WorldWideScience

Sample records for major radiation accidents

  1. Keynote on lessons from major radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Wheatley, J.

    2000-01-01

    Generic lessons have been learned from a relatively large number of accidents in the most relevant practices (a set of analysis have been made on about 90 radiotherapy events, 43 industrial radiography and nine from industrial irradiations); more specific lessons have been drawn from in-depth investigations of individual accidents. The body of knowledge is grouped as follows: a) radiotherapy is very unique in that humans (patients) are purposely given very high radiation doses (20-75 Gy) by placing them in the radiation beam or by placing radioactive sources in contact with tissues. Intended deterministic effects are the essence of the normal radiotherapy practice and relatively small deviation from the intended doses, i.e,, slightly higher or lower than intended may cause increased rate of severe complication or reduce probability of cure. Consequences of major accidents have been devastating, affecting tens, even hundreds of patients and causing death (directly or indirectly) to a large number of them; b) accidents involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of overexposure to workers (radiographers); c) accidents with industrial irradiators have lower probability of occurrence, however, they are deemed to be fatal, especially when whole body exposure to panoramic gamma irradiators occur; partial body irradiation from industrial or research accelerator beams has led to amputation of hands and legs; d) when control of sources was relinquished ('orphan' sources) this has resulted in severe injuries, in some cases death and widespread contamination of the environment. A tool for further dissemination of lessons will be an international reporting system of unusual radiation events (RADEV), being introduced world-wide. Accidents were rarely due to a single human error or isolated equipment failure. In most cases there was a combination of elements such as: a) unawareness of the potential for an accident, b) poor education, which usually did not

  2. Planning on a regional basis for a major radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the Radiological Assistance Program, members of the Safety and Environmental Protection Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory have served as a response team for many years to the northeastern section of the United States. During this time, responses have been made to several significant incidents, including the accident at Three Mile Island. The planning and preparation for emergency response activities will be discussed. Included will be a review of instrument requirements, analytical and support equipment, modes of response, and communication needs. Interaction with and support from other response teams will be discussed. In particular, the lessons from the respone to Three Mile Island will be reviewed

  3. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  4. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  5. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  6. Radiation accident in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily because of a lack of safety systems, although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  7. Radiation, accidents, society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This book is meant to be used as a reference book for information officers at the event of a nuclear accident. The main part is edited in alphabetical order to facilitate use under stress. The book gives a short review of the health risks of radiation, and descriptions of accidents that have occured. The index words that have been chosen for the main part of the book have been selected due to experiences in connection with incidents and accidents. (L.E.)

  8. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Ricks, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  9. Care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, K.

    1983-01-01

    The small probability of a serious radiation accident happening dispenses neither the plants where radiation exposure occurs nor the employers' liability insurance associations from their obligation to make provision for such cases. On the other hand, the efforts involved in such preventive measures must be kept within reasonable limits. As a result of these considerations a concept for taking care of radiation accidents was developed that is based on already existing institutions. The most attention was demanded by questions of organization, logistics, communication and information. The syndrome appearing after acute whole-body irradiation is known. This syndrome in its different stages and the relative therapeutic measures form the basis for the organization of the care of radiation accidents. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1998-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  11. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagstuen, E.; Theisen, H.; Henriksten, T.

    1982-12-01

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  13. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Patient treatment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanum, G.; Bruland, Oe.S.; Hjelle, D.; Reitan, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Accidental human injury due to ionizing radiation is rare. Industrial accidents are comparatively the most common. Life saving procedures should always have priority to any concern about radiation injury or contamination. The personal risks for emergency medial personnel is negligible when simple measures are taken. Repeated clinical examinations and blood lymphocyte counts should be performed on all patients with suspected radiation injury to allow a diagnosis. The radiation syndrome develops within days or weeks depending on total radiation dose, dose rate and dose distribution. Damage to the bone marrow and gut are the most important. Local radiation injuries to the hands are common in industrial accidents. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority should always be called when a potential ionizing radiation accident takes place within Norway

  15. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  16. Potentialities of robots in major accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, M.

    2013-01-01

    The INTRA group was founded in 1988, 2 years after the Chernobyl accident with the purpose of a cooperation between EDF, Cogema and CEA in order to develop and operate a fleet of robots able to intervene and replace man in a nuclear facility in case of major accident. Now INTRA disposes of 5 types of equipment: first, robots for the inside of buildings (they can overcome 40 cm high obstacles, open doors, go upstairs) they are wire-guided and enjoy a battery life of 6 to 8 hours. Secondly, robots for the open air that are able to move in very degraded grounds, they are remote controlled through radio-waves and their autonomy range nears 5 km. Thirdly, public works vehicles, INTRA has developed an excavator and a dump truck, both are remote controlled, they allow the making of any earth work. Fourthly, INTRA has developed 2 systems of contamination measurement: Skylink and Helinuc. Skylink is a system of 20 radiation monitors that can be dispatched on the contaminated zone, their data is collected through radio waves. Helinuc is a kind of gamma spectrometer that is helicopter-borne and can draw a map of the contamination around the installation. Fifthly, 2 drones are being tested, they will be fitted with radiation monitors. (A.C.)

  17. Judicial autopsy of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the judicial autopsy of radiation accidents. In the litigation which follows a radiation accident, a claimant calls on the legal system to adjudicate a dispute. Scientific questions are thrust upon the court. The legal system (through attorneys for the parties) then invites scientists to assist the court in resolving such questions. The invitation, however, does not allow the scientist to bring along his full kit. Experimentation, such as repeating the accident with dosimeters to gather more accurate data, is generally not allowed. Also, the scientist must give up his practice of choosing which questions he will pursue

  18. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and

  19. Medical management of radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-12-31

    The film gives advice on actions to be taken in case of a radiation accident. It addresses involving external irradiation of the whole and partial body, very localized exposure, uptake of radioiodine, inhalation of transuranium elements and a wound of a finger. The film is intended to illustrate the Agency`s Safety Series No. 47 entitled ``Manual on Early Medical Treatment of Possible Radiation Injury`` published in 1978

  20. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartsev, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  1. Radiation accidents over the last 60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Since the end of the Second World War, industrial and medical uses of radiation have been considerably increasing. Accidental overexposures of persons, in either the occupational or public field, have caused deaths and severe injuries and complications. The rate of severe accidents seems to increase with time, especially those involving the public; in addition, accidents are often not immediately recognised, which means that the real number of events remains unknown. Human factors, as well as the lack of elementary rules in the domains of radiological safety and protection, such as inadequate training, play a major role in the occurrence of the accidents which have been reported in the industrial, medical and military arenas. (review)

  2. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.; Orchard, H.C.; Walker, C.W.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the more interesting and important contributions to a recent International Symposium on the Handling of Radiation Accidents are discussed and personal comments on many of the papers presented are included. The principal conclusion of the Symposium was that although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, there is no room for complacency. Continuing attention to emergency planning and exercising are essential in order to maintain this position. A full list of the papers presented at the Symposium is included as an Appendix. (author)

  3. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Jacov

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  4. Radiation risks and the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B

    1986-01-01

    A review is given of the basic of radiation protection, including nomenclature and units and principles for protection at accidents. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and in Sweden is described, and the recommendations and protection measures applied in Sweden are presented. In particular, the radiation levels and restrictions concerning food are discussed. (L.E.).

  5. Emergency handling of radiation accident cases: firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures for the emergency handling of persons exposed to radiation or radioactive contamination are presented, with emphasis on information needed by firemen. The types of radiation accident patients that may be encountered are described and procedures for first aid, for preventing the spread of radioactive contamination, and for reporting the accident are outlined

  6. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmedov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  7. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    In 1963 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document, WP.35, dated 23 November 1963, based on information provided by a number of its Member States on the type of radiological assistance that they might be able to make available in the event of a radiation emergency in another country at the request of that country. The document was subsequently revised in 1968 and 1971 with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). In 1979, an expanded questionnaire to ascertain what could be required by the State in the event of a major radiation accident, was sent jointly by these organizations with the participation of the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO), to all their Member States. The text of the expanded questionnaire is reproduced. The present document lists all the information, received up to mid 1980, that contains offers of assistance made by a State. It also lists information on the assistance that might be required by the State. In general, the replies have been reproduced in the form in which they were received, although a few changes in presentation have been introduced in the interest of brevity and clarity. Some countries have pointed out that their replies are necessarily of a general character and that the full extent of the assistance they would be capable of providing could be determined only after a specific request had been received. The information given in this document should therefore be regarded only as a guide to the type of radiological assistance that might be available and/or needed. Other available international assistance includes that provided by the Agency through the IAEA Radiation (Emergency) Assistance Procedures, by WHO through its system of Collaborating Centres on human radiation pathology, and by various States via regional or inter-countries' agreements on

  8. Major Accidents (Gray Swans) Likelihood Modeling Using Accident Precursors and Approximate Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Compared to the remarkable progress in risk analysis of normal accidents, the risk analysis of major accidents has not been so well-established, partly due to the complexity of such accidents and partly due to low probabilities involved. The issue of low probabilities normally arises from the scarcity of major accidents' relevant data since such accidents are few and far between. In this work, knowing that major accidents are frequently preceded by accident precursors, a novel precursor-based methodology has been developed for likelihood modeling of major accidents in critical infrastructures based on a unique combination of accident precursor data, information theory, and approximate reasoning. For this purpose, we have introduced an innovative application of information analysis to identify the most informative near accident of a major accident. The observed data of the near accident were then used to establish predictive scenarios to foresee the occurrence of the major accident. We verified the methodology using offshore blowouts in the Gulf of Mexico, and then demonstrated its application to dam breaches in the United Sates. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Optimization of health protection of the public following a major nuclear accident: Interaction between radiation protection and social and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.T.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Ramsaev, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    National and international guidance on the optimization of countermeasures to reduce doses in the post-release phase of an accident rightly emphasizes the importance and relevance of psychological, social, and economic factors to this process (e.g., NRPB 1990; ICRP 1991: CEC 1993; IAEA 1994). However, whilst economic factors are, at least partially, taken into account in developing the advice, explicit guidance is not provided on how psychological and social factors should be included in the optimization. Instead it is suggested that this is a matter for those with the appropriate competence and those with responsibility for making the final decisions. This approach implicitly assumes that the optimization of psychological and social factors, and that the results of the two procedures can then be combined to arrive at an optimum course of action. We recognize that formal optimization only forms one input to the process of making decisions on countermeasures and that it is important that psychological and social factors, as well as any other factors, are not open-quotes double-counted.close quotes i.e., accounted for within international advice and then again at the time of the decision. It is our view that the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors, and certain psychological and social factors, should not be carried out independently. Research conducted by our respective organization indicates a number of areas in which the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors requires an understanding of key psychological and social processes. These areas fall into three groups; the need to ensure that countermeasures are successfully implemented, the need to achieve a net benefit for overall health, and the need to ensure a smooth transition back to normal living. 10 refs

  10. Experience with first aid in radiation sources accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1979-01-01

    More than 20 years of experience at the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the Prague Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology with prevention of accidents involving sources of radiation and the Centre's participation in providing medical aid in such accidents are described. A list is given of major types of accidents over the past decade. Prevalent were accidents involving sealed gamma sources, resulting in excessive local irradiation with serious skin damage or injury to some of the deeper structures of the hands, requiring plastic operation. Chromosomal picture investigation allows the estimation of the equivalent body dose which only reached higher values in a single case recorded (1.5 Gy = 150 rad). Organisational measures are described for emergencies and the task is shown by radiation hygiene departments attached to regional hygiene stations. The present system is capable of providing adequate, prompt and effective assistance. (author)

  11. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  12. Historical update of past and recent skin damage radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Fry, S.A.; Ricks, R.C.; Hubner, K.F.; Burr, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Records of radiation accidents worldwide since 1944 are maintained at the Radiation Accident Registry of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge. These records show that in 263 major radiation accidents there have been 150 severe local radiation injuries, of which 117 have been exposure to sealed radioactive sources. Most lesions resulted from the unsafe handling of 192 Ir radiography sources. Recent redesign of these devices, used for testing the integrity of welds, promises to eliminate these accidents. However, many other kinds of irradiators used in industry and scientific research still remain in the public domain, capable of causing irreparable dermal damage. Registry records reveal many unsolved physical and medical problems whose solution is urgently needed to improve the prognosis and therapy of such lesions. Pathologically, radiation-induced skin lesions are well described and an approximate dose-response relationship is univerally accepted even though the actual 'dose' is rarely known at first. Radiation dose is estimated biologically after the lesion has run its pathological course or after a medical physicist has prepared a retrospective 'mock-up' of the accident. (author)

  13. Environmental aftermath of the radiation accident at Tomsk-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfiriev, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident's ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed. 33 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab

  14. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This document presents the result of a questionnaire survey conducted in order to assess what type of emergency assistance IAEA member states could provide in the event of radiation accidents. The survey covers resources like skilled personnel in collection, analysis and interpretation of data, surveying and radiation protection equipment, radiochemical analysis facilities, and medical assistance capacities

  15. National response plan - Major nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    France has been implementing stringent radiation protection and nuclear safety and security measures for many years. However, this does not mean that the country is exempt from having to be prepared to deal with an emergency. Changes in France, Europe and other parts of the globe have made it necessary for France to reconsider how it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies. As the potential impact of a nuclear or radiological accident can affect a wide range of activities, the plan described herein is based on a cross-sector and inter-ministerial approach to emergency response. The Chernobyl and Fukushima-Daiichi disasters are proof that the consequences of a major nuclear or radiological accident can affect all levels of society. These challenges are substantial and relate to: public health: An uncontrolled nuclear accident can have immediate consequences (death, injury, irradiation) as well as long-term consequences that can lead to increased risk of developing radiation-induced diseases (such as certain types of cancer); environmental quality: Radiation contamination can last for several decades and, in some cases, can result in an area being closed off permanently to the public; economic and social continuity: Nuclear accidents bring human activity to a halt in contaminated areas, disrupting the economic and social order of the entire country. It may therefore be necessary to adapt economic and social systems and carry out clean-up operations if people and businesses have been displaced; quality of international relations: Related to fulfillment of obligations to alert and inform European and international partners. This international dimension also covers the protection of French nationals present in countries stricken by a nuclear accident. This national plan provides reference information on how to prepare for a nuclear or radiological emergency and make the appropriate decisions in the event of an emergency. It covers the emergency phase (including

  16. What constitutes a radiology radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Edmonds, K.; Hayton, A.; Tingey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A review of the literature indicates a very small number of articles on radiology radiation accidents. This may be due to there being no agreed definition of the term 'accident' when applied to radiology incidents. As the intensity of X-ray beams and the functionality of various modalities increase there is a consequent development in procedures to which 'high dose' applications are required. We may therefore expect to see more incidents in future. How are we to manage them? Radiology radiation accidents are usually exemplified by deterministic skin burns which may take many weeks or months to become apparent and any procedure leading to a radiation induced fatality is difficult to prove. (author)

  17. Personal dosimetry at the radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevoznikov, O.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Kanchenko, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation accidents of different types and the methods of the dosimetry used at the consequences liquidation are considered. The long-term experience of the population personal instrumental dosimetric control carrying out at the ChNPP accident consequences liquidation is widely covered in details. The concepts are stated out and the results are presented on the functioning of the created system for personal dose monitoring of the population of Ukraine irradiation. The use of the person radiation counters at the internal irradiation population and personal dose assessment is considered in details

  18. The radiation accident at Juarez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    During unconscious disassembly of a Co-60 therapy unit, 6010 metal pellets of 1 mm diameter each having 2.6 GBq (70 mCi) of activity were distributed in an uncontrolled manner. The incident was detected by mere chance. The event and the consequences are illustrated. The resulting collective dose is estimated to be 100 times bigger than that caused by the Harrisburg accident. (orig.) [de

  19. Development of radiation dose assessment system for radiation accident (RADARAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Shigemori, Yuji; Seki, Akiyuki

    2009-07-01

    The possibility of radiation accident is very rare, but cannot be regarded as zero. Medical treatments are quite essential for a heavily exposed person in an occurrence of a radiation accident. Radiation dose distribution in a human body is useful information to carry out effectively the medical treatments. A radiation transport calculation utilizing the Monte Carlo method has an advantageous in the analysis of radiation dose inside of the body, which cannot be measured. An input file, which describes models for the accident condition and quantities of interest, should be prepared to execute the radiation transport calculation. Since the accident situation, however, cannot be prospected, many complicated procedures are needed to make effectively the input file soon after the occurrence of the accident. In addition, the calculated doses are to be given in output files, which usually include much information concerning the radiation transport calculation. Thus, Radiation Dose Assessment system for Radiation Accident (RADARAC) was developed to derive effectively radiation dose by using the MCNPX or MCNP code. RADARAC mainly consists of two parts. One part is RADARAC - INPUT, which involves three programs. A user can interactively set up necessary resources to make input files for the codes, with graphical user interfaces in a personnel computer. The input file includes information concerning the geometric structure of the radiation source and the exposed person, emission of radiations during the accident, physical quantities of interest and so on. The other part is RADARAC - DOSE, which has one program. The results of radiation doses can be effectively indicated with numerical tables, graphs and color figures visibly depicting dose distribution by using this program. These results are obtained from the outputs of the radiation transport calculations. It is confirmed that the system can effectively make input files with a few thousand lines and indicate more than 20

  20. Post-accident radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, G.J.; Kathren, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Under contract to the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center of the Electric Power Research Institute, technical information and specifications were obtained for commercially available radiological monitoring instrumentation designed for use as post-accident monitors. The information was collated and published in the NSAC Handbook of Postaccident Instrumentation (Kathren and Laughlin 1981), and included such data as range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and energy dependence of the detector, environmental and seismic limitations of the equipment, the testing program performed to evaluate the equipment, a list of references where the instrumentation is currently installed, and a list of features and accessories available with the monitoring systems. The information presented in this section reveals that, even though a number of vendors claim to be able to meet the guidance of Regulatory Guide 1.97 (USNRC 1980), few have actually conducted tests to verify that their equipment does indeed satisfy the guidance of this Regulatory Guide, and that some of the guidance may in fact be unrealistic

  1. Treatment of whole-body radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Rappeport, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how whole-body radiation exposure incidents present a number of unique challenges. The acute, nonstochastic effects of high doses of radiation over 25 rads (0.25 Gy) delivered to humans is generally manifest in rather categorical fashion; depending on the dose, either the patient is largely unharmed functionally or he is seriously injured. Radiation initiates microchemical changes within a nanosecond time frame; there exists no specific therapy to stop or reverse the sequence of events that follow. Thus, the range for effective therapeutic intervention is rather small, between 150 to 1500 rad (1.5 to 15 Gy) for humans. Nevertheless, it is likely that a large uncomplicated exposure to as much as 750 rad (7.5 Gy) might be survivable without dramatic measures such as bone marrow transplantation. Review of the available information about past accidents shows that the majority of radiation accidents are mixed injuries

  2. Ionizing radiation accidents. Data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascon, Adriana S.

    2003-01-01

    After a general outlook of the biological effects at the cellular and molecular level, the somatic effects of the ionizing radiation are described. Argentine regulations and the ICRP recommendations on radiological protection of professionally exposed workers are also summarized. The paper includes practical advices for the physician that has to take care of an irradiated patient

  3. Guide on medical management of persons exposed in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The present guide has been prepared in order to provide guidance to medical and para-medical personnel regarding medical management of the different types of radiation accidents. It discusses briefly the physical aspects and biological effect of radiation, for the benefit of those who have not specialised in radiation medicine. The diagnosis, medical management and follow-up of persons involved in different types of radiation accidents are also dealt with. The implementation of the procedures described calls for organisation of appropriate facilities and provision of requisite equipment as well as education and training of the staff. It is emphasised that major radiation accidents are rare events and the multi-disciplinary nature of the response required to deal with them calls for proper planning and continuous liaison among plant management, radiation protection personnel, first-aid assistants and medical and paramedical staff. The organisation and conduct of emergency drills may help in maintaining preparedness of the medical facilities for efficient management of radiation casualities. (original). 64 refs., tabs., figs

  4. Traffic Accidents in Kosovo – A Major Concern for Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Muharremi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of traffic c accidents in Kosovo is increasing rapidly from year to year. As a result of traffi c accidents the number of injured and deaths has increased. During the period of January-December 2016 there were 18541 accidents, which resulted in 110 casualties (Kosovo Police Annual Reports. Campaigns undertaken by the Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport and the Kosovo Police, as well as various video-spots intended to raise awareness of the dangers of traffic c accidents have not accomplished the expected results and did not reduce the number of accidents. Therefore, we can conclude that the number of accidents taking place in Kosovo is concerning. Despite the best efforts of relevant institutions, despite the increased engagement to pass legislation, which would be in line with the European standards, and despite substantial improvements and major investments on the infrastructure, and despite all the measures taken, reducing the number of road accidents remains a significant challenge. With this paper, I will try to draw attention to the actions, measures and activities that I consider the relevant institutions of Kosovo should focus on in order to prevent and to reduce the high number of traffic accidents.

  5. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As an early response to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011: - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers /responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE official participants and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the-art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation

  6. Documentation of Occupational Accidents and Diseases caused by Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    2004-01-01

    . One of the major goals of the institutions for statutory accident insurance is the prevention of occupational diseases. To perform a successful prevention work it is necessary not only to count the number of accidents or diseases in the various working fields but to look for details of the conditions of work and the human response to those conditions. The institutions for statutory accident insurance have engaged the institution for statutory accident insurance in the precision engineering and electrical industry to carry out documentation, in form of a data bank, for all cases of occupational diseases which could be caused by ionising radiation. Those are not only the cases which are accepted as occupational disease but also the cases where a suspicion of an occupational disease is announced but finally rejected. At the moment about 1700 cases are included in the data bank. For preserving the anonymity information to name and residence are deleted. Various data to one single case are linked by a case-specific key-number. Information to occupation and field of working, to details of a possible exposure to ionising radiation like kind of radiation, time and duration of radiation, exposure of the whole body or of parts of the body and whole body or organ doses are collected. Additional information refers to medical aspects like diagnosis and date of diagnosis. (Author)

  7. Local emergency arrangements for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the local and national framework for public protection during peacetime emergencies with particular reference to major accidents or events with radiological consequences. The basis for the development of emergency plans will be described together with the inter-relationship between the responsibilities of individual organisations. (author)

  8. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    A revised document on ''Mutual Emergency Assistance for Radiation Accidents'' jointly prepared by the Agency with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO) was issued in 1980 as TECDOC-237. The present document lists the additional information received after publication of the 1980 edition and is issued as a Supplement to TECDOC-237 (1980 Edition). Some useful information contained in TECDOC-237 such as the IAEA arrangement and the WHO Collaborating Centres for Radiation Emergency Assistance are reprinted for ready reference

  9. The management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindon, T N [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne (Australia)

    1991-09-01

    The author defines the objectives and the coverage of two radiation accident courses presented in 1990 by the US Radiation Emergency Assistance Centre and Training Site of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities together with some Australian Medical institutions. It is estimated that the courses, directed towards physicians, radiotherapists and nurses gave plenty practical advices and details on how to go about radiation accident managements. A manual on handling radiation accidents is also to be prepared after the courses.

  10. Medical basis for radiation accident preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.F.; Fry, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The International Conference on The Medical Basis for Radiation Accident Preparedness was organized by the staff of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) of the Medical and Health Sciences Division of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The philosophical importance of relating, through investigation and education, the intellectual resources of higher education to the important social problems associated with energy, health, and the environment was the foundation of the meeting. The symposium, held under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, was the ninth since 1960 of a series of international conferences addressing the various aspects of radiation accidents. The approach of this most recent conference differed somewhat from that of those preceding it, in that it sought an international review of the gamut of the medical aspects of radiation injury, not only for the experts in the field, but also for other physicians and scientists who, in view of current events, have had the need to know thrust upon them. Individual entries were made for the separate papers

  11. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guizhen; Zhang Lei; Lu Yonglong; Mol, Arthur P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical industries, from their very inception, have been controversial due to the high risks they impose on safety of human beings and the environment. Recent decades have witnessed increasing impacts of the accelerating expansion of chemical industries and chemical accidents have become a major contributor to environmental and health risks in China. This calls for the establishment of an effective chemical risk management system, which requires reliable, accurate and comprehensive data in the first place. However, the current chemical accident-related data system is highly fragmented and incomplete, as different responsible authorities adopt different data collection standards and procedures for different purposes. In building a more comprehensive, integrated and effective information system, this article: (i) reviews and assesses the existing data sources and data management, (ii) analyzes data on 976 recorded major hazardous chemical accidents in China over the last 40 years, and (iii) identifies the improvements required for developing integrated risk management in China.

  12. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by ''rare''? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate "1"3"7Cs and gaseous "1"3"1I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted "1"3"7Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"1I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  13. Multi-objective evolutionary emergency response optimization for major accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiadou, Paraskevi S.; Papazoglou, Ioannis A.; Kiranoudis, Chris T.; Markatos, Nikolaos C.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency response planning in case of a major accident (hazardous material event, nuclear accident) is very important for the protection of the public and workers' safety and health. In this context, several protective actions can be performed, such as, evacuation of an area; protection of the population in buildings; and use of personal protective equipment. The best solution is not unique when multiple criteria are taken into consideration (e.g. health consequences, social disruption, economic cost). This paper presents a methodology for multi-objective optimization of emergency response planning in case of a major accident. The emergency policy with regards to protective actions to be implemented is optimized. An evolutionary algorithm has been used as the optimization tool. Case studies demonstrating the methodology and its application in emergency response decision-making in case of accidents related to hazardous materials installations are presented. However, the methodology with appropriate modification is suitable for supporting decisions in assessing emergency response procedures in other cases (nuclear accidents, transportation of hazardous materials) or for land-use planning issues.

  14. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical industries, from their very inception, have been controversial due to the high risks they impose on safety of human beings and the environment. Recent decades have witnessed increasing impacts of the accelerating expansion of chemical industries and chemical accidents have become a major

  15. Radiation protection program for assistance of victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Costa Silva, L.H. da; Rosa, R.

    1991-11-01

    The principles aspects of a radiological protection program for hospitals in case of medical assistance to external and internal contaminated persons are showed. It is based on the experience obtained at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of Goiania accident in 1987. This paper describes the basic infrastructure of a nursery and the radiation protection procedures for the access control of people and materials, area and personal monitoring, decontamination and the support activities such as calibration of radiation monitors and waste management. Is is also estimated the necessary radiation protection materials and the daily quantity of waste generated. (author)

  16. Theories of radiation effects and reactor accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; Ball, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Muckerheide's paper was a public breakthrough on how one might assess the public health effects of low-level radiation. By the organization of a wealth of data, including the consequences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki but not including Chernobyl, he was able to conclude that present radioactive waste disposal and cleanup efforts need to be much less arduous than forecast by the U.S. Department of Energy, which, together with regulators, uses the linear hypothesis of radiation damage to humans. While the linear hypothesis is strongly defended and even recommended for extension to noncarcinogenic pollutants, exploration of a conservative threshold for very low level exposures could save billions of dollars in disposing of radioactive waste, enhance the understanding of reactor accident consequences, and assist in the development of design and operating criteria pertaining to severe accidents. In this context, the authors discuss the major differences between design-basis and severe accidents. The authors propose that what should ultimately be done is to develop a regulatory formula for severe-accident analysis that relates the public health effects to the amount and type of radionuclides released and distributed by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to the following important questions should provide the basis of this study: (1) What should be the criteria for distinguishing between design-basis and severe accidents, and what should be the basis for these criteria? (2) How do, and should, these criteria differ for older plants, newer operating plants, type of plant (i.e., gas cooled, water cooled, and liquid metal), advanced designs, and plants of the former Soviet Union? (3) How safe is safe enough?

  17. Radiation accident at the South Urals in 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikipelov, B.V.; Romanov, G.N.; Buldakov, L.A.; Babaev, N.S.; Kholina, Yu.B.; Mikerin, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation accidents with release of radioactive substances into environment which took place in the South Ural in 1957 is evaluated. Scientific researches conducted since 1957 are described. Scientific data of unique fundamental and applied value were obtaibed. Recommendations for the organization and content of radiation sanctuary are developed. Scientific researches permitted to make reliable long-turm prediction of radiation situation developed owing to the Chernobyl NPP accident and to work out practical recommendations so as to reduce adverse aftereffects of the accident

  18. Lessons Learnt from Past Incidents and Accidents in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöös, T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to review and compile what have been and can be learnt from incidents and accidents in radiation oncology, especially in external beam and brachytherapy. Some major accidents from the last 20 years will be discussed. The relationship between major events and minor or so-called near misses is mentioned, leading to the next topic of exploring the knowledge hidden among them. The main lessons learnt from the discussion here and elsewhere are that a well-functioning and safe radiotherapy department should help staff to work with awareness and alertness and that documentation and procedures should be in place and known by everyone. It also requires that trained and educated staff with the required competences are in place and, finally, functions and responsibilities are defined and well known. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  20. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    broadly. This review identifies gaps in the prevention of simple accidents, relating to safety barriers for risk control and the management processes that need to be in place to deliver those risk controls in a continuingly effective state. The article introduces the ‘‘INFO cards’’ as a tool......The concept ‘‘simple accidents’’ is understood as traumatic events with one victim. In the last 10 years many European countries have seen a decline in the number of fatalities, but there still remain many severe accidents at work. In the years 2009–2010 in European countries 2.0–2.4 million...... occupational accidents a year were notified leading to 4500 fatalities and 90,000 permanent disabilities each year. The article looks at the concept ‘‘accident’’ to find similarities and distinctions between major and simple accident characteristics. The purpose is to find to what extent the same kinds...

  1. An operational centre for managing major chemical industrial accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranoudis, C T; Kourniotis, S P; Christolis, M; Markatos, N C; Zografos, K G; Giannouli, I M; Androutsopoulos, K N; Ziomas, I; Kosmidis, E; Simeonidis, P; Poupkou, N

    2002-01-28

    The most important characteristic of major chemical accidents, from a societal perspective, is their tendency to produce off-site effects. The extent and severity of the accident may significantly affect the population and the environment of the adjacent areas. Following an accident event, effort should be made to limit such effects. Management decisions should be based on rational and quantitative information based on the site specific circumstances and the possible consequences. To produce such information we have developed an operational centre for managing large-scale industrial accidents. Its architecture involves an integrated framework of geographical information system (GIS) and RDBMS technology systems equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The operational centre was developed for Windows 98 platforms, for the region of Thriasion Pedion of West Attica, where the concentration of industrial activity and storage of toxic chemical is immense within areas of high population density. An appropriate case study is given in order to illuminate the use and necessity of the operational centre.

  2. Prevention of radiation accidents and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Clearing out reasons for nuclear accidents enables to take effective measures to minimize them. The number of accidents in 1957 - 1974 is given. The frequency of accidents at various working places, while operating with various radioisotopes is presented. The analysis of accidents and the confirmation of these estimates can lead to the generalization of data and to the formulation of preventive measures [ru

  3. Emergency room management of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency room management of radioactively contaminated patients who have an associated medical injury requiring immediate attention must be handled with care. Radioactive contamination of the skin of a worker is not a medical emergency and is usually dealt with at the plant. Effective preplanning and on-the-scene triage will allow the seriously injured and contaminated patients to get the medical care they need with a minimum of confusion and interference. Immediate medical and surgical priorities always take precedence over radiation injuries and radioactive contamination. Probably the most difficult aspect of emergency management is the rarity of such accidents and hence the unfamiliarity of the medical staff with the appropriate procedures. The authors discuss how the answer to these problems is preplanning, having a simple and workable procedure and finally having 24-h access to experts

  4. Major workplace related accidents in Singapore: A major trauma centre's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zhi Xu; Teo, Li Tserng; Go, Karen T S; Yeo, Yen Teng; Chiu, Ming Terk

    2010-12-01

    Major workplace related accidents pose a significant healthcare resource challenge in Singapore. Our study looks at the epidemiology of patients who were admitted for workplace related accidents, in a single institution, with an Injury Severity Score of >9. There were 196 cases of major workplace related accidents admitted between January 2006 and December 2007. The median age of patients admitted was 37 years with a large percentage being males (95.4%) and non-residents (57.1%). The most common ethnic group was Chinese (53.1%) followed by Indians (23.5%). The most common mechanism of injury was fall from height (66.3%) followed by injuries as a result of falling objects at work (21.9%). The percentage of patients who required surgical intervention was 69.9%. Patients admitted for major workplace related accidents had a median length of stay of 5 days in the hospital, a median length of 24 days of medical leave (ML), certifying them unfit for duty and the average cost of stay for each patient was S$11,000. We have a better understanding of the epidemiology and socio-economic impact of workplace related accidents through this study. Workplace related accidents result in significant number of man-days lost from work and monetary cost to employers, medical insurance and the hospital. With an improved understanding, we propose methods to prevent and reduce such accidents in future. A direct consequence of which will be the possible reduction of hospitalisation costs and better allocation of healthcare resources in the future.

  5. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Zhang, Siheng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Data from 2003-2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 10(6) populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Ten years' major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments.

  6. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  7. Overview of Brazilian industrial radiography accidents with cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    It is well documented that industrial radiography is related to radiological accidents, which makes it the highest potential risk for human health. More than 80 radiological accidents happened in the world that includes 6 Brazilian accidents with Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome. Five of them happened with {sup 192}Ir and one with {sup 60}Co radioactive sources. Nineteen members of the public and 8 radiographers were involved. All of them suffered severe hands and fingers injuries. The Brazilian radiological accident happened in 1985 with 16 persons is analyzed showing causes, consequences, radiation doses and lessons learned. (author)

  8. Overview of Brazilian industrial radiography accidents with cutaneous radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that industrial radiography is related to radiological accidents, which makes it the highest potential risk for human health. More than 80 radiological accidents happened in the world that includes 6 Brazilian accidents with Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome. Five of them happened with 192 Ir and one with 60 Co radioactive sources. Nineteen members of the public and 8 radiographers were involved. All of them suffered severe hands and fingers injuries. The Brazilian radiological accident happened in 1985 with 16 persons is analyzed showing causes, consequences, radiation doses and lessons learned. (author)

  9. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovden, J.; Rausand, M.; Sergeev, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today's Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier exclamation point

  10. Risk evaluation for protection of the public in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Evaluation of the risk that would be involved in the exposure of the public in the event of a radiation accident requires information on the biological consequences expected of such an exposure. This report defines a range of reference doses of radiation and their corresponding risks to the public in the event of a radiation accident. The reference doses and the considerations on which they were based will be used for assessing the hazards of nuclear installations and for policy decisions by the authorities responsible for measures taken to safeguards the public in the case of a nuclear accident.

  11. Medical aid in the initial period of radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selidovkin, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The main tasks of medical arrangements on the initial stage of rendering aid after radiation accident are the prime medical classification of the injured persons among the personnel of the plant and population, and realization of measures to avoid the increase of doses. The volume of medical aid depends on the type of accident, on the after-accident radiation situation, on the influence of hazardous factors, on the number of people involved in accident situation and the spectrum of sanitary losses, etc., which is to be predicted in advance and to be taken into consideration when rendering aid. The proper and sufficient aid on the initial stage will build the foundation of the ultimate efficiency of medical aid after radiation accident. 14 refs

  12. Environmental radiation exposure in case of power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper tries to overcome prejudices concerning radiation effects due to power plant accidents as well as to show the radiation exposure that may be expected near the the patient and to indicate ways and means to avoid or reduce this radiation exposure and to avoid contamination. It is a contribution to better information on radiation accidents and radiolesions in nuclear power plants with the aim of close cooperation between power plants, physicians, and hospitals and of helping to overcome erroneous popular assumptions. (orig./HP) [de

  13. REAC/TS radiation accident registry. Update of accidents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, R.C.; Berger, M.E.; Holloway, E.C.; Goans, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Serious injury due to ionizing radiation is a rare occurrence. From 1944 to the present, 243 US accidents meeting dose criteria for classification as serious are documented in the REAC/TS Registry. Thirty individuals have lost their lives in radiation accidents in the United States. The Registry is part of the overall REAC/TS program providing 24-hour direct or consultative assistance regarding medical and heath physics problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and international incidents. The REAC/TS Registry serves as a repository of medically important information documenting the consequences of these accidents. Registry data are gathered from various sources. These include reports from the World Heath Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), state radiological health departments, medical/health physics literature, personal communication, the Internet, and most frequently, from calls for medical assistance to REAC/TS, as part of our 24-hour medical assistance program. The REAC/TS Registry for documentation of radiation accidents serves several useful purposes: 1) weaknesses in design, safety practices, training or control can be identified, and trends noted; 2) information regarding the medical consequences of injuries and the efficacy of treatment protocols is available to the treating physician; and 3) Registry case studies serve as valuable teaching tools. This presentation will review and summarize data on the US radiation accidents including their classification by device, accident circumstances, and frequency by respective states. Data regarding accidents with fatal outcomes will be reviewed. The inclusion of Registry data in the IAEA's International Reporting System of Radiation Events (RADEV) will also be discussed. (author)

  14. A systems approach to the management of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, L.L.; Berk, H.W.; Teates, C.D.; Larkham, N.E.; Friesen, E.J.; Edlich, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Management of radiation accident patients should have a multidisciplinary approach that includes all health professionals as well as members of public safety agencies. Emergency plans for radiation accidents include detection of the ionizing radiation, patient evacuation, resuscitation, and decontamination. The resuscitated patient should be transported to a radiation control area located outside but adjacent to the emergency department. Ideally this area is accessed through an entrance separate from that used for the main flow of daily emergency department patients. The hospital staff, provided with protective clothing, dosimeters, and preprinted guidelines, continues the resuscitation and definitive care of the patient. This system approach to the management of radiation accidents may be tailored to meet the specific needs of other emergency medical systems

  15. A study of maintenance-related major accident cases in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Peter; Haugen, Stein

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a review of 183 detailed, major accident investigation and analysis reports related to the handling, processing and storage of hydrocarbons and hazardous chemicals over a decade from 2000 to 2011. The reports cover technical, human and organizational factors. In this paper, the Work and Accident Process (WAP) classification scheme is applied to the accident reports with the intention of investigating to what extent maintenance has been a cause of major accidents and wha...

  16. Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  17. Chernobyl accident. The crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  18. Internal dose assessment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous models have been developed for occupational and medical internal dosimetry, they may not be applicable to an accident situation. Published dose coefficients relate effective dose to intake, but if acute deterministic effects are possible, effective dose is not a useful parameter. Consequently, dose rates to the organs of interest need to be computed from first principles. Standard bioassay methods may be used to assess body contents, but, again, the standard models for bioassay interpretation may not be applicable because of the circumstances of the accident and the prompt initiation of decorporation therapy. Examples of modifications to the standard methodologies include adjustment of biological half-times under therapy, such as in the Goiania accident, and the same effect, complicated by continued input from contaminated wounds, in the Hanford 241 Am accident. (author)

  19. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  20. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    A recent review of existing models and methods for assessing potential consequences of accidents in the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system identifies economic consequence assessment methods as a weak point. Existing methods have mostly been designed to assess economic consequences of reactor accidents, the possible scale of which can be several orders of magnitude greater than anything possible in the HLW disposal system. There is therefore some question about the applicability of these methods, their assumptions, and their level of detail to assessments of smaller accidents. The US Dept. of Energy funded this study to determine needs for code modifications or model development for assessing economic costs of accidents in the HLW disposal system. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) review the literature on economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the HLW disposal system before closure. (2) Determine needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system. (3) Gather data that might be useful for the needed revisions for modeling economic impacts on this scale

  1. Radiological emergency: road map for radiation accident victim transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, V.S.G.; Alcantara, Y.P.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F. C. A. da

    2017-01-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, a number of necessary actions are taken, both within the radiation protection of individuals and the environment, involving many institutions and highly specialized personnel. Among them it is possible to emphasize the air transportation of radiation accident victims.The procedures and measures for the safe transport of these radiation accident victims are generally the responsibility of the armed forces, specifically the Aeronautics, with the action denominated 'Aeromedical Military Evacuation of Radiation Accident Victims'. The experience with the Radiological Accident of Goiânia demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation and response during a radiological emergency and the need for procedures and measures with regard to the transport of radiation victims are clearly defined and clearly presented for the effectiveness of the actions. This work presents the necessary actions for the transport of radiation accident victim during a radiological emergency, through the road map technique, which has been widely used in scientific technical area to facilitate understanding and show the way to be followed to reach the proposed objectives

  2. First aid and subsequent measures after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    An organisation schedule and first aid measures after accidents involving ionizing radiation are presented, both in accordance with the current practice of the responsible professional associations. Optimum care also of persons with radiation injuries will be assured by cooperation between voluntary lay helpers, physicians, and regional centres in which failure symptons of the haematopoietic system can be treated. (DG) [de

  3. Severe accident management: radiation dose control, Fukushima Daiichi and TMI-2 nuclear plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This presentation presents valuable dose information related to the Fukushima Daiichi and Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Nuclear Plant accidents. Dose information is provided for what is well known for TMI-2, and what is available for Fukushima Daiichi. Particular emphasis is placed on the difference between the type of reactors involved, overarching plant damage issues, and radiation worker dose outcomes. For TMI-2, more in depth dose data is available for the accident and the subsequent recovery efforts. The comparisons demonstrate the need to understand the wide variation in potential dose management measures and outcomes for severe reactor accidents. (author)

  4. EDITORIAL Road traffic accident: A major public health problem in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Damen Haile Mariam1. One of the articles in this issue demonstrates how road traffic accident is a serious, but neglected, health problem in Ethiopia using secondary data collected by the Amhara National Regional State. Police Commission from 2007-2011 (1). Fatalities due to traffic accidents are reported to be among.

  5. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  6. Lesson from a 60Co source radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yong; Zhang Wenzhong

    2002-01-01

    A serious radiation accident happened an a 60 Co irradiation facility in Shanghai. 7 workers were uniformly exposed acutely. An investigation was done after the accident and a conclusion was achieved that the irregular operation was the direct reason for the accident. The operation of these workers did not comply with the requirements specified in the national standards-- 60 irradiation facility>> which demands that the examination should be done every day before operation, and the irradiation facility does not stop running when the auto-lock safety system on that facility has been removed. Some lessons should be drawn from the accident: popularizing the culture of safety, enhancing the law of safety, and ensuring the operation of radiation devices within the demands of safety

  7. Radiation accident Hospital San Juan de Dios August - September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin Cheng, R.

    2000-01-01

    In Costa Rica, a radiation accident occurred in 1996. It took place at the Radiotherapy Service of the San Juan de Dios Hospital, which affected 115 patients. The Unit of Radiotherapy made a mistake in the calibration of the new bundle because of the change of external faeces of cobalt 60 (Alycon II). The work is a retrospective study that describes what happened in this accident, and the medical consequences that derived from it [es

  8. Usage of geotechnologies for risk management in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A.A.; Marques, F.A.P.; Murta, Y.L.

