68 responses to biotic stresses are revealed by the orthologous genes from major cereals

    Bo Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors have been extensively characterized in the past 20 years, but in wheat, studies onWRKY genes and their function are lagging behind many other species. To explore the function of wheat WRKY genes, we identified a TaWRKY68 gene from a common wheat cultivar. It encodes a protein comprising 313 amino acids which harbors 19 conserved motifs or active sites. Gene expression patterns were determined by analyzing microarray data of TaWRKY68 in wheat and of orthologous genes from maize, rice and barley using Genevestigator. TaWRKY68 orthologs were identified and clustered using DELTA-BLAST and COBALT programs available at NCBI. The results showed that these genes, which are expressed in all tissues tested, had relatively higher levels in the roots and were up-regulated in response to biotic stresses. Bioinformatics results were confirmed by RT-PCR experiments using wheat plants infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Blumeria graminis, or treated with Deoxynivalenol, a Fusarium graminearum-induced mycotoxin in wheat or barley. In summary,TaWRKY68 functions differ during plant developmental stages and might be representing a hub gene function in wheat responses to various biotic stresses. It was also found that including data from major cereal genes in the bioinformatics analysis gave more accurate and comprehensive predictions of wheat gene functions.

  4. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  5. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    2017-09-01

    in a canvas harness. The harness was further supported by a steel frame which was suspended from a metal beam (3.7 m off the ground) mounted on...direction of the wave propagation (Figure 5). After proper alignment of the head with respect to the center of the C4 charge, the steel frame was...further tied to four hooks cemented to the concrete ground with straps to prevent excessive motion during the blast exposure. The intensity of the two

  6. Blast vibration monitoring, July to December, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of the vibration waveforms produced appears at this stage to preclude simple comparison of different blasts. A modelling approach is indicated from the preliminary experiments. The required elemental charge length and the steady state column length of ANFO in 381 mm holes must be determined for further development of a model. This information may be acquired by firing a number of charges of varying lengths with all other variables held constant.

  7. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer

  8. Impact of Engineered Nanoparticles on Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae and on Rice Sensitivity at its Infection

    Giuliano Degrassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work of nanocotoxicity wants to propose a new plant model starting from the rice plant. The model takes into consideration the impact of engineered nanoparticles (Ag, Co, Ni, CeO2, Fe3O4, TiO2 on rice plants that were weakened by infections of Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae bacteria. The results indicate that some NPs increase the rice sensitivity to the pathogen while others decrease the virulence of the pathogen towards rice. No-enrichment in component metal concentration is detected in above organs of rice, with exception of Ni-NPs treatment. An imbalance of major elements in infected rice crops treated with NPs was investigated.

  9. Geographic authentication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) using multi-elemental and stable isotopic data combined with multivariate analysis.

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Hee; Son, Na-Young; Jin, Yong-Ik; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the world's third largest food crop after wheat and corn. Geographic authentication of rice has recently emerged asan important issue for enhancing human health via food safety and quality assurance. Here, we aimed to discriminate rice of six Asian countries through geographic authentication using combinations of elemental/isotopic composition analysis and chemometric techniques. Principal components analysis could distinguish samples cultivated from most countries, except for those cultivated in the Philippines and Japan. Furthermore, orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis provided clear discrimination between rice cultivated in Korea and other countries. The major common variables responsible for differentiation in these models were δ 34 S, Mn, and Mg. Our findings contribute to understanding the variations of elemental and isotopic compositions in rice depending on geographic origins, and offer valuable insight into the control of fraudulent labeling regarding the geographic origins of rice traded among Asian countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparative analyses reveal high levels of conserved colinearity between the finger millet and rice genomes.

    Srinivasachary; Dida, Mathews M; Gale, Mike D; Devos, Katrien M

    2007-08-01

    Finger millet is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) grass that belongs to the Chloridoideae subfamily. A comparative analysis has been carried out to determine the relationship of the finger millet genome with that of rice. Six of the nine finger millet homoeologous groups corresponded to a single rice chromosome each. Each of the remaining three finger millet groups were orthologous to two rice chromosomes, and in all the three cases one rice chromosome was inserted into the centromeric region of a second rice chromosome to give the finger millet chromosomal configuration. All observed rearrangements were, among the grasses, unique to finger millet and, possibly, the Chloridoideae subfamily. Gene orders between rice and finger millet were highly conserved, with rearrangements being limited largely to single marker transpositions and small putative inversions encompassing at most three markers. Only some 10% of markers mapped to non-syntenic positions in rice and finger millet and the majority of these were located in the distal 14% of chromosome arms, supporting a possible correlation between recombination and sequence evolution as has previously been observed in wheat. A comparison of the organization of finger millet, Panicoideae and Pooideae genomes relative to rice allowed us to infer putative ancestral chromosome configurations in the grasses.