    2017-01-01

    Through the use of geotechnologies an important tool can be created for risk management in radiation accidents. With the use of the QGIS software (Las Palmas version), it is shown its applicability in situations of radiological emergency, as in the case of the accident with cesium-137 in Goiânia. The work analyses the risk of a possible accident with the deposit of cesium wastes that still remains in the region, aiming to protect the population with the best exit routes and forms of allocation of the residents

  9. Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Polo L, M. A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)

  10. Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A.; Polo L, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)

  11. Preparation of hospitals for handling victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vince, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to a generalized discussion of the inter-and intraorganizational structure of hospitals for handling radiation emergencies of the kind suggested above as well as the isolated remote minor accident involving radiation. The general elements of hospital planning for radiation accidents have been discussed and a detailed protocol for handling the radioactive patient is presented. Minor additions and emphasis to parts of these earlier works are summarized, reflecting experiences gained in receiving simulated radioactively contaminated victims in drills at St. Luke's Hospital of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Two accidents were simulated involving mock radioactive materials over a two year period. One such ''accident'' was staged at A-B-E Airport, Lehigh County, in 1981 and the other in the Saucon Valley in 1983. It should be mentioned that in neither case was the release of radioactive material possible, in reality, as portrayed. In planning mock radiation accident drills for emergency care units and support staff, one is best-advised not to pay too much attention to the logic of how the release occurred but rather that there are victims who must be treated, decontaminated and evaluated for the necessity of continued medical care

  12. Further studies into the emergency medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1989-01-01

    The emergency medical care of radiation accidents constitute a peculier characteristics of radiation protection including the works of the administrative management, environmental radiological monitoring and health physics around the clinical medicine. It is thought to be an interdisciplinary medical field which is designated as a comprehensive medicine for radiation hazard. Moreover, it will be thought that the radiological medicine is not only the medical science which deals with the use of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, but also the art and science of maintenance of health and cure for radiation injuries, just as the two wheels of a cart. It should reward the needs of today. We would like to expect that this symposium will be a clue to the theoretical systematization of the comprehensive medicine of radiation accidents. (author)

  13. Lessons learned from major accidents relating to ageing of chemical plants

    OpenAIRE

    GYENES ZSUZSANNA; WOOD Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Major industrial accidents that occurred in the past and even recently, such as the Flixborough, UK in 1974, the ConocoPhillips, UK in 2001 and the Chevron, US in 2012 show that ageing is still a disturbing phenomenon present in chemical process industries. Further to these cases, it is estimated that 30 % of the major accidents reported in the eMARS accident database run by the Major Accident Hazards Bureau of the European Commission are connected to at least one ageing phenomenon. It is som...

  14. The radiation accident at Institute for Energy Technology Sept. 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berteig, L.; Flatby, J.

    1983-01-01

    On September 2, 1982 a radiation accident with overexposure of one person happened at the gamma irradiation plant at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. This person died from the radiation injury 13 days later. In the report reference is made to the work of different groups and bodies in connection with the accident. An analysis of the causes of the accident is given. For admittance control to the irradiation area there were generally two independent door interlock systems, one irradiation source position related and the other radiation related. The latter was dismantled for repair at the time of the accident. A micro-switch failure left the source in an ushielded position, initiated a green light on the control panel and released the interlock system of the door. According to working instructions a mobile radiation monitor should have been checked for proper function and carried by anyone entering the irradiation room. This seems not to have been carried out correctly. The conditions set forth by the Norwegian Institute of Radiation Hygiene for the restarting of the irradiation plant are presented. (RF)

  15. Analysis of the radiation accident in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melara, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    On 5 February 1989 at 2 a.m. local time in a cobalt-60 industrial irradiation facility, a series of events started leading to one of the most serious radiation accidents in this type of installation. It took place in Soyapango, a city situated 5 km from San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. In this accident, three workers were involved in the first event and a further four in the second. When the accident took place, the activity level was approximately 0.66 PBq (18,000 Ci). The source became blocked when being lowered to its safe position, where upon the technician responsible for the irradiator entered the chamber in breach of the few inadequate safety procedures, accompanied by two colleagues from an adjacent department; the three workers suffered acute radiation exposure, with the result that one of them died six-and-a-half months later, the second had both his legs amputated at mid-thigh, while the third recovered completely. This article describes the irradiator, outlines the causes of the accident and analyses the economic and social repercussions, with the aim of helping teams responsible for radiation protection and safety in industrial irradiation facilities to identify potentially hazardous circumstances and avoid accidents. (author)

  16. Recommendations for prevention of radiation accident in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Industrial Gammagraphy plays an important role in the quality control of various materials and components. It is classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 2, due to its radiation risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. This risk is based on the harmful consequences of human health, described in some accidents in the world, due to failures. In 2012, the 'Brazilian National Workshop on Accident Prevention in Industrial Gammagraphy' was carried out by DIAPI/CNEN, with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiation accidents. At the time, the IRD/CNEN-RJ carried out a survey with the 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, in order to select the 10 most voted. A statistical study, using the 'Frequency Distribution' method, was performed to define 10 recommendations. The percentage and vote results were obtained by category of the participants and the 10 most important recommendations were defined to prevent radiation accidents. The recommendation that came in first place was 'Always use an individual monitor with alarm during all work'

  17. Accidents and emergency conditions: Tasks of the radiation protection expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacke, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews and explains the tasks of the radiation protection expert at a given site in the event of accidents or emergencies involving a radiation hazard to the personnel. The various measures recommended discriminate between the main two types of hazards, namely external radiation or internal radiation. The paper discusses the first-aid and emergency measures recommended in various publications (BG, 1982; ICRP, 1980; MO, 1972; ME, 1980) and also cites recommendations contained therein, referring to preventive means and measures and to communications to the press and the general public. (DG) [de

  18. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  19. Considerations on radiation protection and accidents in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Carla Flavia de; Avelar, Artur Canella; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2001-01-01

    The present study presents the radiation protection in the services of nuclear medicine in relation to the design of the services, manipulation of sources, cares with the patient, accomplishment of procedures and definition of accidents and incidents; besides approaching the CNEN requirements

  20. Radiation protection issues raised in Korea since Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeongsoo

    2014-01-01

    For the past 3 years since Fukushima accident, various issues related to nuclear safety and radiation safety were raised in Korea. This presentation focuses radiation protection (RP) issues among the various issues and has the purpose to share experiences and lessons-learned related to the RP issues. Special safety inspections on NPPs in Korea were performed immediately after Fukushima accident and 50 follow-up measures were established in May, 2011 to improve the nuclear safety. Some of them were related to radiation protection and emergency responses. Recently, in March, 2014, additional follow-up measures were decided to be taken in additionally strengthening safety-related equipment and emergency response organization. The 50 Fukushima-accident-follow-up measures include radiation protection for members of the public in emergency responses. Based on the follow-up measures, expansion of emergency planning zone (EPZ) is to be made according to the approval of legislation by National Assembly on May 2, 2014. For the past 3 years, the degree of the public concerns on radiation risk has been the highest. Spontaneous activities for radiation monitoring happened in the public. Some members of the public found some contaminated paved roads in November, 2011 and a contaminated kitchen ware in January, 2012. These findings suggest the importance of the management of recycled metal scraps imported from other countries. Fukushima accident gave much impact on Korean society all. The public gets very sensitive to issues about nuclear safety and radiation safety. Most parts of RP issues raised are related to the public. The lessons-learned are that as an issue is raised, it has a chance to be solved. However, RP issues related to radiation workers in accident conditions in NPPs are difficult to be raised enough to confirm and improve the robustness of radiation protection programs in accident conditions. It is necessary to share RP issues raised in each country as well as

  1. High-speed radiation dose calculations for severe accidents using INDOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, G.R.; Godin-Jacqmin, L.J.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code INDOS (in-plant dose) has been developed for the high-speed calculation of in-plant radiation dose rates and doses during and/or due to a severe accident at a nuclear power plant. This paper describes the current capabilities of the code and presents the results of calculations for several severe-accident scenarios. The INDOS code can be run either as a module of MAAP, a code widely used in the nuclear industry for simulating the response of a light water reactor system during severe accidents, or as a stand-alone code using output from an alternative companion code. INDOS calculates gamma dose rates and doses in major plant compartments caused by airborne and deposited fission products released during an accident. The fission product concentrations are determined by the companion code

  2. Radioprotection program to attend of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Costa Silva, L.H. da; Rosa, R.

    1989-04-01

    The aspects of a radioprotection program to be implanted in hospitals to cases of medical treatment to external and internal contamined people are presented. It is based in the experience acquired in the coordination of radioprotection of the Marcilio Dias Naval Medical Center, Rio de Janeiro, due to accident happened in Goiania in 1987. The infra-structure necessary of a ward and the procedures of radioprotection to acess control, entrance and way out of material area and patients monitoring, decontamination and the activities in the support area such as the control and maintenance of detection equipments and radioactive waste management are described. The radiologic protection materials necessaries and the quantity of radioactive waste generated by patient for day are estimated. (V.R.B.)

  3. Three Mile Island epidemiologic radiation dose assessment revisited: 25 years after the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R William

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, public health concerns following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident prompted several epidemiologic investigations in the vicinity of TMI. One of these studies is ongoing. This commentary suggests that the major source of radiation exposure to the population has been ignored as a potential confounding factor or effect modifying factor in previous and ongoing TMI epidemiologic studies that explore whether or not TMI accidental plant radiation releases caused an increase in lung cancer in the community around TMI. The commentary also documents the observation that the counties around TMI have the highest regional radon potential in the United States and concludes that radon progeny exposure should be included as part of the overall radiation dose assessment in future studies of radiation-induced lung cancer resulting from the TMI accident.

  4. Three Mile Island epidemiologic radiation dose assessment revisited: 25 years after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, public health concerns following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident prompted several epidemiologic investigations in the vicinity of TMI. One of these studies is ongoing. This commentary suggests that the major source of radiation exposure to the population has been ignored as a potential confounding factor or effect modifying factor in previous and ongoing TMI epidemiologic studies that explore whether or not TMI accidental plant radiation releases caused an increase in lung cancer in the community around TMI. The commentary also documents the observation that the counties around TMI have the highest regional radon potential in the United States and concludes that radon progeny exposure should be included as part of the overall radiation dose assessment in future studies of radiation-induced lung cancer resulting from the TMI accident. (authors)

  5. Major accident prevention through applying safety knowledge management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program. The Protégé software was used to formalize and represent the stored safety knowledge. The domain knowledge retrieved as well as data and information. This optimized approach improved safety and health knowledge management (KM) process and resolved some typical problems in the KM process. Upgrading the traditional resources of safety databases into the KBs can improve the interaction between the users and knowledge repository.

  6. Optimization of emergency response to major nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Christou, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology for the optimization of the short-term emergency response in the event of a nuclear accident has been developed. The method aims at an optimum combination of protective actions in the presence of a multitude of conflicting objectives and under uncertainty. Conflicting objectives arise when the minimization of the potential adverse effects of an accident and the simultaneous minimization of the associated socioeconomic impacts is attempted. Additional conflicting objectives appear whenever an emergency plan tends to decrease a particular health effect (e.g. acute deaths) while at the same time it increases another (e.g. latent deaths). The uncertainty is due to the multitude of the possible accident scenarios and their respective probability of occurrence, the stochastic variability in the weather conditions and in the variability and/or lack of knowledge in the parameters of the risk assessment models. A multiobjective optimization approach is adopted in a dynamic programming scheme. An emergency protective plan consists of defining a protective action (e.g. evacuation, sheltering) at each spatial cell around the plant. Three criteria (evaluators) are used as the objective functions of the problem, namely, acute fatalities, latent effects and socioeconomic cost. The optimization procedure defines the efficient frontier, i.e. all emergency plans that are not dominated by another in all three criteria. No value trade-offs are necessary up to this point

  7. Radiation dose assessment of ACP hot cell in accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, D. H.; Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Lee, E. P.; Ryu, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Condition in Process(ACP) is under development for the effective management of spent fuel which had been generated in nuclear plants. The ACP needs a hot cell where most operations will be performed. To give priority to the environments safety, radiation doses evaluations for the radioactive nuclides in accident cases were preliminarily performed with the meteorological data around facility site. Fire accident prevails over several accidnets. Internal Dose and External Dose evaluation according to short dispersion data for that case show a safe margin for regulation limits and SAR limit of IMEF where this facility will be constructed

  8. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (I: Major inducement events of the accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen drilling in poor tight gas sandstone should be safe because of very low gas production. But a serious accident of fire blowout occurred during nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1. This is the first nitrogen drilling accident in China, which was beyond people's knowledge about the safety of nitrogen drilling and brought negative effects on the development of gas drilling technology still in start-up phase and resulted in dramatic reduction in application of gas drilling. In order to form a correct understanding, the accident was systematically analyzed, the major events resulting in this accident were inferred. It is discovered for the first time that violent ejection of rock clasts and natural gas occurred due to the sudden burst of downhole rock when the fractured tight gas zone was penetrated during nitrogen drilling, which has been named as “rock burst and blowout by gas bomb”, short for “rock burst”. Then all the induced events related to the rock burst are as following: upthrust force on drilling string from rock burst, bridging-off formed and destructed repeatedly at bit and centralizer, and so on. However, the most direct important event of the accident turns out to be the blockage in the blooie pipe from rock burst clasts and the resulted high pressure at the wellhead. The high pressure at the wellhead causes the blooie pipe to crack and trigged blowout and deflagration of natural gas, which is the direct presentation of the accident.

  9. The Fukushima major accident. Seismic, nuclear and medical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, Alain; Friedel, Jacques; Brezin, Edouard; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Courtillot, Vincent; Dercourt, Jean; Jaupart, Claude; Le Pichon, Xavier; Poirier, Jean-Paul; Salencon, Jean; Tapponnier, Paul; Dautray, Robert; Taquet, Philippe; Blanchet, Rene; Le Mouel, Jean-Louis; Chapron, Jean-Yves; Fanon, Joelle; BARD, Pierre-Yves; Bernard, Pascal; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Armijo, Rolando; Shapiro, Nikolai; Tait, Steve; Cara, Michel; Madariaga, Raul; Pecker, Alain; Schindele, Francois; Douglas, John

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this voluminous report addresses mega-earthquakes and mega-tsunamis: scientific data, case of France (West Indies and metropolitan France), and socioeconomic aspects (governance, regulation, para-seismic protection). The second part deals with the nuclear accident at Fukushima: event sequence, situation of the nuclear industry in France after Fukushima, fuel cycle and future opportunities. The third part addresses health and environmental consequences. Each part is completed by a large number of documents in which some specific aspects are more precisely reported, commented and discussed

  10. Would ISO 9000 have prevented the two major radiotherapy accidents in the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    There have been two major accidents in the UK. In Exeter, 207 patients were overdosed by 25%, and, in Stoke-on-Trent, just under 1000 patients were underdoses by about the same amount. The ISO 9000 quality assurance system should create an environment and a culture where the risk of such an accident is minimized. In this presentation, the background to the two accidents is analysed in the light of the question - would these accidents have occurred if ISO 9000 had been in place in the two centres?

  11. Medical precautions of radiation diseases and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, Franz; Ludwig, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The main topic deals essentially with the role of the Authorized Physician in industrial medicine, with the occupational diseases caused by ionizating radiation, with the tasks of regional radiation protection centers, and with the WHO REMPAN network. (orig.)

  12. Application of FISH method in evaluation of a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingming; Zheng Siying; Duan Zhikai; Zhang Shuxian; Xu Honglan

    2004-01-01

    To study effects of long term radiation hazard and explore the possibility of the application of chromosome aberration and FISH method to dose retrospection and reconstruction, FISH method was used to detect biological destination of three accidental victims at 7.5 years after Xinzhou accident. In the meantime, conventional chromosomal aberration, G-banding, CB micronuclei and HPRT gene locus mutation assays were performed. In addition, the growth and development of Victim S, who suffered the radiation accident as a fetus, were examined. And comparison of dose estimations between chromosome aberration and FISH method of the victims was conducted. The results demonstrated that the biological dose estimated by translocation frequency is very close to the imitated dose by the physical way after the accident if enough cells are observed. It is suggested that FISH may be applied to dose retrospection and reconstruction. Obvious chromosomal aberrations still existed in the examined victims at 7.5 years after the accident and displayed good dose correlative dependence. The results also showed that the growth and development of S were basically normal after birth

  13. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, A. B.; Mohanan, S.; Damodaran, D.; Soneja, M.; Jain, N.; Mohan, A.; Vikram, N. K.; Sood, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi (India)), on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Inst. of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents. (authors)

  14. Estimation of radiation dose received by the victims in a Chinese radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liangan; Xu, Zhiyong; Jia, Delin; Dai, Guangfu

    2002-01-01

    In April 1999, a radiation accident happened in Henan province, China. In this accident, A 60 Co ex-service therapy radiation source was purchased by a waster purchase company, then some persons break the lead pot and taken out the stainless steel drawer with the radiation source, then sell the drawer to another small company, and the buyer reserved the drawer in his bed room until all of his family members shoot their cookies. During the event, seven persons received overdose exposure, the dose rang is about 1.0 - 6.0Gy, especially, all of the buyer family members meet with bad radiation damage. In order to assess the accident consequences and cure the patients of the bad radiation damage, it is necessary to estimate the doses of the Victims in the accident. In the dose reconstruction of the accident victims, we adopted biologic dose method, experiment-simulating method with an anthropomorphic phantom, and theory simulating method with Monte Carlo to estimate the doses of the victims. In this paper, the frame of the accident and the Monte Carlo method in our work will be described, the main dose results of the three methods mentioned above will be reported and a comparison analysis will be presented

  15. Radiation accident of 60Co contamination. Mexico 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The action taken to mitigate the consequences of a radiation accident occuring in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, is described, when a no longer in use cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, with radioactive pellets still inside, was sold, unwittingly as ordinary scrap to be finally made into reinforced steel rods. The finished metallic items, unknowingly contaminated with cobalt-60, were subsequently sold in central and northern Mexico and in the United States of America. The junkyard, transport vehicle, several foundries and some streets of two cities and the road between them were also made radioactive by the accident. The discovery of and search for the radioactive metallic products is described as is their final disposal and the decontamination of the affected sites. Individual and collective radiation doses is estimated. (author)

  16. 'Rogue' cells observed in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevan'kaev, A.V.; Tsyb, A.F.; Zhloba, A.A.; Moiseenko, V.V.; Skrjabin, A.M.; Climov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Eight 'rogue' lymphocyte metaphases containing a large number of aberrant chromosomes were noted during a survey of chromosomal damage in 328 Belarussian children. The study population comprised children of families living in territory contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident. The majority of the sample had been evacuated within 1 week from very heavily polluted territory to areas that had received much less fallout. Two hundred cells were scored per subject and one rogue cell was found in a child exposed in utero; one in a child conceived after the accident and six in the postnatally exposed group. The possibility that the damage was due to exposure to radio-iodine concentrated in the thyroid gland, or to radiation from incorporated hot particles' of an alpha or beta/gamma emitter is discussed. It is concluded that the damage to these cells is unlikely to have been caused by radiation. (Author)

  17. The risk of major nuclear accident: calculation and perception of probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Whereas before the Fukushima accident, already eight major accidents occurred in nuclear power plants, a number which is higher than that expected by experts and rather close to that corresponding of people perception of risk, the author discusses how to understand these differences and reconcile observations, objective probability of accidents and subjective assessment of risks, why experts have been over-optimistic, whether public opinion is irrational regarding nuclear risk, and how to measure risk and its perception. Thus, he addresses and discusses the following issues: risk calculation (cost, calculated frequency of major accident, bias between the number of observed accidents and model predictions), perceived probabilities and aversion for disasters (perception biases of probability, perception biases unfavourable to nuclear), the Bayes contribution and its application (Bayes-Laplace law, statistics, choice of an a priori probability, prediction of the next event, probability of a core fusion tomorrow)

  18. Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The text of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents, which was signed on 17 October 1963 by the Director General and by representatives of the Governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Article IX will be notified to Members in an Addendum to this document [es

  19. Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The text of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents, which was signed on 17 October 1963 by the Director General and by representatives of the Governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Article IX will be notified to Members in an Addendum to this document

  20. Course on medical aspects of nuclear and radiation accidents. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Nentwich, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Tchernobyl event deflected the attention from other potential hazards related to ionizing radiation as can result from misfunction or misuse of radioactive sources widely applied in human medicine or in industry. It was only after the Goiania accident in Brazil that these radiation sources retrieved the attention they deserve. Around the world, great efforts have been undertaken by the producers and users of these sources, supported by scientific investigations and by legislative backing, to minimize to the greatest extent possible any risk to public health. Nevertheless, accidents involving serious overexposures of individuals cannot be excluded entirely for the future. It is therefore a matter of professional responsibility to carefully evaluate the experiences gathered in the wake of radiation accidents and proliferate this knowledge to those professionals-health physicists, decontamination specialists, medical and paramedical staff - that might be confronted with the consequences of an accident and from whose expertise and proper handling human lifes might depend. It was with this aim that the Atomic Energy Authority and the International Bureau of the Forschungszentrum Juelich undertook to organize a joint training course within the German-Egyptian governmental agreement on bilateral cooperation in scientific research and technological development signed on 11.4.1979. Selected experts from both sides convened and presented both compended text book knowledge as well as own recent scientific data reflecting the state of the art. This material was selected and prepared in order to fit the needs of the invited 25 Egyptian physicians and paramedical course participants who where to be given guidelines on how to react to radiation overexposure incidents. (orig.)

  1. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist

  2. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.

    2005-01-01

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  3. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  4. Medical emergency and first aid for radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki-Yasumoto, Masashi

    1980-01-01

    The thinkings concerning the injuries to human beings in nuclear accidents differ somewhat between Japan and the U.S.A. and other European countries. In accordance with the historical evolution of nuclear power and the characteristics of medical system in respective countries, there are more or less modified measures in the scheme of three phases; i.e. first aid stations on the sites of nuclear facilities, support hospitals, and radiation injury centers, in order. So far, easy reliance on such as the National Institute of Radiological Sciences was large, but with the Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident as the turning point, the emergency and first aid systems are being studied intensively both in the Government and private nuclear power enterprises. The following matters are described: the differences in thinkings between Japan and other countries; fundamentals in the medical emergency scheme in radiation accidents; the systems in U.S.A., U.K., France and West Germany; and the problems and measures in the scheme of Japan. (J.P.N.)

  5. Multicomponent risk inherent to nuclear or radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyarkov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A nuclear or radiation emergency response planning is based on expected avertable doses for a short (4 hours, 2 days, 1 week) and a long (50 or 70 years) periods of time. On calculating the doses one should take into account not only the sources of ionizing radiation with their foreseen characteristics, e.g. a half-life, but also the possibility of their probabilistic transformations. It can be illustrated by the chronicle of Chernobyl accident, where for nine days it was impossible to envisage with reliability the quantities of released radionuclides due to many uncontrolled factors related to the scope and character of the zone wreckage. Any other developments of the accident, such as destruction of the under reactor support plate, sinking of the melted zone into a highly radioactive water down at the reactor cavity or changing of the wind could have resulted in a substantial contamination of 3 mln. Kiev and other densely populated area of Ukraine. Another factor to be taken into account in the emergency response is a way of an actual risk perception by the population. The article suggests an approach to take into account the time-dependent secondary sources of exposure and the disparity in accepting the hazard of real risk of an accident by the trained workers and population. (author)

  6. The risk of a major nuclear accident: calculation and perception of probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-07-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi, Japan, occurred on 11 March 2011. This nuclear disaster, the third on such a scale, left a lasting mark in the minds of hundreds of millions of people. Much as Three Mile Island or Chernobyl, yet another place will be permanently associated with a nuclear power plant which went out of control. Fukushima Daiichi revived the issue of the hazards of civil nuclear power, stirring up all the associated passion and emotion. The whole of this paper is devoted to the risk of a major nuclear accident. By this we mean a failure initiating core meltdown, a situation in which the fuel rods melt and mix with the metal in their cladding. Such accidents are classified as at least level 5 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The Three Mile Island accident, which occurred in 1979 in the United States, reached this level of severity. The explosion of reactor 4 at the Chernobyl plant in Ukraine in 1986 and the recent accident in Japan were classified as class 7, the highest grade on this logarithmic scale. The main difference between the top two levels and level 5 relates to a significant or major release of radioactive material to the environment. In the event of a level-5 accident, damage is restricted to the inside of the plant, whereas, in the case of level-7 accidents, huge areas of land, above or below the surface, and/or sea may be contaminated. Before the meltdown of reactors 1, 2 and 3 at Fukushima Daiichi, eight major accidents affecting nuclear power plants had occurred worldwide. This is a high figure compared with the one calculated by the experts. Observations in the field do not appear to fit the results of the probabilistic models of nuclear accidents produced since the 1970's. Oddly enough the number of major accidents is closer to the risk as perceived by the general public. In general we tend to overestimate any risk relating to rare, fearsome accidents. What are we to make of this divergence? How are we to reconcile

  7. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Status and functioning of the European Commission's major accident reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the background, functioning and status of the European Commission's Major Accident Reporting System (MARS), dedicated to collect, in a consistent way, data on major industrial accidents involving dangerous substances from the Member States of the European Union, to analyse and statistically process them, and to create subsets of all non-confidential accidents data and analysis results for export to all Member States. This modern information exchange and analysis tool is made up of two connected parts: one for each local unit (i.e., for the Competent Authority of each EU Member State), and one central part for the European Commission. The local, as well as the central parts of this information network, can serve both as data logging systems and, on different levels of complexity, as data analysis tools. The central database allows complex cluster and pattern analysis, identifying and analysing the succession of the disruptive factors leading to an accident. On this basis, 'lessons learned' can be formulated for the industry for the purposes of further accident prevention. Further, results from analysing data of major industrial accidents reported to MARS are presented. It can be shown that some of the main assumptions in the new 'Seveso II Directive' can directly be validated from MARS data. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated with Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Kafatos, Menas C.; Taylor, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments of remote sensing methods for Earth satellite data analysis contribute to our understanding of earthquake related thermal anomalies. It was realized that the thermal heat fluxes over areas of earthquake preparation is a result of air ionization by radon (and other gases) and consequent water vapor condensation on newly formed ions. Latent heat (LH) is released as a result of this process and leads to the formation of local thermal radiation anomalies (TRA) known as OLR (outgoing Longwave radiation, Ouzounov et al, 2007). We compare the LH energy, obtained by integrating surface latent heat flux (SLHF) over the area and time with released energies associated with these events. Extended studies of the TRA using the data from the most recent major earthquakes allowed establishing the main morphological features. It was also established that the TRA are the part of more complex chain of the short-term pre-earthquake generation, which is explained within the framework of a lithosphere-atmosphere coupling processes.

  10. Economic consequences of major accidents in the industrial plants: The case of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix, J.

    1989-09-01

    These last years, newspapers head-lines have reported various accidents (Mexico City, Bhopal, Chernobyl, ...) which have drawn attention to the fact that the major technological risk is now a reality and that, undoubtedly, industrial decision-makers ought to integrate it into their preoccupations. In addition to the sometimes considerable human problems such accidents engender, their economic consequences may be such that they become significant on a national or even international scale. The aim of the present paper is to analyse these economic effects by using the particular context of a nuclear power plant. The author has deliberately limited his subject to the consequences of a major accident, that is to say a sudden event, theoretically unforeseen and beyond man's control. The qualification major means an accident of which the consequences extend far beyond the industrial plant itself. The direct and indirect economic consequences are analysed from the responsibility point of view as well as from the national and international community's point of view. A paragraph explains how the coverage of the costs can rely on the cooperation of a number of parties: responsible company, state, insurers, customers, etc. The study is broadly based on the experience resulting from the two major accidents which happened in the nuclear industry these last years (Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986) and makes use of more theoretical considerations, for example in the field of the economic evaluation of human life. (author). 58 refs, 2 figs, 12 tabs

  11. Evaluation of major polluting accidents in China-Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yu; Zhang Tianzhu

    2009-01-01

    Lessons learnt from accidents are essential sources for updating state-of-the-art requirements in pollution accident prevention. To improve this input in the People's Republic of China in a systematic way, a database for collecting and evaluating major pollution accidents is being established. This is being done in co-operation with Chinese Society for Environment Sciences and other national Institutions. At the time of writing over 80 major events from 2002-2006 have been collected. In this paper, a summary evaluation on the major polluting events in China from 2002 to 2006 is presented and some basic lessons drawn shown. There is no a systematic pollution accident notification system currently in China. The results from root cause analysis underline the importance of emergency measures, maintenance, human factor issues and the role of safety organization. Chronic pollution, especially water pollution and air pollution should be paid the same attention as the sudden pollution. It is important to keep in mind that collecting information from major accidents represents a small percentage of the actual number of events taking place.

  12. Consequences of major nuclear accidents on wild fauna and flora: dosimetric assessments remain a weakness to establish robust conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As about hundred of studies have been undertaken after the major nuclear accidents (Chernobyl and Fukushima) to study the consequences of these accidents on wild flora and fauna, notably on the effects of low doses of ionizing radiations, it appears that some of them reported noticeable effects due to extremely low doses. Such findings put knowledge in radiobiology into question again. This note aims at discussing the importance of the quality of dosimetric assessments for any study performed 'in natura'. It seems that the ambient external dose rate is not systematically a good indicator of the dose or dose rate absorbed by a living organism in radio-contaminated environment. This note outlines the problem related to the spatial heterogeneity of the radioactive contamination, that some statistic methods are not always adapted to data set quality. It briefly indicates other factors which may affect the quality of data set obtained during in situ studies

  13. Radiation accidents: occurrence, types, consequences, medical management, and the lessons to be learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turai, I.; Veress, K.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews the frequency, causes and occurrence of radiation accidents with some significant exposure to human. More detailed information is provided in tabulated form on the health consequences of those twenty severe radiation accidents that occurred in 1986-2000, world-wide. Reference is given to the very low cumulative incidence of significant radiation accidents, as during the last 57 years there were, in average, seven registered accidents annually in all countries of the world. Thus, the chance for most of the physicians to meet a patient with symptoms of acute radiation injury during their professional career is very low

  14. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual. Overview and summary of major points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Martin, J.A. Jr.; Giitter, J.G.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Watkins

    1987-02-01

    Overview and Summary of Major Points is the first in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes elementary perspectives on severe accidents and accident assessment. Other volumes in the series are: Volume 2-Severe Reactor Accident Overview; Volume 3- Response of Licensee and State and Local Officials; Volume 4-Public Protective Actions-Predetermined Criteria and Initial Actions; Volume 5 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. The volumes have been organized into these training modules to accommodate the scheduling and duty needs of participating NRC staff. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material

  15. Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.

    1987-08-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m 2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m 2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

  16. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen......Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...

  17. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  18. The problems of civil defense at the radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojagov, H.O.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A decrease of risk to a possible low level (optimization) is carried out due to the following two circumstances. A lime it of risk of a potential irradiation from all possible sources of radiation is regulated and for each source the boundary of risk is established; under a decrease of potential radiation risk there is the minimum level of risk, below which a risk is considered as negligible and further decrease of risk is inexpedient. The persons attracted for realization of emergency and saving work, are considered on the same footing as the personnel working with ethnogeny sources of ionizing radiation or those who work in conditions under the influence of latter. Main problems and measures of radioprotection are outlined in the appropriate normative documents of the Republic. At different stages of an accident the interference is regulated by zoning of the polluted territories which is based on the value of annual ED which can be received by the inhabitants in absence of measures of irradiation protection. On the territories where an annual ED does not exceed 1 mSv the usual control of radioactive pollution of objects of an environment and agricultural production is made and by its results an irradiation dose of the population on this territory is not restricted by the radiation factor. This territory is not considered as a zone of a radioactive pollution. Applying the security system in all cases the limits are applied to a sum of all appropriate doses from external radiation for an established period of time and half - century doses from receipts for the same time. Based on the stated above principles which are used as guidance at acceptance of the decisions about character of an interference (protective measures) at planning protective measures on a case of radiation accidence the derivative levels of interference: doses and power of radiation doses levels of radioactive pollution and other characteristics RP with reference to concrete radio

  19. Henri Jammet Memorial lecture: The role of dosimetry in radiation accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, Robert C.; Joiner, Eugene; Toohey, Richard E.; Holloway, Elizabeth C.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a lecture given on the role of dosimetry in radiation accident response, focusing accidents such as: Vinca, occurred on october 15, 1958, Goiania Cs-137, Hanford Am-241 and Juarez Co-60, Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Other accidents are reported as they are registered in the REAC/TS Registry

  20. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), US response to major radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1960's and 70's the expanded use of nuclear materials to generate electricity, to provide medical benefits, and for research purposes continued to grow in the United States. While substantial effort went into constructing plants and facilities and providing for a number of redundant backup systems for safety purposes, little effort went into the development of emergency response plans for possible major radiological accidents. Unfortunately, adequate plans and procedures had not been developed to co-ordinate either state or federal emergency response assets and personnel should a major radiological accident occur. This situation became quite evident following the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor accident in 1979. An accident of that magnitude had not been adequately prepared for and Pennsylvania's limited emergency radiological resources and capabilities were quickly exhausted. Several federal agencies with statutory responsibilities for emergency response, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and others provided extensive assistance and support during the accident. However, the assistance was not fully co-ordinated nor controlled. Following the Three Mile Island incident 13 federal agencies worked co-operatively to develop an agreement called the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP). Signed in November 1985, this plan delineated the statutory responsibilities and authorities of each federal agency signatory to the FRERP. In the event of a major radiological accident, the FRERP would be activated to ensure that a co-ordinated federal emergency response would be available to respond to any major radiological accident scenario. The FRERP encompasses a wide variety of radiological accidents, not just those stemming from nuclear power plants. Activation of the FRERP could occur from major accidents involving

  1. Radiological impact to the population of the three major accidents happened in the civil nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz M, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    The greatest fear of the population before a nuclear accident, is the radiological impact to the health of people, due to the exposure to the liberated radioactive material during the accident, this fear is generally exaggerated or not well managed by the media. The best estimate in the received doses and their possible effects is carried out based on the information obtained during a certain time after the accident event. This work contains a summary of the information in the topic that at the present time has presented institutions as: the World Health Organization (Who), the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the World Nuclear Association, among others. The considered accidents are: first, the Unit-2 of the nuclear power plant of the Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, USA occurred 28 March of 1979, in the Reactor TMI-2, type PWR of 900 M We; the second accident was 26 April of 1986, in the Unit-4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, in Ukraine, the involved reactor was type BRMK, of 1000 M We moderated by graphite and cooled with light water, the power plant is located to 100 Km to the northwest of Kiev; 25 years later occurred the third accident in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Dai-ichi, in Japan, affecting at four of the six reactors of the power plant. A brief description of the accident is presented in each case, including the magnitude of the provoked liberations of radioactive material, the estimate doses of the population and the affected workers are presented, as well as the possible consequences of these doses on the health. The objective of this diffusion work is to give knowledge to the nuclear and radiological community of the available information on the topic, in order to be located in the appropriate professional context. (author)

  2. Rules concerning radiation protection measures to be taken in the event of accidents with gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    These rules issued by the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene (SIS) set out the obligations of licensees and radiographers regarding radiation protection and accident prevention in relation to gamma radiography. (NEA)

  3. Important radiation accidents in the objects other than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabek, W.

    1993-01-01

    The author reports and analyses five very dangerous radiation accidents in the institutions applying accelerators and big isotope radiation sources. Some of them has finished a very heavy injuries of people

  4. Decision support systems for major accident prevention in the chemical process industry : A developers' survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Foubert, B.

    2006-01-01

    Solid major accident prevention management is characterized by efficient and effective risk assessments. As a means of addressing the efficiency aspect, decision support analysis software is becoming increasingly available. This paper discusses the results of a survey of decision support tools for

  5. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  6. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-01-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a "1"9"2Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  7. Radiation doses from contaminated food after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Oehlenschlaeger, M.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents estimates of radiation doses from contaminated food after a hypothetical accident at a nuclear power plant. The calculations are made from assumptions intended to represent Swedish conditions. The accident scenario is based on a hypothetical core melt in a nuclear power reactor followed by a release to the atmosphere of iodine and caesium corresponding to 0.6% of the Forsmark unit 3 core inventory. The results are expressed in terms of average effective doses from contaminated food to individuals in the critical group living near the power plant, 2 km from the point of release, and living from locally produced foodstuffs. The calculations are made for a winter release and a summer release, and for dry and rainy conditions. Dynamic radioecological models are used, which have been developed from Danish experience with readioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and with fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The accidental release is estimated to cause doses in the summer season from 131 I of circa 200 mSv to children and circa 30 mSv to adults based on a deposition during dry conditions of 11 MBq 131 I m -2 . The dosed from 134 Cs and 137 Cs are estimated at circa 20 mSv to children and adults in case of winter release and circa 160 mSv in case of summer release based on a deposition during dry conditions of 0.5 MBQ 134 Cs and 0.4 MBq 137 Cs m -2 . The main reason for the large difference between the winter and the summer releases is the high sensitivity of cerals to direct contamination on month prior to harvest. In case of precipitation the doses are estimated at twice those for dry conditons. (author) 8 tabs., 16 ills., 13 refs

  8. Radiation and health effects. A report on the TMI-2 accident and related health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Unit 2 reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Station was severely damaged by an accident. Radioactivity was discharged to the environment resulting in a small amount of radiation exposure to the public. Continuing concerns by some members of the communities around TMI about the potential radiation-induced health effects prompted GPU Nuclear Corporation to examine the information gathered from the accident investigation in the context of our current knowledge of radiation and its effects on human health. Although this report deals with technical matters, the information is presented in a manner that can be understood by those who do not have scientific backgrounds. This report is divided into three major sections. The first section provides an overview of the past 80 years of relevant research on the subject of radiation and its effects on human health. During that time, scientists and physicians throughout the world have studied hundreds of thousands of individuals exposed to radiation from medical and occupational sources and from nuclear weapons explosions. Epidemiologic studies of humans, such as the Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb, have established that following exposure to large doses of radiation, certain health effects, including cancer, can be observed. Radiation-induced health effects from low doses of radiation, such as those associated with the TMI-2 accident, appear infrequently, if at all, and are identical and, therefore, indistinguishable from similar health effects which occur normally. For example, cancers induced by radiation are indistinguishable from those occurring spontaneously or normally. It is not possible, therefore, for scientists to determine directly whether radiation-induced health effects at low doses occur at all; such observations can only be inferred by statistical methods. The second section of this report provides a brief description of the TMI-2 accident. Most of the radioactivity from the

  9. Organizational aspects of the handling of radiation accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is a legal requirement that persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of their employment in radiation facilities should be monitored. Some 90000 persons constitute the population 'at risk' for occupational radiation exposure. The actual radiation accident rate has been very low indeed. Nevertheless, precautions must be taken. Four radiation accident categories may be distinguished: uncomplicated, complicated, contamination and incorporation accidents. In the Federal Republic, the 'Berufsgenossenschaften' (BGS) are required to organize radiation accident care if necessary and take all measures to prevent them. The BGS has issued a pamphlet 'First Aid in case of Increased Exposure to Ionizing Radiation' as a guide to all personnel concerned. The BGS has also organized 5 'Regional Radiation Protection Centres' available to give advice 7 days a week, 24 hours a day in Hamburg, Homburg (Saar), Juelich, Karlsruhe und Munich. These centres are all equipped to provide first aid and decontamination and to cater for a short term stay until a decision is reached as to how to handle a particular accident. The special burns hospital of the BGS in Ludwigshafen is equipped with sterile rooms to handle 'complicated accidents', in particular when skin burns are involved. Two mobile 'radiation protection units' are available in Karlsruhe and Munich to provide help in all problems of dosimetry and health physics. A medical advisory team has been formed to supplement local physicians in dealing with special problems in the handling of radiation accident victims. (author)

  10. 1945-1985-40 years of Nuclear Industry: an overview of important radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    1986-08-01

    Approximately 180 radiation accidents which occurred in the world during the period 1945-1985 are summarized. The necessity of the availability of a database specifically oriented toward researchers interested in studying the different radiation accidents reported is emphasized. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Light water reactor accidents - is there really a major public risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, M [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)

    1983-04-01

    During the past decade, a major mismatch has developed between the actual public risk from nuclear power and the public perception of that risk. Extensive analyses have been performed on the probability of accidents at nuclear power plants, but such analyses have used assumed consequences rather than those that have been scientifically derived. The assumed consequences have been overstated and needlessly scare the public or lead to unwarranted evacuations. The 40 years of experience in research, development and testing, and the history of actual accidents, provide a sound basis for assessment-a basis that has not been utilized.

  12. Prevention of Major Accident Hazards (MAHs) in major Hazard Installation (MHI) premises via land use planning (LUP): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudbiddin, M. Q.; Rashid, Z. A.; Yeong, A. F. M. S.; Alias, A. B.; Irfan, M. F.; Fuad, M.; Hayati, H.

    2018-03-01

    For a number of years, there is a concern about the causes of major hazards, their identification, risk assessment and the process of its management from the global perspective on the activities of the industries due to the protection of the environment, human and property. Though, industries cannot take pleasure in their business by harming the nature of the land, there are a number of measures that need to be put into consideration by the industries. Such measures are in terms of management and safety for the businesses, lives, properties, as well as the environment. The lack of consideration in the selected appropriate criteria can result in major accidental hazards (MAHs). This paper will review the land use planning (LUP) methods used in the past and present to prevent major accident hazards at major hazard installation (MHI).

  13. Radiation doses and ground contamination in Sweden after a major nuclear reactor accident. An enquiry performed by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in concert with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, September 1995; Straaldoser och markbelaeggning i Sverige efter en stor kaernkraftolycka. En utredning utfoerd av SSI i samraad med SKI, september 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeverstam, U

    1995-12-01

    Consequences of radioactive emissions from a hypothetical severe accident at a Swedish nuclear power plant are estimated. Three different cases are studied; two cases where the systems for reduction of accident consequences work properly; and one case where they don`t - a `worst` case. The first case, where the security systems are supposed to work fully, give limited consequences: between a few and about 50 cancer deaths in Europe (integrated in time) depending on wind directions. Food production would be affected in an area within 10 km from the reactor, but not to a large extent. The second case, where the security system do not function to 100%, but 0.1% of the total activity is released, would give 20-100 extra cancer deaths in the normally prevailing winds for all Swedish sites. Under very unfavourable wind conditions this sum may rise to 200, for the Barsebaeck site perhaps to 500. Ground contamination of Iodine can be heavy within short distance, with repercussions for agriculture. For the last, worst case, severe consequences may follow, possibly with acute radiation deaths in an area closer than 5 km from the reactor. In favourable wind conditions cancer deaths can amount to a few hundred over 50 years, at normal conditions up to 2000-8000 and in the most unfavourable weather perhaps twice that amount. Emergency evacuation would be recommended, under the plume, at a distance up to 100-150 km. This will however not be possible, due to lack of time. The high level of contamination will cause a long-time evacuation from the area within distances of up to 50 km. 45 refs, 8 tabs, 5 figs.

  14. Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Kaminska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (0035 and 0025) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002...... to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means...... of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function...

  15. National plan of response to a major nuclear or radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    The first part of this document presents the response strategies and principles to be applied in the case of a major nuclear or radiological accident. It presents the general framework and the 8 reference situations which are used as references for the plan. It presents the general organisation of crisis management by the State (initial organisation, organisation at the national level, communication channel, international channels, case of transport of radioactive materials, responsibility of the various actors). Then, it presents the strategies of response, i.e., a global strategy and more specific strategies applicable in different sectors or fields: for the control of the concerned installation or transport, in the case of transport of radioactive materials, for the protection of the population, for the taking into care, for communication, for the continuity of social and economic life, at the European level, for the post-accidental management. The second part is a guide which contains sheets describing reactions in different situations: uncertainty, accident in an installation resulting in an either immediate and short, or immediate and long, or delayed and long release, accident in a transport of radioactive materials with potential release, accident occurring abroad which may have a more or less significant impact in France, and accident at sea

  16. Safety and man in light of the analysis of major technical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1990-01-01

    Up to the seventies, it was not easy to admit human failure as a cause of industrial accidents. Man was considered as reliable. With the perfection of materials, technical systems and industrial processes though, man has become the weakest link in the chain of technical events. He is and stays a remarkably reliable being, with a roughly estimated average failure quota of 1:1000 manipulations. If the hypothetical risk should be kept very low, this value can become a problem. Instead of judging a mistake as a punishable crime, as the present tendency will have it, a more differentiated, systematical approach is called for. By means of an analysis of four major accidents - Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Challenger and Bhopal - interesting parallels between the causes of such accidents can be found. Human failure, e.g. of a surgeon, is in most cases, the direct cause of an accident. A whole series of further causes, which can be assigned to different areas of influence but are usually interdependent, also play a role. While the human factor must be viewed as more or less predetermined, far reaching improvements can be made to reduce the risk of accident. Today, thanks to modern technology and new findings, it is possible to practically neutralize human error. This creates more costs and necessitates giving up short term production maximization. It also requires the willingness to give safety absolute priority. The name 'culture de surete' (safety culture) is used to describe this concept. Surprising similarities between the causes of the four mentioned major accidents were discovered. Certain circumstances, such as the time of day, played a role. The concept of a plant, resp. technical process has an essential influence, as well as company policy (importance of safety, preparation of emergency procedures, training, maintenance, company rules) and management (evaluation and realization of foreign and the company's own operation experiences and error alarms). (author) 7

  17. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanova, I.

    2006-01-01

    under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

  18. Radiation and health effects. A report on the TMI-2 accident and related health studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-08-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Unit 2 reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Station was severely damaged by an accident. Radioactivity was discharged to the environment resulting in a small amount of radiation exposure to the public. Continuing concerns by some members of the communities around TMI about the potential radiation-induced health effects prompted GPU Nuclear Corporation to examine the information gathered from the accident investigation in the context of our current knowledge of radiation and its effects on human health. Although this report deals with technical matters, the information is presented in a manner that can be understood by those who do not have scientific backgrounds. This report is divided into three major sections. The first section provides an overview of the past 80 years of relevant research on the subject of radiation and its effects on human health. During that time, scientists and physicians throughout the world have studied hundreds of thousands of individuals exposed to radiation from medical and occupational sources and from nuclear weapons explosions. Epidemiologic studies of humans, such as the Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb, have established that following exposure to large doses of radiation, certain health effects, including cancer, can be observed. Radiation-induced health effects from low doses of radiation, such as those associated with the TMI-2 accident, appear infrequently, if at all, and are identical and, therefore, indistinguishable from similar health effects which occur normally. For example, cancers induced by radiation are indistinguishable from those occurring spontaneously or normally. It is not possible, therefore, for scientists to determine directly whether radiation-induced health effects at low doses occur at all; such observations can only be inferred by statistical methods. The second section of this report provides a brief description of the TMI-2 accident. Most of the radioactivity from the

  19. Radiation accident dosimetry: TL properties of mobile phone screen glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassinet, C.; Pirault, N.; Baumann, M.; Clairand, I.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are carried by a large part of the population and previous studies have shown that they may be able to function as individual fortuitous dosimeters in case of radiological accident. This study deals with thermoluminescence (TL) properties of mobile phone screen glass. The presence of a significant background signal which partially overlaps with the radiation-induced signal is a serious issue for dose reconstruction. A mechanical method to reduce this signal using a diamond grinding bit is presented. An over-response at low energy (∼50 keV) is observed for two investigated glasses. The results of a dose recovery test using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure are discussed. - Highlights: • Mobile phone screen glass is a promising material for retrospective dosimetry. • The TL non-radiation induced background signal can be significantly reduced by a mechanical method. • A dose recovery test using an SAR procedure was successfully carried out for the investigated glass

  20. Reported Radiation Overexposure Accidents Worldwide, 1980-2013: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeytaux, Karen; Bey, Eric; Christensen, Doran; Glassman, Erik S.; Murdock, Becky; Doucet, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation overexposure accidents are rare but can have severe long-term health consequences. Although underreporting can be an issue, some extensive literature reviews of reported radiation overexposures have been performed and constitute a sound basis for conclusions on general trends. Building further on this work, we performed a systematic review that completes previous reviews and provides new information on characteristics and trends of reported radiation accidents. Methods We searched publications and reports from MEDLINE, EMBASE, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Radiation Protection Association, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site radiation accident registry over 1980-2013. We retrieved the reported overexposure cases, systematically extracted selected information, and performed a descriptive analysis. Results 297 out of 5189 publications and reports and 194 records from the REAC/TS registry met our eligibility criteria. From these, 634 reported radiation accidents were retrieved, involving 2390 overexposed people, of whom 190 died from their overexposure. The number of reported cases has decreased for all types of radiation use, but the medical one. 64% of retrieved overexposure cases occurred with the use of radiation therapy and fluoroscopy. Additionally, the types of reported accidents differed significantly across regions. Conclusions This review provides an updated and broader view of reported radiation overexposures. It suggests an overall decline in reported radiation overexposures over 1980-2013. The greatest share of reported overexposures occurred in the medical fields using radiation therapy and fluoroscopy; this larger number of reported overexposures accidents indicates the potential need for enhanced quality assurance programs. Our data also highlights

  1. Rupture of major vessels after radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Lee, A.

    1975-01-01

    Rupture of irradiated large vessels is an uncommon complication which tends to occur in carotid, aorta, and femoral arteries, in decreasing order of incidence. It particularly affects men subjected to surgery and radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinomas in oropharynx, esophagus, or genitalia. Contrary to some opinion, radiation is not the most significant cause; this spontaneous arterial rupture can occur without radiation. The perforation is not associated with tumor invasion of arterial wall, as has been claimed. Surgical complications, especially necrosis of skin flaps, infection, and fistulas are most important etiologically. Only 2 of the 11 instances that we describe appear to have been caused mainly by radiation. The perforation is usually fatal, but several patients, including 3 of our series (2 carotid, 1 femoral), have been saved by hospital personnel aware of this complication. To prevent it, prolonged exposure or infection of arteries, whether irradiated or not, should be avoided. (auth)

  2. The lessons from the radiation accidents in China over the past 40 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ma, J.; Yang, J.

    1998-01-01

    A brief introduction and analysis of the radiological accidents in China during the past 40 years have been made in this paper. Statistical data provided by the competent authority show that a number of cases of radiological accidents and events happened in China from 1954 to 1994. Quite a few persons received abnormal exposure. Some serious accidents resulted in death of 8 victims. The reasons of these accidents are analyzed and some recommendations for reduction of potential exposure and accidents involving radiation sources and equipment generating ionization radiation have been given, such as perfecting and improving radiation safety infrastructure and system for the control of radiation sources. It is suggested that safety culture shall be fostered, each individual must be suitably trained and qualified and the management of spent sources should be strengthened. (author)

  3. The criticality accident in Tokaimura and medical aspects of radiation emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaohua; Mao Bingzhi

    2003-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999 at the uranium processing plant in Tokaimura Japan, which is the most severe accident since Chernobyl catastrophe. 213 people were exposed to radiation, among them 2 workers were exposed to 16-23 Gy and 6-10 Gy individually, one worker was 2 Gy, 2 people was 10 mSv and 208 person was 0-5 mSv. Author was invited to attend an international symposium on 'The Criticality Accident in Tokaimura Medical Aspects of Radiation Emergency' in Chiba Japan on December 2000. An overview of the accident, dose estimation and neutron relative biological effects are discussed in this article

  4. Radiation protection service for a nucleonic control system of continuous casting plant after events of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Santanu; Massand, O.P.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive use of nucleonic control systems like level controllers was observed during radiation protection surveys in industries such as refineries, steel plants etc., located in the eastern region of India. There were two accidents at continuous casting plant in 1995 which affected the nucleonic control system installed in 1992. The authorities contacted Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for radiation protection surveys for the involved nucleonic gauges. The present paper describes the radiation protection services rendered by BARC during such accidents. (author)

  5. THE EVALUATION OF VORONEZH REGION RADIATION CONTAMINATION IMPACT OVER THIRTY YEARS’ PERIOD FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Stepkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at radiation contamination impact assessment due to the 1986 Chernobyl accident in Voronezh Region territory more than 600 kilometers away from the ground zero. The major Chernobyl accident impact assessment indicators were the characteristics of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides’ soil surface contamination (Ci/km2 as well as the average annual effective dose of critical population group ( mSv/year over 1986–2014. The Population oncological morbidity indicators were analyzed (all malignant neoplasms, including those in thyroid gland, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in the territories contrastingly differing on the levels of radiation factor impact. The study covered the period of 2010–2014.It was established that for Voronezh Region territories referred to as the post- Chernobyl radioactively contaminated zone over 29 years period the maximum soil surface contamination by 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides reduced by 1.90 and 1.91 times (from 3,15 Ci/km2 to 1,66 Ci/km2 and from 0,063 Ci/km2 to 0,0033 Ci/km2, respectively.Currently the relationship was not found between the radioactive contamination density in Voronezh Region and the levels of malignant neoplasms for the local residents.The present situation related to radiation factor impact on Voronezh Region territories remains stable and safe. Mindful of the indicators results the assessment of ionizing sources impact did not identify any exceeding the normative values.

  6. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of technical complexity, tight coupling, speed, and human fallibility contribute to the unexpected failure of large-scale energy technologies. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the social and economic costs of major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It documents 279 incidents that have been responsible for $41 billion in property damage and 182,156 deaths. Such disasters highlight an often-ignored negative externality to energy production and use, and emphasize the need for further research

  7. Researches and Applications of ESR Dosimetry for Radiation Accident Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Guo, L.; Cong, J.B.; Sun, C.P.; Hu, J.M.; Zhou, Z.S.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Shi, Y.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish methods suitable for practical dose assessment of people involved in ionising radiation accidents. Some biological materials of the human body and materials possibly carried or worn by people were taken as detection samples. By using electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques, the basic dosimetric properties of selected materials were investigated in the range above the threshold dose of human acute haemopoietic radiation syndrome. The dosimetric properties involved included dose response properties of ESR signals, signal stabilities, distribution of background signals, the lowest detectable dose value, radiation conditions, environmental effects on the detecting process, etc. Several practical dose analytical indexes and detecting methods were set up. Some of them (bone, watch glass and tooth enamel) had also been successfully used in the dose assessment of people involved in three radiation accidents, including the Chernobyl reactor accident. This work further proves the important role of ESR techniques in radiation accident dose estimation. (author)

  8. Manual on the medical management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1991-09-01

    This manual is concerned with accidents or emergencies which involve sources of ionizing radiation. It does not cover other forms of radiation such as non-ionizing radiation (ultra-violet, light, radiofrequency radiations), heat, etc. Most radiation accidents have involved individuals either at the workplace or with medical misadministrations; they have received external exposure from X-ray or gamma-ray sources or have been contaminated with radioactive material. A few members of the public have also been involved through misadventures with radioactive sources although these may not be thought of as accidents; more commonly, they are referred to as 'incidents'. For the purpose of this manual, there is not differentiation between an accident and an incident, as the medical care required is the same in both situations. Some of the reference papers are reprinted at the back of the manual. 17 refs., 12 tabs., 9 figs

  9. Radiation protection experience in Yugoslavia from the Vinca accident to nowadays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M

    2000-01-01

    This Paper is the expression of the author opinion about development of radiation protection in Yugoslavia from its beginning forty years ago, which might affect its status in the foreseeable future at the first decades of the 21st century. It focuses on key events in this field starting from the Vinca Accident, which happened in the October 1958, to nowadays. Shortly reviewed some of key events are: Vinca Accident; Foundation of the Radiation Protection Laboratory in the Vinca Institute; International Vinca Dosimetry Experiment; First National Symposium and foundation of the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Association; International Intercomparison Experiment on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry and, International Summer Schools and Symposium on Radiation Protection organized in Yugoslavia. Finally, some specific experimental data obtained during and after Chernobyl Accident up to nowadays in radiation protection action in Yugoslavia are presented also. (author)

  10. French regulatory requirements for the occupational radiation protection in severe accident situations and post-accident recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couasnon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    ), intervention personnel receive radiation protection granted to exposed workers. ASN will have to take into account two major sources of implementation of the occupational radiation protection during an emergency situation: the transposition of Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM of 5 December 2013 and the requirements following the complementary safety assessments of the nuclear power plants in the light of the accident that occurred on the nuclear power plant at Fukushima Daiichi. Indeed, member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with the Directive. For example, in the French regulation, the end of the emergency situation and the transition from emergency phase to the recovery phase are not mentioned and will have to be integrated in the French legal framework. Concerning the complementary safety assessments, they require a 'hard core' of material and organizational measures designed to ensure control of basic safety functions in extreme situations (comprising operational dosimetry resources for workers) and in addition that the operator (EDF) gradually deploy its proposed national 'Nuclear rapid response force (FARN)' comprising specialist crews and equipment able to take over from the personnel on a site affected by an accident. (author)

  11. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP. To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8% answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0% residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1% residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5% residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2% residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5% residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP.

  12. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP.

  13. Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelmont, C.; Coulon, R.; Legrand, B.; Manesse, D.; Rzepka, J.P.

    1989-04-01

    The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered [fr

  14. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takamura, N; Ohtsuru, A; Suzuki, S

    2016-09-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  15. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, S.; Takamura, N.; Ohtsuru, A.; Suzuki, S.

    2016-01-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer. (authors)

  16. Biological dose assessment of 15 victims in Haerbin radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian-xiang; Huang, Min-yan; Ruan, Jian-lei; Bai, Yu-shu; Xu, Su

    2008-01-01

    Full text: a) On July 5 and 8, 2005, Two patients with bone marrow suppression were successively hospitalized by the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University. Examination results showed that the patients seemed to get suspicious radiation disease. On July 13, 2005, a radioactive source was found in the patients' dwelling. The radiation source is Iridium-192 with 0.5 Ci(1.85 x 10 10 Bq) radioactivity. The radiation source is a metal bar which is a kind of radioactive industrial detection source for welding. The source is currently stored in the urban radioactive waste storehouse of Heilongjiang province. After finding the radioactive source on July 13, The Haerbin municipal government initiated an emergency response plan and developed medical rescue, radioactive source examination and case detection through organizing ministries involving health, environmental protection and public security. After receiving a report at 17:00 on July 14, 2005, Chinese Ministry of Health immediately sent experts to the spot for investigation, dose estimation and direction of patients' rescue. Health authority carried out physical examination twice on 113 residents within 30 meters to the source, among which 4 got radiation sickness, 5 showed abnormal hemotogram, and others showed no abnormal response. Of 4 patients with radiation sickness, one 81 year old patient has died of severe bone marrow form of sub acute radiation sickness coupled with lung infection and prostrate apparatus at 13:00 on Oct., 20. Two children have been treated in Beitaiping Road Hospital in Beijing, another patient has been treated in local hospital. b) Biological dosimetry using conventional chromosome aberration analysis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been shown as a reliable and useful tool in medical management of radiation accident victims. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of the victims were cultured using conventional culture medium with colchicine added at the beginning. Chromosome

  17. Hygienic evaluation of radiation consequences after the Chernobyl accident in highly populated areas of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachev, I.I.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Markelova, L.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses radiation exposure to the people in the Ukraine as a result of the Chernobyl accident. As a result of this accident all Ukrainian regions have been heavily contaminated, even though the contamination density obtained in different regions are considerably different. Soils have become contaminated and plants grown in the soils transfer radionuclides to people

  18. Medical treatment of radiation damages and medical emergency planning in case of nuclear power plant incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1981-03-01

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents and accidents, respectively, viz. contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definations used in the practical handling of incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. Reference is made to the Medical Radiation Protection Centers existing in the Federal Republic of Germany and the possibility of getting advices in case of radiation incidents and accidents. (orig.) [de

  19. Utilization technique of 'radiation management manual in medical field (2012).' What should be learnt from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    From the abstract of contents of the 'Radiation management manual in medical field (2012),' the utilization technique of the manual is introduced. Introduced items are as follows: (1) Exposure management; exposure management for radiation medical workers, patients, and citizens in the medical field, and exposure management for radiation workers and citizens involved in the emergency work related to the Fukushima nuclear accident, (2) Health management; health management for radiation medical workers, (3) Radiation education: Education/training for radiation medical workers, and radiation education for health care workers, (4) Accident and emergency measures; emergency actions involved in the radiation accidents and radiation medicine at medical facilities

  20. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N; Rollstin, J.A.; Helton, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs

  1. Study of radiation environment at the Chernobyl' APP after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplov, P.V.; Shaposhnikov, B.G.; Groshev, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of June-December 1986 radiation environment (RE) in the area of 30-km around the Chernobyl' APP after the accident are analyzed. Long-term sampling locations data presented a picture of the entire contaminated 30-km area including a major part of populated areas, technical areas, water sources and their sediments, air, biosphere etc. During first 20-30 days after the accident RE was contributed by relatively short-lived fission products ( 131 J, 140 La). A month later radiation dose rates were indicated for 75 Zr and 95 Nb. In 1.5-2 years radioactivity and dose intensity became dependent for a while on 134 Cs and 106 Ru, and in 3-4 years the long-lived 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 Pu will mainly contribute into radioactivity. Such picture is characteristic of the entire 30 km area. However, there are some deviations. Much attention has been paid to the state of air outside and inside the rooms of the reactor blocks scheduled for start-up, as well as the state of ponds intended for reactor cooling. 16 figs., 36 tabs

  2. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  3. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.; White, A.D.; Hesketh, L.C.; Priseman, S.J.; Lelliot, D.J.; Stimpson, L.W.

    1980-02-01

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

  4. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.-P., E-mail: jean-pierre.van-dorsselaere@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland); Beraha, D. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Chatelard, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas MedioAmbientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Journeau, C. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Paris (France); Klein-Hessling, W. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Kljenak, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miassoedov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Paci, S. [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Zeyen, R. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy (JRC/IET), Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented.

  5. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.-P.; Auvinen, A.; Beraha, D.; Chatelard, P.; Herranz, L.E.; Journeau, C.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Kljenak, I.; Miassoedov, A.; Paci, S.; Zeyen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented

  6. HOTSPOT, Field Evaluation of Radiation Release from Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides, calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground survey measurements, and screening of plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Version 8 allows users to add their own custom radionuclide library and to create custom radionuclide mixtures. It also includes wet deposition to approximate the enhanced plume depletion and ground deposition due to the effects of rain. Additional release geometry options for TRITIUM RELEASE and GENERAL PLUME were added, as well as several other enhancements and improvements. See info (f1) from the main HOTSPOT menu for additional

  7. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident. © The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers 2014.

  8. Models of hemapoietic changes on the basis of systematically collected case histories of radiation accident victims as well as pathophysiologically evaluated patients after chronic radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The research project ''Models of Hematopoietic Changes on the Basis of Systematically Collected Case Histories of Radiation Accident Victims as well as Pathophysiologically Evaluated Patients after Chronic Radiation Exposure'' required the investigation of four major research problem areas. First of all, biomathematical models were improved or newly developed allowing the simulation of the radiation induced response patterns of granulocytes, lymphocytes and blood platelets. The compartment model approach allowed the establishment of the correlation of such blood cell changes to the extent of damage at the level of hemopoietic stem cells distributed throughout the skeleton. The utilization of neural-network techniques resulted in a ''synergetic'' model that enables the medical doctor - using blood cell changes within the first 5-6 days after exposure - to predict the further course of illness and to allow a rational approach to clinical management. Secondly, available information on the clinical consequences of radiation exposure on more than 800 accident victims enabled the team to develop an entirely new concept to recognize and treat such persons. For this approach the biomathematical models were used to identify ''response categories'' (rather than dosimetrically defined ''exposure categories'') with an organ specific grading code of the severity of radiation-induced damage. This grading allowed the semi-quantitative damage assessment of the hemopoiesis, the neurovascular system, the gastrointestinal as well as the cutaneous system. It forms the basis for a ''weighted'' prognosis and for the logistics of radiation accident medical management. In the third project domain, models were developed to understand pathophysiological mechanisms of biological consequences of chronic radiation in human beings (former USSR) as well as in a preclinical dog study (USA). From a large group of patients with the diagnosis of ''Chronic Radiation Sickness'' more than 80 were

  9. System of regional centres of first aid in cases of radiation accidents in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    1996-01-01

    When in the seventies the number of occupational radiation exposed persons in the Federal Republic of Germany increased from about 35,000 (1974) to about 160,000 (1978) the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes felt prompted to reflect about special measures to prevent radiation accidents and provide health care for this special cases. They did so without any actual occasion: accidents were persons have been exposed by ionizing radiation were in the seventies just as rare as today. But that fact does not allow the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes to neglect the existing potential for severe accidents. So the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Electrical Industry including Precision Mechanics and the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Chemical Industry created the Institute for Radiation Protection in 1978. The primary task of that Institute is to guarantee an effective first aid in the case of a radiation accident. To realize that task the Institute contracted 11 wellknown institutions like radiological departments of large hospitals or the medical departments of research centres where the i knowledge on diagnostic and therapy of radiation effects is present. They are called 'Regionale Strahlenschutzzentren', Regional Centres for Radiation Protection (RCRP). In the case of radiation accidents these RCRP are the logistical centres for all arising questions of treatment. They have facilities for reconstructing exposure situations and assessing and evaluating doses, including measurements of internal contamination as well as for medical inpatient or out-patient treating like internal or external decontamination. Another important task of the RCRP is to advise employers in ad radiation protection questions which arise with the industrial application of ionizing radiation. Of course the centres give also answer to many question from members of the public, for example the personal effects of the power plant accident at Chernobyl

  10. Follow-up study of a pregnant woman 16 years after exposure in the Xinzhou radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohui; Liang Li; Zhang Shu-lan; Jia Tingzhen; Liu Qingjie; Ma Liwen; Su Xu; Liu Ying; Chen Sen; Qing Bin; Cao Baoshan; Xiao Yu; Ying Wenchen; Zhang Yu; Wang Wenxue; Wang Zuoyuan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the late effects of radiation on child-bearing women, a follow-up study was performed on a 39-year-old survivor 16 years after a 60 Co radiation accident. The woman, Fang, was 19 weeks pregnant at the time of exposure. Physical examinations, a full range of clinical laboratory and imaging tests, as well as cytogenetic analyses were conducted to evaluate Fang's current health conditions. Fang shows the appearance of premature ageing and has a decreased menstrual period. Laboratory studies and imaging tests suggest nodular goitre disease and osteoporosis. Otherwise, no apparent abnormalities were found in the major organs. No malignant tumours were detected by either tumour markers or imaging tests. However, the existence of chromosome aberrations warrants long-term follow-up for tumour incidence in the future. Fang became pregnant 8 years after the accident, but suffered a miscarriage due to the death of the foetus at 6 months into the pregnancy. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the intrauterine death of the foetus might be associated with the previous exposure. There is no evidence of malignant tumours as of the date of the follow-up study. Non-cancerous diseases, i.e. thyroid disease and osteoporosis, which may be related to radiation exposure, are the major manifestations of the long-term effects of the accident. (note)

  11. Radiation shielding provided by residential houses in Japan in reactor accidents accompanied with atmospheric release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Minami, Kentaro

    1991-01-01

    The present report describes the radiation shielding effect of houses in Japan against the radioactive cloud resulting from a major reactor accident accompanied with atmospheric release. The shielding factor of houses, the ratio of indoor exposure rate to outdoor one, has been studied for the semi-infinite and finite clouds which contain γ-emitting radionuclides released from a reactor facility. The shielding factor of houses against γ-rays from the radioactive cloud decreases gradually with release delay time and keeps a minimum during the period from 50 to 1000 hours after reactor shutdown while 133 Xe predominates in the cloud. Radioiodines mixed in the cloud raise slightly the shielding factor, and the factor depends little on the shape of the cloud. A set of shielding factors for the use of emergency planning was consequently proposed as 0.4 for simple ferroconcrete residential house and 0.9 for other ordinary ones. (author)

  12. Priorities for Addressing Severe Accident and L3PSA in Radiation Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M. S.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, S. R. [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Y. H.; Yoon, Y. I. [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Domestic rules for the radiation environment impact assessment were enacted based on NUREG-0555, the guidance to the nuclear regulatory commission staff in implementing provisions of 10 CFR 51, 'environmental protection regulations for domestic licensing and related regulatory functions', related to NPPs. A revised document of NUREG-0555 was published in 2000 as NUREG-1555, Vol. 1 and 2. The related domestic rules would have made some revisions in accordance with NUREG-1555 in 2016. In this paper, we would introduce the new technical standards and review legal and technical issues on legislation. There are three legal and technical issues on revised legislation that includes severe accidents and L3PSA results in RER. First, it may need a regular and continuing education for the severe accident concept, probabilistic assessment method and conservative assumptions for severe accident, how to interpret the assessment results, the probability of a severe accident, SAMA and etc. to obtain the public understanding for severe accident. Second, it needs the development of strategy and technology not only to evaluate the risk of multi-unit accidents and failure case and the impacts of inter-unit shared systems and common events for the probabilistic assessment of severe accidents but also to solve many potential L3PSA challenges. Finally, the cost-beneficial SAMAs analysis would be added in radiation environmental impact and severe accident impact analysis.

  13. Minimization of the occupational doses during the liquidation of the radiation accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuryndina, Lidia; Stroganov, Anatoly; Kuryndin, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As known the accident on the Chernobylskaya npp is the heaviest one in the nuclear energy history. It showed how considerable can be radiation levels on the breakdown nuclear facility. Nevertheless Russian specialists on radiation protection worked out and successfully realized a conception of the working in such conditions during the liquidation of the accident consequences. The conception based out on using ALARA principle, included the methods of radiation fields structure analysis and allowed to minimize of the occupational doses at operations of the accident consequences liquidation. The main idea of the conception is in strongly dependence between the radiation dose of the personnel performing the liquidation operations and concrete sequence of these operations. Also it is necessary from time to time to receive the experimental information about radiation situation dynamics on the breakdown facility and to make variant calculations for optimizing for the successful implementation of such approach. The structure of these calculations includes variable fraction for the actual state of the facility before the accident and after one and not variable fraction depend on the geometric and protection characteristics of the facility. And the second part is more complicated and bigger. Therefore the most part of these calculations required for the any successful liquidation of the accident consequences can be made on the facility projecting stage. If it will be made the following tasks can be solved in case of the accident: 1) To estimate a distribution of the contamination source using the radiation control system indications; 2) To determine a contribution from each source to the dose rate for any contaminated area; 3) To estimate the radiation doses of the personnel participated in the accident consequences liquidation; 4) To select and to realize the sequence of the liquidation operations giving the minimal doses. The paper will overview the description

  14. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.; Lelliott, D.J.; Stimpson, L.D.

    1981-03-01

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

  15. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological accident from Goiania, GO, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Emico

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the fundaments of radiation physics, the natural and artificial sources, biological effects, radiation protection. We also examine the sequence of events that resulted in Goiania accident with a source of caesium-137 from abandoned radiotherapy equipment and its terrible consequences. (author)

  16. Medical and biological aspects of ionizing radiation influence in consequence with accident at ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidlovs'ka, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph presents the issues on systematic influence of ionizing radiation on the biological systems. The results of personal complex studies because of influence of ionizing radiation in consequence with accident at ChNPP on auditory analyzer, creating voice, cardiovascular system and central nervous system are submitted.

  17. Analysis of Public Perception on Radiation: with One Year after Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bang Ju

    2012-01-01

    A year has passed since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima on March 11, 2011, and a survey for public perception on radiation by Korean people has been made. The methodological design was based on a quantitative survey and a frequency analysis was done. The analysis objects were survey papers (n=2,754pcs) answered by random ordinary citizens chosen from all over the country. The questionnaires, and study tool, were directly distributed and collected. A total of 40 questionnaires using a coefficient of Cronbach's α per each area was 'self perception of radiation' (0.620), 'radiation risk' (0.830), 'benefit from radiation' (0.781), 'radiation controlled' (0.685), 'informative source of radiation' (0.831), 'influence degree from Fukushima accident' (0.763), showing rather high score from all areas. As the result of the questionnaires, the knowledge of radiation concept was 69.50 out of 100 points, which shows a rather significant difference from the result of 'know well about radiation' (53.7%) and 'just know about radiation' (37.40%). According to the survey, one of the main reasons why radiation seems risky was that once exposed to radiation, it may not have negative impacts presently but, the next generation could see negative impacts (66.1%). About 41% of our respondents showed a negative position against the government's report on radiation while 39.5% of respondents said that we should stop running nuclear power in light of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study was done for the first time by Korean people's public perception on radiation after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. We expect this might have significant contributions to the establishment of the government's policy on radiation.

  18. Radiation protection during the medical assistance to the victims of the accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.H.C.; Fajardo, P.W.; Rosa, R.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the casualities of the radiological accident occured in Goiania (Brazil), consequence of the violation of a Cs-137 source were assisted at Marcillo Dias Naval Hospital. The risks associated to the contact with the patients were radioactive contamination and external exposure. To deal with this problem, a Radiation Protection Group was formed and a Radiation Protection Program was developed and implemented in order to assure that risks would be maintained as low as reasonably achievable. The objective of this paper is to present the acquired experience on the radiation protection support in case of emergency medical assistance in radiological accidents. (author). 1 ref.; 2 tabs

  19. Investigation report on causes of radiation underexposure accident at Yamagata University Hospital and Prevention of Similar accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The accident in the title was announced on February 18, 2004 by the hospital, which asked its investigation immediately. The group based on 4 academic societies concerned, thereby started investigations of the in-house reports on the accident and of subsequent hospital visit in March, which involved hearing from personnel concerned, physical/technological examinations and clinical evaluation, with respect to the hospital system for radiation treatment, flow of the treatment, accident details, estimation of the actual expose dose and classification of patients. The investigational group found for the actual number of patients underexposed to be 36 (63, in the in-house report) in 1,377. The cause of the accident was thought essentially the input error for the correct power coefficient 1.032 to be a wrong one 1.320 for 15 x 15 cm 4 MV X-ray. The error had been overlooked by the contract operator from the introduction of the treatment planning equipment in 1999. For prevention, setting up of quality assurance (QA) program by the hospital, the user itself, was pointed out necessary. Making the guideline for introducing the new equipment was conceivably an important work of the trader. (N.I.)

  20. RADIATION CONDITIONS IN KALUGA REGION 30 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ashitko

    2016-01-01

    berries with caesium-137 also exceeds the permissible level (160 Bq/kg nearly 5-fold, and about 43% of samples don’t correspond to it. Obtained results have demonstrated that long after the Chernobyl NPP accident (30 years the main part of population internal exposure is caused by consumption of wild- growing mushrooms and berries. In the recent years, milk consumption does not play a considerable role in forming of internal dose any more. Conclusion: in 30 years since Chernobyl NPP accident in the Kaluga region radiation and environment conditions have considerably improved on the territories with radionuclides contamination. However, problems remain. The major task for mitigation of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is comprehensive radiation, social and economic rehabilitation of the contaminated territories.

  1. Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    An individual radiation exposure accident is an unexpected and unintended event which gives rise to an overexposure (external or internal). By overexposure one means all external or internal exposure which could lead to the exceeding of the regulatory norms. Going beyond these limits does not always produce pathological manifestations. The term radiological accident is, in practice, used only when there is an occurrence of some biological or clinical response, or when some therapeutic action is required. A radio-exposure accident can occur: within or from a nuclear power plant or from a center employing ionizing radiation. These are the most frequent; and during the transport of radioactive materials. These are exceptional events. The tanks and containers used in the transport of highly radioactive substances are exhaustively studied for their resistance to accidents, and the conditions of transport determined by very strict national and international regulations. The transport of substances of low radioactivity (labelled molecules, radiopharmaceuticals...) carries only minor risks

  2. Determination of beta radiation doses received by personnel involved in the mitigation of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanov, D.P.; Krjuchkov, V.P.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    During the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986, and in the post-accident period, workers were exposed to beta and low-energy-photon radiation. This paper describes a method of retrospective estimation of skin doses from these radiations by correlating known doses from gamma radiation. Dose distributions of beta and gamma radiation in tissue-equivalent materials were both calculated and measured using multilayer thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different site locations. It was determined that the doses to the skin from beta radiation exceeded the maximum doses to the whole-body from gamma radiation by 1 or even 2 orders of magnitude. It is concluded that nuclear power plants should be equipped with multilayer skin dosimeters in order to ensure accurate skin dosimetry. 16 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Real-time assessment of radiation burden of the population in the vicinity of nuclear power plants during radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubna, M.

    1986-01-01

    The method is presented of real-time calculation of the radiation situation (dose equivalents) in the environs of a nuclear power plant in case of an accident involving the release of radioactive substances into the atmosphere, this for the potentially most significant exposure paths in the initial and medium stages of the accident. The method allows to take into consideration the time dependence of the rate of radioactive substance release from the nuclear power plant and to assess the development in space and time of the radiation situation in the environs of the nuclear power plant. The use of the method is illustrated by an example of the calculation of the development of the radiation situation for model accidents of a hypothetical PWR with containment. (author)

  4. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina M Drozd

    Full Text Available One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  5. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  6. Goiania radiation accident: activities carried out and lessons learned based on personal experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Goiânia Radiological Accident, on September 13, 1987, with a radioactive source of cesium-137 with 50.9 TBq, used in radiotherapy, is one of the most important accidents in the scientific area, representing a milestone for all workers in the areas of radiation protection and radiological emergency that worked during the event. A personal view of the Goiânia Radiological Accident is presented, showing some activities carried out in contaminated areas and lessons learned based on own experience during the event

  7. Chernobyl accident consequences in Germany: Nuclear safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelhauser, H.; Wendling, R.D.; Weiss, W.; Klonk, H.; Weil, L.

    1997-01-01

    A working Programme of the Federal Government was initiated on 26 May 1986 to cover all aspects of nuclear safety and public health, including research and public affairs in the light of the European and international activities resulting from the accident

  8. Analysis and decision making method for radiation accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Hamard, J.

    1975-01-01

    Decisions on the application of countermeasures for accident situations must take into account the cost of these countermeasures and the feasibility of reducing the exposure. A contribution to the solution of this problem, rested on the application of the principle of choice rationalization and optimization of decision making method, is presented [fr

  9. Radiation analysis in the major areas of marine fisheries research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, A.V.S.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation analysis has been a proven technique to solve, relatively easily and quickly, some of the pressing problems in marine fisheries to the utmost satisfaction. Major areas of marine fisheries research - namely, the determination of sea water characteristics, the productivity studies, the pollution effects, the population dynamics and the preservation of sea foods - wherein the radiation treatment is fully helpful are discussed in detail. The problems encountered in the marine fisheries in India in this context are also outlined. (author)

  10. Policy issues on the control of major accident hazards and the new Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, S.; Wettig, J.

    1999-01-01

    No one wants a major accident to occur! This paper describes the development of EC policies to convert this simple and obvious fact into a coherent prevention strategy which can deliver a high level of protection throughout the European Community. The Seveso II Directive is described in detail, being the relevant Community Instrument which Member States must implement in their national laws. The need to achieve the correct balance between setting general goals and being over prescriptive is discussed, commensurate with the intent to be flexible but yet consistent and effective at the same time. The main changes from Seveso I are discussed, including requirements related to the operator's management systems, the competent authority's systems for inspection, and information and consultation arrangements with the public. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Aviation safety and maintenance under major organizational changes, investigating non-existing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ivonne A; Nordskag, Arve O; Myhre, Grete; Halvorsen, Kåre

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the following questions: Do concurrent organizational changes have a direct impact on aviation maintenance and safety, if so, how can this be measured? These questions were part of the investigation carried out by the Accident Investigation Board, Norway (AIBN). The AIBN investigated whether Norwegian aviation safety had been affected due to major organizational changes between 2000 and 2004. The main concern was the reduction in safety margins and its consequences. This paper presents a summary of the techniques used and explains how they were applied in three airlines and by two offshore helicopter operators. The paper also discusses the development of safety related indicators in the aviation industry. In addition, there is a summary of the lessons learned and safety recommendations. The Norwegian Ministry of Transport has required all players in the aviation industry to follow up the findings and recommendations of the AIBN study.

  12. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the major salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, T [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Inoue, Ta [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Inoue, To [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Ikeda, H [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Yamazaki, H [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Ohtani, M [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Shimizutani, K [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Furukawa, S [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Kozuka, T [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan); Murayama, S [National Inst. of Radiological Science, Chiba (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    From January 1967 through November 1991, a total of 135 patients with carcinoma of the major salivary glands (parotid: 95; submandibular: 39, sublingual: 1) were treated at our department. 40 patients had adenocarcinoma, 29 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 24 mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 16 squamous cell carcinoma. 100 patients were irradiated postoperatively and the remaining 35 were treated with radiation alone. Total radiation doses delivered were 50 Gy for the postoperative group and 50 to 66 Gy for the group receiving only radiation using a [sup 60]Co single portal with or without wedged paired or single electron portal boost. Actuarial five-year survivals after radiation therapy were 55% for the postoperative group and 26% for radiation only group (p=0.0004). The local control rates for the postoperative group were 83% for adenocarcinoma, 81% for adenoid cystic carcinoma, 83% for mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 62% for squamous cell carcinoma. Corresponding figures for the radiation only group were 40% for adenocarcinoma, 38% for adenoid cystic carcinoma and 33% for mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conventional irradiation techniques continue to play an important role because they offer superior local control for postoperative patients with carcinoma of the major salivary glands. However, the local control rates for the radiation only group were only 30 to 40%, so that new irradiation modalities such as provided by a high LET machine are needed for these patients. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of Adolescent Awareness of Radiation: Marking the First Anniversary of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bang Ju

    2012-01-01

    Marking the first anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear accident, which took place on March 11th, 2011, the level of adolescent awareness and understanding of radiation was surveyed, and the results were then compared with those for adults with the same questionnaires conducted at similar times. A qualitative survey and frequency analysis were made for the design of the study methodology. Those surveyed were limited to 3rd grade middle school students, 15 years of age, who are the future generation. The questionnaire, which is a survey tool, was directly distributed to the students and 2,217 answers were analysed. The questionnaires were composed of 40 questions, and it was found that Cronbach's coefficient was high with 'self awareness of radiation' at 0.494, 'risk of radiation' at 0.843, 'benefit of radiation' at 0.748, 'radiological safety control' at 0.692, 'information sources of radiation' at 0.819, and 'impacts of Fukushima accident'. The results of the survey analysis showed that the students' knowledge of radiation was not very high with 67.4 points (69.5 points for adults) calculated on a maximum scale of 100 points (converted points). The impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident were found to be less significant to adolescents than adults, and the rate of answer of 'so' or ' very so' in the following questions demonstrates this well. It was also shown that the impacts of the Fukushima accident to adolescents were comparatively low with 27.0% (38.9% for adults) on the question of 'attitude changed against nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident,' 65.7%(86.6% for adults) on the question of 'the damages from the Fukushima accident was immeasurably huge,' and 65.0% (86.3% for adults) on 'the Fukushima accident contributed to raising awareness on the safety of nuclear power plants'. The adolescents had a high rate of 'average' answers on most of the questions compared with adults, and it can be construed that this resulted from adolescent awareness of

  14. Three years after the Chernobyl reactor accident: How high was the radiation exposure really?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author is an expert in radiological protection and radiation hygiene and on the basis of the current state of the art briefly answers some of the most frequently raised questions in connection with the reactor accident: (1) Which were the sources of the radiation exposure of the population? (2) How high are the resulting radiation doses? (3) Which radionuclides have entered the food chains, and how high is their contribution to the radiation exposure? (4) What is the long-term dose to children and adults due to the contamination of food? (5) What is the resulting radiation hazard? (MG) [de

  15. EDF FARN (fast action force in case of nuclear accident) - Focus on radiation protection of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. As part of the operation of its nuclear power plants, EDF set up in the 80's an emergency response organisation together with the French public authorities aimed at managing the consequences, especially radiological of any events. This is based on the setting up of emergency plans involving both the operator and the public authorities, at local and national level, with both parties assessing the consequences of a radiological accident in the environment constantly enhanced as part of the continuous improvement process. As the Fukushima accident especially highlighted the relevance of having a response system available off site, this emergency response organisation has been strengthened both with equipment and human resources so as to be able to respond to major accidents further to external hazards. These resources have been designed to factor in a high level of radiological risk. The functions and responsibilities are clearly defined for any event occurring at a nuclear power plant. The operator shall be accountable for the actions to be taken on site concerning technical plant management, worker protection and rescue of casualties. The public authorities shall be accountable for all the measures to be taken off site, especially protection of the local population and environmental monitoring. The EDF emergency response organisation is based on enhanced equipment and human resources at site and corporate level supplemented with EDF corporate and non-EDF resources. The EDF emergency plan covers the situation where all the site units are affected. The decision to set up the nuclear rapid response taskforce was taken further to the Fukushima accident in 2011 and it has been operational since 2012. Integrated in the emergency response organisation, its main aim is to be capable of responding in less than 12 hours to reinstate water, electricity and air supply at the nuclear power plant where the accident has occurred. It is

  16. Major Differences in Rates of Occupational Accidents between Different nationalities of Seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Lyngbeck; Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Frydberg, Morten

    2008-01-01

    . Differences in approach to safety and risk taking between South East Asian and European seafarers should be identified and positives attitudes included in accident preventing programmes. Main messages Seafarers from South East Asia, mainly the Philippines, seem to have a genuine lower risk of occupational...... sources on occurrence of accidents were used and to identify specific causes of excess accident rates among certain nationalities. METHODS: Occupational accidents aboard Danish merchant ships during one year were identified from four different sources. These included accidents reported to the maritime...... including only more serious accidents, IRR for South East Asians rose to 0.36 (0.26-0.48). DISCUSSION: This study indicates that seafarers from South East Asia, mainly the Philippines, may have a genuine lower risk of occupational accidents in comparison with seafarers from Western and Eastern Europe...