  12. LABA1, a Domestication Gene Associated with Long, Barbed Awns in Wild Rice.

    Hua, Lei; Wang, Diane R; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Xiao, Langtao; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Qiang; Sun, Xianyou; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; McCouch, Susan R; Sun, Chuanqing

    2015-07-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), the wild relative of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), flaunts long, barbed awns, which are necessary for efficient propagation and dissemination of seeds. By contrast, O. sativa cultivars have been selected to be awnless or to harbor short, barbless awns, which facilitate seed processing and storage. The transition from long, barbed awns to short, barbless awns was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here, we show that the presence of long, barbed awns in wild rice is controlled by a major gene on chromosome 4, LONG AND BARBED AWN1 (LABA1), which encodes a cytokinin-activating enzyme. A frame-shift deletion in LABA1 of cultivated rice reduces the cytokinin concentration in awn primordia, disrupting barb formation and awn elongation. Sequencing analysis demonstrated low nucleotide diversity and a selective sweep encompassing an ∼800-kb region around the derived laba1 allele in cultivated rice. Haplotype analysis revealed that the laba1 allele originated in the japonica subspecies and moved into the indica gene pool via introgression, suggesting that humans selected for this locus in early rice domestication. Identification of LABA1 provides new insights into rice domestication and also sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying awn development. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. A dynamic compartment model for evaluating transfer of radionuclide into rice-plant after acute release

    Keum, D.K.; Lee, H.S.; Choi, H.J.; Kang, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic compartment model is presented to estimate the transfer of radionuclides deposited on rice-fields after an accidental release. The present model includes a surface water compartment and a direct shoot-base absorption from the surface water to the rice plant to account for the flooded condition of rice-fields, which are major features discriminating the present model from the existing model. In order to test the validity of model, a number of simulated Cs-137 deposition experiments were performed while growing rice-plant in a green house. For the experiments the radionuclide was indirectly treated in the root zone soil before transplanting and on the surface water without a direct contamination of rice-plant after transplanting. In the first year of deposition the shoot-base absorption was a predominant process for the transfer of radionuclide into rice when the radionuclide was treated on the surface water, and from the second year, the root-uptake was dominant. The model calculation predicted reasonably well the first year experimental result showing the importance of shoot base absorption as well as the concentration of rice-body and grain measured from respective rice-plant grown consecutively on the contaminated soils for years. (author)

  14. Assessment of genetic variability in rice (oryza sativa l.) germplasm from Pakistan using rapd markers

    Pervaiz, Z.H.; Rabbani, M.A.; Shinwar, Z.K.; Masood, M.S.; Malik, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and relationships among rice genotypes from Pakistan is currently very limited. Molecular marker analysis can truly be beneficial in analyzing the diversity of rice germplasm providing useful information to broaden the genetic base of modern rice cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of 75 rice accessions and improved cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Twenty-eight decamer-primers generated a total of 145 RAPD fragments, of which 116 (80%) were polymorphic. The number of amplification products produced by each primer varied from 3 to 9 with an average of 5.2 alleles primer-1. The size of amplified fragments ranged from 250 to 4000bp. A dendrogram was generated from minimal variance algorithm using Ward method. All the 75 genotypes were grouped into two main groups corresponding to aromatic and non-aromatic types of indica rice. Clustering of accessions did not show any significant pattern of association between the RAPD fingerprints and collection sites. This type of analysis grouping different rice accessions in relation to fragrance, a major rice quality determinant, and varietal group is extremely useful to develop a core collection and gene bank management. Further more, the information revealed by the RAPDs regarding genetic variation is helpful to the plant breeder in selecting diverse parents and for future orientation of rice breeding program. (author)

  15. LABA1, a Domestication Gene Associated with Long, Barbed Awns in Wild Rice[OPEN

    Hua, Lei; Wang, Diane R.; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Xiao, Langtao; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Qiang; Sun, Xianyou; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; McCouch, Susan R.; Sun, Chuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), the wild relative of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), flaunts long, barbed awns, which are necessary for efficient propagation and dissemination of seeds. By contrast, O. sativa cultivars have been selected to be awnless or to harbor short, barbless awns, which facilitate seed processing and storage. The transition from long, barbed awns to short, barbless awns was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here, we show that the presence of long, barbed awns in wild rice is controlled by a major gene on chromosome 4, LONG AND BARBED AWN1 (LABA1), which encodes a cytokinin-activating enzyme. A frame-shift deletion in LABA1 of cultivated rice reduces the cytokinin concentration in awn primordia, disrupting barb formation and awn elongation. Sequencing analysis demonstrated low nucleotide diversity and a selective sweep encompassing an ∼800-kb region around the derived laba1 allele in cultivated rice. Haplotype analysis revealed that the laba1 allele originated in the japonica subspecies and moved into the indica gene pool via introgression, suggesting that humans selected for this locus in early rice domestication. Identification of LABA1 provides new insights into rice domestication and also sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying awn development. PMID:26082172

  16. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) response to salinity stress

    Pires, Inês S.