  17. Dose assessment on natural radiation, natural radionuclide, and artificial radionuclide released by Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Furukawa, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    Various radionuclides are distributed in environmental materials such as soil, rock, and water. People are exposed every day to natural radiation. According to the UNSCEAR 2008 report, Sources of Ionizing Radiation, natural radiation sources are categorized as terrestrial gamma-rays, radon, cosmic rays and food. The effective dose from radon, thoron and its decay products is about 50% of all natural radiation exposure. Consciousness of the Japanese public toward radiation exposure has significantly increased since the start of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In this paper, the nationwide survey and dose estimation for terrestrial gamma-rays and radon are summarized. External dose from artificial radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident are also reported. (author)

  18. Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical aid for radiation accident casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.P.

    1977-01-01

    Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical treatment for radiation accident casualties are considered for different types of radiation accident: whole-body or partial irradiation, external or internal contamination and small or large numbers of cases. The problems posed are ones of competence, urgency and capacity; on the diagnostic side there is the problem of evaluating the exposure or contamination and assessing the resultant damage, while on the treatment side the questions of first aid, conventional treatment and specialized treatment have to be considered. The solutions envisaged involve organization at the local and national levels and planning of medical treatment by skilled, multidisciplinary medical teams. (author)

  19. Radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoer, G; Maul, F D; Buell, U; Kriegel, H; Manegold, K H

    1986-01-01

    A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH).

  20. The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoer, G.; Maul, F.D.; Buell, U.; Kriegel, H.; Manegold, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. An analysis of Japan radiation protection measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene A. dos; Souza-Santos, Denison; Melo, Dunstana R. de; Hunt, John G.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q C.; Conti, Luiz F.C.; Pires do Rio, Monica A.; Reis, Rocio G.

    2011-01-01

    On March 11th 2011, Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake followed by a tsunami wave that took the lives of thousands and started a major nuclear accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant complex. Right from the beginning, the information published by the Japanese government and by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was followed by a team of experts at the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of Brazil. Radiation monitoring data, such as radionuclide activity concentration in water and food, ambient dose rate and fallout concentration in specific cities have been compiled and analyzed, with emphasis on dose limits established by Brazilian regulatory authority. A computer code for dose assessment, developed at the IRD and based upon the IAEA documents TECDOC-1162 and TECDOC-955, was used to assess the doses due to intakes of radionuclides and external exposure for individuals of different age groups. The IAEA model predictions for the ambient dose rates, when the fallout is known, are compared with the measured values in different cities. The Japanese recommendations for evacuation, sheltering and restriction of food and water consumption are evaluated with regards to the Brazilian limits defined in the CNEN NN 3.01 standard. (author)

  2. Basic principles of medical aid in cases of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, E.; Mikhajlov, M.A.; Bliznakov, V.

    1979-01-01

    A model scheme has been presented of medical aid organization in emergency cases of irradiation. The tasks of medical service have been pointed out in connection with evacuation stages, bulk of medical aid depending on the natur of radiation damages, first aid and some general principles of radiation sickness treatment. (author)

  3. What one should know about radiation. Comparison of radiation burden from the Chernobyl accident and the atomic weapons test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtscher, A

    1986-01-01

    The natural radiation burden, that due to the Chernobyl accident and the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in Austria are compared. The overall Chernobyl burden is estimated at 50-70% of the annual natural burden and thus less than the burden from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. (G.Q.).

  4. The accidents due to ionizing radiations - the situation on a half century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This report takes stock updated in 2006, serious accidents occurred in the four sectors in civil, industrial, medical and military. Its goal is to provide an explanatory and critical review of the most representative accident that caused serious harm to victims. The report analyses for each accident, and whenever reliable data exist, the reasons for its occurrence, consequences for victims and possibly to the environment, remedial actions that have been made and medical treatments when they were innovative. Using a combination of accidents with common features, the report offers key lessons to be learned from these tragic events. This report is intended for practitioners of radiation protection in general and does not target particular experts in any technical or medical specialty. (N.C.)

  5. Medical management of two accidents by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda C, G.

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of accidents of occupationally exposed personnel are presented, the first one was an accidental sharp exhibition to whole body that a 27 year-old worker suffered when being exposed to a source of Iridium 192 of 94 Curies. For this case it was diagnosed an hematopoiesis syndrome that it was responded to the handling prescribe until him recovery. The second case, a radiologist technical 22 year-old that was irradiated with a source of Iridium 192 of 79 Curies. The treatment consisted on cleaning, antibiotics, analgesic and inert ointment, being achieved recovery after several weeks

  6. The 1987 radiation accident in Goiania: medical and organizational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de; Souza, P.C. de

    1989-12-01

    The present works describes the circumstances of the accident occurred on 13 September 1987, in Goiania (Brazil), when two scavengers removed a teletherapy device a 50.9 TB q (1375Ci) cesium source, from a clinic. They took the apparatus home and tried to dismantled it. The authors describe the circumstances of the event, the first aid measures taken on the site, and the medical structure organized to triage and treat the casualties. Aspects relating to hospital contamination control, the environment, and radioprotection and decontamination procedures are also discussed. (L.M.J.) [pt

  7. Point Source contamination approach for hydrological risk assessment of a major hypothetical accident from second research reactor at Inshas site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.A.; Tawfik, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The point source contamination mechanism and the deterministic conservative approach have been implemented to demonstrate the hazards of hydrological pollution due to a major hypothetical accident in the second research reactor at Inshas. The radioactive inventory is assumed to be dissolved in 75% of the cooling water (25% are lost) and comes directly into contact with ground water and moved down gradient. Five radioisotopes(I-129, Sr-90, Ru-106, Cs-134 and Cs-137) of the entire inventory are found to be highly durable and represent vulnerability in the environment. Their downstream spread indices; C max : maximum concentration at the focus of the moving ellipse, delta: pollution duration at different distances, A:polluted area at different distances and X min : safety distance from the reactor, were calculated based on analytical solutions of the convection-dispersion partial differential equation for absorbable and decaying species. The largest downstream contamination range was found for Sr-90 and Ru-106 but still no potential. The geochemical and hydrological parameters of the water bearing formations play a great role in buffering and limiting the radiation effects. These reduce the retention time of the radioisotopes several order of magnitudes in the polluted distances. Sensitivity analysis of the computed pollution ranges shows low sensitivity to possible potential for variations activity of nuclide inventory, dispersivity and saturated thickness and high sensitivity for possible variations in groundwater velocity and retention factors

  8. Radiation accidents with global consequences for the population. Problems of risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Doncheva, B.; Stoilova, S.; Miloslavov, V.; Tsenova, T.; Novkirishki, V.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical problems concerning the delayed impacts as a result of considerable radiation accidents are discussed. The attention is paid to the maximum individual doses which are relatively low but many people are affected. In these cases, the risk evaluation is based on the cancerogenesis, genetic and teratogenetic consequences among the concerned population. The main equation of the linear threshold-free model 'dose effect' is subjected to analysis. Considering the real prognostic importance of this equation the following recommendations are made: further observation on epidemic diseases; investigation of teratogenetic consequences in connection with the radiation doses obtained during the antenatal development; radiation-hygienic standardization of the oral absorbtion of radionuclides for short and long periods of time; effective equivalent dose determination according to the irradiated organ or tissue (mammary glands, lungs, red marrow, gonads, skin); necessity of national system for in time announcement of radiation accidents, as well as suitable control of the internal and the external irradiation

  9. Impact of Fukushima NPPs Accident on Young Generation's Understanding of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoonseok; Kim, Wook; Joo, Yeonjung; Choi, Nowoon [Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    As this study project has been conducted continuously before and after the breaking-out of the Fukushima NPPs accident (FNPPA), accumulated data were analyzed to seek impact of the accident. Results indicated that the first-hand measurement of radiation carried out so far was turned out to be an effective means for mitigation of students' over-sensitive radiation fear even though some influence of the FNPPA was identified in analysis of questionnaire data. The FNPPA brought about radiation fear to the people all over the country. However, it is believed that radiation together with nuclear energy will favorably be understandable by the public through implementation of this first-hand experience program.

  10. Impact of Fukushima NPPs Accident on Young Generation's Understanding of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoonseok; Kim, Wook; Joo, Yeonjung; Choi, Nowoon

    2013-01-01

    As this study project has been conducted continuously before and after the breaking-out of the Fukushima NPPs accident (FNPPA), accumulated data were analyzed to seek impact of the accident. Results indicated that the first-hand measurement of radiation carried out so far was turned out to be an effective means for mitigation of students' over-sensitive radiation fear even though some influence of the FNPPA was identified in analysis of questionnaire data. The FNPPA brought about radiation fear to the people all over the country. However, it is believed that radiation together with nuclear energy will favorably be understandable by the public through implementation of this first-hand experience program

  11. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording][Radiation injuries following an accident at a nuclear power plant, 1986. Medical aspects of Chernobyl, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail.

  12. The radiation accident at the Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway, September 2, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatby, J.; Henriksten, T.; Hoest, H.

    1983-01-01

    On 2 September 1982 a radiation accident with overexposure of one person happened at the gamma irradiation plant at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. This person died from the radiation injury 13 days later. When the personal film dosimeter was developed, blackening beyond measuring range was found. The main part of the report describes dosimetric methods based on electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence that were applied on things worn by the deceased during the accident. The dosimetric results are presented in the report along with a short description of the irradiation plant, the accident and the following medical treatment. The estimated whole-body dose was supposed to be 22.5 +- 2 Gy. (RF)

  13. Long-term follow-up of radiation accident patients in Peru: Review of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, L. E.; Zaharia, M.; Pinillos, L.; Moscol, A.; Heredia, A.; Sarria, G.; Marquina, J.; Barriga, O.; Picon, C.

    2012-01-01

    Overexposure to radioactive sources used in radiotherapy or industrial radiography may result in severe health consequences. This report assesses the initial clinical status and the medical and psychological long-term follow-up of two radiation accident patients from Peru during the mid-to-late 1990's: one patient exposed to a radiotherapy 60 Co source in Arequipa, the other patient to a 192 Ir source in Yanango. Commonalities and differences are described. The main causes in both accidents were human error and the failure to apply appropriate safety guidelines and standard operating procedures. Education and training of the personnel working with radiation sources are essential to prevent accidents. The experience gained from the medical management of the two patients is valuable for future treatment of such patients. (authors)

  14. Biological dose assessment by cytogenetic dosimetry in the Goianian radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.T.; Nascimento, A.C.H.; Bellido, P.

    1989-01-01

    During the recent Goianian radiation accident, 112 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in their lymphocytes, for estimation of the absorbed radiation dose. Of these, 29 subjects had dose estimates exceeding 0.5 Gy, 21 exceeded 1.0 Gy and eight exceeded 4.0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 7.0 Gy. (author)

  15. Cytogenetics for dosimetry in cases of radiation accidents and assessing the safety of irradiated food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Kesavan, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    One of the many areas of research initiated by Swaminathan at the Botany Division of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi was radiation cytogenetics, which involves study of induced chromosomal aberrations. These studies had impact not only on elucidating basic mechanisms involved in the formation of chromosomal aberrations, but also several practical applications related to human health. In this review, we briefly summarize two applications, namely biological dosimetry following radiation accidents and safety of irradiated food material. (author)

  16. Specialized medical sections for the treatment of radiation injuries from accidents in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deanovic, Z.; Boranic, M.; Vitale, B.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is the organization of the final, highly specialized treatment (diagnostic and therapeutic) of persons that have been severely injured in a radiation or nuclear accident. In this organizational scheme, the leading idea was to group and establish suitable medical sections for the acceptance, diagnosic work-up, and treatment of radiation casualties, around a strong medical center in which the different specialists would be available

  17. Preclinical diagnosis and emergency medical care in case of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1990-01-01

    Reference is made to preclinical diagnosis and emergency medical care at the site of a potential radiation accident. Possibilities and limits, respectively, of the medical measures are shown. Cooperation between the experts of the technical and medical rescue services is described. Exposition to radiation for the emergency medical staff resulting from the medical care of contaminated persons, is negligible if the personal precautions are observed. (orig.) [de

  18. Emergency reception of accidents and incidents in working with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamse, J.C.; Gispen, J.G.W.

    1989-01-01

    This manual is intended to be a general manual for the responsible expert regarding radiation hygienics in order to assist him in establishing an organization for combat of accidents and incidents. First attention is paid considerations underlying emergency measures and aid, subsequently the demands and desirabilities in the practical organization are discussed. (author). 3 figs

  19. The radiation accident at Institute for Energy Technology Sept. 1982. Some technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berteig, L.; Flatby, J.

    1985-01-01

    On September 2, 1982 a radiation accident with overexposure of one person happened at the gamma irradiation plant at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. This person died from the radiation injury 13 days later. In the report reference is made to the work of different groups and bodies in connection with the accident. An analysis of the causes of the accident is given. For admittance control to the irradiation area there were generally two independent door interlock systems, one irradiation source position related and the other radiation related. The latter was dismantled for repair at the time of the accident. A micro-switch failure left the source in an unshielded position, initiated a green light on the control panel and released the interlock system of the door. According to working instructions a mobile radiation monitor should have been checked for proper function and carried by anyone entering the irradiation room. This seems not to have been carried out correctly. The conditions set forth for the restarting of the irradiation plant are presented. (orig./HP)

  20. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.

    1993-01-01

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  1. Assessment of radiation risks as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the Government of the former USSR had made decision on establishing common registry of exposed persons in several months after the Chernobyl accident. The registry had served in Medical Radiological Research Centre of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk City till 1992 (the time of dissolution of the USSR). Individual medical and dosimetric information on 659292 persons, including 284907 emergency accident workers (liquidators) had been collected for the period between 1986 and 1991. As of 01.01.1998, National Chernobyl Registry of the Russian Federation has kept individual data on 508236 persons including 167726 liquidators. As it is known, long-term epidemiological study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors resulted in statistically significant assessments of radiation risks for induction of cancer at the dose level above 0.5 Gy. Radiation doses after the Chernobyl accident do not exceed 0.3-0.5 Gy. That is why assessment of radiation risks at low radiation doses is a problem of great importance. As a result of the epidemiological studies performed on the basis of the Russian Chernobyl registry we pioneered the assessment of statistically significant radiation risks for induction of cancer at low radiation dose. (author)

  2. Analysis of Public Perception on Radiation: with One Year after Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bang Ju [Korean Science Reporters Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A year has passed since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima on March 11, 2011, and a survey for public perception on radiation by Korean people has been made. The methodological design was based on a quantitative survey and a frequency analysis was done. The analysis objects were survey papers (n=2,754pcs) answered by random ordinary citizens chosen from all over the country. The questionnaires, and study tool, were directly distributed and collected. A total of 40 questionnaires using a coefficient of Cronbach's {alpha} per each area was 'self perception of radiation' (0.620), 'radiation risk' (0.830), 'benefit from radiation' (0.781), 'radiation controlled' (0.685), 'informative source of radiation' (0.831), 'influence degree from Fukushima accident' (0.763), showing rather high score from all areas. As the result of the questionnaires, the knowledge of radiation concept was 69.50 out of 100 points, which shows a rather significant difference from the result of 'know well about radiation' (53.7%) and 'just know about radiation' (37.40%). According to the survey, one of the main reasons why radiation seems risky was that once exposed to radiation, it may not have negative impacts presently but, the next generation could see negative impacts (66.1%). About 41% of our respondents showed a negative position against the government's report on radiation while 39.5% of respondents said that we should stop running nuclear power in light of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study was done for the first time by Korean people's public perception on radiation after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. We expect this might have significant contributions to the establishment of the government's policy on radiation.

  3. Radiation accidents in the former Soviet Union: Medical consequences and experience in the application of radiation protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Biophysics of the Russian Federation is a scientific center which has extensive archives containing scientific studies and information on radiation safety problems and occurrences since the early days of nuclear science and research and nuclear weapons tests in the Soviet Union. Some of this classified, top secret material has recently been published by Prof. L.A. Iljin in a renowned Russian scientific journal in the form of a review of radiation accidents in the Soviet Union, general medical reports, case reports, and the effects of nuclear weapons tests. He also added his own expert view of the accidents and their effects, and his conclusions relating to public health effects and required radiation protection policy. The article in this issue of Strahlenschutz Praxis is a German translation of excerpts from the original journal article. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Organizational forms of medical care in the event of radiation accidents in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack, P.; Arndt, D.; Schuettmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    Medical care of radiation casualties in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is organized on two levels. On the level of users the responsible Medical Officers guarantee both the routine control of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and first aid in the event of accidents. On the second level medical treatment is given either in the Clinical Department of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection or in specialized national health system clinics having facilities for intensive medical care. A decision on hospitalization is made according to the conditions of the accident and the necessary diagnostic and therapeutic measures as a rule are based on consultations between the responsible Medical Officer and the departments of the Board (Emergency Assistance Service, Clinical Department, Consultative Committee). For serious cases where haematological complications can be expected, a central medical clinic with facilities for bone-marrow transplants is available. The casualties are treated in local clinics which are provided with continuous support and advice by the Board. This support consists in: (i) immediate activity by a consultative committee of the Board's physicians and scientists experienced and trained in radiation protection and the treatment of radiation accidents; (ii) the requirement of compulsory examination methods and take-over of specialized laboratory investigations; and (iii) the use of a mobile emergency measuring system in cases of additional incorporation. It is the main principle of medical care in case of radiation accidents to consult, as early as possible, a medical consultative committee of the Board in the field of radiation protection at each step of medical care. (author)

  5. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management. EG-SAM Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As an early response to the Fukushima NPP accident, the ISOE Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011; - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers/responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE actors and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the- art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation protection job coverage during severe accident initial response and recovery

  6. Report by the 'Fukushima Dai-Ichi major accident' nuclear subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezin, Edouard; Balibar, Sebastien; Candel, Sebastien; Cesarsky, Catherine; Dautray, Robert; Gratias, Denis; Guillaumont, Robert; Laval, Guy; Quere, Yves; Tissot, Bernard; Zaoui, Andre; Brechet, Yves; Carpentier, Alain; Duplessy, Jean-Claude; Jerome, Denis; Bamberger, Yves; Barre, Bertrand; Comets, Marie-Pierre; Jamet, Philippe; Schwarz, Michel; Baumont, David; Guilhem, Gilbert; Repussard, Jacques; Billot, Philippe; Boullis, Bernard; Gauche, Francois; Zaetta, Alan; Pouget-Abadie, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    This report comprises a description of the succession of events in the Fukushima-Dai-Ichi power plant, a discussion of the situation of the nuclear industry and energy in France after this accident (French nuclear stock, security organisation), and a discussion on the fuel cycle and on future opportunities (comparison with EPR - Gen II safety measures, perspectives beyond the EPR). Numerous appendices are proposed, made of documents from different bodies involved in nuclear industry, energy and safety. They deal with the Fukushima accident, with light water and pressurized water reactors, with severe accidents in PWRs, and so on

  7. A major technological accident: the dispersion of a radioactive cesium - 137 pellet in Goiania, Brazil (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertzon, C.

    1994-01-01

    This study concerns the accidental dispersion of cesium 137 chloride via an abandoned radiotherapy device in Brazil, in september 1987. Since the accident occurred recently in a confined area and concerned a single radiochemical agent, it was possible to delimit the study parameters in each discipline: post-accident management, physics, medicine, environment, law, psychology, socio-economics and communication. Costs are difficult to evaluate but obviously very important. It is difficult to analyze all consequences. No official has been accused, there were no sentence. The results demonstrate the critical importance of the human factor in technological accidents. (A.L.B.)

  8. Experience in Russia on information and analytical support of activities associated with recovering of radiation accidents consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In spite of substantial practical experience on population protection against radiation that was obtained in the USSR by the moment of the Chernobyl accident it was not possible to implement it most efficiently because of institutional disconnection. Strong necessity of serious coordination of activities an accident consequences liquidation in the scale of the country became obvious by the end of 1980s. In 1990, a decision on a unique program on the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation was taken. This program, in particular, provided for systematic analytical support of actions an accident consequences implementation. The present report describes the basic decisions on information support of the SU government bodies that were partly realized in 1991 and further developed in the following years. Since 1991, Goscomchernobyl of Russia and, since 1994, EMERCOM of Russia is the Federal body on the consequences minimization. Since 1991 till now, the information system UIS Chernobyl is functioning in the framework of the body. The system includes the Central bank of generalized data (CBGD) and appropriate software. Purposes, structure and contents of CBGD are described in detail in the report. One of the section of CBGD includes data on radiation hygienic characteristics of more then 10,000 settlements in Russia. UIS Chernobyl is the basis for objective estimation of a situation at contaminated after the Chernobyl accident territories, state programs construction, forecasts and preparation of national reports. Systematic data on radiation hygienic situation analysis indicates that the protective measures complex realized in Russia allowed decreasing population irradiation to the large extent. It is necessary to note that the majority of protective measures exhausted their efficiency far ago. For example, spending on the preventing of 1 man/Sv of collective dose in realization of such action as restriction and control of locally produced food in most

  9. Determining cutoff distances for assessing risks from transportation accident radiation releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Kimura, C.Y.; Brumburgh, G.

    1995-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States and the world is a ubiquitous and sometimes controversial activity. Almost universally, these transportation activities have been performed without major incident, and the safety record for transportation of radioactive material is outstanding compared with the transportation of other hazardous materials. Nevertheless, concerns still exist regarding adequate regulation of radioactive material transportation and accurate assessment of the health risks associated with accidents. These concerns are addressed through certification by the cognizant regulatory authority over the transportation container or the performance of a transportation risk assessment. In a transportation risk assessment, accident situations are examined, frequencies are estimated, and consequences resulting from the accident are analyzed and evaluated for acceptance. A universal question with any transportation risk assessment that examines the radiological consequences from release accidents is, At what distance may the dispersion analysis be terminated? This paper examines cutoff distances and their consequences for assessing health risks from radiological transportation releases

  10. Radiation protection lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima No.1 NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Hattori, Takatoshi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2014-01-01

    Lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima No.1 NPS accident are discussed from the viewpoint of radiation protection in the situation of nuclear emergency. It became clear from the discussion that the protective measures should be practiced by taking into account the time profiles of the radiological disaster after the nuclear accident and that the land and coastal sea areas monitoring had to be practiced immediately after the nuclear accident and the communication methods to tell the public about the radiation information and the meaning of protective measures should be developed for mitigation of the sociological aspects of disaster impacts. And it was pointed out from the view point of practicing countermeasures that application of the reference levels, above which it was judged to be inappropriate to plan to allow exposure to occur, played an important role for practicing protective measures in an optimized way and that the quantities and units used for quantifying radiation exposure of individuals in terms of radiation doses have caused considerable communication problems. Finally, the occupational exposures and the public exposures that have been reported so far are shown, and it is concluded that there is no conclusive evidence on low dose exposures that would justify a modification of the radiation risk recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  11. Radiation safety for the emergency situation of the power plant accident. Radiation safety in society and its education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    2012-01-01

    Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunamis, and following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Accident brought about great impact on society in Japan. Accident analysis of inside reactor was studied by reactor physics or reactor engineering knowledge, while dissipation of a large amount of radioactive materials outside reactor facilities, and radiation and radioactivity effects on people by way of atmosphere, water and soil were dealt with radiation safety or radiation protection. Due to extremely low frequency and experience of an emergency, there occurred a great confusion in the response of electric power company concerned, relevant regulating competent authorities, local government and media, and related scholars and researchers, which caused great anxieties amount affected residents and people. This article described radiation safety in the society and its education. Referring to actual examples, how radiation safety or radiation protection knowledge should be dealt with emergency risk management in the society was discussed as well as problem of education related with nuclear power, radiation and prevention of disaster and fostering of personnel for relevant people. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  13. Preventive radioecological assessment of territory for optimization of monitoring and countermeasures after radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prister, B S; Vinogradskaya, V D; Lev, T D; Talerko, M M; Garger, E K; Onishi, Y; Tischenko, O G

    2018-04-01

    A methodology of a preventive radioecological assessment of the territory has been developed for optimizing post-emergency monitoring and countermeasure implementation in an event of a severe radiation accident. Approaches and main stages of integrated radioecological zoning of the territory are described. An algorithm for the assessment of the potential radioecological criticality (sensitivity) of the area is presented. The proposed approach is validated using data of the dosimetric passportization in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident for the test site settlements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. All-Russian service of disaster medicine organizes response of radiative accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisov, G.M.; Goncharov, S.F.; Grachev, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical base to establish the All-Russian service for disaster medicine (ARSDM) is elaborated. The arrangement system for medical aid for the population of the Chernobyl NPP (including the aspects of planning and management) is proved in action. COnclusion is made about the necessity to introduce special structure of measures aimed at provision of medical aid of accident victims, of their evacuation and treatment under elimination of radiation accidents. This structure requires to unify all abilities and means of health service into the single system for Medical Provision of population under the emergencies. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Media coverage of Fukushima accident in the Russian press. Lessons for radiation emergency risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, E.; Arutyunyan, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews recent results of content analysis of the Russian press and data of all-Russia public opinion polls on the subject of the Fukushima accident and discusses them in the wider context of challenges in communication of 'no risk' messages to the public in the case of a nuclear accident. Radiation risk regulation base in the low dose range is proposed to be one of the main obstacles for the communication and a new approach to emergency risk communication is proposed. (author)

  16. Cobalt-60 simulation of LOCA [loss of coolant accident] radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckalew, W.H.

    1989-07-01

    The consequences of simulating nuclear reactor loss of coolant accident (LOCA) radiation effects with Cobalt-60 gamma ray irradiators have been investigated. Based on radiation induced damage in polymer base materials, it was demonstrated that electron/photon induced radiation damage could be related on the basis of average absorbed radiation dose. This result was used to estimate the relative effectiveness of the mixed beta/gamma LOCA and Cobalt-60 radiation environments to damage both bare and jacketed polymer base electrical insulation materials. From the results obtained, it is concluded that present simulation techniques are a conservative method for simulating LOCA radiation effects and that the practices have probably substantially overstressed both bare and jacketed materials during qualification testing. 9 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  17. The impact of major transformations of a production process on age-related accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, V L; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a study of whether accident risks were equally distributed across age categories among a population of mining workers whose work activities were suspected to be age-impaired. The impairment factors in focus are the transformation of production technology during the 80s...... and consequent changes in job content. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of these factors might lead accident risks, both non-specific (aggregated) and specific (by kind), to increase with age. Accident risk ratios (ARRs), however, proved to be higher for younger workers than older ones, in both...... the non-specific and the specific cases. However, two accident patterns (specific risks) also show relatively high ARRs among workers in their 40s (and even 30s), results that might be explained by particular exposures and/or age-related performance problems. The findings suggest that technological...

  18. Results and tasks of the implementation of federal target programs aimed at overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents and catastrophes in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.

    2002-01-01

    Major results are presented on the implementation of federal target programs on overcoming the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, radiation accidents and incidents at the 'Mayak' Industrial Association, nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site in the period of 1992-2000. The status of the standards and legislation regulating the activities aimed at population protection and rehabilitation of territories is analyzed. The current state of the problem is evaluated. The proposals are laid down for major directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents for the period until 2010, and the outlook for the efforts in the above domain and the above period is given. About 130 thousand square kilometers of the territories of 20 Russian Federation subjects with a population of around 4 million people were affected by accidents at nuclear fuel cycle sites/facilities, and nuclear and hydrogen weapons tests. The accidents entailed a host of grave radioecological, medical, demographic, and socio-economic consequences, exerted a significant unfavorable impact upon the socio-economic development of the affected territories. (author)

  19. Effective dose equivalents from external radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkin, V.G.; Debedev, O.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Parkhomenko, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized data on measurements of individual dose of external γ-sources in 1987-1990 of population of western areas of Bryansk region were presented. Type of distribution of effective dose equivalent, its significance for various professional and social groups of population depending on the type of the house was discussed. Dependences connecting surface soil activity in the populated locality with average dose of external radiation sources were presented. Tendency of dose variation in 1987-1990 was shown

  20. Agricultural production as a source of irradiation of populations in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the agricultural production sphere in case of a radiation accident with radionuclide release is one of the most important sources of additional irradiation for population. As a result, realisation of the measures for mitigating the consequences of the accident in agro-industrial complex assumes the leading role in total system of measures providing radiation safety. The possibility to obtain agricultural production meeting the radiological standards is one of the main indications of effectiveness of liquidation of the accident consequences. First, obtaining of agricultural production meeting the radiological standards provides decreasing of the total radiation dose. The evidence is obtained in the 8-year experience of liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident that the 70% decrease of the internal dose for population became possible through a complex of protection measures in agriculture (during the first year after the accident, the contribution of internal dose into the total one amounted to 45%, and that of external irradiation - 52%; for the 70-year period these values are 39% and 60%, respectively). Second, the possibility to obtain 'pure' agricultural production is one of the most important factors of psychological stability for population. Third, obtaining of consumable (as to radionuclide content) agricultural production in private small holdings is one of the guarantees of stability of demographic sector in the accident-affected zone. From the point of view of organization of agricultural production in liquidation of the consequences of accidents with radioactive releases into environment, some periods can be distinguished: (i) the first (early) period takes 10-12 days after the accident. The main measures in the field of agricultural production are in operative assessment of the radiological situation, organization of radiation survey, express classification of agricultural products ready to consumption. If radionuclide content

  1. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury

  2. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  3. The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. Radiation measurements in Denmark. 3. report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In continuation of the reporting of 4 May and 11 May 1986 this report summarizes the radioactivity measurements made during the third and fourth week after the accident at Chernobyl. The data have been collated by the Inspectorate of Nuclear Installations from measurements made by Risoe National Laboratory and the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. The radioactivity remaining in the air after the first two weeks shows daily variations at low levels without significant contribution to the fall out levels on the ground surfaces. The ground contamination shows a decreasing trend according to radioactive decay and for the plants also according to natural cleaning mechanisms. The radioactive data from the third and fourth week after the accident confirm the previous estimate that the total radiation impact on the Danish area from the accident, including future radiation exposures from the contamination experienced up to now, corresponds at most to approximately one month of natural background radiation. For the time to come the measuring programme and data reporting arrangements will be reorganized with a view to the future long term follow-up of the situation. Thus, this report is expected to be the last in the series of ad hoc reports for prompt dissemination of data on the Danish radioactivity measurements. (author)

  4. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  5. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.; White, A.D.; Dolphin, G.W.; Reeder, E.J.; Martin, L.C.; Priseman, S.J.; Gray, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 63 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1978 are reviewed. This report is the eighth in an annual series which together contain data on 390 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given, in an appendix, of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. One case is described in more detail. It concerns a young man who deliberately irradiated himself with several sources of iridium-192 and received a dose of about 1.5 Gy as a fairly uniform whole body exposure. (author)

  6. Analysis of the experience in participation of army medical service in medical arrangement in case of radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilyaev, E.G.; Goncharov, S.F.; Vorontsov, I.V.; Legeza, V.I.; Berzin, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented calculations of manpower and money funds for rendering aid to the injured persons in case of radiation accident. The authors offered a scheme of using medical anti-radial aids on various stages of radiation accident; immediately after the accident in case of non-predicted and controlled radiation exposure. Army Medical Service is capable of solving promptly the tasks of medical aid with the help of highly mobile specialized medical units, the use of which is stipulated in the system of the Russian Service of disaster medicine. 10 refs.; 1 tab

  7. The 10 recommendations for prevention of radiation accidents in industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luana Silva de

    2015-01-01

    The Industrial Gamma Radiography, as part of Industrial Radiography, stands out as the most widespread and plays an important role in the quality control of different materials and devices. However, IAEA classifies industrial gamma radiography in the Category 2 as very dangerous due to the radiological risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. In March, 2012, a Brazilian Workshop on Prevention of Industrial Gamma Radiography Accident was performed by DIAPI/CNEN with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiological accidents with radioactive sources in this application. During this Workshop, IRD/CNEN conducted a survey with 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, aiming to select the most voted. This present work aims to perform a detailed statistical study to define the Top 10 Recommendations for industrial gamma radiography operator avoids radiological accidents and to prepare a brochure with these top 10 recommendations to be distributed to all industrial gamma radiography radiation workers. Data analysis was performed using the statistical method 'Frequency Distribution', among the 75 participants categorized as General, RPO, and Other Workers of the area. The results were obtained for each category, accounting for the total of 22 recommendations in its percentage and number of votes, and the top 10 recommendations were defined to prevent radiological accidents. The first place and most important recommendation is 'Always use a personal alarm monitor throughout the work'. One of the conclusions is that the brochure with the Top 10 Recommendations shows to be understandable and useful for dissemination and training of radiation workers to avoid radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography. (author)

  8. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.; Dolphin, G.W.; Tipper, P.A.; Reeder, E.J.; White, C.M.; Cooper, S.J.; Stephenson, B.D.

    1977-01-01

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

  9. Emergency planning lessons learned from a review of past major radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, J.G.; Selby, J.M.; Martin, J.B.; Moeller, D.W.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    In examining a range of nuclear accidents from the 1950s to the present that were reported in the literature, the authors have identified a number of contributing factors which affected human judgement during these events. One common thread found in a large number of accidents is the time of occurrence; a second is the adequacy of emergency training. The data show that events, whether severe accidents or operational incidents, appear to occur more frequently during off-normal hours such as the early morning shift, weekends, or holidays. Accidents seldom occur during the day shift when the full management team and senior operations personnel are present. As a result, those facility employees most expert in coping with the situation may not be available, and the normal chain of command may be disrupted. At several nuclear power plants, it was also observed that new or less experienced technicians are often assigned to night shifts. The lack of experienced human resources and the pressure of an accident situation can have an adverse impact on individuals who are faced with making important decisions

  10. Medical Preparedness in Radiation Accidents: a Matter of Logistics and Communication not Treatment!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Staudenherz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The currently reactor wreckage in Fukushima raised the following important questions: Is our knowledge of the possible dangers of ionizing radiation sufficient to warrant special action? What is the role of the medical community in technical radiation accidents from Windscale to Fukushima? What is the role of the medical community in terrorist radiation attacks? Are we prepared for those challenges? How can medical services communicate information in the media framework? What have we learned recently? And, what should be improved? In this review of the current literature on ionizing radiation, we try to answer these questions. Our conclusion is that medical services have to improve their communication skills and convince the public that the dangers of ionizing radiation can be quantitated within certain limits to support a qualified discussion about its risks and benefits.

  11. Organization of medical aid and treatment of individuals affected in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.G.; Andreev, E.A.; Bliznakov, V.

    1979-01-01

    The emergency programme of the medical service for radiation accidents constitutes part of the whole emergency programme of the establishment whose production process is derectly connected with the utilization of ionizing radiation sources. The chief of the establishment health centre also heads the operative radiation accident group. When a radiation accident occurs the medical personnel, according to a previously developed plan, reports at the Health centre. The medical aid is based on the principle of step treatment and evacuation of the affected persons, according to the prescriptions. The first step of the medical evacuation is the health centre; the second - the District hospital, where a team of specialists is formed, all of them previously well trained in the recognition and treatment of radiation sickness. The third step is the specialized clinic for radiation injuries. Persons, who have received irradiation dose of up to 100 rad, or are in a shock state, or have incorporated radioactive substances, are temporarily hospitalized at the health centre. The assistance rended to them consists of: control of shock, asphyxia and bleeding, primary surgical treatment of wounds in cases of complex injuries, deactivation under dosimetric control, attempt for accelerated removal of the radioactive substances, etc. At the District hospital and the specialized clinic the therapeutic measures are conformed to the pathogenetic mechanism and severity of clinical symptoms, and their dynamics. Their aim is first of all to block the earlier radiation effects, to prevent and to treat the haemorrhagic phenomena and infectious complications, to restore the activity of the blood organs, etc. (A.B.)

  12. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  13. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and γ-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

  14. Retrospective individual dosimetry using luminescence and EPR after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Wieser, A.; Ulanovsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    In areas where radiation dose monitoring has not been performed, it is essential to use material available in the environment be able to rapidly assess doses to individuals for immediate emergency medical care or for general estimation of the radiological consequences. It was shown that certain types of telephone cards containing microchips have the potential to be used as individual radiation dosimeters in emergency situations to detect doses over 250 mGy by luminescence measurements. In order to understand the dosimetric properties of chip cards, the components obtained from INFINIEON Company at various stages of production were used for luminescence measurements. It is found that the protecting layer used above the chips so called 'globe top' is the main source of radiation induced signal in chip cards. The globe top produced by INFINIEON at that stage is found to contain SiO2 and Epoxy. In order to improve the dosimetric properties of the chip cards, the raw material of the globe top is mixed with phosphorous material. The variation of the dose response and the detection limit with respect to the amount and the type of the phosphor added to the globe top is investigated using thermo luminescence (TL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Taking into account the rapid changes in chip card producing technology such as material properties, size of the globe top, a special-purpose software tool has been developed to calculate integral free-in-air kerma or organ dose for a given energy dose response of the card and irradiation conditions (photon fluence spectrum and irradiation geometry). It is also shown that adding phosphors powders such as Al2O3:C, LiF:Cu or BeO to SiO2/epoxy mixture of the globe top material, radiation detection limit of chip cards can be reduced as low as a few mGy but the presence of an initial signal in UV cured material as well as gradual increase of the signal are found to be the main limiting factors for detection of low doses

  15. OCCURRENCE OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN POPULATION AFFECTED BY RADIATION ACCIDENT: STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS, RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of damage to mental health of individuals born after theChernobylaccident remains of high interest, especially in the regions which have been subjected to significant contamination as a result of the accident. The article analyzes the dynamics of psychiatric morbidity in population of contaminated and non-contaminated areas of theBryanskregion according to state statistics and to files of neuropsychiatric ambulatory institutions. The incidence rates in the contaminated areas are found to be significantly different from those in the non-contaminated areas. Dynamics of mentally handicapped contingents after the radiation accident depends, at different stages of postaccidental situation, on a complex of factors: social, economic, radiation, and general toxic ones, which once again underlines the general social character of such disasters.

  16. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at DOE facilities. Fiscal year 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Comprehensive safety programs are maintained at DOE facilities in order to protect both personnel and property from accidents. To ensure compliance with safety standards and regulations and maximize effectiveness of the safety programs, an extensive inspection and appraisal program is conducted at the contractor and field office levels by both DOE field and Headquarters safety personnel. When accidents do occur, investigations are conducted to identify causes and determine managerial or safety actions needed to prevent similar occurrences. DOE safety requirements include the reporting of personnel injury, property and motor vehicle losses on a quarterly basis, and radiation doses on an annual basis. The radiation dose data for CY 1978 are presented and reviewed in this report. All other data in this report are for FY 1978

  17. NPP physical protection and information security as necessary conditions for reducing nuclear and radiation accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosov, O.Yu.; Derevyanko, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on the fact that nuclear failures and incidents can lead to radioactive contamination of NPP premises. Nuclear and radiation hazard may be caused by malefactors in technological processes when applying computers or inadequate control in case of insufficient level of information security.The researchers performed analysis of factors for reducing risks of nuclear and radiation accidents at NPPs considering specific conditions related to information security of NPP physical protection systems. The paper considers connection of heterogeneous factors that may increase the risk of NPP accidents, possibilities and ways to improve adequate modelling of security of information with limited access directly related to the functioning of automated set of engineering and technical means for NPP physical protection. Within the overall Hutchinson formalization, it is proposed to include additional functional dependencies on indicators specific for NPPs into analysis algorithms.

  18. An approach for estimating the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident over long distance transboundary scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrakos, D., E-mail: dimitris.mitrakos@eeae.gr; Potiriadis, C.; Housiadas, C.

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Actions may be warranted after a major nuclear accident even at long distances. • Distance may not be the decisive parameter for longer term radiological impact. • Remote impact may vary orders of magnitude depending on the meteorological conditions. • The potential impact can be assessed using computationally inexpensive calculations. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident important initiatives were taken in European level to enhance the nuclear safety level of the existing and planned nuclear reactors, such as the so-called nuclear “stress-tests” and the amendment of the Nuclear Safety Directive. A recent work of HERCA and WENRA focused on the need for a more consistent and harmonized response in a transboundary context in case of a hypothetical major nuclear accident in Europe. Such an accident, although very improbable, cannot be totally excluded and so, should be considered in emergency preparedness arrangements among the various European countries. In case of a hypothetical severe Fukushima-like accident in Europe, the role of the neighboring countries may be important, since the authorities should be able to provide information and advice to the government and the public, but also can contribute to the overall assessment of the situation be their own means. In this work we assess the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident for distances longer than 300 km that are not typically covered by the internationally accepted emergency planning zones. The approach is simple and computationally inexpensive, since it is based on the calculation of only a few release scenarios at dates selected within a whole year on the basis of bounding the deposition levels at long distances in relation to the occurrence of precipitation. From the calculated results it is evident that distance is not the only decisive parameter in estimating the potential radiological significance of a severe nuclear accident. The hypothetical

  19. Radiation exposure in the West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in comparison with the natural and the anthropogenic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberhausen, E

    1986-01-01

    Taking the natural radiation exposure in West Germany to be between 1 mSv (100 mrem) and 6 mSv (600 mrem), the radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl reactor accident is assessed to be in the range of 10% of natural exposure in the first year after the accident. The dose commitment assessed for the 50-year post-accident period is about 1% of natural exposure. There are no epidemiological studies available that could give information on a possible or probable increase of the individual risk to develop late damage such as cancer or genetic observations due to these very low radiation doses. (orig./HSCH).

  20. Concept, design and equipment of a center for the treatment of radiation accidents at the Staedtisches Krankenhaus Muenchen-Schwabing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, L.; Muehle, P.; Czempiel, H.; Henftling, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of the treatment center for radiation accidents at the Staedtisches Krankenhaus Muenchen-Schwabing is presented by means of a flow scheme for the treatment of different possible accidents. The resulting design and equipment are discussed in detail. (orig.) [de

  1. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Update 2, Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, B.A.; Grossman, R.F.

    1981-03-01

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. This final update consists of additional data for 1979 by the same participating organizations, which has not been previously reported

  2. The radiat ion-epidemiological and cytogenetic study in group of participants of planned working on liquidation consequences Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'omyina, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Data of radiation anamnesis (beginning and duration of staying in zone of the Chernobyl radiation accident, kind of fulfilled works) as factors of risk are specific in relation to the basic classes of diseases. Works on burial of atomic pile, deactivation, evacuation and all dates of entrance into the one of radiation injury were recognized as hazardous factors for the development of malignant growth

  3. Criticality accidents in solution (CRAC and SILENE programmes) and complementary studies of accidents; radiation dosimetry in human organism during the CRAC programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, M.; Dousset, M.

    C.R.A.C. (CRiticality occurring ACcidentally) programme is intended to study experimentally the development of a criticality accident as it could occur when handling solutions of fissile material as well as the radiological consequences of such an accident. The fissile matter solutions have been chosen (a) for practical considerations of use and (b) because the probability of an accident occurring seems greater with this type of environment, as the known accidents have shown. The programme is twofold: study of accident physics: form of the evolution (peak, plateau, oscillations, boil up of solutions) the most probable maximum power, minimal power, flux and radiation spectra emitted, freed energy, associated effects, radiolysis, constraints, etc., study of radiological consequences: area dosimetry, individual dosimetry, radiobiological studies, etc. Additional criticality Accident experiments have been and continue to be made on the SILENE reactor in the following principal domains: determination of the emission rate of gaseous fission products and aerosols, area dosimetry and health dosimetry in the presence of shields around the core to vary the neutron and gamma components of the radiation field. Improvement in the knowledge of certain particular aspects of the power excursion, radiolysis gas and pressure wave, experiments of the ''boiling'' type [fr

  4. Radiation accident caused by an iridium-192 radiographic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumatori, T.; Hirashima, K.; Ishihara, T.; Kurisu, A.; Sugiyama, H.; Hashizume, T.

    1977-01-01

    Owing to the carelessness of a radiographer, six construction workers, aged from twenty to thirty, were accidentally exposed to gamma rays of a 192 Ir source for a non-destructive radiography. These exposed persons were not directly involved with radiographic work. One case revealed severe leucopenia and thrombopenia accompanied by moderate anaemia. In three cases including the case considered, skin lesions were observed on hands and hips, arising from close contact with a 192 Ir rod. The effects to the gonads consisted of impaired spermatogenesis in all cases and elevation of follicle-stimulating hormone in the sera of four cases. The ratio of one metabolite to another seemed to be more indicative of the injuries than the level of any given metabolite itself. In the physical estimate of the dose, the thermoluminescence intensity of rubies in the wrist watches of the exposed persons was measured, which was useful for the determination of the location of the source. The mean whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 10 to 133 rads. Local radiation doses were approximately 3000 to 9000 rads to the skin and 175 rads to the gonads of one case, respectively. The biological dose estimates were made by using the dose-response relations for 60 Co gamma rays and for Linac X-rays on the basis of the yields of dicentrics and rings. The doses were in the range of about 10 to 150 rads. Skin lesions and chromosome aberrations are still observed. (author)

  5. Study on the establishment of retrospective dosimetry system for nuclear radiation accident(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Chai, Ha Seok; Lee, Jong Ok [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study was driven forward centering around physical techniques in retrospective dosimetry system for encountering nuclear radiation accident. The results obtained through this study are summarized as follow : the minimal facilities based on physical techniques should be assured at KINS for appropriate operation and establishment of retrospective accident dosimetry system, the necessary apparatus and man power for retrospective dose assessment by physical techniques might be operated flexibly, however, CL and TL/OSL readers should be equipped with the highest priority, a series of comparative examination of several physical techniques for retrospective dose assessment revealed that most of the irradiated materials around accident sites are usable for the dose assessment, if a priori study on the dosimetrical characteristics of those materials is preceded in accordance with the species of the collectable samples, the results of the study on the CL-dose response and radiation energy dependence of sugar and sorbitol, showed the nonlinearity in CL-dose relationship at the range of low dose(less than 5 Gy), and it led us to perform a study on the correction of the nonlinearity, and in the later study, CL output showed heavy dependence on radiation energy in the energy below around 100 keV and accordingly, a study on the correction for the energy dependence was also carried out, ve were able to obtain good results as a first attempt to carry out such corrections.

  6. Radiation protection at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of the accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.H.C.; Rosa, R.; Fajardo, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the acquired experience in developing a radiation protection program to be implemented in case of an emergency medical assistance in radiological accidents. (author) [pt

  7. Findings of thyroid ultrasonography in patients with hypothyroidism exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grid'ko, O.M.

    1997-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the findings of clinical and ultrasound study of the thyroid gland in 403 participants of the accident clean-up irradiated in the 'iodine' period and 57 patients with hypothyroidism (of them, 46 were exposed to radiation in the 'iodine' period and 11 in 'non-iodine' one) was carried out. The disease dynamics was investigated in 81 patients with acute radiation sickness. The structural changes suggest different ways of hypothyroidism development in the exposed persons and manifest themselves in two main clinical forms of the disease, atrophic and hypertrophic ones

  8. Radiation protection in necropsy of the victims of the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryins, Nadia S.F.; Silva, Lucia Helena C.; Rosa, Roosevelt

    1997-01-01

    Four of some victims of the radiological accident in Goiania, died in October and the necropsies were carried out at Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Due to external and internal contamination presented by these victims, specific radiation protection procedures were adopted to support the medical team. The procedures established and applied by the Radiation Protection Staff during the arrangement of necropsy's room and for personal control since the necropsy's work until confining the bodies and the transportation back to Goiania are reported

  9. The fate of chromosomal aberrations in 137Cs-exposed individuals in the Goiania radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.T.; Nascimento, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, lymphocytes from 110 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. Dose estimates for 21 subjects exceeded 1.0 Gy, and for eight subjects they exceeded 4.0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. After the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 10 of the highest exposed patients was started. The results suggest that the average disappearance half-time of lymphocytes containing dicentric and centric rings was 130 d, which is shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 y reported in the literature

  10. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist.

  11. Evaluation of dose attenuation factor of armored car against radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Fujii, Katsutoshi; Murayama, Takashi

    2002-03-01

    The Tokyo Fire Department developed an armored car against radiation accidents. The car is covered by lead shields for attenuating dose from gamma rays. Dose from neutrons also can be attenuated by pouring water into tanks attached to the surface of the car. However, dose attenuation factors of the radiation shields had been determined by an estimation of single-layer shield, and more precise evaluation of multi-layer shield was required. By request from the Tokyo Fire Department, a precise evaluation of the dose attenuation in multi-layer shield was carried out. The evaluation was made by a Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation code MCNP4B for the shields used in the front, side and back of the car. Three types of the radiation sources ( 252 Cf as a neutron source, 60 Co as a gamma ray source, and radiation source corresponding to the JCO criticality accident) were considered in the calculation. Benchmark experiments using neutron and gamma ray sources were also performed for ensuring the evaluation method. As a result, it was found out that doses of neutron and gamma ray were attenuated to approximately 10% and 25% by the thickest shield, respectively. These values were close to the ones which had already obtained by the estimation of single-layer shield. (author)

  12. Public worry and question about radiation hazard. Analysis of JHPS web-site opinion on Fukushima I accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni

    2011-01-01

    This is a tentative interim report of worry and question appeared in Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) web-site, which formally started from Mar. 25 in 2011 and had origins of voluntary activity by JHPS members from Mar. 16 and of subsequent Japan MECSST requirement on Mar. 18 concerning the Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant Accident (Fukushima I, Mar. 12). Replying to the health risk in the web essentially stood on the stance that the risk always exists, uncertainty is not unavoidable and risk concerns about public, not about individuals. Major two problems generated were solved by the answering with the manager name not with the responsible individual expert, and by the careful, detailed explanation (long sentence) about the safety dose standards. Questioners were thought mostly to be women of ages between 20 and 40 y. Their living addresses written were Tokyo, Chiba, Fukushima areas and so on, although they were mostly unwritten. The number of questions was 709 (10/day) until July 1; their major three items, when classified in 48, were related to the comparison with the nuclear explosion experiments, Chernobyl Accident and released nuclides from the Fukushima I; and their major key words contained were child (39 questions), health hazard and concern (25), food and water (16), etc. It has become clear that sufficient carefulness is necessary in telling non-experts who scarcely have the fundamental, systematic and mechanistic knowledge, about the assessment of the radiation health risk, where quantitativeness is highly important. The author hopes to publish answers not only as a documentary of the Accident but also as a system of concerned knowledge. (T.T.)

  13. To revisit economics of nuclear technology. Lessons from the learning of a complex technology by major accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2012-05-01

    The Fukushima accident raises again the issue of the social and economic viability of nuclear technology. To re-evaluate this viability, we analyse the past process of internalisation of external costs of nuclear energy, which present the specificities to be chanted by accidents and has had a constant effect of complexification. This process has provoked a de-organisation of the classical learning process reflected in constant cost increases and the change of social preferences, to end up by the lack of competitiveness before climate policies. Independent institutions of safety regulation have become essential elements of the social embeddedness of nuclear technology at the expense of technology stability and standardization, condition of its competitiveness. In this perspective, the paper argues that the new sequence of social costs' internalization opened by Fukushima will have limited effects on costs, because of anterior steps of safety improvements. Nuclear technology complexification reaches its asymptote: it is being to overcome the challenge of 'learning by major accidents'. On the other hand nuclear institutions must be re-designed in such a way that it could guarantee maximum safety records and minimum residual risks by going to the other root of the safety issue, the degree of independence and capabilities of the safety authorities in every country, what cannot be decreed. It is nevertheless at this price that could be preserved the global public good of the social acceptance of nuclear technology by limiting drastically chance of new accidents. (author)

  14. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural 40 K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area

  15. Status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univeristy, Sendai (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of μSv and much less than that due to natural {sup 40}K even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area.

  16. RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF TARGET PROGRAMS ON RADIATION ACCIDENT REMEDIATION FOR THE PERIOD TO 2010 AND PROSPECTS OF FURTHER ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report contains information about measures undertaken by the Ministry of Civil Defense and Emergencies of the Russian Federation in the framework of implementation of the state policy in the field of radiation accidents remediation. Results of works realized in the framework of target programs on remediation of radiation accidents at Chernobyl NPP and Production Association MAYAK, and on problems caused by nuclear weapon tests at Seminalatinsk test site are presented.

  17. Agricultural measures to reduce radiation doses to man caused by severe nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorp, F. van; Eleveld, R.; Frissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural land and products may become contaminated after a severe nuclear accident. If radiation doses to man caused by the ingestion of contaminated agricultural products from such areas will be unacceptably high, measures to reduce this radiation dose will have to be taken. Radiation doses to man can be estimated by using models which describe quantitatively the transfer of radionuclides through the biosphere. The following processes and pathways are described in this study: accidental releases into atmospheric environments and subsequent nearby deposition; contamination of crops by direct deposition and the subsequent short term pathway (e.g. grass-cow-milk-man); contamination of soil and the subsequent long term pathway (e.g. soil-crop-man, soil-grass-cattle-milk/meat-man). Depending on the degree of contamination and on the estimated radiation doses to man, various measures are advised. (Auth.)

  18. A radiation condition in some regions with more pronounced effect of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.V.; Ivanov, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    The radioecological condition of the Devin region situated in the Rodopes mountain (Bulgaria) has been investigated for the period October 1992 - March 1993. It is believed that the Rodopes were more significantly affected by the Chernobyl accident in comparison with other regions of Bulgaria. Some regions near Kozloduy NPP have been chosen for comparing, for which there are more detailed investigations of the anthropogenic radiation effects. Analysis of the background radiation is made, specific soil and water samples are tested. The alterations in the radiation conditions of the Devin region are analysed. Some conclusions and predictions for the trends in further alterations of the background radiation are made. As a result a draft regional program for environment protection reclamation is prepared. (V.K.)

  19. Radiation protection management in Fukushima Daiichi NPS and post-accident measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahira, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was hit by the big earthquake and tsunami, which caused the station black out and subsequent loss of cooling functions for reactor and spent fuel pools (SFPs). Consequently the fuels were damaged, hydrogen explosion blew off top of the reactor buildings and radioactive materials were released to the atmosphere and the ocean. Tsunami and power loss caused many difficulties of monitoring, dose management, and radiation protection of workers. For example, the radiation management system was down and about 5,000 Alarm Pocket Dosimeters (APDs) and their battery chargers could not be used. Due to the insufficient number of APDs, one representative of each working team had a dosimeter under the limited conditions. Through the accident, we got following lessons learned; (1) Reinforcing monitoring posts, (2) Preparing more radiation protection equipment, (3) Establishing emergency access control centre, and (4) Education and training in radiation protection. (author)

  20. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  1. Radiation protection in the decommissioning of a post accident reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.; Wilkinson, J.L.; Dalton, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the control and limitation of dose uptake to operators during the early stages of decommissioning of the Windscale Piles. This was achieved by careful planning, the use of inactive trials. thoughtful use of remote handling techniques and review and feedback of information. Built between 1947 and 1950, the Windscale Piles were shut down following the Windscale Incident in 1957. UKAEA Government Division are now undertaking the early stages of decommissioning of these facilities, removing material from the air and water ducts and preparing for subsequent core removal. As part of the overall strategy of UKAEA GD, this work is being carried out using contract staff including the use of a Managing Agency, W S Atkins (Northern). Decommissioning utilizes the same means of dose reduction and control as any other nuclear operation although sometimes in novel ways. In the Windscale Piles, fully remote operations have been used to remove fuel and debris from the environs of the core which was damaged during the 1957 incident. Much use has also been made of training in mock-up facilities allowing manual techniques to be used for some jobs. The implications of using various different contractors rather than an in-house team is also discussed. It is concluded that decommissioning of major facilities can be carried out within acceptable dose uptake criteria by utilising both novel and adaptations of traditional, active handling techniques. (author)

  2. Doses from external and internal radiation in Norway during the first year after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Kjoelaas, G.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, T.; Berthelsen, T.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this article the estimation of monthly doses from external radiation from internal radiation due to ingestion of contaminated food is reported. The monthly doses is estimated for each municipality in Norway for the first 13 months after the Chernobyl accident (from May 1986 to June 1987). The estimation which has been elaborated from an extensive data material, shows that the dose rates from external radiation due to the Chernobyl fallout were for the country as a whole three times higher in the first month after the accident (May 1986) compared with the twelfth month (April 1987). The doses received from intake of radiocesium through food were small in the first three months, but reached almost the double of the doses from the external radiation the 9th month. The reduction in the dose from external radiation was primarily due to the physical half life of radiocesium and washout. The increase in the doses from radiocesium through intake of food was due to the time required for radiocesium to enter the food chain and the biokinetics of radiocesium in humans. There is no significant correlation between the ground activity levels and the activity levels observed in the food which is consumed in the same area. The average internal dose in the first year after the Chernobyl accident was estimated to 0.110 ± 0.006 mSv and the external dose to 0.070 ± 0.007 mSv as an average for the whole country. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume III. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. This volume consists of Table 9 Computer printout of environmental data collected NRC

  4. Risk management and role of schools of the Tokai-village radiation accident in 1999. Safety education and risk management before and during the radiation accident from the standpoint of school nurse teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akisaka, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomoko; Satake, Tsuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate safety education and risk management in the neighborhood schools before and during the radiation accident in the Tokai-village in 1999 from the standpoint of school nurse teachers. Eighty-six school nurse teachers from 44 elementary, 25 junior-high, 14 high and 3 handicapped children's schools were surveyed within neighboring towns and villages. The main results were as follows: There had been few risk management systems against the potential radiation accidents including safety education, radiological monitoring and protection in all of the neighboring schools. There were no significant difference in risk management systems among the schools before the accident, though the anxiety rates of school children were significantly higher in the schools nearest to the accident site. Some radiation risk management systems must be established in neighboring schools including safety education, radiological monitoring and protection. (author)

  5. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident: Possible contribution of historic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar-Nazir, Laila; Shi, Xiaopei; Moller, Anders; Mousseau, Timothy; Byun, Soohyun; Hancock, Samuel; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel

    2018-08-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the environment is documented to be greater than expected, with higher mutation rates than expected at the current, chronic low dose rate. In this paper we suggest that the historic acute exposure and resulting non-targeted effects (NTE) such as delayed mutations and genomic instability could account at least in part for currently measured mutation rates and provide an initial test of this concept. Data from Møller and Mousseau on the phenotypic mutation rates of Chernobyl birds 9-11 generations post the Chernobyl accident were used and the reconstructed dose response for mutations was compared with delayed reproductive death dose responses (as a measure of genomic instability) in cell cultures exposed to a similar range of doses. The dose to birds present during the Chernobyl NPP accident was reconstructed through the external pathway due to Cs-137 with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with such reconstruction. The percentage of Chernobyl birds several generations after the accident without mutations followed the general shape of the clonogenic survival percentage of the progeny of irradiated cells, and it plateaued at low doses. This is the expected result if NTE of radiation are involved. We suggest therefore, that NTE induced by the historic dose may play a role in generating mutations in progeny many generations following the initial disaster. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A decision support system for emergency response to major nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Christou, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    A methodology for the optimization of the short-term emergency response in the event of a nuclear accident is presented. The method seeks an optimum combination of protective actions in the presence of a multitude of conflicting objectives and under uncertainty. Conflicting objectives arise in the attempt to minimize simultaneously the potential adverse effects of an accident and the associated socioeconomic impacts. Additional conflicting objectives arise whenever an emergency plan tends to decrease a particular health effect, such as acute deaths, while it increases another, such as latent deaths. The uncertainty is due to the multitude of possible accident scenarios and their respective probability of occurrence, the stochastic variability in the weather conditions, and the variability and/or lack of knowledge of the parameters of the risk assessment models. A multiobjective optimization approach is adopted. An emergency protection plan consists of defining a protective action at each spatial cell around the plant. Three criteria are used as the objective functions of the problem, namely, acute fatalities, latent effects, and socioeconomic cost. The optimization procedure defines the efficient frontier, i.e., all emergency plans that are not dominated by another in all three criteria. No value trade-offs are necessary up to this point. The most preferred emergency plan is then chosen among the set of efficient plans. Finally, the methodology is integrated into a computerized decision support system, and its use is demonstrated in a realistic application

  7. A framework for estimating radiation-related cancer risks in Japan from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M

    2014-11-01

    We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in

  8. 'Radiation-induced electrolysis'. A potential root cause of hydrogen explosions in the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Genn

    2014-01-01

    Although water radiolysis, decomposition of water by radiation, is a well-known phenomenon the exact mechanism is not well characterized especially for potential hydrogen generation during severe accidents. The author first reviewed the water radiolysis phenomena in LWRs during normal operation to severe accidents (e.g., TMI- and Chernobyl accidents) and performed a scoping estimation of H_2 generation modeled for the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The estimation incorporates the decay heat curve combined with G-values. When a set of radiological chain reactions are incorporated the resultant reverse reactions were found to reduce the hydrogen generation substantially. In view of the observation that the water radiolysis is not likely induced appreciable effects in H_2 generation during the accident, this author investigated his basic theory named 'radiation-induced electrolysis' in the estimation of amounts of H_2 generation during the active phase of the Fukushima accident. The author's theory was originally developed by including Faraday's Law of Electrolysis into the basic time-dependent material balance equation of radiation-chemical species for his study on accelerated corrosion phenomena which is widely observed in aged plants. With this mechanism as much as 5,300 m"3-STP of accumulated hydrogen gas is estimated to be inside the PCV just prior to the hydrogen explosion which occurred a day after the reactor trip in Unit 1. For Units 2 and 3, the estimated volumes are 5,900 m"3-STP. Within just several hours after the initiation of SBO, as much as a few thousand cubic meters in STP of hydrogen gas is generated due to a high decay heat. With these large volumes of hydrogen gas the hydrogen explosion was a viable possibility upon the 'venting' operation. For the 1F4 Spent Fuel Pool where the entire core loading had been evacuated, SBO was found to have induced a rapid on-set of electrolysis when the pool water temperature reached as high as 50°C with a range of

  9. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thy...

  10. Postoperative radiation therapy for major salivary gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Fumio; Yahara, Katsuya; Ohguri, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 29 patients with major salivary gland cancer treated with postoperative irradiation between 1981 and 2002. Univariate and multivariate analyses of age, gender, cancer grade, T stage, N stage, surgical resectability, concomitant chemotherapy, and neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy were performed for disease-free survival. The 5-year survival rates and 5-year disease-free survival rate were 61.6% and 41.4%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that cancer grade and surgical resectability influenced survival rates. Chemotherapy did not influence the disease-free survival. The total dose of postoperative radiation was 47.6±8.8 Gy in the complete excision group as planned, but was 56.1±7.9 Gy in the incomplete excision group, which may be insufficient and lead to poor treatment outcome. (author)

  11. Thyroid Dose Estimates for a Cohort of Belarusian Children Exposed to Radiation from the Chernobyl Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Victor; Khrouch, Valeri; Leshcheva, Svetlana; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Kutsen, Semion; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tretyakevich, Sergey; Trofimik, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with the Belarusian Ministry of Health, is conducting a study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in a cohort of about 12,000 persons who were exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The study subjects were 18 years old or younger at the time of exposure and resided in Belarus in the most contaminated areas of the Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts, as well as in the city of Minsk. All cohort members had at least one direct thyroid measurement made in April–June 1986. Individual data on residential history, consumption of milk, milk products and leafy vegetables as well as administration of stable iodine were collected for all cohort members by means of personal interviews conducted between 1996 and 2007. Based on the estimated 131I activities in the thyroids, which were derived from the direct thyroid measurements, and on the responses to the questionnaires, individual thyroid doses from intakes of 131I were reconstructed for all cohort members. In addition, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for the following minor exposure pathways: (a) intake of short-lived 132I, 133I and 132Te by inhalation and ingestion; (b) external irradiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (c) ingestion intake of 134Cs and 137Cs. Intake of 131I was the major pathway for thyroid exposure; its mean contribution to the thyroid dose was 92%. The thyroid doses from 131I intakes varied from 0.5 mGy to almost 33 Gy; the mean was estimated to be 0.58 Gy, while the median was 0.23 Gy. The reconstructed doses are being used to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in the cohort. PMID:23560632

  12. A compendium of major US radiation protection standards and guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Flack, D.S.; Arsenault, F.J.; Conti, E.F.

    1988-07-01

    Following discussion of the general issue, the CIRRPC Executive Committee approved, with concurrence of the full Committee, an Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) staff proposal to develop a compendium of Fact Sheets on the major US radiation protection standards and guides, existing or proposed. The compendium contains relevant legal or statutory information and detailed technical requirements that state and describe the protection to be achieved. The report provides appropriate legislative citations; notes any legislative language that gave direction to the development of standards promulgated under the legislation; cites rationales for the standards promulgated; and provides a listing of related standards. Two consultants with considerable experience in radiation protection regulations were contracted to assist the ORAU staff in developing the report. This report has been reviewed twice by the CIRRPC member agencies; once to ensure the accuracy of all the legal and technical facts in the compendium, and once to comment on the entire document, including the accompanying text. This final report reflects consideration of all the agencies' comments received during the reviews. Part I of this report presents information on the selection, preparation and content of the Fact Sheets; an overview of their scopes, applications and modes of control; and the ORAU conclusions and recommendations. Part II contains the Fact Sheets and a User's Guide to finding relevant information in the Fact Sheets

  13. The economics of nuclear energy revisited: lessons from the use of a complex technology subject to major accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima accident again raises the issue of the social and economic viability of nuclear technology. To reassess this viability, we analyze the methods used to internalize the external costs of nuclear energy. These have over time become increasingly complex technologically and specifically affected by major accidents. This combination has served to upset the classical learning curve, calling into question nuclear cost base, social acceptance in the face of climate change and profitability for investors. It has become essential to put in place independent institutions to regulate the safety aspect of nuclear technology and these form a hindrance to its standardization, in turn affecting competitiveness. Nevertheless, the paper argues that the new sequence of internalization of external costs triggered by Fukushima will have limited effects on overall costs, because of previous measures already taken to improve safety. The complexity of nuclear technology is reaching its asymptote: the challenge of 'learning from major accidents' will decrease. On the other hand, the independence and competence of nuclear safety authorities in all countries must be revamped to maximize safety and minimize residual risks. This cannot just be done by decree. However, it is the only way to preserve this global public good - the social acceptance of nuclear technology

  14. Lessoning of radiation exposure. Radiation effect on humans and points to be noticed learned by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the process of medical measures taken along with the time after the Accident in the title (Mar. 12, 2011) and the present state (June, 2013) of Fukushima. The author at first presents the fundamental knowledge of radiation like unit, natural/medical doses, and the scale of the Accident compared with Chernobyl Accident (1986) involving observed diseases like thyroid cancer. On the day before the Accident, the Earthquake and Tsunami attacked Fukushima, and the University Hospital built up an anti-disaster medical headquarter. Until 15th, the hospital accepted about 500 persons for their contamination survey and subsequent de-contamination, then played a role for relaying 1,300 patients to other facilities and accepted 125 hospitalizations, during which communication by phone had been scarcely available, leading to complication and confusion. The radioisotope subjected to be noted was radioiodine earlier and then radiocesium. Emergent medical supports were conducted for various evacuation areas involving 20-30 km zone from the Plant by pediatric and infection teams with joint doctors from Thailand. The University had been defined to be the secondary emergent, expertized medical facility since 2001 and began to conduct the long-term project Fukushima Health Management Survey after the Accident for the fundamental and detailed studies of residents. The secondary facility at the emergency was inevitably the center of medicare as the primary hospitals were mostly in the radiological evacuation area and tertiary ones located afar. The University Hospital is now revising the formal manual for medical response to exposure. In Fukushima City, 60 km distant from the Plant, the ambient dose is about 0.5 mc-Sv and external exposure dose is lowering to 2-4 mSv/y. Decrease of medical staff like doctors and nurses is significant in the prefecture. (T.T.)

  15. Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1 The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2 The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3 an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem.

  16. Radiation safety of the helicopter air crow-liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, B.I.; Ponomarenko, V.A.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1992-01-01

    Three aspects of the radiation safety of the helicopter air crew who took part in the elimination of the Chernobyl NPP accident after-effects during the period from the 27-th of April to July 1986 were considered: dosimetry, physical protection and radioprotector use. 1125 subjects from the flight and engineer personnel were irradiated: 6%-2.5 mSv and more, 32%-2.1-2.5 mSv and about 60% - up to 2.0 mSv. It is stated that the use of physical protection (local screening of a pilot seat and use of special antiradiation belts) makes irradiation doe 2-3 times less. In the intense conditions of flight activity the pilots preferred the radioprotector adrenaline to cystamin. Alimentary aids in the earlier and later periods after the accident influenced favourably somatic and psychic states. 16 refs.; 1 tab

  17. Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. September 1970-February 1990 (a Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1970-February 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Radiation exposure assessment for determining appropriate medical treatment is discussed. The effects of ingesting food or inhaling air irradiated by accident fallout are considered. Follow-up studies of the survivors of specific nuclear accidents are included in an attempt to evaluate long and short term health effects of accidents. (This updated bibliography contains 224 citations, 62 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukkala, A.; Eraenen, L.

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.)

  19. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P.

    2009-01-01

    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  20. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance of irradiated nails: challenges for a dosimetry in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize samples of human nails exposed to high doses of radiation, applying the technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The objective is to establish a dose response study that allow determine the absorbed dose by exposed individuals in situations of radiological accidents, in a retrospective form. Samples of human nails were collected and afterward irradiated with gamma radiation, and received dose of 20 Gy. The EPR measurement performed on the samples, before irradiation, permitted the signal identification of the components associated with effects caused by the mechanical stress during the fingernail cutting, the so-called mechanically induced signal (MIS). After the irradiation, different species of free radicals were identified, the so-called radiation induced signal (RIS). (author)

  1. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  2. Analysis of Radiation Accident of Non-destructive Inspection and Rational Preparing Bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Junwoo; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2013-01-01

    After 2006, according to enactment of Non-destructive Inspection Promotion Act, the number of non-destructive inspection companies and corresponding accident is increased sharply. In this research, it includes characteristic analysis of field of the non-destructive inspection. And from the result of analysis, the purpose of this research is discovering reason for 'Why there is higher accident ratio in non-destructive inspection field, relatively' and preparing effective bill for reducing radiation accidents. The number of worker for non-destructive inspect is increased steadily and non-destructive inspect worker take highest dose. Corresponding to these, it must be needed to prepare bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers. By analysis of accident case, there are many case of carelessness that tools are too heavy to carry it everywhere workers go. And there are some cases caused by deficiency of education that less understanding of radiation and poor operation by less understanding of structure of tools. Also, there is no data specialized to non-destructive inspect field. So, it has to take information from statistical data. Because of this, it is hard to analyze nondestructive inspect field accurately. So, it is required to; preparing rational bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers nondestructive inspect instrument lightening and easy manual which can understandable for low education background people accurate survey data from real worker. To accomplish these, we needs to do; analyze and comprehend the present law about non-destructive inspect worker understand non-destructive inspect instruments accurately and conduct research for developing material developing rational survey to measuring real condition for non-destructive inspect workers

  3. Effects on the surrounding population of postulated major accidents at the AAEC Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.C.E.; Carruthers, E.; Cook, J.E.; Crancher, D.W.; Davy, D.R.

    1972-11-01

    The consequences of accidents in specific facilities at the Research Establishment are examined in terms of possible exposure of persons living around Lucas Heights to release airborne radioactive and toxic materials. In the case of radioactive materials, both individual and population doses are estimated, the latter over a range of meteorological conditions. Using currently available data on the risk of development of adverse effects in irradiated populations further estimates are made of the possible number of cases of such effects in the local population. 43 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Seminar on Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents: Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings of seminar on comparative assessment of the environmental impact of radionuclides released during three major nuclear accidents (Kyshtym, Windscale, Chernobyl) are divided into 5 parts bearing on: part 1: accident source terms; part 2: atmospheric dispersion, resuspension, chemical and physical forms of contamination; part 3: environmental contamination and transfer; part 4: radiological implications for man and his environment; part 5: countermeasures

  5. A questionnaire survey about public's image of radiation after the Fukushima Dacha Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Abe, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire survey about the public's image of radiation was performed after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The survey was taken by general citizens (200 and 1,640 in Fukushima and 52 outside of Fukushima) and doctors (63 in Fukushima and 1,942 outside of Fukushima (53 in Oita, 44 in Sagamihara and 1,845 in Kitakyushu) in and outside of Fukushima and second year medical students in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan. The questionnaire surveys were performed during lectures about radiation. The response rates were 86% for the general citizens in Fukushima, 91% for the general citizens outside of Fukushima, 86% for doctors in Fukushima, 85% and 86% for doctors in Sagamihara and Oita, respectively. The questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Fukushima where the general citizens answered with a response rate of 50%. When the questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Kitakyushu, doctors answered, with a response rate of 17%. The percentages of anxiety about future radiation effects after the FDNPP accident were the highest among the general citizens (71.6% in Fukushima and 40.4% outside of Fukushima), in the middle among the doctors (30.2% in Fukushima and 26.2% outside of Fukushima) and the lowest among the medical students (12.2%). The doctors in Fukushima and the medical students were anxious about food and soil pollution. The general citizens and the detectors outside of Fukushima were anxious about health problems and food and soil pollution. We concluded that a high level of education about radiation decreased the anxiety about the radiation effects. It is important to spread knowledge about radiation. (author)

  6. Assessment of radiation risk as a part of ecological risk in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanova, Irina; Saltanov, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the work: foundation for principles of planning protection measures, that provide safety for population activity on the territories, contaminated with radio-nuclides, by analysing radio-chemical situation, using risk assessment methods. Problems set in the work: -) Analyses of radiation risk in the structure of ecological risk in the territory of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident; -) Investigation of chemical risk level, connected with air pollution from stationary objects exhausts, for the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides; -) Modelling of the combined impact of ionising radiation and chemical carcinogen for the possible ecological risk assessment; -) Involving modern geo informational systems in the radio-ecological risk assessment process; -) Foundation for the assessment methodology of the complex influence of negative factors in the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides. The problems are solved by carrying out specific experiments and by analysing published and own data on radioactive and chemical contamination of some regions of Belarus. Major findings: Radiation input to the really registered carcinogens is estimated to app. 10 %. In case of multiple factors influence of different contaminators of industrial and natural origin (i.e. radiation is not the only negative factor), ignorance of non-radiation origin factors may seriously distort estimation of radiation risk, when it is related to the registered effects. Radiation should be in no way treated as the major factor of real ecological risk in Belarus. Method for comparative analysis of territories' ecological risk level is developed and implemented. A GIS segment, that includes subsystem of the real and forecasted radio-ecological mapping, is created. The authors grounded the experimental model for study the complex influence of radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical carcinogen) factors. Revealed dependencies 'dose

  7. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological accident from Goiania, GO, Brazil; Efeitos biologicos das radiacoes ionizantes. Acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Emico, E-mail: emico.okuno@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF-USP), SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    This article presents the fundaments of radiation physics, the natural and artificial sources, biological effects, radiation protection. We also examine the sequence of events that resulted in Goiania accident with a source of caesium-137 from abandoned radiotherapy equipment and its terrible consequences. (author)

  8. Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, Yu.V.; Osanov, D.P.; Gimadova, T.I.; Gus'kov, V.M.; Kruchkov, V.P.; Pavlov, D.A.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Evolution of Radiation Safety Culture in Africa: Impact of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elegba, S.

    2016-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in Africa is more than a century old but the awareness for radiation safety regulation is still a work in progress. The nuclear weapon tests carried out in the Sahara Desert during the early 1960’s and the resultant radiation fallout that drifted into West Africa with the northeasterly winds provided the first organized response to the hazards of ionizing radiation in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government in 1964 established the Federal Radiation Protection Service (FRPS) at the Physics Department of the University of Ibadan but without the force of law. In 1971, draft legislation on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection was submitted to Government for consideration and promulgation. It never went beyond a draft until June 1995 only after IAEA intervention! The April 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident unfortunately did not provoke as much reaction from African countries, probably because of geography and climate: Africa is far from Ukraine and in April the winds blow from SW-NE, unlike if it had happened in December when the wind direction would have been NE-SW and Africa would have been greatly impacted with little or no radiation safety infrastructure to detect the radiation fallout or to respond to it; and weak economic infrastructure to mitigate the economic impact of such radioactive deposits on agriculture and human health. Africa was shielded by both geography and climate; but not for long. By 1988, some unscrupulous businessmen exported to Nigeria and to several African countries radiation contaminated beef and dairy products which were meant for destruction in Europe. This led to the establishment of laboratories in several African countries for the monitoring of radiation contamination of imported foods. Fortunately, the international response to the Chernobyl accident was swift and beneficial to Africa and largely spurred the establishment of radiation safety infrastructure in most if not all African Member States. Notably

  10. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Ayame, J.; Takashita, H.; Yamamoto, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  11. Assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofman, Radek; Šmídl, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7/8 (2010), s. 226-228 ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decision support * early phase * Gaussian model * radioactive pollution transport Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/hofman-assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident .pdf

  12. Radiation situation on the territories of the Leningrad Region affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Bruk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the largest nuclear accident in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of 14 regions of the Russian Federation. In 1991, 4540 settlements were attributable to areas with levels of soil contamination by 137Cs of more than 1.0 Ci/km2. As of 2016, 3855 settlements with the population of more than 1,5 million people are carried to a zone of radioactive contamination according to the Government Directive No 1074 dated October 8, 2015 «On Approval of the List of settlements located within the boundaries of the zones of radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl disaster». In accordance with this Directive, in the Leningrad region 29 settlements were classified as zones of radioactive contamination. This article describes the dynamics of changes in the radiation situation and its current state in the territories of the Leningrad Region affected by the Chernobyl accident. The paper presents the dynamics of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in food products of local origin, the results of calculations of the current average annual effective doses used for the purposes of settlements’ zoning, and the average annual effective radiation doses actually received by the population, dating back to 1986. According to the results of laboratory studies, since 1987, there have been no exceedances of the permissible levels for 137Cs s in agricultural products and food raw materials of local origin. However in the wild products (mushrooms excesses of the permissible levels for 137Cs have been periodically detected. The cases of exceeding the permissible levels for the content of strontium-90 in food, drinking water and water from open water bodies were not recorded for the entire observation period; the determined activity was at the level of tens and hundreds of times less than the permissible levels. In 2016, conservatively estimated average annual effective doses of exposure used for the purposes of

  13. The need for and the importance of biological indicators of radiation effects with special reference to injuries in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.; Bianco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The need for further research on the existing and new biological indicators of radiation injury has been expressed. The studies on the radiation-induced alterations of membrane structure and function stimulated investigations aiming to develop an indicator based on membrane-phenomena. The co-ordinated research programme on ''Cell Membrane Probes as Biological Indicators of Radiation Injury in Radiation Accidents'' was initiated in mid 1977 and terminated in 1980. Within this programme many basic observations were made in connection with altered features of various animal and human cell membranes. Molecular, biophysical, biochemical and cell biological approaches were performed. The rapid reaction within minutes or hours of membranes against relatively low doses of various types of irradiations were described and the effects proved to be transitory, i.e. membrane regeneration occurred within hours. These dose- and timedependent alterations suggest the possibility of developing a biological indicator which would give signals at the earliest period after radiation injury when no other biological informations are available. The importance of a system of biological indicators is emphasized. (author)

  14. Development and application of a radioactivity evaluation technique the to obtain radiation exposure dose of radioactivity evaluation technique when a severe accident occurs in the a power station of a severe accident. Accident management guidelines of knowledge-based maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Ikuo; Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    As a One of the lessons learned from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the was the need for improvement of accident management guidelines is required. In this report study, we developed and applied a dose evaluation technique to evaluated the radiation dose in a nuclear power plant assuming three conditions: employees were evacuation evacuated at the time of a severe accident occurrence; operators carried out the accident management operation; of the operators, and the repair work was carried out for of the trouble damaged apparatuses in a the nuclear power plant using a dose evaluation system. The following knowledge findings were obtained and should to be reflected to in the knowledge base of the guidelines was obtained. (1) By making clearly identifying an areas beforehand becoming the that would receive high radiation doses at the time of a severe accident definitely beforehand, we can employees can be moved to the evacuation places through an areas having of low dose rate and it is also known it how much we long employees can safely stay in the evacuation places. (2) When they circulate CV containment vessel recirculation sump water is recirculated by for the accident management operation and the restoration of safety in the facilities, because the plumbing piping and the apparatuses become radioactive radioactivity sources, the dose evaluation of the shortest access route and detour access routes with should be made for effective the accident management operation is effective. Because the area where a dose rate rises changes which as safety apparatuses are restored, in consideration of a plant state, it is necessary to judge the rightness or wrongness of the work continuation from the spot radioactive dose of the actual apparatus area, with based on precedence of the need to restore with precedence, and to choose a system to be used for accident management. (author)

  15. Cytogenetic chromosomal aberration dosimetry method after radiation accidents and prognostic significance of stereotypically appearing chromosomal aberrations after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloennigen, K.A.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reports on a radiation accident involving an Iridium-192 rod of an activity of 7.8 Ci and a size of 2 x 2 x 2 mm 3 . The radiation source had remained in direct contact with the left hip and elbow of the examined person for a period of 45 minutes. On the points that had been directly exposed, physical values of 5,000 rad and 10,000 rad were measured while the whole-body dose was 100-200 rad and the gonad dose 300-400 rad. These values were confirmed by observations of the clinical course and haematological and andrological examinations. Chromosome analysis of lymphocytes produced values between 100 and 125 and thus a significant agreement with the values determined by physical methods. The findings suggest that the relatively simple and fast method of cytogenetic dosimetry provides a useful complementary method to physical dosimetry. (orig./AK) [de

  16. The search for Infrared radiation prior to major earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Taylor, P.; Pulinets, S.

    2004-12-01

    This work describes our search for a relationship between tectonic stresses and electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earth and increases in mid-IR flux as part of a possible ensemble of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that may be related to earthquake activity. Recent analysis of continuous ongoing long- wavelength Earth radiation (OLR) indicates significant and anomalous variability prior to some earthquakes. The cause of these anomalies is not well understood but could be the result of a triggering by an interaction between the lithosphere-hydrosphere and atmospheric related to changes in the near surface electrical field and gas composition prior to the earthquake. The OLR anomaly covers large areas surrounding the main epicenter. We have use the NOAA IR data to differentiate between the global and seasonal variability and these transient local anomalies. Indeed, on the basis of a temporal and spatial distribution analysis, an anomaly pattern is found to occur several days prior some major earthquakes. The significance of these observations was explored using data sets of some recent worldwide events.

  17. A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardynskaya, I.; Hryhorczuk, D.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Khrouch, V.T.; Gavrilin, Y.I.; Shinkarev, S.M.; Dardynskiy, O.

    2002-01-01

    bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation of the thyroid dose to the fetus was calculated using the model developed by Johnson. This model presents thyroid-dose calculations per unit intake of radioiodine by the mother as a function of fetal age. The dosimetry calculations include the age dependence of the uptake and retention of iodine in the fetal thyroid. Future work. Although I 131 intake was responsible for most of thyroid doses in the majority of children exposed in utero after the Chernobyl accident, exposures from other radionuclides also contributed. These exposures are internal exposure from intake of short-lived radioiodine and of Te 132; internal exposure from the intake of long-lived Cs 137; external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Short-lived radionuclides from Chernobyl fallout can possibly affect the induction of thyroid cancer and other thyroid abnormalities among children exposed to radiation in utero. Due to this fact, we plan to perform an in utero thyroid-dose reconstruction from short-lived radioiodine for those children whose mothers during pregnancy were exposed through inhalation within one week following the accident. A dose reconstruction will also be performed for all children from Study Groups 1 and 2. At the conclusion of these tasks, the epidemiological data obtained during examination of in utero exposed children will be analyzed in relation with reconstructed individual thyroid doses (authors)

  18. A knowledge on environmental radiation monitoring about the influence from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Mitsuo; Terakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kasai, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive substances were released in the atmosphere and contaminated a large area across Japan due to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company triggered by Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on May 11th 2011. At Fukui University of Technology, monitoring of air radiation (gamma ray) and radiation in environmental samples in Fukui prefecture and some areas of Fukushima prefecture were conducted in order to study the influence of radiation and radioactivity on the citizens as well as the perception of this study results by the citizens. Also, in order to study the dependency of the radiation influence on the distance from the accident location, radiation monitoring of fallouts (air-borne dust, rainwater, sediment mud, and so on) was conducted. In this article, the knowledge obtained on environmental radiation monitoring was summarized and reported. Especially, slightly modified dose-level evaluation for internal exposure was reported. (S.K.)