    2015-07-22

    Increase in soil salinity levels is becoming a major cause of crop yield losses worldwide. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most salt-sensitive cereal crop, and many studies have focused on rice salinity tolerance, but a global understanding of this crop\\'s response to salinity is still lacking. We systematically analyzed phenotypic data previously collected for 56 rice genotypes to assess the extent to which rice uses three known salinity tolerance mechanisms: shoot-ion independent tolerance (or osmotic tolerance), ion exclusion, and tissue tolerance. In general, our analyses of different phenotypic traits agree with results of previous rice salinity tolerance studies. However, we also established that the three salinity tolerance mechanisms mentioned earlier appear among rice genotypes and that none of them is predominant. Against the pervasive view in the literature that the K+/Na+ ratio is the most important trait in salinity tolerance, we found that the K+ concentration was not significantly affected by salt stress in rice, which puts in question the importance of K+/Na+ when analyzing rice salt stress response. Not only do our results contribute to improve our global understanding of salt stress response in an important crop, but we also use our results together with an extensive literature research to highlight some issues commonly observed in salinity stress tolerance studies and to propose solutions for future experiments.

  18. Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Bonnet, Sebastien; Menke, Christoph; Garivait, Savitri

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a widely grown crop in Asia. China (30%) and India (21%) contribute to about half of the world's total rice production. In this study, three major rice-producing countries in Asia are considered, India, Thailand and the Philippines (the later two contributing 4% and 2% of the world's rice production). Rice straw is one of the main field based residues produced along with this commodity and its applications vary widely in the region. Although rice production practises vary from one country to another, open burning of straw is a common practice in these countries. In this study, an approach was followed aiming at (a) determining the quantity of rice straw being subject to open field burning in those countries, (b) congregating pollutant specific emissions factors for rice straw burning, and (c) quantifying the resulting air pollutant emissions. Uncertainties in the results obtained as compared to a global approach are also discussed. - This research work contributes to enhance scientific knowledge for estimating air pollutant emissions from open burning of crop residues and improve emission results accuracy.

  19. Weed communities of rain-fed lowland rice vary with infestation by Rhamphicarpa fistulosa

    Houngbédji, Tossimidé; Dessaint, Fabrice; Nicolardot, Bernard; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie

    2016-11-01

    The facultative hemiparasitic plant Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Orobanchaceae) thrives in seasonally wet soils in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in marginal lowland rice growing environments where weeds are already a major constraint for rice production. Because lowland rice production is increasing in tropical Africa, it is important to ascertain the influence of R. fistulosa on weed plant communities in these rice-growing habitats. We investigated weed plant community richness and composition at four different levels of R. fistulosa infestation across two years of surveys from lowland rice fields in northern Togo (West Africa). Despite a lack of significant differences in community richness among sites with different R. fistulosa infestation levels, there were significant differences in community composition, both when estimated from presence-absence data and from relative abundance data, after controlling statistically for geographic proximity among sites. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa infestation, therefore, may influence the competitive balance between rice and its weeds and shape weed community structure. However, experimental studies are required to elucidate the weed host range of R. fistulosa and the direct and indirect effects of this hemiparasite in rice fields in order to predict its net impact on rice and its weed species.

  20. Nitrogen fixation in rice systems: State of knowledge and future prospects

    Ladha, J.K.; Reddy, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop. In the next three decades, the world will need to produce about 60% more rice than today's global production to feed the extra billion people. Nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting rice production. Development of fertilizer-responsive varieties in the Green Revolution, coupled with the realization by farmers of the importance of nitrogen, has led to high rates of N fertilizer use on rice. Increased future demand for rice will entail increased application of fertilizer N. Awareness is growing, however, that such an increase in agricultural production needs to be achieved without endangering the environment. To achieve food security through sustainable agriculture, the requirement for fixed nitrogen must increasingly met by biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rather than by using nitrogen fixed industrially. It is thus imperative to improve existing BNF systems and develop N 2 -fixing non-leguminous crops such as rice. Here we review the potentials and constraints of conventional BNF systems in rice agriculture, as well as the prospects of achieving in planta nitrogen fixation in rice. (author)