  19. Causes of Accidents Near Accelerators and Radiation Protection Arrangements; Causes d'accidents aupres des accelerateurs et dispositions de radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, H; Vialettes, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The authors present, first, some typical accidents mentioned in bibliography or happened in CEA Research Centers. The accidents are analysed to precise the main cause and get some experience. Then the authors study the interest of a centralized control for security, detection and signalling devices used near every important accelerator. (author) [French] Les auteurs presentent, tout d'abord, quelques accidents typiques rapportes dans la bibliographie ou survenus dans les Centres de Recherches du CEA. Ces accidents sont analyses pour en preciser la cause principale et en degager les enseignements. Enfin les auteurs etudient l'interet d'un controle centralise des dispositifs de securite, de detection et de signalisation mis en oeuvre aupres de tout accelerateur important. (auteur)

  20. Radiation protection measures applied during the autopsies on the casualties of the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, N.S.F.; Silva, L.H.C.; Rosa, R.

    1998-01-01

    The most seriously affected casualties of the radiological accident caused by the opening of a 137 Cs source capsule in Goiania were treated at the Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital (HNMD) in Rio de Janeiro in the period from October to December 1987. Four of the injured died in October. The autopsies were performed at this institution. Due to the external and internal contamination presented by these victims, specific radiation protection procedures were adopted to enable the medical team to perform their duties. The radiation protection staff, under the co-ordination of technicians of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), were responsible for the preparation of the autopsy room and for advising the professionals on duty during these events. The radiation protection staff took specific measures to prevent the spread of contamination throughout the hospital, the contamination of persons attending the autopsies and to minimize any radiation dose to the medical and professional team. The measures aimed at personal control and the preparation of the autopsy room are described as well as the radiation protection steps applied in connection with the performance of the autopsies, the emplacement of the bodies into the coffins and their transport back to Goiania. (author)

  1. Communication activity for residents to understand radiation after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Kiyoshi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yamamoto, Tomoyo

    2015-01-01

    'Question-and-Answer Session on Radiation and Health' ('Kotaeru-kai' in Japanese) has started in July 2011 in Fukushima Prefecture, which was influenced by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011. The purpose of the Session is to have mainly parents and teachers (kindergartens, schools etc.) understand correctly about radiation and its influence on health. At the requests of the teachers in Fukushima Prefecture, about 4 staff members made a team, and visited Fukushima. The members of the team were selected from 500 JAEA staffs nominated beforehand. The members explained about radiation and its influence on health by using illustrations and metaphors. After the lecture, they answered the questions asked in advance at schools. Also they answered the questions asked in the Session. In the Session, the members placed much value on the communication with participants. Until the end of December 2014, the Question-and-Answer Sessions on Radiation and Health have been held 241 times for about twenty thousand participants. According to 7,613 participants' questionnaires, which were collected from July 2011 to the end of 2012, it seems that participants were able to understand well about radiation and its influence on health. Besides parents and teachers, some of the junior high schools requested to explain for students. JAEA will continue this communication activity in order to meet these expectations and requirements. (author)

  2. The Thule accident: Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbak, K.

    2011-12-01

    Risoe DTU has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of Risoe DTU's studies are described in the report Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land, which covers all measurements that were carried out on land in Thule in the years 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The present report uses Risoe DTU's report as a basis for assessing radiation doses and consequently the risk for individuals as a result of terrestrial radioactive contamination in the Thule area. The assessment of radiation doses involves a number of conservative assumptions, estimates, and measurements, all of which are subject to considerable uncertainty. In some cases, models have been used based on experiences from other contaminated areas elsewhere in the world, which are subject to climatic and other conditions that diverge from those in the Thule area. The calculated doses are thus associated with considerable uncertainty, which must be taken into account when the results are used for comparison and when the risks of staying in the Thule area are assessed. It has therefore been chosen to provide the assessed radiation doses in the form of indicative orders of magnitude, which are applicable to everyone who might stay in the area, across various age groups. If the estimated doses in this report are combined with the National Institute of Radiation Protections recommended reference level for contamination as a result of the Thule Accident of 1 mSv/year, the assessed magnitudes of radiation doses for inhalation and ingestion as exposure pathways are many orders of magnitude below the reference level (10,00010 million times smaller). The wound contamination exposure pathway has a magnitude of radiation dose that is smaller than the reference level by a factor of 101000, and it should be recalled that the probability of this

  3. The Thule accident: Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbak, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark))

    2011-12-15

    Risoe DTU has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of Risoe DTU's studies are described in the report Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land, which covers all measurements that were carried out on land in Thule in the years 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The present report uses Risoe DTU's report as a basis for assessing radiation doses and consequently the risk for individuals as a result of terrestrial radioactive contamination in the Thule area. The assessment of radiation doses involves a number of conservative assumptions, estimates, and measurements, all of which are subject to considerable uncertainty. In some cases, models have been used based on experiences from other contaminated areas elsewhere in the world, which are subject to climatic and other conditions that diverge from those in the Thule area. The calculated doses are thus associated with considerable uncertainty, which must be taken into account when the results are used for comparison and when the risks of staying in the Thule area are assessed. It has therefore been chosen to provide the assessed radiation doses in the form of indicative orders of magnitude, which are applicable to everyone who might stay in the area, across various age groups. If the estimated doses in this report are combined with the National Institute of Radiation Protection's recommended reference level for contamination as a result of the Thule Accident of 1 mSv/year, the assessed magnitudes of radiation doses for inhalation and ingestion as exposure pathways are many orders of magnitude below the reference level (10,000-10 million times smaller). The wound contamination exposure pathway has a magnitude of radiation dose that is smaller than the reference level by a factor of 10-1000, and it should be recalled that the

  4. Prospective study of total cholesterol amount in the blood of the persons exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobot'ko, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The blood of the men aged 20-59 residing in Kyiv after the accident and that of the participants of the accident clean-up aged 25-55 has been studying for 10 years. The nature of the observed changes in blood cholesterol amount is atherogenic, which should be taken into account when taking preventive and therapeutic measures in the persons exposed to different dosed of ionizing radiation

  5. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at ERDA facilities, 1975-1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accident frequency and losses were similar to that of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1970 through 1974. The ERDA incidence rates per 200,000 work hours were 1.05 for lost workday injuries and 17.8 for workdays lost. These rates are about one-third of the national industrial averages reported by the National Safety Council (NSC). Ten fatalities occurred at ERDA facilities resulting in an average annual rate of three deaths per 100,000 workers compared to the national rate of 14 deaths per 100,000 workers. ERDA's total property loss from 1975 to 1977 was $11.9 million; $1.8 million caused by fires. The average annual loss rates, in cents loss per $100 valuation, were 1.15 for non-fire and 0.18 for fire. These rates are higher than the AEC post; Rocky Flats period (1970 through 1974) which were 0.60 non-fire and 0.10 fire; but are lower than the average annual rates which were 2.4 non-fire and 1.7 fire for the entire history of the AEC. Accidents causing more than $50,000 in property damage are tabulated. ERDA continued to make a strong effort to eliminate unnecessary radiation exposure to workers. The number of employees exceeding 1 rem decreased from 2999 in 1975 to 2274 in 1977. The two appendixes include criteria for accident investigations and summaries of accident investigation reports.

  6. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Allen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  7. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in southern Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Since April 30, 1986, comprehensive nuclide-specific measurements have been carried out in air, precipitations, soil, grass, and food in order to determine the fission product activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The increase in the gamma dose rate induced by the fission product fallout has been measured primarily in Bavaria. Some important results of the measurements so far are listed in the report. Based on these data, a preliminary assessment is made of the longterm radiation dose to the population in the region of southern Bavaria. The assessment takes into account the dose commitment emanating from external beta and gamma radiation, from intake with food, and by inhalation of fission products. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Health status of the population in the Ukraine exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the health status of population exposed top radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident is a problem of paramount importance. The results of demographic and epidemiologic surveys and clinical observations have shown that changes in the morbidity rates among children and adults at the strictly controlled districts in the Ukraine result not only from improved diagnostic service, but also from the after effects of the Chernobyl accident. A tendency to a growth of primary disease incidence among childrn and adults was established. Analysis of the results of follow-up of children has revealed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. The accident caused an unfavourable demographic situation in the Republic

  9. The ARIPAR project: analysis of the major accident risks connected with industrial and transportation activities in the Ravenna area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, Demetrio; Foraboschi, Franco P.; Spadoni, Gigliola; Amendola, Aniello

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the ARIPAR project aimed at the assessment of the major accident risks connected with storage, process and transportation of dangerous substances in the densely populated Ravenna area in Italy, which includes a large complex of chemical and petrochemical plants and minor industries, essentially distributed around an important commercial port. Large quantities of dangerous goods are involved in various transportation forms connected with the industrial and commercial activity of the port. The project started by making a complete inventory of fixed installations and transportation activities capable of provoking major fire, explosion and toxic release events; then relevant accident scenarios were developed for the single hazard sources; probabilities were assigned to the events and consequences were evaluated; finally iso-risk contours and F-N diagrams were evaluated both for the single sources and for the overall area. This required the development of a particular methodology for analysis of area risk and of associated software packages which allowed examination of the relative importance of the different activities and typologies of materials involved. The methodological approach and the results have proved to be very useful for the priority-ranking of risk mitigating interventions and physical planning in a complex area

  10. The major regularities of the air radioactive contamination of Belarus territory after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E. F.; Mironov, V. P.; Drugachenok, M. A.; Kudryashov, V.P; Grushevich, L.E; Adamovich, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the first days after the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity of surface air in different regions of Belarus has increased in tens and hundred thousand time. The regular control of air radioactive contamination in the zone of alienation and nearest to it is carried out from the end 1989. The radioactive air monitoring carried out in territories with various contamination density (from 0,2 up to 9,6 MBq/m 2 on Cs-137). The measurements of the Cs-137 contents in ashes of air sampler filters were carried out by gamma - spectrometer ADCAM-300 MCA. The measurement of the Pu-240,239 and Sr-90 contents was carried out by usual radiochemical techniques. The used techniques and equipment allow to define in a sample of the minimal activity: Pu-239,240 - 0,001 Bq, Cs-137 - 0,5 Bq, Sr-90 - 0,1 Bq. The initial contamination of ground happened a near zone within approximately first 2 weeks after accident. Since the end of May, 1986 till present time the air radioactive contamination is formed under action of processes of secondary wind rise and carry of radioactive particles with contaminated territories, which depends from a number factors of both natural and anthropogenous origin. The relations of Pu-238/Pu-239 and Sr-90/Pu-239 in aerosol particles practically coincide with the same relations in fuel blown up reactor. The ratio of Cs-137/Pu-239 activities in aerosols considerably exceeds the resettlement ratio for fuel. Strontium and plutonium are in structure of fuel particles, and cesium aerosol have other origin. The analysis of changes annual radioisotopes concentration in air of towns of Belarus specifies existence of the tendency to slow decrease of contamination of atmosphere by radioisotopes of industrial origins. The basic tendency of formation of air radioactive contamination is determined by the contents of a dust at surface layer of an atmosphere and its specific activity. Annual average dust content of air in a zone resettlement was least and made about 10 mk g

  11. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at DOE facilities. Fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy's safety performance in fiscal year 1979 showed improvement in all categories over fiscal year 1978. The loss rates were less than one-half the United States industry average as reported by the National Safety Council. Incidence rates per 200,000 workhours were 1.1 lost workday cases and 17.2 lost workdays compared to 1.2 lost workday cases and 17.6 lost workdays during fiscal year 1978. The recordable occupational illness rate, based on only 80 cases, was 0.06 cases per 200,000 workhours compared to 0.07 cases per 200,000 workhours for fiscal year 1978. Nine fatalities of contractor employees resulted in an annual rate of 6.0 deaths per 100,000 workers compared with 10 fatalities during fiscal year 1978, and an annual rate of 6.7 deaths per 100,000 workers. The total Department of Energy property loss reported during fiscal year 1979 was $3.3 million; $765,400 was caused by fire, and $2.5 million by other causes. A total of 121 million vehicle miles of official travel resulted in 685 accidents with $338,400 in property damage. The loss rates of 5.7 accidents per million vehicle miles and $2.80 per 1000 miles were improvements over the fiscal year 1978 rates of 5.8 accidents per million vehicle miles and $2.97 property damage per 1000 miles. The 104,986 monitored Department of Energy and its contractor employees received a total dose of 9040 rem in calendar year 1979. Both the total dose and the 1748 employees receiving radiation exposures greater than 1 rem in 1979 represent a continuing downward trend from the calendar year 1978 total dose of 9380 rem and the 1826 employees who received radiation exposures greater than 1 rem

  12. EMERALD, Radiation Release and Dose after PWR Accident for Design Analysis and Operation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunot, W.K.; Fray, R.R.; Gillespie, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The EMERALD program is designed for the calculation of radiation releases and exposures resulting from abnormal operation of a large pressurized water reactor (PWR). The approach used in EMERALD is similar to an analog simulation of a real system. Each component or volume in the plant which contains a radioactive material is represented by a subroutine which keeps track of the production, transfer, decay and absorption of radioactivity in that volume. During the course of the analysis of an accident, activity is transferred from subroutine to subroutine in the program as it would be transferred from place to place in the plant. For example, in the calculation of the doses resulting from a loss-of-coolant accident the program first calculates the activity built up in the fuel before the accident, then releases some of this activity to the containment volume. Some of this activity is then released to the atmosphere. The rates of transfer, leakage, production, cleanup, decay, and release are read in as input to the program. Subroutines are also included which calculate the on-site and off-site radiation exposures at various distances for individual isotopes and sums of isotopes. The program contains a library of physical data for the twenty-five isotopes of most interest in licensing calculations, and other isotopes can be added or substituted. Because of the flexible nature of the simulation approach, the EMERALD program can be used for most calculations involving the production and release of radioactive materials during abnormal operation of a PWR. These include design, operational, and licensing studies. 2 - Method of solution - Explicit solutions of first-order linear differential equations are included. In addition, a subroutine is provided which solves a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 25 isotopes, 7 time periods, 15 volumes or components, 10

  13. Epidemiological and immunological studies of radiation accidents and nucleare tests participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V. M.; Bronstein, I. E.; Koroleva, T.M.; Strelnicova, T.M.; Sukalskay, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Results of long term studies of epidemiological and immunological problems after radiation accidents in Ural. At Chernobyl and nuclear weapons tests in Semi-palatinsk and Novaya Zemlya nuclear tests sites are presented. Changes in Health and immunity status of emergency team workers (liquida-tors) and participants on nuclear weapon tests were recorded in long term studies af-ter 10 and more years after radiation exposure. Some changes (decrease in ly-sozyme activity, disimmunoglobulinemia) could be attributed to the old age of exam-ined persons and concomitant cardiovasculatory, respiratory and other diseases An-other ones were related to the autoimmune syndromes. Humoral and cellular auto-immune changes were more pronounced in liquidators and participants then in controls. concentrations of antitissue antibodies in exposed cohort was three times higher than in control. Level of antibodies to thyroid antigens (microsoms and thy-roglobulines) were five times higher in liquidators of Chernobyl accident. The pos-sible role of humoral and cell autoimmune changes in the development of cardiovascular, liver, kidney and thyroid is considered. Considerable increase in some cytocine concentrations in blood of participants was found. For example increased concentration of TNF was recorded in half of par-ticipants from Novaya Zemlya in comparison to similar changes in only twenty pro-cents of controls. In half of participants from Semipalatinsk site the virus antigens in epithelium of higher respiratory tract (mostly adenoviruses) were found, with 22% in control group. In health and immunity studies of population from the contaminated areas after accidents and nuclear tests (Ural, Bryansk, Russian arktics) the demographics changes, mortality structure changes, oncological mortality and immunological deficiencies were found. The recorded effects might by considered as a results of combined effect of ra-diological and non-radiological factors. The potentiated effect of chronic

  14. Medical consequences of the Kyshtym radiation accident of 29 September 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldakov, L.A.; Demin, S.N.; Dibobes, I.K.; Kosenko, M.M.; Panteleyev, L.I.; Romanov, G.N.; Skryabin, A.M.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Shvedov, V.L.; Shukhovtsev, B.I.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the accidental release of long-lived radionuclides, the gamma-radiation dose rate in the near zone of the trail reached tens of cGy per hour and, in a number of populated areas in the open countryside, 0.1 c Gy x hour -1 . The evacuation of 10 730 people reduced the possible radiation doses by 2-24 times. Examination of people who had received the highest effective dose equivalents prior to evacuation (2.3-52 cSv) revealed, in the first two years, instability in leukocytes and thrombocytes (used as indicators), but this did not exceed normal fluctuations. The structure of morbidity and mortality among the adult and child populations and the incidence of congenital pathology and infant mortality do not differ from the control. The proportion of families with children born of parents aged between 10 and 30 at the time of the accident does not differ from the same indicators for the whole of the USSR, and, in the case of those aged between 0 and 9 years at the time of the accident, this proportion is 5-10% lower than control values, although the number of people who married is considerably higher than in the control group. In addition, the standardized birthrate coefficients in the study group (31.8 x 10 -3 ) are considerably higher than in the control group (18.4 x 10 -3 ). (author)

  15. Radiation Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Emergency Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Karpenko, S V; Maksioutov, M A; Menyaylo, A N; Tumanov, K A; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Lovachev, S S; Vlasov, O K; Ivanov, V K

    2017-07-01

    This paper continues a series of publications that analyze the impact of radiation on incidence of circulatory system diseases in the cohort of Russian recovery operation workers (liquidators) and presents the results of the analysis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 liquidators who arrived in the Chernobyl accident zone within the first year after the accident (26 April 1986 to 26 April 1987). The individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy, and the mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy. A total of 27,456 cases of CVD were diagnosed during the follow-up period 1986-2012 as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied to estimate radiation risks and other risk factors associated with CVD. The following factors were identified as risk factors for CVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and concomitant diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, and alcohol dependence). The baseline incidence of CVD is statistically significantly (p Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.53; 1.08, p < 0.001.

  16. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume V. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. This volume consists of the following 2 volumes: Table 16 Summary of Metropolitan Edison Company (Met-Ed) sampling and analytical procedures; and Table 17 Computer printout of data collected by Met-Ed

  17. A methodology for the quantitative risk assessment of major accidents triggered by seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioni, Giacomo; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative risk assessment of accidents triggered by seismic events in industrial facilities was developed. The starting point of the procedure was the use of available historical data to assess the expected frequencies and the severity of seismic events. Available equipment-dependant failure probability models (vulnerability or fragility curves) were used to assess the damage probability of equipment items due to a seismic event. An analytic procedure was subsequently developed to identify, evaluate the credibility and finally assess the expected consequences of all the possible scenarios that may follow the seismic events. The procedure was implemented in a GIS-based software tool in order to manage the high number of event sequences that are likely to be generated in large industrial facilities. The developed methodology requires a limited amount of additional data with respect to those used in a conventional QRA, and yields with a limited effort a preliminary quantitative assessment of the contribution of the scenarios triggered by earthquakes to the individual and societal risk indexes. The application of the methodology to several case-studies evidenced that the scenarios initiated by seismic events may have a relevant influence on industrial risk, both raising the overall expected frequency of single scenarios and causing specific severe scenarios simultaneously involving several plant units

  18. On the acceptance of governmental information policy in the case of major industrial accidents or disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, L.; Kiel Univ.; Dombrowsky, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    This research project served to provide full information as soon as possible, last but not least because of the 'Information catastrophe' unleashed by the Chernobyl accident, and under the impression of a 'loss of confidence' in the credibility of government information policies caused by it, on how such developments are brought about, how they can be corrected, which intervention possibilities exist for government information in future to achieve the intended purpose, and which parties have to be won over for government information and action to be communicated in a convincing and confidence-building manner. This leads to conclusions in the form of theses such as: The relationship of the individual with the State, its information and action, is always an anonymous and impersonal one and therefore emotionally unsatisfactory. Acceptance of the citizen by the State is achieved by the latter attending to the concerns of its citizens not only formally but in a problem-oriented way, by voting and control mechanisms. Information policy is a to-and-fro communication between State and citizen, it is not a one-way road for instructions and decrees. Communications of information is primarily the sharing of agreements and the confirmation of a joint understanding: one knows that basically there is consensus. Only if there is fundamental consensus, information about dissonant, problematic, unpleasant matters can be communicated in such a way that there are good prospects of approval or acceptance, and hence observance. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Follow-up of pregnant woman 16 years after exposure in Xinzhou radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaohui; Zhang Shulan; Jia Tingzhen; Liu Qingjie; Liang Li; Su Xu; Ma Liwen; Qin Bin; Chen Sen; Wang Wenxue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the late effect of radiation on child-bearing women, through observing 'Fang', a 19-week-pregnant woman at age of 23, who was exposed to 60 Co radiation in Shanxi Xinzhou radiation accident in November, 1992 and diagnosed as moderate bone marrow type acute radiation sickness and recovered after 16 year of follow-up treatment. Methods: Clinical data including medical history, physical examination, laboratory data, imaging findings and consulting relevant departments were reviewed. Results: The followed-up woman 'Fang' often felt weak and caught cold after recovery. When she was 32 years old (9 years after radiation), her hair turned grey, but without hair loss. Her menstrual quantitiy was lessened since 31 years old (8 years after radiation). She was remarried and pregnant twice in the same year. At the first time she underwent artificial abortion and the second child suffered from intrauterine death after 6 months of pregnancy. The physical examination found bilateral degree I thyroid enlargement and sparse armpit hair. The laboratory test showed the increased levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TMAb) and the decreased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Unstable chromosome aberrations were totally lost and stable aberrations in chromosomes were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The dose estimated with the residue chromosome aberration was 0.76 Gy. Other laboratory results were normal. Ultrasonic test showed diffuse lesion in bilateral thyroid and multiple cystic nodules in right lobe of thyroid, which was considered to be nodular goiter. The examination of bone mineral density (BMD) showed osteoporosis from the second to the fourth lumber vertebra. There were no diseases associated with radiation based on the consultation from related departments. Conclusions: Intrauterine death after 6 months of pregnancy might be associated with the previous exposure. There is no evidence of

  20. Typical features of the foci in case of largescale radiation accidents and their influence on organization of medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, I.V.; Zhilyaev, E.G.; Ivanov, V.B.; El'kin, A.I.; Chernetsov, A.A; Kotov, Yu.A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper studied typical features of foci in case of large-scale radiation accidents, which differ from foci after nuclear explosion by the components of radioactive substances, small particle dispersity, their higher solubility, longer period of radiation contamination and its irregularity. It complicates special treatment, creates difficulties in evaluation of radiation situation and in carrying out sanitary-hygienic measures. The leading radiation factor is external radiation exposure, but in the initial period close to Nuclear Power Plant, the contribution of internal radiation exposure due to inhalation of radioactive substances is very important and should be taken into consideration when rating radiation exposure Besides, there must be taken into account considerable contribution of non-radiation factors (stress, toxic effects, social-economic conditions etc.) in aggravation of health condition of people. The above specific features require corrections in classic approach to prophylaxis and treatment of radiation injuries. 18 refs.; 4 tabs

  1. Radiation risk after Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident and recognition of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2017-01-01

    In the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident, the confusion caused by inconsistency of risk assessment among scientists cast new challenges for communication between science and society. In response to the way of crisis communication in the future, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) is required to extract specific subjects and to make efforts to solve them. The Committee for 'Radiation Risk and Crisis Communication' had been set up in the Leading R and D Committee of JSPS over three years since October 2013. This paper introduced the outline of the Committee for 'Radiation Risk and Crisis Communication,' with a focus on the activity system of three subcommittees, activity guidelines and contents of each subcommittee, and the outcomes of activities of each subcommittee. The themes of the subcommittees are as follows. The subcommittee 1 is to collect, analyze, and organize information on the effects of radiation based on the latest findings, the subcommittee 2 is to study the formation of consensus within the scientific community as well as information disclosure methods, and the subcommittee 3 is to survey and study the information disclosure means of radiation measurement results under crisis situation. (A.O.)

  2. Modeling Loss-of-Flow Accidents and Their Impact on Radiation Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivan Khatry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term high payload missions necessitate the need for nuclear space propulsion. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA investigated several reactor designs from 1959 to 1973 in order to develop the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA. Study of planned/unplanned transients on nuclear thermal rockets is important due to the need for long-term missions. In this work, a system model based on RELAP5 is developed to simulate loss-of-flow accidents on the Pewee I test reactor. This paper investigates the radiation heat transfer between the fuel elements and the structures around it. In addition, the impact on the core fuel element temperature and average core pressure was also investigated. The following expected results were achieved: (i greater than normal fuel element temperatures, (ii fuel element temperatures exceeding the uranium carbide melting point, and (iii average core pressure less than normal. Results show that the radiation heat transfer rate between fuel elements and cold surfaces increases with decreasing flow rate through the reactor system. However, radiation heat transfer decreases when there is a complete LOFA. When there is a complete LOFA, the peripheral coolant channels of the fuel elements handle most of the radiation heat transfer. A safety system needs to be designed to counteract the decay heat resulting from a post-LOFA reactor scram.

  3. Assessment of radiation doses due to normal operation, incidents and accidents of the final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.; Ilvonen, M.

    1999-03-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the encapsulation and disposal facility and for inhabitants in the environment caused by the facility during its operation were considered. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Occupational radiation doses inside the plant during normal operation are based on the design basis, assuming that highest permitted dose levels are prevailing in control rooms during fuel transfer and encapsulation processes. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical incident and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling chamber and to some degree through the ventilation stack into atmosphere. The weather data measured at the Olkiluoto meteorological mast was employed for calculating of offsite doses. Therefore doses could be calculated in a large amount of different dispersion conditions, the statistical frequencies of which have, been measured. Finally doses were combined into cumulative distributions, from which a dose value representing the 99.5 % confidence level, is presented. The dose values represent the exposure of a critical group, which is assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. Exposure pathways considered were: cloudsnine, inhalation, groundshine and nutrition (milk of cow, meat of cow, green vegetables, grain and root vegetables). Nordic seasonal variation is included in ingestion dose models. The results obtained indicate that offsite doses

  4. Medical management of irradiated patients in a radiation accident in Jining, Shandong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Huisheng; Yu Changlin; Qiao Jianhui; Zhang Shi; Guo Mei; Zhang Xignag; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Niu Wenkai; Li Guang; Yao Bo; Zhou Zhenshan; Luo Weidong; Liu Sugang; He Yaozhong; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Hu Kaixun; Chen Ying; Wu Ke; Yang Guoshan; Liu Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the experience of diagnosis and treatment from the extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness and intestinal form of acute radiation sickness. Methods: A nuclear accident occurred in China on October 21st, 2004. Two individuals were accidentally irradiated by a 60 Co source. The two patients were estimated at more than 20-25 Gy and 9-15 Gy of γ-rays exposures, respectively, and were diagnosed as the intestinal form of acute radiation sickness (patient A) and the extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (patient B), respectively. After urgent preparative regimen based on low- dose fludarabine, antilymphocyte globulin and cyclophosphamide, the two patients received HLA-haploidentical (patient A) or HLA-identical (patient B) peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), respectively. Cyclosporin A combined mycophenolate mofetil regimen was used for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from donor were injected to bone marrow of patient A additionally. Results: Both peripheral blood and bone marrow examinations showed hemopoietic recovery after PBSCT. Neither of the two patients showed obvious clinical signs specific to GVHD. Patient A died of septicemia and multi-organ failure on the 33rd day after exposure, while patient B died of multi-organ failure with predominant heart failure on the 75th day after exposure. Conclusions: Chromosome analysis of bone marrow and peripheral blood, and electron spin resonance measurement of tooth enamel play a very important role in diagnosis of the very high dose radiation disease. It is possible and feasible to treat acute radiation sickness using HLA-haploidentical or HLA-identical PBSCT. The death of patients is mainly due to infection and multi-organ failure. (authors)

  5. THE ROLE OF RADIATION ACCIDENTS AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIZING RADIATION SOURCES IN THE PROBLEM OF RADIATION DAMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Кіхтенко, Ігор Миколайович

    2016-01-01

    Subject of research – the relevance of radiation damage at modern development of industry and medicine. In the world of radiation sources used in different fields of practice and their application in the future will increase, which greatly increases the likelihood of injury in a significant contingent of people.Research topic – the definition of the role of nuclear energy and the industrial use of ionizing radiation sources in the problem of radiation damage. The purpose of research – identif...

  6. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management 'sharing practices and experiences'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the Workshop on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management was to share practices and experiences in approaches to severe accident management. The workshop: provided an international forum for information and experience exchange amongst nuclear electricity utilities and national regulatory authorities on approaches to, and issues in severe accident management, including national and international implications. Focus was placed on sharing practices and experiences in many countries on approaches to severe accident management; identified best occupational radiation protection approaches in strategies, practices, as well as limitations for developing effective management. This included experiences in various countries; identified national experiences to be incorporated into the final version of ISOE EG-SAM report. The workshop included a series of plenary presentations that provided participants with an overview of practices and experiences in severe accident management from various countries. Furthermore, by taking into account the structure of the interim report, common themes and issues were discussed in follow-up breakout sessions. Sessions included invited speakers, moderated by designated experts, allowing participants to discuss their national experiences and possible inputs into the report. The outcomes of the breakout sessions were presented in plenary by the respective moderators followed by an open discussion, with a view towards elaborating ways forward to achieve more effective severe accident management. This document brings together the abstracts and the slides of the available presentations

  7. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  8. The radioecological consequences of the Kyshtym and Chernobyl radiation accidents for forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Urals and Chernobyl accidents 60 to 90% of the radioactive fallout was retained by the above-ground part of forest stands. In the Urals the period for semi-removal of contamination from crowns ranged from 6 to 8 months, compared to around one month in the Chernobyl region - due to different seasonal conditions during the fallout period. The bulk of the dose burden in woody plants' critical organs built up over one to six months. The minimum lethal dose for pine tree needles in the Urals was around 50 Gy, and 25 Gy for the apical meristem; the corresponding figures for Chernobyl were 100 Gy and 25-30 Gy. At lower doses we observed morphological disturbances, reduced growth and suppressed reproductive capability in pines. The resistance to radioactive contamination of deciduous forest was 10-20 times greater than that of conifers. We studied the irradiation doses of the different groups of organisms living in the various forest storeys, and the effects of irradiation (changes in species composition, prevalence and productivity) in communities of herbaceous plants and soil invertebrates. Specific examples are given to highlight the secondary changes in these communities stemming from radiation damage in species sensitive to radioactive contamination. We studied the dynamics of dispersion and migration of the long-lived radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the various components of the biogeocenoses and in the network of geochemically interconnected forest landscapes, and their content in forestry produce. Some six to ten years after the deposition of radioactive fallout in forest ecosystems the radionuclides were more or less evenly spread throughout the soil-woody plant system. Thus, overall 90 Sr content in the arboreal storey amounts to 1-2% in coniferous forests, and 5-10% in deciduous forests (Urals accident), while the corresponding figures for 137 Cs (Chernobyl accident) are 2 to 3 times higher. (author)

  9. Regulatory requirements on accident management and emergency preparedness - concept of nuclear and radiation safety during beyond-design-basis accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanke, R.

    2002-01-01

    Actual practice the and proposals for further activities in the field of Accident Management (AM) in the member countries of the Co-operation Forum of WWER regulators and in Western countries have been assessed. Further the results of the last working group on AM , the overview of interactions of severe accident research and the regulatory positions in various countries, IAEA reports, practice in Switzerland and Finland, were taken into consideration. From this information, the working group derived recommendations on Accident Management. The general proposals correspond to the present state of the art on AM. They do not describe the whole spectra of recommendations on AM for NPPs with WWER reactors. A basis for the implementation of an AM program is given, which could be extended in a follow-up working group. The developments and research concerning AM have to be continued. The positions of various countries with regard to the 'Interactions of severe accident research and the regulatory positions' are given. On the basis of the working group proposals, the WWER regulators could set regulatory requirements and support further developments of AM strategies, making use of the benefits of common features of NPPs with WWER reactors. Concerted actions in the field of AM between the WWER regulators would bundle the development of a unified concept of recommendations and speed up the implementation of AM measures in order to minimise the risks involved in nuclear power generation

  10. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation) and International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Sanzharova, N.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spirin, Ye.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spiridonov, S.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Gontarenko, I.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10{sup 5}) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well.

  11. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Spirin, Ye.V.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Gontarenko, I.A.; Strand, P.

    2005-01-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10 5 ) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well

  12. A major sporting event does not necessarily mean an increased workload for accident and emergency departments. Euro96 Group of Accident and Emergency Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, M. W.; Allan, T. F.; Wilson, S.

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether there were any changes in attendance at accident and emergency departments that could be related to international football matches (Euro96 tournament). METHOD: Fourteen accident and emergency departments (seven adjacent to and seven distant from a Euro96 venue) provided their daily attendance figures for a nine week period: three weeks before, during, and after the tournament. The relation between daily attendance rates and Euro96 football matches was assessed ...

  13. An unshielded whole body radioactivity counter for monitoring persons after a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoch, D.S.; Somasundaram, S.

    1979-01-01

    An unshielded chair in which the subject sits, holding a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI (Tl) detector in his lap, was evaluated for monitoring of persons suspected of internal radioactive contamination following a radiation accident. The reduction in different energy bands of the background gamma-ray spectrum due to self-shielding of the subject was studied for two postures, designated ''upright'' and ''folding'' and the data were analysed in a CDC 3600 computer to obtain the best-fit regression equation relating the reduction factor with body weight and height. The response of the counter was evaluated using an in vitro method and the ranges of under/over-estimation of body burden resulting from assumption of partial/uniform distribution of activity were determined. Counting sensitivities were derived for 13 radioisotopes having gamma-ray energies in the range 145 keV-1.46 MeV. The results are presented and discussed. The study shows that this simple system may be used not only in radiation emergencies but also for operational monitoring of radiation workers for a number of radioisotopes of low and medium radiotoxicity. (auth.)

  14. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, A.Y.; Zamostian, V.P.; Riasenko, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

  15. Risk Communication Strategies: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters with a Focus on the Fukushima Radiation Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Tondel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    It has been difficult to both mitigate the health consequences and effectively provide health risk information to the public affected by the Fukushima radiological disaster. Often, there are contrasting public health ethics within these activities which complicate risk communication. Although no risk communication strategy is perfect in such disasters, the ethical principles of risk communication provide good practical guidance. These discussions will be made in the context of similar lessons learned after radiation exposures in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987; the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, Ukraine, in 1986; and the attack at the World Trade Center, New York, USA, in 2001. Neither of the two strategies is perfect nor fatally flawed. Yet, this discussion and lessons from prior events should assist decision makers with navigating difficult risk communication strategies in similar environmental health disasters.

  16. Radiation dose evaluation for hypothetical accident with transport package containing Iridium-192 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Bace, M.; Pevec, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate dose rates for a hypothetical accident with transport package containing Iridium-192 source and to design additional shielding necessary for the safe unloading of the container, assuming that during the unloading process the whole contents of a radioactive source is unshielded and that the operation is going to take place at the site where a working area exists in the vicinity of the unloading location. Based on the calculated radiation dose rates, a single arrangement of the additional concrete shields necessary for reduction of the gamma dose rates to the permitted level is proposed. The proposed solution is optimal considering safety on one hand and costs on the other.(author)

  17. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1997-09-01

    The level of 137 CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T ef at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK

  18. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  19. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENE, G.A.; GUPPY, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ''Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant

  20. Accidents in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry perspective and the public perspective on big nuclear accidents and leukaemia near nuclear sites are discussed. The industry perspective is that big accidents are so unlikely as to be virtually impossible and that leukaemia is not specifically associated with nuclear installations. Clusters of cancer with statistical significance occur in major cities. The public perspective is coloured by a prejudice and myth: the fear of radiation. The big nuclear accident is seen therefore as much more unacceptable than any other big accident. Risks associated with Sizewell-B nuclear station and the liquid gas depot at Canvey Island are discussed. The facts and figures are presented as tables and graphs. Given conflicting interpretations of the leukaemia problem the public inclines towards the more pessimistic view. (author)

  1. Decontamination reduces radiation anxiety and improves subjective well-being after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Michio; Harada, Shigeki; Oki, Taikan

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2011 Fukushima accident, rebuilding society to protect against anxiety and improve feelings of well-being has grown in importance. A questionnaire was carried out among residents of Marumori Town, Igu County, Miyagi Prefecture, to evaluate the effects of radiation-related countermeasures implemented by the town to reduce residents' anxiety and improve their subjective well-being (response rate: 31%; valid responses: n = 174). Further, to propose effective countermeasures regarding town planning for the improvement in subjective well-being, we analyzed associations between residents' sense of attachment to the town and subjective well-being, and then identified primary factors behind their sense of attachment. Marumori Town, located about 50 km to the northwest of the Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, is a good site for evaluating the effects of countermeasures taken by the town itself to fight anxiety, because there have been limited surveys and professional medical support, and mitigation efforts were primarily initiated by the town. The results suggested that decontamination evaluations were associated with a reduction in anxiety after the accident, which contributed to an increase in residents' subjective well-being. On the other hand, the evaluation of items related to human interactions in the community and the natural environment was found as a primary factor of sense of attachment toward the town, which contributed to an increase of residents' subjective well-being. This is the first study to quantitatively measure the effects of radiation-related countermeasures on reducing anxiety and to propose an effective policy approach for improving subjective well-being. (author)

  2. Effect of enhanced ionizing radiation on the cloud electricity after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Takeda, Masahiko; Nagamachi, Shingo

    2018-03-01

    The vertical downward component of the DC atmospheric electric field, or potential gradient (PG), at Kakioka 150 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) was analyzed before and after the FNPP1 accident to examine possible influence of floating radioactive particles on the PG under the highly electrified clouds. Using 1-min PG data from March 13 to April 30 (late April 2011 corresponding to the time when floating radioactive materials decreased significantly) from 2006 to 2015, time profiles to/from the PG peaks (+ 100 V/m) for 2011 are compared with other years. The PG developed toward and decays from its negative peaks faster in the first 50 days after the FNPP1 accident than for the same period in other years, making the 10-min averaged PG values for the same negative PG peak higher (smaller in terms of absolute value) during the first 50 days after the FNPP1 accident than those in other years in the study period, while the distribution of peak PG values is similar between 2011 and the other years. The observed shortening of the timescale is symmetric between the rise and decay and is the most clear when the negative PG peak is about - 200 to - 400 V/m. For positive peaks, the change of the baseline resulting from the radioactive contamination on the ground in 2011 caused superficial difference on such time profiles. Otherwise, there are no significant difference between 2011 and the other years. Possible explanations based on increased ionizing radiation from floating radioactive particles, which are found to be concentrated at low altitudes (< 500 m according to radiosonde in-situ observations of gamma rays) where negative cloud charges normally exceed positive charges, are discussed. The scenarios discussed include enhanced electrostatic shielding and electric conductivity-led decay rate of cloud charges. The result opens up a new possibility of using PG as an independent monitor of radioactivity at some altitudes in case of nuclear

  3. Assessment of radiation doses in normal operation, upset accident conditions at the Olkiluoto nuclear waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.

    2009-09-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the facility, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facility to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that on average one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The critical group is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the critical group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The results obtained indicate that during normal operation the doses to workers remain small and the dose to the member of the critical group is less than 0,001 mSv per year. In the case of hypothetical fault and accident releases the offsite doses do not exceed either the limit values set by the safety authority. The highest dose rates to the reference organisms of the terrestrial ecosystem with conservative assumptions from the largest release were estimated to be of the order of 100 μ Gy/h at the distance of 200 m. As a chronic exposure this dose rate is expected to bring up detrimental

  4. Elimination of the consequences of radiation accidents at the Mayak production association in the 1950s and 1960s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhko, E.G.; Romanov, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the consequences of radiation accidents happened at Mayak production association located in Chelyabinsk region, Urals, Russia, and countermeasures applied for reduction of radiation exposure of local population. The assessment of the efficiency of countermeasures based on the averted dose criterion is presented. It is stated that the most efficient measures on prevention of the population exposure were relocation of the population and construction of the Techa Reservoir Cascade. (author)

  5. Decision diagram for neutron and photon dose estimation and for classification of persons involved in radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The relation is described between monitoring and health care measures taken during a radiation accident. The decision-making chart for the assessment of exposure and the classification of people involved are presented, the risks of the respective decision-making are discussed and the flow charts and explanations for the diagrams are given. (H.S.)

  6. The emergency medical programs of japan and foreign countries for radiation accidents in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yoshiro

    1994-01-01

    In our country, the medical emergency programs for the people living near nuclear power stations are well organized, however, preparation of medical staffs who are well trained is considered to be not sufficient. In the USA, on call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided and funded by Department of Energy(DOE) or electric companies. Especially, REAC/TS is a part of DOE response network, in which there are provided well-trained physicians, nurses, health physicists, coordinators and support personnels. In United Kingdom, National Radiological Protection Board(NRPB) is responsible to a radiological emergency program. Each nuclear power station has its own emergency program consisting of a team of physicians, nurses and health physicists. In France, French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is a responsible agency for a radiological emergency program. On call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided in Fontenay-aux Roses Institute and Curie Institute. Curie Institute also responds to radiological emergencies in other countries at the request of WHO. In Germany(West Germany), compulsory assurance system covers a radiological emergency program and a radiological protection. There are seven centers in West Germany, in which well-trained medical staffs are provided against radiological injuries. In this report, I tried to propose a new concept about emergency medical programs for nuclear power station accidents in Japan. I think it is a very urgent theme to provide on call 24 hours radiological emergency program, in which patients suffered from acute radiation sickness with internal contamination or contaminated radiation burns will be treated without any trouble. We have to make our best efforts to complete basic or clinical research about radiation injuries including bone marrow transplantation, radioprotectors, chelating agents and radiation burns etc. (J.P.N.)

  7. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume II. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. Table 6-Summary of Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) sampling and analytical procedures; Table 7-Computer printout of environmental data collected by HEW; Table 8-Summary of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sampling and analytical procedures

  8. Developing GIS based decision-support tools for agricultural counter-measurements after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Pavel; Prochazka, Jan; Brom, Jakub; Pecharova, Emilie

    2009-01-01

    There is a whole variety of possibilities proposed by EURANOS data sheets for agriculture, for mid-term and long-term counter-measures after contamination of crops by radiation. We have developed a set of supportive tools for decision-makers within the project 'Methods of evaluation of contaminated territory after radiation accident - the importance of structure and functioning of a land cover'. Our TM tools are based on ArcGIS platform and Python programming language. We have developed a simple model for estimating the current biomass of the polluted crops. Inputs for this model are: a shape file of land cover data, database table with customisable plant growth characteristics and shape file of polluted areas. The model provides a shape file data set of estimated amounts of biomass of selected crops per hectare for a given day. The results are helpful for better performing of the countermeasure 'Early removal of crops'. The total amount of polluted waste, logistic costs (transport of people and material; required time; other costs) could be estimated only with basic GIS tools. The number of days expected for the harvest can be also calculated and compared with the dose and half-lives of the contaminating radionuclides. This analysis could also lead to a 'Do nothing' decision, especially in case of radionuclides with short times of half-life. (author)

  9. Estimation of radiation exposed area by the nuclear accident occurred at Tokai village using ESR measurements of household sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzuya, Masayuki; Kondo, Shinichi; Ito, Kousuke; Sawa, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The area of radiation exposure by the nuclear accident occurred at Tokai village in 1999 was estimated by the ESR measurement of 95 household sugar samples collected from the accident area. These samples were roughly classified into three types of sugar, fine white sugar, fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar. The control fine white sugar showed no radical in the ESR spectrum, while those of fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar showed the presence of a small amount of radicals. It was also shown that, among these three kinds of sugar, the radical concentration of fine white sugar sampled from wooden houses at the area similar to each other did not vary much with the samples, while those of fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar varied to a considerable extent. Thus, the fine white sugar is considered to be more suitable for the estimation of the level of radiation exposure. The radical concentration of each fine white sugar sample was plotted against the distance from the site of the nuclear accident with a correction of the difference in the shielding effect between concrete houses and wooden houses. The samples obtained at more than 2 km north of the site of nuclear accident showed no ESR spectral signal to a detectable extent. On the other hand, the ESR spectra were observed from the samples obtained within 10 km south and 4 km west of the accident site. These results suggest that the radiation exposure by the contaminant blown by the northeast wind blowing on the day of the accident may occur at the south and west areas. (author)

  10. Risk Perception and Anxiety Regarding Radiation after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Systematic Qualitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyamzina, Yuliya; Suzuki, Yuriko; Murakami, Michio

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the publications of the risk perceptions or anxiety regarding radiation among people living in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Two database (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and hand-searched the references in identified publications were searched. For each identified publication, the measurements and time related-change of risk perception and anxiety regarding radiation were summarized. Twenty-four publications were identified. Quantitative measures of risk perception or anxiety were roughly divided into two types: single-item Likert scales that measure anxiety about radiation; and theoretical, or model-based measures. Rates of Fukushima residents with radiation-related anxiety decreased from 2012 to 2015. Factors governing risk perception or radiation-related anxiety were summarized by demographics, disaster-related stressors, trusted information, and radiation-related variables. The effects of risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation were summarized as severe distress, intention to leave employment or not to return home, or other dimensions. This review provides summary of current findings on risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation in Japan after the accident. Further researches are needed about detailed statistical analysis for time-related change and causality among variables. PMID:29077045

  11. Genetic effects in children exposed in prenatal period to ionizing radiation after the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Ye I; Vdovenko, V Yu; Misharina, Zh A; Kolos, V I; Mischenko, L P

    2016-12-01

    To study the genetic effects in children exposed to radiation in utero as a result of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident accounting the total radiation doses and equivalent radiation doses to the red bone marrow. Incidence of minor developmental anomalies was studied in children exposed to radiation in utero (study group) and in the control group (1144 subjects surveyed in total). Cytogenetic tests using the method of differential G-banding of chromosomes were conducted in 60 children of both study and control groups (10-12-year-olds) and repeatedly in 39 adolescents (15-17-year-olds). A direct correlation was found between the number of minor developmental anomalies and fetal dose of radiation, and a reverse one with fetal gestational age at the time of radiation exposure. Incidence of chromosomal damage in somatic cells of 10-12-year-old children exposed prenatally was associated with radiation dose to the red bone marrow. The repeated testing has revealed that an increased level of chromosomal aberrations was preserved in a third of adolescents. The persons exposed to ionizing radiation at prenatal period should be attributed to the group of carcinogenic risk due to persisting increased levels of chromosome damage. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  12. Risk Perception and Anxiety Regarding Radiation after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Systematic Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitake Takebayashi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the publications of the risk perceptions or anxiety regarding radiation among people living in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Two database (MEDLINE and PsycINFO and hand-searched the references in identified publications were searched. For each identified publication, the measurements and time related-change of risk perception and anxiety regarding radiation were summarized. Twenty-four publications were identified. Quantitative measures of risk perception or anxiety were roughly divided into two types: single-item Likert scales that measure anxiety about radiation; and theoretical, or model-based measures. Rates of Fukushima residents with radiation-related anxiety decreased from 2012 to 2015. Factors governing risk perception or radiation-related anxiety were summarized by demographics, disaster-related stressors, trusted information, and radiation-related variables. The effects of risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation were summarized as severe distress, intention to leave employment or not to return home, or other dimensions. This review provides summary of current findings on risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation in Japan after the accident. Further researches are needed about detailed statistical analysis for time-related change and causality among variables.

  13. Risk Perception and Anxiety Regarding Radiation after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Lyamzina, Yuliya; Suzuki, Yuriko; Murakami, Michio

    2017-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the publications of the risk perceptions or anxiety regarding radiation among people living in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Two database (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and hand-searched the references in identified publications were searched. For each identified publication, the measurements and time related-change of risk perception and anxiety regarding radiation were summarized. Twenty-four publications were identified. Quantitative measures of risk perception or anxiety were roughly divided into two types: single-item Likert scales that measure anxiety about radiation; and theoretical, or model-based measures. Rates of Fukushima residents with radiation-related anxiety decreased from 2012 to 2015. Factors governing risk perception or radiation-related anxiety were summarized by demographics, disaster-related stressors, trusted information, and radiation-related variables. The effects of risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation were summarized as severe distress, intention to leave employment or not to return home, or other dimensions. This review provides summary of current findings on risk perception or anxiety regarding radiation in Japan after the accident. Further researches are needed about detailed statistical analysis for time-related change and causality among variables.

  14. Database of meteorological and radiation measurements made in Belarus during the first three months following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-01-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. - Highlights: ► Meteorological and radiation measurements done after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus were collected. ► Data were verified and incorporated into a single database. ► Results of this study is being used to improve the thyroid dose estimates after the Chernobyl accident.

  15. The efficiency of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, Yi.V.; Fedorenko, V.G.; Shlyakhtichenko, T.Yu.; And Others

    2014-01-01

    Additional chromosomal abnormalities as well as special pattern of BCR/ABL transcripts were not revealed in CML patients exposed to ionizing radiation. Complete cytogenetic response (CCR) was shown in 50 and 48.5 % of patients from study and comparison group, respectively. Major molecular response (MMR) was achieved in 20 % of patients with radiation exposure in anamnesis and in 27.6 % of patients from comparison group. The vast majority of CCR and MMR was reached in patients with the pretreatment term up to 6 months, when imatinib was used as a first line therapy. There were less cases of primary imatinib resistance in the same group of patients. In CML patients who had a history of radiation exposure, secondary resistance developed more frequently than in the comparison group and was 25 %. Laboratory monitoring based on the registration of CCR and MMR demonstrated high efficiency of TKI in the CML treatment of patients, exposed due to Chornobyl accident. Extension of pretreatment term leads to the loss of TKI therapy efficiency and increases the likelihood of primary resistance. CML patients exposed to ionizing radiation develop secondary resistance more often than CML patients without radiation exposure in anamnesis

  16. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.; Ryabukhin, V.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development [ru

  17. Monetary evaluation of radiation detriment cost in cost/benefit analysis of protective actions after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, J.; Xue, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the monetary evaluation of radiation detriment cost in the cost/benefit analyses of countermeasures after nuclear accidents. The methods used to determine the so-called α factor in cost/benefit analysis are presented. It is pointed out that the approaches found in current literature to the consideration of individual dose in cost-benefit analyses have some limitations. To overcome those deficiencies, we introduced the concept of individual dose evaluation function in this paper. In addition, we developed a modified approach to cost-benefit analyses of protective actions after nuclear accidents. (author)

  18. Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

  19. Radiation doses estimation for hypothetical NPP Krsko accidents without and with PCFV using RASCAL software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, Josip; Konjarek, Damir; Grgic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Calculation is done using Source Term to Dose module of RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System Consequence Analysis) software to estimate projected radiation doses from a radioactive plume to the environment. Utilizing this module, it is possible to do preliminary assessment of consequences to the environment in case of adverse reactor conditions or releases from other objects containing radioactive materials before the emergency situation has happened or in the early phase. RASCAL is simple, easy to use, fast-running tool able to provide initial estimate of radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. Upon entering rather limited amount of input parameters for the Krsko NPP, mostly key plant parameters, time dependent source term calculation is executed to determine radioactive inventory release rates for different plant conditions, release paths and availability of protective measures. These rates given for each radionuclide as a function of time are used as an input to atmospheric dispersion and transport model. Together with release rates, meteorological conditions dataset serve as input to determine the behavior of the radioactive releases that is plume in the atmosphere. So as an output, RASCAL produces a 'dispersion envelope' of radionuclide concentrations in the atmosphere. These concentrations of radionuclides in the atmosphere are further used for estimating the doses to the environment and the public downwind the release point. Throughout this paper, dose assessment is performed for two distances, close-in distance and distance out to 40 km from the source, for hypothetical NPP Krsko accidents without and with Passive Containment Filtered Vent (PCFV) system used. Obvious difference is related to released radioactivity of Iodine isotopes. Results of radioactive effluents deposition in the environment are displayed via various doze parameters, radionuclide concentrations and materials exposure rates in this particular case. (authors)

  20. Follow-up of victim exposed in uterus 16 years after Xinzhou radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Li; Zhang Shulan; Jia Tingzhen; Liu Qingjie; Ma Liwen; Su Xu; Zhang Zhaohui; Qin Bin; Chen Sen; Wang Wenxue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe and study the late effects of intrauterine exposure to irradiation. Methods: A 16-year-old girl, borne by a woman exposed to 60 Co irradiation during the Xinzhou radiation accident 16 years ago underwent inquiry, general medical examination. Conventional chromosome aberration analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to examine non-stability and stability shromosome aberrations, and China revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C W ISC) was used to detect IQ level. Results: Inquiry revealed no history of carcinoma and no family history of hereditary diseases. The girl often caught cold when she was a child, but she hadn't any other diseases. Menarche occurred when she was 12 years old, and she had not suffered from dysmenorrhea. Her development of body frame constitution was normal. She could not carry out addition and subtraction, but she could make simple verbal communication, writing and even reciting text. The results of the routine lab examination were within the normal range. Unstable chromosome aberrations were not shown, and the chromosome translocation rate was 2.3%. The dose that induced the chromosome injury was deduced as 0.81 Gy. The biological dose of the radiation that she was exposed to was inferred to be 1.85 Gy when she was in her mother's uterus. Ultrasonic sound showed nodular goiter and no malignant change. China's revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C W ISC) test results showed that speech, operation and full-scale IQ was 51, 50, and 46 respectively. The total intelligence was better than 0.01%, and worse than 99.90% of the population. Conclusions: Exposure in utero does not affect the body frame constitution development after birth of the fetus, but mental retardation is clear. No evidence of any tumor can be found for the children exposed to radiation before their birth. (authors)

  1. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume I. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. Volume 1 consists of the following 5 tables: Table 1-Measurements made by principal participants; Table 2-Cross-check program instituted by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for iodine-131 in milk. Table 3-Comparison of EPA and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) air data collected at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Observation Center; Table 4-Summary of EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) and EPA Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility-Montgomery (EERF-Montgomery) sampling and analytical procedures; Table 5-Computer printout of environmental data collected by EPA

  2. γ radiation level simulation and analysis with MCNP in EPR containment during severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jun; Liu Shuhuan; Wang Yang; Zhai Liang

    2013-01-01

    The γ dosimetry model based on the EPR core structure, material composition and the designed shielding system was established. The γ-ray dose rate distributions in EPR containment under different conditions including normal operation state, loss-of-coolant accident and core melt severe accident were simulated with MCNP5, and the calculation results under normal operation state and severe accident were compared and analyzed respectively with that of the designed limit. The study results may provide some relative data reference for EPR core accident prediction and reactor accident emergency decision making. (authors)

  3. Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2006-04-01

    In order to manage various nuclear or radiological emergencies the authorities must have pre-prepared plans. The purpose of the NKS project EMARAD (Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents) was to produce and gather various data and information that could be useful in drawing up emergency plans and radiation monitoring strategies. One of the specific objectives of the project was to establish a www site that would contain various radiation-threat and radiation-monitoring related data and documents and that could be accessed by all Nordic countries. Other important objectives were discussing various factors affecting measurements in an emergency, efficient use of communication technology and disseminating relevant information on such topics as urban dispersion and illicit use of radiation. The web server is hosted by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) of Finland. The data stored include pre-calculated consequence data for nuclear power plant accidents as well as documents and presentations describing e.g. general features of monitoring strategies, the testing of the British urban dispersion model UDM and the scenarios and aspects related to malicious use of radiation sources and radioactive material. As regards the last item mentioned, a special workshop dealing with the subject was arranged in Sweden in 2005 within the framework of the project. (au)

  4. Emergency Management and Radiation Moni-toring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    In order to manage various nuclear or radiological emergencies the authorities must have pre-prepared plans. The purpose of the NKS project EMARAD (Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents) was to produce and gather various data and information that could be useful in drawing up emergency plans and radiation monitoring strategies. One of the specific objectives of the project was to establish a www site that would contain various radiation-threat and radiation-monitoring related data and documents and that could be accessed by all Nordic countries. Other important objectives were discussing various factors affecting measurements in an emergency, efficient use of communication technology and disseminating relevant information on such topics as urban dispersion and illicit use of radiation. The web server is hosted by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) of Finland. The data stored include pre-calculated consequence data for nuclear power plant accidents as well as documents and presentations describing e.g. general features of monitoring strategies, the testing of the British urban dispersion model UDM and the scenarios and aspects related to malicious use of radiation sources and radioactive material. As regards the last item mentioned, a special workshop dealing with the subject was arranged in Sweden in 2005 within the framework of the project. (au)

  5. Satellite Infrared Radiation Measurements Prior to the Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulintes, S.; Bryant, N.; Taylor, Patrick; Freund, F.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes our search for a relationship between tectonic stresses and increases in mid-infrared (IR) flux as part of a possible ensemble of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that may be related to earthquake activity. We present and &scuss observed variations in thermal transients and radiation fields prior to the earthquakes of Jan 22, 2003 Colima (M6.7) Mexico, Sept. 28 .2004 near Parkfield (M6.0) in California and Northern Sumatra (M8.5) Dec. 26,2004. Previous analysis of earthquake events has indicated the presence of an IR anomaly, where temperatures increased or did not return to its usual nighttime value. Our procedures analyze nighttime satellite data that records the general condtion of the ground after sunset. We have found from the MODIS instrument data that five days before the Colima earthquake the IR land surface nighttime temperature rose up to +4 degrees C in a 100 km radius around the epicenter. The IR transient field recorded by MODIS in the vicinity of Parkfield, also with a cloud free environment, was around +1 degree C and is significantly smaller than the IR anomaly around the Colima epicenter. Ground surface temperatures near the Parkfield epicenter four days prior to the earthquake show steady increase. However, on the night preceding the quake, a significant drop in relative humidity was indicated, process similar to those register prior to the Colima event. Recent analyses of continuous ongoing long- wavelength Earth radiation (OLR) indicate significant and anomalous variability prior to some earthquakes. The cause of these anomalies is not well understood but could be the result of a triggering by an interaction between the lithosphere-hydrosphere and atmospheric related to changes in the near surface electrical field and/or gas composition prior to the earthquake. The OLR anomaly usually covers large areas surrounding the main epicenter. We have found strong anomalies signal (two sigma) along the epicentral area signals on Dec 21

  6. The biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation: Chernobyl nuclear accident and spreading of hemoblastoses in Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulbuc, G.; Corcimaru, I.; Bahnarel, I; Buzdugan, A.; Holban, V.; Bragoi, O.; Garaev, S.

    1997-01-01

    The study of morbidity by hematologic neoplasms before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident in regions of Moldova differently affected by radiation and some immuno- metabolic disturbances in people from these regions was the object of the present work. An increase of standardized (world) incidence of hemoblastoses during the 10 years after the Accident, especially in children under 10 years old and in persons over 60 years old, was registered. A decrease of immunologic indices and the alterations of the amino acids content in blood serum and erythrocytes of healthy persons from the regions with higher radioactive impact after the Accident were established as well. A possible correlation between mentioned modifications are discussed. (author)

  7. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102, 4 years (N = 51, and 20 years (N = 40 after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69% and avoidance (59% being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60% and feelings of guilt (50% were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps p = .003, but not decreased general mental health (p = .14, than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.

  8. Difference in Understanding of the Need for Using Radiation in Various Fields between Students Majoring in Radiation and Non-Radiation Related Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Radiological Tecknology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.

  9. Difference in Understanding of the Need for Using Radiation in Various Fields between Students Majoring in Radiation and Non-Radiation Related Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok

    2011-01-01

    As a way of improving social receptivity of using radiation, this study looked into the difference of understanding the need of using radiation in various fields between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies, who will influence public opinion in the long term. This study also provides data needed for developing efficient strategies for projects promoting the public's awareness of using radiation. Of the students in the 79 schools sampled, 24%(177) were in 4 year colleges and 146 were junior colleges in educational statistics service (http://cesi.kedi.re.kr) In November 2010 1,945 students were selected as a sample, and they were given surveys on the need of using radiation in different fields. As a result, both between students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies showed a high level of understanding the need for radiation in the medical field and showed a low level of understanding of the need for radiation in the agricultural field. In all 6 fields of radiation use, students majoring in radiation related studies showed higher levels of understanding for the need to use radiation than students majoring in radiation and non-radiation related studies. In each field, male students and those who have experience medical radiation and relevant education had higher level of understanding. This shows we need to improve the understanding of the cases of female students and those who have not had experiences with medical radiation and to provide relevant education through various kinds of information. The characteristics of the groups that are shown in the results of this study are considered to be helpful for efficiently for project promoting the public's awareness of using radiation.

  10. Identification and evaluation of competencies of health professionals in the hospital emergency management of the radiation accident victim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary list of ten competency and forty-six sub-competency statements derived from literature and consultation with experts and based on the general areas of clinical performance defined by the National Board of Medical Examiners were the concern of Phase I of this study. Forty-eight experts in nuclear medicine, radiology, radiotherapy, health physics, medical physics, radiation biology, public and occupational health, surgery, and emergency medicine and nursing considered this preliminary list of competencies and sub-competencies to determine which were essential for health professionals who may be caring for radiation accident victims in hospital emergency departments. Eight competencies and thirty-three sub-competencies were rated as Essential competencies. Competencies dealing with establishing priorities in patient care and initiating treatment, assessment, contamination control, and decontamination were highly rated. In the second part of this study, the Essential competencies were utilized in the development of an original evaluation instrument designed to identify deficiencies and continuing education needs during radiation accident drills or exercises. The instrument was designed for use in sixteen possible patient care situations in which the radiation accident victims have varying medical and radiological conditions. Development of the evaluation instrument was described

  11. Highlights from the literature on accident causation and system safety: Review of major ideas, recent contributions, and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, J.H., E-mail: jsaleh@gatech.ed [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Marais, K.B. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University (United States); Bakolas, E.; Cowlagi, R.V. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This work constitutes a short guide to the extensive but fragmented literature on accident causation and system safety. After briefly motivating the interest in accident causation and discussing the notion of a safety value chain, we delve into our multi-disciplinary review with discussions of Man Made Disasters, Normal Accident, and the High Reliability Organizations (HRO) paradigm. The HRO literature intersects an extensive literature on safety culture, a subject we then briefly touch upon. Following this discussion, we note that while these social and organizational contributions have significantly enriched our understanding of accident causation and system safety, they have important deficiencies and are lacking in their understanding of technical and design drivers of system safety and accident causation. These missing ingredients, we argue, were provided in part by the development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The idea of anticipating possible accident scenarios, based on the system design and configuration, as well as its technical and operational characteristics, constitutes an important contribution of PRA, which builds on and extends earlier contributions made by the development of Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis. We follow the discussion of PRA with an exposition of the concept of safety barriers and the principle of defense-in-depth, both of which emphasize the functions and 'safety elements [that should be] deliberately inserted' along potential accident trajectories to prevent, contain, or mitigate accidents. Finally, we discuss two ideas that are emerging as foundational in the literature on system safety and accident causation, namely that system safety is a 'control problem', and that it requires a 'system theoretic' approach to be dealt with. We clarify these characterizations and indicate research opportunities to be pursued along these directions. We conclude this work with two general recommendations

  12. Highlights from the literature on accident causation and system safety: Review of major ideas, recent contributions, and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, J.H.; Marais, K.B.; Bakolas, E.; Cowlagi, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    This work constitutes a short guide to the extensive but fragmented literature on accident causation and system safety. After briefly motivating the interest in accident causation and discussing the notion of a safety value chain, we delve into our multi-disciplinary review with discussions of Man Made Disasters, Normal Accident, and the High Reliability Organizations (HRO) paradigm. The HRO literature intersects an extensive literature on safety culture, a subject we then briefly touch upon. Following this discussion, we note that while these social and organizational contributions have significantly enriched our understanding of accident causation and system safety, they have important deficiencies and are lacking in their understanding of technical and design drivers of system safety and accident causation. These missing ingredients, we argue, were provided in part by the development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The idea of anticipating possible accident scenarios, based on the system design and configuration, as well as its technical and operational characteristics, constitutes an important contribution of PRA, which builds on and extends earlier contributions made by the development of Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis. We follow the discussion of PRA with an exposition of the concept of safety barriers and the principle of defense-in-depth, both of which emphasize the functions and 'safety elements [that should be] deliberately inserted' along potential accident trajectories to prevent, contain, or mitigate accidents. Finally, we discuss two ideas that are emerging as foundational in the literature on system safety and accident causation, namely that system safety is a 'control problem', and that it requires a 'system theoretic' approach to be dealt with. We clarify these characterizations and indicate research opportunities to be pursued along these directions. We conclude this work with two general recommendations: (1) that more fundamental

  13. Assessment of emergency response planning and implementation in the aftermath of major natural disasters and technological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, Patricia A.; Jones, Joseph; Walton, F.; Smith, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Implementation in the Aftermath of Major Natural Disasters and Technological Accidents. (author)

  14. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 1. Radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Information on the contamination levels within the 30 km area and in the adjacent area after the Chernobyl'-4 reactor accident is presented. There are some data on reper isotope ratio which add some knowledge about the processes taking place in the reactor core after the reactor accident. The time-dependent background radiation variations for the first two years after the accident are demonstrated

  15. Development of posture-specific computational phantoms using motion capture technology and application to radiation dose-reconstruction for the 1999 Tokai-Mura nuclear criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Justin A; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2014-01-01

    The majority of existing computational phantoms are designed to represent workers in typical standing anatomical postures with fixed arm and leg positions. However, workers found in accident-related scenarios often assume varied postures. This paper describes the development and application of two phantoms with adjusted postures specified by data acquired from a motion capture system to simulate unique human postures found in a 1999 criticality accident that took place at a JCO facility in Tokai-Mura, Japan. In the course of this accident, two workers were fatally exposed to extremely high levels of radiation. Implementation of the emergent techniques discussed produced more accurate and more detailed dose estimates for the two workers than were reported in previous studies. A total-body dose of 6.43 and 26.38 Gy was estimated for the two workers, who assumed a crouching and a standing posture, respectively. Additionally, organ-specific dose estimates were determined, including a 7.93 Gy dose to the thyroid and 6.11 Gy dose to the stomach for the crouching worker and a 41.71 Gy dose to the liver and a 37.26 Gy dose to the stomach for the standing worker. Implications for the medical prognosis of the workers are discussed, and the results of this study were found to correlate better with the patient outcome than previous estimates, suggesting potential future applications of such methods for improved epidemiological studies involving next-generation computational phantom tools. (paper)

  16. Agricultural aspects of the radiation situation in the areas contaminated by the southern Urals and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    Being different in nature, the accidents in the Southern Urals and at Chernobyl gave rise to radiation situations with own specific features, affecting, in particular, agricultural activities in the contaminated area. The main specific features of the Chernobyl accident were the vast scale of contamination, the large contamination gradients even at considerable distances from the accident site, the heterogeneity of radioactive fallout distribution at micro-level, the inconsistent nature of changes in soil contamination levels, and separation of the radionuclides from the fallout. In spite of the fundamental differences in the chemical character of the types of radioactive fallout, the radionuclides of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were in both cases readily available for assimilation by plant root systems. In both the Southern Urals and the Ukraine the coefficients of radionuclide build-up in soils with identical agrochemical properties fall within the observation accuracy limits. As a result of the Chernobyl accident, light soils of soddy-podzolic composition were subjected to the greatest contamination, their radionuclide build-up coefficients being 8-15 times higher than those of the chernozem soils in the Southern Urals. An abnormally high level of radiocaesium accumulation was observed in meadow grasses, which explains the leading role of milk contamination in the radiation situation on private holdings. (author)

  17. Radiation management at the occurrence of accident and restoration works. Fire and explosion of asphalt solidification processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Jin, K; Namiki, A; Mizutani, K; Horiuchi, N; Saruta, J [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Health and Safety Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ninomiya, Kazushige [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office

    1998-06-01

    Fire and explosion accident in the cell of Asphalt Solidification Processing Facility(ASP) in PNC took placed at March 11 in 1997. Following to the alarm of many radiation monitoring system in the facility, some of workers inhale radioactive materials in their bodies. Indication values of an exhaust monitor installed in the first auxiliary exhaust stack increased suddenly. A large number of windows, doors, and shutters in the facility were raptured by the explosion. A lot of radioactive materials blew up and were released to the outside of the facility. Reinforcement of radiation surveillance function, nose smearing test for the workers and confirmation of contamination situation were implemented on the fire. Investigation of radiation situation, radiation management on the site, exposure management for the workers, surveillance of exhaustion, and restoration works of the damaged radiation management monitoring system were carried out after the explosion. The detailed data of radiation management measures taken during three months after the accident are described in the paper. (M. Suetake)

  18. Quality assurance in military medical research and medical radiation accident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Mark E; Meineke, Viktor

    2012-08-01

    The provision of quality radiation-related medical diagnostic and therapeutic treatments cannot occur without the presence of robust quality assurance and standardization programs. Medical laboratory services are essential in patient treatment and must be able to meet the needs of all patients and the clinical personnel responsible for the medical care of these patients. Clinical personnel involved in patient care must embody the quality assurance process in daily work to ensure program sustainability. In conformance with the German Federal Government's concept for modern departmental research, the international standard ISO 9001, one of the relevant standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), is applied in quality assurance in military medical research. By its holistic approach, this internationally accepted standard provides an excellent basis for establishing a modern quality management system in line with international standards. Furthermore, this standard can serve as a sound basis for the further development of an already established quality management system when additional standards shall apply, as for instance in reference laboratories or medical laboratories. Besides quality assurance, a military medical facility must manage additional risk events in the context of early recognition/detection of health risks of military personnel on deployment in order to be able to take appropriate preventive and protective measures; for instance, with medical radiation accident management. The international standard ISO 31000:2009 can serve as a guideline for establishing risk management. Clear organizational structures and defined work processes are required when individual laboratory units seek accreditation according to specific laboratory standards. Furthermore, international efforts to develop health laboratory standards must be reinforced that support sustainable quality assurance, as in the exchange and comparison of test results within

  19. Biological dosimetry of local radiation accidents of skin: possible cytological and biochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Skin erythema or skin reaction is a highly dose-dependent change in skin appearance. A few gray can usually be detected in humans but higher doses are usually required for experimental rodents. The disadvantages are that the end-point is subjective and the response strongly influenced by numerous physical and biological factors. Changes in the levels of pigmentation can be detected in the epidermis and possibly the hair follicles but generally these only become apparent after chronic exposures. The skin appendages, particularly the hair follicles, could represent sensitive systems for detecting radiation exposures, but the cyclic behaviour of the hair follicles is difficult to control or determine in an accident. Acute cell death can be measured in the follicle germ and changes in the thickness and appearance of the hair are easily detected: in severe cases there is loss of hair (epilation). The number of dead cells per follicle section increased at a rate of 2.9/Gy and doses of about 0.2Gy can be easily detected. The width of the hair is reduced by about 7-8%/Gy and this change, which results in a dysplastic hair is believed to be the consequences of cell death in the follicles. (author)

  20. Immediate Dose Assessment for Radiation Accident in Laboratory Containing Gamma Source and/or Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important safety requirements for any place containing radiation sources is an accurate and fast way to assess the dose rate in both normal and accidental case. In normal case, the source is completely protected inside its surrounded shields in case of non use. In some cases this source may stuck outside its shield. In this case the walls of the place act as a shield. Many studies were carried for obtaining the most appropriate materials that may be used as shielding depending on their efficiency and also their cost. As concrete- with different densities- is the most available constructive material, this study presented a theoretical model using MCNP-4B code, based on Monte Carlo method to estimate the dose rate distribution in a laboratory with concrete walls in case of source stuck accident. The study dealt with Cs-137 as gamma source and Am-Be-241 as neutron source. Two different densities of concrete and also different thicknesses of walls were studied. The used model was verified by comparing the results with a practical study concerning with the effect of adding carbon powder to the concrete. The results showed good agreement

  1. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  2. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ''other.'' The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs

  3. After the nuclear accident - Practical guidebook for an efficient radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, Vladimir; Mouraviova, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The experience learned in 20 years by the independent Belrad institute from the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident is unique. This book spreads this knowledge to the large public and let him discover that living in the contaminated areas is unenviable. Despite the official estimations of few tenth of deaths and few thousands of thyroid cancers, the real number of children in good health and living in the contaminated areas represents only a small minority. The public health situation is slightly better only in places where Belrad has the possibility to intervene to make individual dosimetry measurements, to control food stuff, to supply advice and information, and to distribute an apple pectin-based food complement. Absolute protection is illusory and the pathways for radioactive pollutants between the contaminated environment and the population are numerous. In this book, the author makes the useful radiation protection information available to everyone: parents, teachers, children. This same book has been translated in Japanese as well and is published by Sekai bunka Publishing inc

  4. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA). School of Public Health)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. Organisation in the Harwell Radiochemistry Laboratories for Dealing with Radiation Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudswell, F. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Didcot, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1969-10-15

    The radiochemistry laboratories contain extensive facilities for the handling of large quantities of alpha emitters and beta/gamma active materials. Safety in this area is surveyed by a local safety committee, which has been responsible for the development of both the working rules for the avoidance of radiation accidents and the organisation for dealing with them should they occur. The emergency control organisation within the high activity area is linked with and approved by the site organisation. Local control within the building can be undertaken by any one of a number of senior staff, who is advised by a health physicist, engineer and other scientists, and who delegates executive responsibility for emergency stations to a number of scientific and engineering staff. An incident in the area which affects other areas in the establishment is controlled by the establishment emergency organisation but will also involve the local control post as a source of action and information. Reciprocally, local control may be required to receive evacuees from a remote incident area. Safety manuals and emergency plans are revised periodically. Exercises are mounted several times a year and are followed by discussions of the weaknesses found. Attempts are made to remedy the weaknesses in subsequent exercises. (author)

  6. Human exposure to radiation following the release of radioactivity from a reactor accident: a quantitative assessment of the biological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Stather, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a biological basis upon which to assess the consequences of the exposure of a population to radioactivity released after a reactor accident. Depending upon the radiation dose, both early and late somatic damage could occur in the exposed population and hereditary effects may occur in their descendants. The development of dose-effect relationships has been based upon the limited amount of information available on humans, supplemented by data obtained from experiments on animals. (author)

  7. Radiation doses in accidents at sea-transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstroem, U.; Devell, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the consequences of shipping accidents, a release of activity is assumed. This report presents the calculations of individual and collective doses from the two most severe postulated accidents which are given in a special accident analysis. One of the accidents is a ship collision together with fire on-board, the ship is floating after the collision and a certain quantity volatile fission products gives airborne activity. In the other case, it is a fire on-board, the ship will sink and cause a certain leakage to the sea

  8. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  9. The Fukushima major accident. Seismic, nuclear and medical considerations; L'accident majeur de Fukushima. Considerations sismiques, nucleaires et medicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, Alain; Friedel, Jacques; Brezin, Edouard; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Courtillot, Vincent; Dercourt, Jean; Jaupart, Claude; Le Pichon, Xavier; Poirier, Jean-Paul; Salencon, Jean; Tapponnier, Paul; Dautray, Robert; Taquet, Philippe; Blanchet, Rene; Le Mouel, Jean-Louis; Chapron, Jean-Yves; Fanon, Joelle [Academie des sciences, 23, quai de Conti, 75006 Paris (France); BARD, Pierre-Yves [Observatoire des sciences de l' Univers de l' universite de Grenoble (France); Bernard, Pascal; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Armijo, Rolando; Shapiro, Nikolai; Tait, Steve [Institut de physique du globe de Paris (France); Cara, Michel [ecole et Observatoire des sciences de la Terre de l' universite de Strasbourg (France); Madariaga, Raul [ecole normale superieure, 45, rue d' Ulm / 29, rue d' Ulm, F-75230 Paris cedex 05 (France); Pecker, Alain [Academie des technologies, Grand Palais des Champs Elysees - Porte C - Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt - 75008 Paris (France); Schindele, Francois [CEA-DAM, Arpajon (France); Douglas, John [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin - BP 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this voluminous report addresses mega-earthquakes and mega-tsunamis: scientific data, case of France (West Indies and metropolitan France), and socioeconomic aspects (governance, regulation, para-seismic protection). The second part deals with the nuclear accident at Fukushima: event sequence, situation of the nuclear industry in France after Fukushima, fuel cycle and future opportunities. The third part addresses health and environmental consequences. Each part is completed by a large number of documents in which some specific aspects are more precisely reported, commented and discussed

  10. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P., E-mail: Jacob@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Bogdevitch, I. [Scientific Research State Enterprise ' Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry' , Minsk (Belarus); Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Grebenshikova, N. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Isamov, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lazarev, N. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Panov, A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Zhuchenko, Y. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Zhurba, M. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of

  11. Mental and behavioural disorders in Belarusian persons exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives - Investigation of mental health and psychosocial development of persons from Belarus exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Methods - Ten year follow-up of 245 persons exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and 239 persons of the same age from non- or slightly contaminated regions. Psychiatric and psychosocial assessments were performed at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. Psychiatric diagnosis of the children in both groups was established by means of a semi-structured clinical interview based on the diagnostic criteria of the ICD-10, Chapter V (Mental and behavioural disorders). Results - The persons who were exposed to the influence of radionuclides antenatally showed a relative increase in mental and behavioral disorders compared to the control group. This was mainly due to the increased prevalence of cases of specific developmental disorders of speech and language, specific developmental disorders of motor function, emotional disorders and disorders of social functioning. Phobic anxiety disorders were the most common emotional disorders in both groups (27 cases - 10.8 % in the exposed group vs 17 cases - 6.8 % in the control group. The relative risk of the development of emotional disorders was 2.67 (P<0.001). There was no difference between the cases and control groups in terms of the prevalence of mental retardation, specific learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and other mental and behavioral disorders. At adolescent age there was also no difference in the prevalence of conduct disorders between the cases and the control groups. Conduct disorders were often associated with unfavorable psychological surroundings, including unsatisfactory family relations and learning difficulties at school. Conduct disorders at adolescent age (15-16) were closely correlated with hyperkinetic disorders (r=0.72; P<0.01), disorders of scholastic skills (r=0.72; P<0

  12. Analysis and prognosis of radiation exposure following the accident at the Siberian chemical combine Tomsk-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulovski, S.M.; Shershakov, V.M.; Borodin, R.V.; Vozzhennikov, O.I.; gaziev, Y.I.; Kosykh, V.S.; Makhon'ko, K.P.; Chumichev, V.B.

    1994-10-01

    On the basis of the work (ground investigations and gamma aerial surveys) carried out jointly by the Rosgidromet organizations and Berezovgeologiya, data on the radiation exposure in Russia were obtained shortly after the accident of April 6, 1993 already. These data were transmitted to interested institutions. The measurements performed on April 11 and 12, 1993 indicated that within the isolines of 10 μR/h a contaminated area of up to 25 km in length and up to 6 km in width extended towards the northeastern direction. Thus, the contaminated area outside of the premises of the combine covered about 100 km 2 . The total amount of radioactive substances in this area was 530 - 590 Ci. Isotope composition of the radioactive trace was determined by ruthenium-103 (1%), ruthenium-106 (31%), zirconium-95 (22%), niobium-95 (45%) and plutonium-239 (0.02%). Contamination heterogeneity is caused by the existence of 'hot' particles with an activity of up to 10-11 Ci/particle. In the contaminated area the gamma exposure rate varied between 14 and 42 μR/h at 1 m height, yielding the maximum external radiation dose 100 mrem/year for the population of Georgievka. The Pu-239 inhalation dose of the population of Georgievka when passing the radioactive cloud did not exceed 1.5 mrem. A prognosis was made with regard to water contamination of the rivers Samuska and Tom during the flood in spring. Furthermore, contamination of the air layer adjacent to the ground resulting from the wind transport of radionuclides in the summer months at Georgievka was predicted. The values were far below the limits fixed according to the valid radiation protection regulations. However, that radionuclide concentration of the snow water may exceed the limits specified for drinking water. According to the data measured by the meteorological stations, the radioactive products were not entrained beyond the borders of the country. Source estimation was successfully obtained using RIMPUFF, the Risoe on

  13. Effect of natural β-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Yatziv, S.; Sela, M.; Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, 2 , and >5 Ci/m 2 , respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, α-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture β-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural β-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children's sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or α-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of β-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans β-carotene, α-carotene, but not 9-cis β-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural β-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant

  14. Radiation conditions in the Oryol region territory impacted by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Zakharchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is retrospective analysis of radiation conditions in the Oryol region during 1986- 2015 and assessment of efficacy of the carried out sanitary and preventive activities for population protection against radiation contamination caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident.Article materials were own memoirs of events participants, analysis of federal state statistic surveillance forms 3-DOZ across the Oryol region, f-35 “Data on patients with malignant neoplasms, f-12 “Report on MPI activities”. Risk assessment of oncological diseases occurrence is carried out on the basis of AAED for 1986- 2014 using the method of population exposure risk assessment due to long uniform man-made irradiation in small doses. Results of medical and sociological research of genetic, environmental, professional and lifestyle factors were obtained using the method of cancer patients’ anonymous survey. Data on "risk" factors were obtained from 467 patients hospitalized at the Budgetary Health Care Institution of the Oryol region “Oryol oncology clinic”; a specially developed questionnaire with 60 questions was filled out.The article employs the method of retrospective analysis of laboratory and tool research and calculation of dose loads on the Oryol region population, executed throughout the whole period after the accident.This article provides results of the carried out laboratory research of foodstuff, environment objects describing the radiation conditions in the Oryol region since the first days after the Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986 till 2015.We presented a number of activities aimed at liquidation of man-caused radiation accident consequences which were developed and executed by the experts of the Oryol region sanitary and epidemiology service in 1986-2015. On the basis of the above-stated one may draw the conclusions listed below. Due to interdepartmental interaction and active work of executive authorities in the Oryol region, the

  15. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis XVI: A review of cases investigated, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A.; Prosser, J.S.; Moquet, J.E.; Finnon, P.

    1986-04-01

    During 1985, 28 cases of suspected overexposure to ionising radiation were referred to NRPB for investigation by cytogenetic analysis, and the results are presented in this report. Of the 28 cases, 17 were associated with industrial radiography, 9 from major nuclear organisations and 2 from research, education and health institutions. In 20 cases, no biological indication of overexposure was found. The remaining 8 cases all arose from industrial uses of radiation. The highest overexposure to a sealed source in 1985 ws about 0.4 Gy from an 192 Ir source that became detached from its winding mechanism. Two serious incidents involving unsealed sources are also described; an accidental ingestion of 125 I, for which cytogenetic analysis is of limited relevance, and an inhalation of droplets of tritiated water. The latter also produced a committed dose equivalent of about 0.4 Sv, the estimates from cytogenetic analysis and urine analysis being in good agreement. (author)

  16. A CD-ROM About Radiation Protection Aspects of a Nuclear Accident: Towards more Openness and Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, Andre

    2003-01-01

    Many players are involved in managing a nuclear accident apart from radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. In an emergency response situation, the decision making process involves many non-technical players who nonetheless have a major role to play: in France these may include the 'Prefet', the emergency and civil defence services, the health services, the police, the 'gendarmerie' and local councillors, with advice from the safety and radiological protection authorities and expert evaluation organisations. Within the post-accident response, other players will be involved alongside those already described : professional bodies, particularly farming organisations, residents' associations, those responsible for environmental decontamination, agencies responsible for compensating victims, etc., etc. In both the short and the long-term phases of the crisis management process, it is essential to enable participants who may have very different -backgrounds and professional experience to work together with co-operation and mutual understanding. If non-technical players are to contribute effectively, there needs to be a minimum level of mutual understanding between them and the technical. players on what the nuclear risk really is and what is the rationale of the short and long term counter-measures aimed at protecting the public and restoring the contaminated environment. Local communities also need to share this basic understanding because their cooperation is required in order to implement the countermeasures properly. Conversely, if the experts are to advise the local authorities properly, they need to understand the criteria on which these local authorities and communities base their decisions: what psycho sociological factors apply, what logistical support is needed, what are the concerns of the local communities? The CD-ROM should help in gradually building up a shared interpretation or culture of the nuclear risk. This forum should promote debate that is

  17. Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Svendsen, Erik Robert

    2015-01-01

    Herein we summarize the public health actions taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radiation after the Fukushima accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 in order to record valuable lessons learned for disaster preparedness. Evacuations from the radiation-affected areas and control of the distribution of various food products contributed to the reduction of external and internal radiation exposure resulting from the Fukushima incident. However, risk communication is also an important issue during the emergency response effort and subsequent phases of dealing with a nuclear disaster. To assist with their healing process, sound, reliable scientific information should continue to be disseminated to the radiation-affected communities via two-way communication. We will describe the essential public health actions following a nuclear disaster for the early, intermediate and late phases that will be useful for radiological preparedness planning in response to other nuclear or radiological disasters. (author)

  18. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Update. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. Also included in this update is a listing of whole-body counting data obtained by the NRC to assess the quantity of internally deposited radionuclides in TMI workers and volunteer residents within a three-mile-radius of TMI. No reactor-related radionuclides were identified in any of the whole-body counting data

  19. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume IV. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. This volume consists of the following: Table 10 Summary of US Department of Energy (DOE) sampling and analytical procedures; Table 11 Computer printout of environmental data collected by DOE; Table 12 Summary of Commonwealth of Pennsylvania sampling and analytical procedures; Table 13 Computer printout of environmental data collected by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; Table 14 Summary of State of New Jersey sampling and analytical procedures; Table 15 Computer printout of data collected by the State of New Jersey

  20. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. © The

  1. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, K.; Endo, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable web sites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner

  2. Effect of low dose radiation in lymphocytes from children exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident. Cytogenetic, chromosome painting, GPA and adaptive response studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, L.; Appolloni, M.; Anzidei, P.; Spano, M.; Stronati, L.; Testa, A.; Mauro, F.

    1997-01-01

    The present study concerns the monitoring of some children coming from Byelorussian, Ukrainian and Russian republics, exposed to the fall-out, or to the initial acute dose of radiation with the aim of assessing the effects of ionizing radiation on human health and of verifying the persisting of chromosomal damage several years after the accident. Both structural chromosomes damage (conventional cytogenetic and chromosome painting) and molecular mutation (GPA) have been investigated, moreover the possible induction of an adaptive response has been tested. (author)

  3. Utilisation of a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for equestrian accidents in a regional major trauma network in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl; Crombie, Nick; Cormack, Stef; George, Arun; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-05-01

    The utilisation of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) in response to equestrian accidents has been an integral part of operations for many years throughout the UK. The recent establishment of major trauma networks in the UK has placed great emphasis on the appropriate tasking of HEMS units to cases where added benefit can be provided and the incidence of time critical injury in cases of equestrian accidents has been shown to be low. This study assesses the impact made on the utilisation of the different HEMS resources for cases of equestrian accidents within the West Midlands following the launch of the regional trauma network. We present a retrospective analysis of all equestrian accidents attended by Midlands Air Ambulance (MAA) between 1 April 2012 and 1 April 2013. Data were abstracted from the MAA operational database relating to mission activations/scene attendances; team configuration (physician led and Critical Care Paramedic (CCP) led); on-scene interventions; mission timings and patient conveyance by helicopter. A total of 114 activations involved equestrian accidents (6% of overall workload). The contribution of equestrian accidents to overall workload was similar for physician led and CCP-led (69/1069) platforms (5% vs. 6%, p=0.50). Only three patients (3%) required pre-hospital RSI during the period analysed and there were no recorded cases of ketamine administration for analgesia/conscious sedation. In approximately half of all scene attendances patients did not require any medication to be administered by the HEMS team. The vast majority of incidents occurred in rural locations with over 80% of patients conveyed to hospital by helicopter. The average mission time for scene attendances resulting in conveyance by helicopter was in excess of 90 min on both types of platform. There is a clear requirement for the design and implementation of informed and intelligent tasking models to respond to the need for assistance in equestrian accidents

  4. Determination of incoming solar radiation in major tree species in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Koc, Ayhan

    2012-07-01

    Light requirements and spatial distribution of major forest tree species in Turkey hasn't been analyzed yet. Continuous surface solar radiation data, especially at mountainous-forested areas, are needed to put forward this relationship between forest tree species and solar radiation. To achieve this, GIS-based modeling of solar radiation is one of the methods used in rangelands to estimate continuous surface solar radiation. Therefore, mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation maps of whole Turkey were computed spatially using GRASS GIS software "r.sun" model under clear-sky (cloudless) conditions. 147498 pure forest stand point-based data were used in the study for calculating mean global solar radiation values of all the major forest tree species of Turkey. Beech had the lowest annual mean total global solar radiation value of 1654.87 kWh m(-2), whereas juniper had the highest value of 1928.89 kWh m(-2). The rank order of tree species according to the mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation values, using a confidence level of p solar radiation values of sites and light requirements of forest trees ranked similarly.

  5. Internal radiation doses of people in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, M.; Rahola, T.

    1997-01-01

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl radionuclides carried by airstreams reached Finland on April 27, 1986. The radioactive cloud spread over central and southern Finland and to a lesser extent over northern Finland. In Helsinki the maximum radionuclide concentrations in air were measured in late evening of April 28. The radioactive cloud remained over Finland only a short time and within a few days the radionuclide concentrations in the air decreased to one-hundredth of the maximum values. Most radionuclides causing deposition were washed down by local showers, resulting in very uneven deposition of radionuclides on the ground. In a addition minor amounts of radioactivity were deposited on Mav 10-12. For internal and external dose estimations Finland was divided into five fallout regions (1-5) according to the increasing 137 Cs surface activity. At first, the short-lived radionuclides as well as 134 Cs and 137 Cs contributed to the external dose rate. Only the long-lived isotopes, 134 Cs and especially 137 Cs, later determined the external dose rates. The regions and corresponding dose rates and deposition categories on October 1, 1987, are shown.To estimate the total dose of the Finnish population from the radionuclides originating at Chernobyl the effective external and internal doses were calculated; the external doses were estimated using the data given. Groups of Finnish people representing the five fallout regions were whole-body counted annually during 1986-1990. The results of these measurements and those of the reference group were used to estimate the internal body burdens and radiation doses from 134 Cs and 137 Cs to the population

  6. Measurements of the Chernobyl accident fallout in Israel and the assessment of the radiation doses to the population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, E; Ilberg, D [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beer-Sheva, Negev (Israel); Brenner, S [Ministry of Environment, Yerusalem (Israel); and others

    1997-09-01

    Israel is located approximately 2000 km southeast of Chernobyl. The fallout from the accident in Chernobyl reactor no. 4 on April 26, 1986 arrived in Israel on the night of May 2nd. Following the accident, studies of the radiological effects were initiated by many countries some of them many thousands of kilometers away. These studies can be characterized by three periods: a) First months following the accident - Measurements were taken to assess the immediate impact and to propose countermeasures that would reduce doses incurred by the population. b) First years following the accidents - Measurements were taken to validate that radioecological effects are well below any regulatory limits, from both the fallout radioactivity in the country and import of food coming from other affected areas. c) The last years (e.g. 1990-1995) - Measurements were taken within the regular program of environmental radioactivity surveillance. In this paper we have compiled the results of the studies in Israel which have followed the three phases mentioned above. Assessment of the accumulated potential radiation doses to the population in Israel was made based on the results of those measurements covered in the three phases, considering the various possible pathways. 7 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Measurements of the Chernobyl accident fallout in Israel and the assessment of the radiation doses to the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, E.; Ilberg, D.; Brenner, S.

    1997-01-01

    Israel is located approximately 2000 km southeast of Chernobyl. The fallout from the accident in Chernobyl reactor no. 4 on April 26, 1986 arrived in Israel on the night of May 2nd. Following the accident, studies of the radiological effects were initiated by many countries some of them many thousands of kilometers away. These studies can be characterized by three periods: a) First months following the accident - Measurements were taken to assess the immediate impact and to propose countermeasures that would reduce doses incurred by the population. b) First years following the accidents - Measurements were taken to validate that radioecological effects are well below any regulatory limits, from both the fallout radioactivity in the country and import of food coming from other affected areas. c) The last years (e.g. 1990-1995) - Measurements were taken within the regular program of environmental radioactivity surveillance. In this paper we have compiled the results of the studies in Israel which have followed the three phases mentioned above. Assessment of the accumulated potential radiation doses to the population in Israel was made based on the results of those measurements covered in the three phases, considering the various possible pathways

  8. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

  9. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.64, 95% CI = (0.38; 0.93), p < 0.001. Among studied concomitant diseases, diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29.

  10. Radiation risk perception by radiation professionals. Survey results just before the radiological accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Miwa; Hayashida, Rika; Takao, Hideaki; Matsuda, Naoki; Ono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    From October to December 2010, just before the radiological accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 71 radiation professionals belonging to the radiation facilities in Japan were asked what they consider as a 'safe' dose of radiation for themselves, their spouse, parents, children, brothers and friends. Although the 'safe' dose varied widely from less than 1 mSv/y to higher than 100 mSv/y, the average dose was 35.6 mSv/y that was around the middle point between the exposure dose limits for annual average (20 mSv/y) and for any single year (50 mSv/y). Similar results were obtained from another surveys for the members of Japan Radioisotope Association (36.9 mSv/y) and for the Oita Prefectural Hospital (36.8 mSv/y). Among the family members and friends, the minimum average 'safe' dose was 8.5 mSv/y for children, to whom 50% of responders claimed the 'safe' dose less than 1 mSv. Gender, age and specialty of the responder also affected the 'safe' dose. These findings suggest that the perception of radiation risk varies widely and that the legal exposure dose limit derived from the regulatory science may act as an anchor of safety even in radiation professionals. The different level of risk perception for different target groups in radiation professionals appears similar to those in non-professional whole population. The gap between these characteristics of real radiation professionals and the generally accepted picture of radiation professionals might take a part in a state of confusion after the radiological accident. (author)

  11. SAMEX: A severe accident management support expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo-Yong; Ahn, Kwang-Il

    2010-01-01

    A decision support system for use in a severe accident management following an incident at a nuclear power plant is being developed which is aided by a severe accident risk database module and a severe accident management simulation module. The severe accident management support expert (SAMEX) system can provide the various types of diagnostic and predictive assistance based on the real-time plant specific safety parameters. It consists of four major modules as sub-systems: (a) severe accident risk data base module (SARDB), (b) risk-informed severe accident risk data base management module (RI-SARD), (c) severe accident management simulation module (SAMS), and (d) on-line severe accident management guidance module (on-line SAMG). The modules are integrated into a code package that executes within a WINDOWS XP operating environment, using extensive user friendly graphics control. In Korea, the integrated approach of the decision support system is being carried out under the nuclear R and D program planned by the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). An objective of the project is to develop the support system which can show a theoretical possibility. If the system is feasible, the project team will recommend the radiation protection technical support center of a national regulatory body to implement a plant specific system, which is applicable to a real accident, for the purpose of immediate and various diagnosis based on the given plant status information and of prediction of an expected accident progression under a severe accident situation.

  12. Colloquium / Preparation for nuclear post-accident. Citizens and local authorities involvement in major risks governance - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Michel; Villers, Anita; Sene, Monique; Godin, Francois; Quilichini, Jean-Michel; Rollinger, Francois; Delalonde, Jean-Claude; Mehl-Auget, Isabelle; Autret, Jean-Claude; Heriard Dubreuil, Gilles; Petitfrere, Michael; Lochard, Jacques; Demet, Michel; Boucherie, Jean-Claude; Calafat, Alexis; Sommade, Christian; Villain, Alain; Ragazzo, Romeo; Rengot, Marielle; Sename, Jean; Thellier, Yvette; Tremelet, David; Olszewski, Richard; Fournier, Nicolas

    2009-12-01

    During 40 years, France has chosen nuclear energy as main energy source for power generation. Today, nuclear energy covers 80% of the French electricity needs. For this reason, in France, each inhabitant lives at less than 200 km of a nuclear power plant. The September 11, 2001 terror attack has led to reconsider the nuclear risk in terms of security. In 2005, the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has been entrusted with the preparation of a nuclear post-accident management study. This study has been mainly based on the experience feedback of the Chernobyl accident and on the dialogue with different actors of the French territory: the local authorities, the habitants, the associations and the health, environment and education actors. This colloquium represents the opening act of the joint elaboration of the management of a potential nuclear accident at the region scale. The colloquium was organized around 5 round tables: 1 - Did the nuclear safety transparency law change the situation?; 2 - Examples of pluralistic dialogues: the long-term management of a nuclear accident; 3 - How to encourage the necessary skills development of citizens? 4 - Regional development strategies in terms of nuclear risks management (incidents, effluents, wastes, transports..); 5 - New territory liabilities and citizens' legitimate aspiration in terms of health/environment: building something together. This document is the proceedings of this colloquium. It reports the exchanges between the participants

  13. Acrylonitrile exposure assessment in the emergency responders of a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Fierens, S; De Smedt, T; De Cremer, K; Vleminckx, C; Mertens, B; Van Overmeire, I; Bader, M; De Paepe, P; Göen, T; Nemery, B; Schettgen, T; Stove, C; Van Oyen, H; Van Loco, J

    2014-12-15

    On May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in Wetteren, Belgium. Several tanks loaded with acrylonitrile (ACN) exploded, resulting in a fire and a leakage of ACN. To determine exposure to ACN and to assess discriminating factors for ACN exposure in the emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident. The study population consisted of 841 emergency responders. Between May 21 and June 28, they gave blood for the determination of N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV) hemoglobin adducts and urine for the measurement of cotinine. They also filled in a short questionnaire. 163 (26%) non-smokers and 55 (27%) smokers showed CEV concentrations above the reference values of 10 and 200 pmol/g globin, respectively. The 95th percentile in the non-smokers was 73 pmol/g globin and the maximum was 452 pmol/g globin. ACN exposure among the non-smokers was predicted by (1) the distance to the accident, (2) the duration of exposure, and (3) the occupational function. Emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident were clearly exposed to ACN from the accident. However, the extent of exposure remained relatively moderate with CEV concentrations staying within the ranges described in literature as background for a smoking population. Moreover, the exposure was less pronounced in the emergency responders as compared to that in the local population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Radiation-related anxiety among public health nurses in the Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Goto, Aya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Ohtsuru, Akira; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13). We classified the low and high levels of anxiety by asking them to answer questions about radiation, and compared the anxiety-negative (−) group with the anxiety-positive (+) group. Results Of the PHNs, 269 (62.6%) were classified in the anxiety (−) group and 161 (37.4%) were in the anxiety (+) group. When the multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, the PHNs at the time of the accident (OR: 2.37, p=0.007), current general anxieties about radiation (OR: 3.56, pChernobyl accident (OR: 1.69, p=0.035) were significantly associated with anxiety after the FDNPS accident. The mean SOC-13 was 43.0±7.7, with no significant difference between the anxiety (−) group and anxiety (+) group (p=0.47). Conclusions Our study suggested that anxiety about radiation was associated with materials and knowledge about radiation in the PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture 4 years after the FDNPS accident. It is important for PHNs to obtain knowledge and teaching materials about radiation, and radiation education programmes for PHNs must be established in areas that have nuclear facilities. PMID:27798037

  15. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestal, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients).

  16. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestal, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). (author)

  17. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation.; Katsaus ydinonnettomuuksien psykologisiin seurauksiin sekae empiirinen tutkimus saeteilysuojelutoimenpiteiden vaikutuksista kaeyttaeytymiseen kuvitteelisessa tilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukkala, A; Eraenen, L [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.).

  18. Chromosome aberration analysis in persons exposed to low-level radiation from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Hayata, Isamu; Kamada, Nanao; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Kodama, Seiji

    2001-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 43 persons who were exposed to low-level radiation of mixed neutrons and γ-rays resulting from the JCO criticality accident. When the age-adjusted frequencies of dicentric and ring chromosomes were compared with the dose calibration curve established in vitro for 60 Co γ-rays as a reference radiation, a significant correlation was observed between the chromosomally estimated doses and the documented doses evaluated by physical means. The regression coefficient of the chromosomal doses against the documented doses, 1.47±0.33, indicates that the relative biological effectiveness of fission neutrons at low doses is considerably higher than that currently adopted in the radiation protection standard. (author)

  19. PROBLEMS OF RISK COMMUNICATION ON RADIATION SAFETY. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS ON THE INTERNET AFTER THE 2013 RADIATION ACCIDENT AT THE ELECTROSTAL HEAVY ENGINEERING WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presumably in the first days of April 2013, the smelting of scrap metal occurred on the territory of the Electrostal Heavy Engineering Works without the use of radiation input control. An unspecified source of ionizing radiation, containing 137Cs in an unknown quantity, was melted. As a result of smelting, contamination of the territory of the plant and the adjacent territory of Elektrostal city occurred. The relevance of the study is due to the high social significance of this accident, which is confirmed by a large number of materials published in both federal and regional mass media. In total, for the period from 12.04.2013 to 12.05.2013, 129 materials were identified. In addition, the total number of video views on this accident on the YOUTUBE website exceeds the population of Electrostal city. The purpose of the study was to analyze the practice of crisis risk communication, used by various officials and specialists in connection with the radiation accident in the territory of the Electrostal Heavy Engineering Works in 2013. The study analyzed publications in the mass media, messages on official websites of departments, organizations and authorities involved in the emergency response, video materials on the YOUTUBE website, messages on Internet forums. In order to record, analyze and store publications, an automated information system for the analysis of publications, developed by specialists of the Rospotrebnadzor Information and Analytical Center for Radiation Safety of the Population was used. The analysis of crisis risk communication with the population conducted by government bodies and representatives of various departments in the liquidation of the consequences of a radiation accident on the territory of the Electrostal Heavy Engineering Works revealed a discrepancy between the real risk communication practices in the case of the radiation accident in Elektrostal with modern scientific recommendations for radiation risk communication

  20. Exposure to cosmic radiation: a developing major problem in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, W.M.; Hajnal, F.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' Cosmic radiation at ground altitudes is usually a relatively minor contributor to human radiation exposure, producing a global collective dose equivalent that is about 10 percent of the total from all natural sources. However, more than a million people living at high altitudes receive annual dose equivalents in excess of 5 mSv. In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the exposure of aircraft flight crews and passengers, for whom annual dose equivalents of up to several mSv have been estimated. Recent EML results indicate the presence of an important high-energy neutron component at jet aircraft altitudes, perhaps producing dose equivalents of the order of 0.1. mSv/h at high latitudes. Finally, space agencies have been long concerned with the potential exposures of astronauts, especially from the rare massive solar flare events. As more people venture into space, this source of human radiation exposure will become increasingly important. Available date on those aspects of cosmic radiation exposure will be reviewed, along with current and anticipated future research activities that may yield and improve assessment of the problem. The question of how such exposures might be controlled will be addressed, but not answered. (author)

  1. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and school bullying of affected children and adolescents: the need for continuous radiation education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Toyoaki; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Akihiko; Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu

    2018-04-09

    The health threats of radiation-release incidents are diverse and long term. In addition to direct radiation effects, it is imperative to manage the indirect effects of radiation such as stigma, prejudice and broader mental health impacts. Six years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of March 2011, bullying caused by stigma and prejudice toward evacuees, including children, has become a social problem in Japan. This phenomenon may be associated with the fact that knowledge about radiation has still not reached the general public, and to a potential lack of motivation among Japanese citizens to learn about radiation and bullying. Continuous and sustained education regarding radiation is warranted in order to enhance the general knowledge level about the effects of radiation in Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and this education will become an important reference for education after future nuclear disasters.

  2. Radiological emergency: road map for radiation accident victim transport; Emergência radiológica: roadmap para o transporte de radioacidentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, V.S.G.; Alcantara, Y.P. [Faculdade Casa Branca, SP (Brazil); Lima, C.M.A. [MAXIM Cursos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, F. C. A. da, E-mail: franciscodasilva13uk@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, a number of necessary actions are taken, both within the radiation protection of individuals and the environment, involving many institutions and highly specialized personnel. Among them it is possible to emphasize the air transportation of radiation accident victims.The procedures and measures for the safe transport of these radiation accident victims are generally the responsibility of the armed forces, specifically the Aeronautics, with the action denominated 'Aeromedical Military Evacuation of Radiation Accident Victims'. The experience with the Radiological Accident of Goiânia demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation and response during a radiological emergency and the need for procedures and measures with regard to the transport of radiation victims are clearly defined and clearly presented for the effectiveness of the actions. This work presents the necessary actions for the transport of radiation accident victim during a radiological emergency, through the road map technique, which has been widely used in scientific technical area to facilitate understanding and show the way to be followed to reach the proposed objectives.

  3. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Finland and the influence of the meteorological conditions after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Blomqvist, L.; Lemmelae, H.; Savolainen, A.L.; Sarkkula, S.

    1987-06-01

    Results from a survey of environmental gamma radiation levels in Finland after the Chernobyl accident 1986 were presented. The measurements were made by means of sensitive Geiger-counters and a gamma-spectrometer placed in cars. The results presented the level of external radiation caused by the cesium fallout on the first of October 1986. In the center of Southern Finland there are wide areas with exposure levels exceeding 0.04 μSv h -1 , areas exceeding 0.2 μSv h -1 being very rare. The surface area weighted mean dose rate for the 461 municipalities in Finland was 0.037 $mu$Sv h -1 (range 0-0.23 μSv h -1 ). The corresponding estimated surface activity of 137 Cs was 10.7 kBq m -2 . The population weighted mean dose rate was 0.051 μSv h -1 . Results from measurements at eight dose rate monitoring stations were presented as daily dose rate recordings in 1985-1986, the rate of decrease of the excess dose rate demonstrating quite large variations in the period from May to August. This indicated that the composition of the short-lived nuclides in the fallout varied from place to place. The influence of the meteorological conditions were reported with precipitation data from six days after the accident. There was a clear correlation between the results from precipitation and radiation measurements in different parts of Finland

  4. Three years after the accident at Chernobyl - how much did the radioactivity released really enhance the radiation exposure of the population in the FRG?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1989-01-01

    The article presents and summarizes examples taken as a basis for assessing the radiation dose taken up via the three pathways inhalation, environmental exposure, ingestion. The author discusses the issue of the full lifetime dose to children and adults due to ingestion of food contaminated by the reactor accident, and explains the radiation hazard to the population emanating from contaminated food. (DG) [de

  5. Following the radiation accident in Fukushima. Consequences for information management; Nach dem Strahlenunfall in Fukushima. Ein Beitrag zur Aufarbeitung der 'Lessons Learnt'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meineke, Viktor [Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiobiologie

    2012-07-01

    The differing perceptions of risk in Japan and Germany, the changing psychosocial factors since the Chernobyl event, and the problem of the lacking basic knowledge concerning radiation effects at the general population as well as partially in medical circles are discussed and conclusions are made regarding the information management and the medical management of radiation accidents. (orig.)

  6. The health status of the Russian pediatric population exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident: Results of a 29-year follow-up of the Children's Research and Practical Center for Anti-Radiation Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Baleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a long-term follow-up of the health status of children exposed to radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Five reference cohorts have been identified, each of which has individual features of the development of radiation-induced diseases. A cohort of babies irradiated in utero, a cohort of the children of Chernobyl accident liquidators, and a cohort of mI-irradiated children born in 1969-1986 are considered.

  7. Will the energetic choices be guided by the major accidents? What are the talents used for safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The control of safety problems requires at first a good knowledge and the control of risks; this control is among other things based on the detailed exploitation of the first hand experiences and more generally on the history and the analysis of all the serious accidents occurred in the industrial sector. Moreover, the control of risks influence the regulations which evolve with the knowledge. (O.M.)

  8. Historical evolution of process safety and major-accident hazards prevention in Spain. Contribution of the pioneer Joaquim Casal.

    OpenAIRE

    Planas Cuchi, Eulàlia; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Muñoz Messineo, Miguel Ángel; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting the evolution of process safety in Spain from various points of view. In first place, a study of the accidents occurred in this country in the process industry and in the transportation of chemical substances is presented. After this, the starting point of the process safety research in Spain and its evolution during the years are explained. The importance of this topic has also been reflected in the chemical engineering studies in some Spanish universities. Ther...

  9. Evaluation of the response to xenon-133 radiations by thermoluminescent dosimeters used during the accident at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R J; Zanzonico, P B; Masterson, M E; St Germain, J M; Laughlin, J S

    1982-03-01

    An evaluation is presented of the accuracy and sensitivity of three types of TLD's used during the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This evaluation indicated that, due to the method of calibration, all the dosimeters over-responded to 133Xe radiations. The response ranged from slightly above unity to almost two. Exposures of the TLD's were of two types, namely, the characteristic X-rays either were or were not filtered from the beam. The angular sensitivity of the dosimeters is also reported.

  10. Radiation protection in the Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital during the arrived of the victims of the accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.

    1988-05-01

    The procedure carried out for Nuclear Medicine Sector of the Marcilio Dias Hospital in the arrived of the victims more graves of the accident in Goiania are presented. The datas obtained with the services of monitoring realized with the detector DSM-3 of the Nardeaux and the radiometric raising of the patients and of their bedroom, making with a ionization chamber 'baby-line' are shown. The services of radiation protection in the ward and the decontamination of the patients are described. The procedures to the necropsy of the contamineted bodies are presented. (V.R.B.)

  11. Cytogenetic effects of radiation from Chernobyl nuclear accident on humans and animals in the contaminated area of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeliseeva, K.; Mikhalevich, L.; Kartel, N.

    1995-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring of amphibian and rodent populations, and children from the radio contaminated regions of the Republic of Belarus was conducted as a follow up to Chernobyl nuclear accident. A statistically significant increase in the levels of cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of amphibians and rodent and in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children was found. The presence of chromosome-type aberrations supports the conclusion that radiation is the causative agent. However, no direct relationship between the level of radionuclide contamination and the degree of the cytogenetic damage was found. (Author)

  12. The Radiological Accident in Lia, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The use of radioactive material offers a wide range of benefits to medicine, research and industry throughout the world. Precautions are necessary, however, to limit the exposure of people to the radiation emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy or industrial radiography sources, great care is required to prevent accidents which could have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, serious accidents involving radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to provide an account of their circumstances and consequences, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, safety of sources and emergency preparedness and response may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Georgia on 2 December 2001, when three inhabitants of the village of Lia found two metal objects in the forest while collecting firewood. These objects were {sup 90}Sr sources with an activity of 1295 TBq. The three inhabitants used the objects as heaters when spending the night in the forest. The major cause of the accident was the improper and unauthorized abandonment of radiation sources in Georgia and the absence of clear labels or radiation signs on the sources warning of the potential radiation hazard. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), the Georgian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA to advise on the dose assessment, source recovery and medical management of those involved in the accident. This publication describes the circumstances and events surrounding the accident, its management and the medical treatment of the people exposed. It also describes the dose reconstruction calculations and biodosimetry assessments conducted. A number of uncertainties remain relating to some details of the accident. However

  13. The Radiological Accident in Lia, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The use of radioactive material offers a wide range of benefits to medicine, research and industry throughout the world. Precautions are necessary, however, to limit the exposure of people to the radiation emitted. Where the amount of radioactive material is substantial, as in the case of radiotherapy or industrial radiography sources, great care is required to prevent accidents which could have severe consequences. Nevertheless, in spite of the precautions taken, serious accidents involving radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA conducts follow-up reviews of such serious accidents to provide an account of their circumstances and consequences, from which organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, safety of sources and emergency preparedness and response may learn. A serious radiological accident occurred in Georgia on 2 December 2001, when three inhabitants of the village of Lia found two metal objects in the forest while collecting firewood. These objects were 90 Sr sources with an activity of 1295 TBq. The three inhabitants used the objects as heaters when spending the night in the forest. The major cause of the accident was the improper and unauthorized abandonment of radiation sources in Georgia and the absence of clear labels or radiation signs on the sources warning of the potential radiation hazard. Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), the Georgian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA to advise on the dose assessment, source recovery and medical management of those involved in the accident. This publication describes the circumstances and events surrounding the accident, its management and the medical treatment of the people exposed. It also describes the dose reconstruction calculations and biodosimetry assessments conducted. A number of uncertainties remain relating to some details of the accident. However, sufficient

  14. Goiania radiation accident: 30 years - a half-life for a whole life..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, R.G.; Lucena, E.A.; Arantes, R.R.; Silva, A.A.; Reis, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The radiological accident in Goiânia, Brazil, considered the largest urban radiological accident in the world, generated several publications in the technical area that are widely disseminated in the scientific literature, given the importance of the lessons learned. However, in a simple conversation with people who worked on that accident, it is noted that many reports have not been recorded. In this year in which 30 years of the event is completed, it will be of great value to record personal testimonies that are not in technical or scientific books. And what can we tell after a half-life that lasted for a lifetime? The lived stories, the situations, the improvisations, the way to solve, the overcoming, the human side, the emotions, happy or sad, short or long, funny or not. The objective of this work is to preserve, maintain and divulge reports and situations experienced by people who worked on the radiological accident with Cs-137 in Goiânia. Audio or video recordings about experiences lived in Goiânia by people who worked in that emergency situation were carried out. The reports are free and the form of registration is always at the discretion of the narrator. Storing records allows to preserve, maintain, and disclose the accident to other generations

  15. Rationale treatment and preventive measures for correction of bone structure in children with acute leukemia, exposed to ionizing radiation due to the Chornobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Bruslova, K.M.; Tsvjetkova, N.M.; Kopilova, O.V.; Belyingyio, T.O.; Berezovs'kij, S.Ya.; Petrun'ko, M.P.; Boyars'kij, V.G.; Polyans'ka, V.M.; Pushkar'ova, T.Yi.; Myishchenko, L.P.; Volodyina, T.T.

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of bone densitometry, calcium and cortisol levels and increase of serum alkaline phosphatase and urine oxyproline were found in children with acute leukemia in acute I phase and during the chemotherapy. In the period of remission the majority of patients did not differ from the comparison group. The signs of osteopenic syndrome that require monitoring of the bone structure status were revealed in 10.0 % of children of the comparison group. Radiation doses of leukemia patients were 3.66 ± 0.11 mSv. No relationship between radiation dose and indicators that reflect the state of the bone tissue structures has been established. The use of complex health care measures in children with acute leukemia in remission, contributed to the positive effect of 62.0 %. Worser effect was observed in patients with an unfavorable course of the disease. Results of the study of bone tissue metabolism prove fore a change in the organic and mineral matrix in patients with acute leukemia exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the Chornobyl NPP accident, and persons without hematologic diseases, and the need for treatment and prevention

  16. Peculiarities of the clinical course of radiation sickness and organizational decisions for radiation accidents with beta-gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guskova, A.K.; Gusev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of a number of recent large scale accidents involving beta-gamma sources in the last 40 years, such as those of the Marshall Islands (1954); Windscale, UK (1957); Chernobyl, USSR (1986) and Goiania, Brazil (1987) demonstrates the predominance and importance of health and social impacts. (author)

  17. Nuclear power plant accident simulations of gasket materials under simultaneous radiation plus thermal plus mechanical stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.; Malone, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    In order to probe the response of silicone door gasket materials to a postulated severe accident in an Italian nuclear power plant, compression stress relaxation (CSR) and compression set (CS) measurements were conducted under combined radiation (approximately 6 kGy/h) and temperature (up to 230 degrees C) conditions. By making some reasonable initial assumptions, simplified constant temperature and dose rates were derived that should do a reasonable job of simulating the complex environments for worst-case severe events that combine overall aging plus accidents. Further simplification coupled with thermal-only experiments allowed us to derive thermal-only conditions that can be used to achieve CSR and CS responses similar to those expected from the combined environments that are more difficult to simulate. Although the thermal-only simulations should lead to sealing forces similar to those expected during a severe accident, modulus and density results indicate that significant differences in underlying chemistry are expected for the thermal-only and the combined environment simulations. 15 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs

  18. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  19. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements. Working document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2006-04-01

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  20. Criteria for the decision adoption on participating of Zashchita Special Centre of Emergency Medical (SCEMA) in special medical care at radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bad'in, V.I.; Grachev, M.I.; Kamyshenko, I.D.

    1992-01-01

    Problem concerning the establishment of criteria for the decision adoption on participating of Zashchita SCEMA in special medical care during radiation accidents is considered as well as intervention level. General reasons used for the establishment of intervention levels of Zashchita SCEMA, dose criteria, decision adoption, assessment of the accident character and scale, need in additional specialists and equipment. Attention is paid to the national and foreign documents on the above problems. 11 refs.; 7 tabs

  1. SARNET, a success story. Survey of major achievements on severe accidents and of knowledge capitalization within the ASTEC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albiol, T.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Reinke, N.

    2013-01-01

    51 organizations from Europe and Canada cooperated within SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network of Excellence) joining their capacities of research in order to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, in regard to Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). SARNET defines common research programmes and develops common computer codes and methodologies for safety assessment. The ASTEC integral code, jointly developed by IRSN (France) and GRS (Germany) for Light Water Reactor (LWR) source term SA evaluation, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) level-2 studies and SA management evaluation, is the main integrating component of SARNET. The scientific knowledge generated in the Corium, Source Term and Containment Topics has been integrated into the code through improved or new physical models. ASTEC constitutes now the reference European SA integral code. During the 4 and half years of SARNET, 30 partners have assessed the successive versions of the ASTEC V1 code through validation. More than 60 scientists have been trained on the code use. Validation tasks on about 65 experiments were performed to cover all physical phenomena occurring in a severe accident: circuit thermalhydraulic, core degradation, fission products (FP) release and transport, Molten-Corium-Concrete-Interaction (MCCI), and in the containment, thermalhydraulic, aerosol and iodine as well as hydrogen behaviour. The overall status of validation can be considered as good, with results often close to results of mechanistic codes. Some reach the limits of present knowledge, for instance on MCCI, and, like in most codes, an adequate model for reflooding of a degraded core is still missing. IRSN and GRS are currently preparing the new series of ASTEC V2 versions that will account for most of the needs of evolution expressed by the SARNET partners. The first version V2.0, planned for March 09, will be applicable to EPR and will include the ICARE2

  2. Usage of geotechnologies for risk management in radiation accidents; Uso de geotecnologias para a gestão de risco em acidentes radiológicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.A.A.; Marques, F.A.P.; Murta, Y.L., E-mail: tedsilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Serviço de Tecnologia da Informação

    2017-07-01

    Through the use of geotechnologies an important tool can be created for risk management in radiation accidents. With the use of the QGIS software (Las Palmas version), it is shown its applicability in situations of radiological emergency, as in the case of the accident with cesium-137 in Goiânia. The work analyses the risk of a possible accident with the deposit of cesium wastes that still remains in the region, aiming to protect the population with the best exit routes and forms of allocation of the residents.

  3. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included [fr

  4. A medical follow-up of 137 Cs Goiania radiation accident: un update (1990-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Alexandre Rodrigues de; Farina, Rosana

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the main aftereffects of the 137 Cs accident in the last two years, giving emphasis on clinical, hematological, radiological and psychological aspects. A medical follow-up protocol was established by CNEN and the Leide das Neves Ferreira Foundation of the State of Goias, in order to prospectively follow more than 150 victims. (author). 6 refs

  5. Text analysis of radiation information in newspaper articles headlines and internet contents after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko; Tsuji, Satsuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    In general, the press is considered to have amplified the level of public's anxiety and perception of risk. In the present study, we analyzed newspaper article headlines and Internet contents that were released from March 11, 2011 to January 31, 2012 using text mining techniques. The aim is to reveal the particular characteristics of the information propagated regarding the Fukushima NPP Accident. The article headlines of the newspapers which had a largest circulation were chosen for analysis, and contents of Internet media were chose based on the number of times they were linked or retweeted. According to our text mining analysis, newspaper frequently reported the 'measurement, investigation and examination' of radiation/radioactive materials caused by the Fukushima Accident, and this information might be spread selectively via the social media. On the other hand, the words related to health effects of radiation exposure (i. e., cancer, hereditary effects) were rare in newspaper headlines. Instead, words like 'anxiety' and 'safe' were often used to convey the degree of health effects. Particularly in March of 2011, the concept of 'danger' was used frequently in newspaper headlines. These indirect characterizations of the situation may have contributed more or less to the misunderstanding of the health effects and to the enhanced perception of risk felt by the public. In conclusion, there were found no evidence to suggest that newspaper or Internet media users released sensational information that increased the health anxiety of reads throughout the period of analysis. (author)

  6. Assessment of radiation doses to the public in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Shogo; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Kazumasa; Kimura, Masanori; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    In the areas contaminated by radioactive materials due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, many residents are exposed to radiation through various exposure pathways. Dose assessment is important for providing appropriate protection to the people and clarifying the impact of the accident. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary results of the assessment of radiation doses received by the inhabitants of Fukushima Prefecture. To assess the doses realistically and comprehensively, a probabilistic approach was adopted using data that reflected realistic environmental trends and lifestyle habits in Fukushima Prefecture. In the first year after the contamination, the 95th percentile of the annual effective dose received by the inhabitants evacuated from the evacuation areas and the deliberate evacuation areas was mainly in the 1-10 mSv dose band. However, the 95th percentile of the dose received by some outdoor workers and inhabitants evacuated from highly contaminated areas was in the 10-50 mSv dose band. The doses due to external exposure to deposited radionuclides were the dominant exposure pathway, and their contributions were about 90% under prevailing contamination conditions in Fukushima Prefecture. In addition, 20%-30% of the lifetime effective dose was delivered during the first year after the contamination. (author)

  7. The Chernobyl accident and radiation risks: dynamics of epidemiological rates (morbidity, disability and death rates) according to the data in the national registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years have elapsed since the Chernobyl accident. The gravest technologically generated accident throughout human history has attracted considerable attention from the whole world community. At the same time, the problem of estimating the total damage to life and health of people exposed to radiation remains very complicated. The negative effects of Chernobyl include a spectrum of factors which may reinforce each other. In particular, to date there are no theoretical models or practical recommendations on estimating the contribution of the social, psychological or emotional factors that surround diseases due to radiation accidents. On the other hand, for maximum effective rehabilitation of the affected population, the impartial determination of the contribution by both radiation and non-radiation components is necessary. Therefore, the continuation of long-standing investigations within the framework of the National Radiation and Epidemiological Registry along with obtaining new scientific data in the field of radiation epidemiology is of great practical importance in limiting the health consequences of the accident. 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Clinical observation of a 16-year-old female exposed to radiation in utero: follow-up after the Shanxi Xinzhou radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Li; Zhang Zhaohui; Chen Sen; Ma Liwen; Chen Yamai; Zhang Shuluan; Jia Tingzhen; Liu Ying; Liu Qingjie; Su Xu; Qin Bin; Wang Zuoyuan

    2011-01-01

    A follow-up study of the late effects of intrauterine exposure to irradiation has been made on a 16-year-old girl whose mother was exposed to external 60 Co irradiation during the Xinzhou radiation accident 16 years previously. The outcomes of the general medical examinations, conventional chromosome aberration analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) are presented and the China-revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C W ISC) was used to identify her IQ level, which was well below normal for her age. The biological dose of the radiation to which she was exposed when she was in her mother's uterus was inferred to be 1.85 Gy. Although there is no evidence of any other developmental changes or tumour induction at this stage in her life, the child's total intelligence level does appear to have been affected. (note)

  9. The inflammatory response plays a major role in the acute radiation syndrome induced by fission radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agay, D.; Chancerelle, Y.; Hirodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Multon, E.; Van Uye, A.; Mestries, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    At high dose rates, both gamma and neutron irradiation induce an acute inflammatory syndrome with huge intercellular communication disorders. This inflammatory syndrome evolves in two phases, separated by a latency phase. During the prodromal phase, the molecular and cellular lesions induced by free radicals trigger an initial response which associates cellular repair and multicellular interactions involving both humoral and nervous communications. A large part of perturbations constitute a non specific inflammatory syndrome and clinically silent coagulation disorders which are linked by common intercellular mediators. All these perturbations are rapidly reversible and there is no correlation between the radiation dose and the severity of the response. During the manifest-illness phase, both inflammatory and coagulation disorders resume, slightly preceding the clinical symptoms. Biochemical symptoms are moderate in the animals which will survive, but they escape regulatory mechanisms in those which will die, giving rise to a vicious circle. These biochemical disorders are largely responsible for the death. With lower dose rates, it cannot be excluded that great cellular communication disorders take place at the tissue level, with limited blood modifications. This aspect should be taken into account for the optimization of cytokine therapies. (authors)

  10. ACCIDENT AT «FUKUSHIMA-»I NPP: FIRST RESULTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE REPORT 2: ACTIVITIES OF THE ROSPOTREBNADZOR AUTHORITIES FOR THE RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION POPULATION ON THE EARLY STAGE OF ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic measures of the Rospotrebnadzor emergency response during the early stage of the «Fukushima-I» NPP radiation accident are being analyzed in the article. Radiation monitoring of the environmental objects of the territories of the Russian Federation Far East Federal District, radiation control of arriving from Japan vehicles, freights and passengers as well as imported from Japan food products were promptly organized. This allowed to get reliable evaluations of the levels of radioactive contamination at the Russian Federation territory and population exposure doses due to the «Fukushima-I» NPP accident, timely exclude the possibility of import to the Russian territory for the freights, vehicles, food products having contamination exceeding established in the Russian Federation standards.

  11. Major accidents involving dangerous chemicals and Standard Basic Self-Protection; Accidentes graves en los que intervangan sustancias quimica peligrosas y Norma Basica de Autoproteccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Fernandez, L.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear and radioactive facilities and other centers, institutions and agencies engaged in activities that may lead to emergency situations, are subject to specific regulations directed to take measures to prevent and control risks at source and to act initially in emergency situations and limit the consequences, in order to protect people, property and the environment. With these premise, place the following article, which summarizes the basic guidelines in the field of major accident and self-protection, summarizing the implications of current legislation in this field. (Author)

  12. induced chromosome aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Eight years follow up of the Goiania radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Santos, S.J.; Darroudi, F.; Hadjidikova, V.; Vermeulen, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Van de Berg, M.; Grigorova, M.; Sakamoto-Hojo, E.T.; Granath, F.; Ramalho, A.T.; Curado, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation accident in focus here occurred in a section of Goiania (Brazil) where more than a hundred individuals were contaminated with on September 1987. In order to estimate the absorbed radiation doses, initial frequencies of dicentrics and rings were determined in 129 victims [A.T. Ramalho, PhD Thesis, Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992]. We have followed some of these victims cytogenetically over the years seeking for parameters that could be used as basis for retrospective radiation dosimetry. Our data on translocation frequencies obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be directly compared to the baseline frequencies of dicentrics available for those same victims. Our results provided valuable information on how precise these estimates are. The frequencies of translocations observed years after the radiation exposure were two to three times lower than the initial dicentrics frequencies, the differences being larger at higher doses (>1 Gy). The accuracy of such dose estimates might be increased by scoring sufficient amount of cells. However, factors such as the persistence of translocation carrying lymphocytes, translocation levels not proportional to chromosome size, and inter-individual variation reduce the precision of these estimates

  13. Induced chromosome aberrations analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Eight years follow up of the Goiania radiation accident victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Santos, S.J.; Darroudi, F.; Hadjidikova, V.; Vermeulen, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Van de Berg, M.; Grigorova, M. [Leiden University Medical Centrum LUMC, Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands); Sakamoto-Hojo, E.T. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Granath, F. [Department of Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramalho, A.T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, National Commission of Nuclear Energy, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curado, M.P. [Foundation Leide das Neves Ferreira, Goiania (Brazil)

    1998-05-25

    The radiation accident in focus here occurred in a section of Goiania (Brazil) where more than a hundred individuals were contaminated with on September 1987. In order to estimate the absorbed radiation doses, initial frequencies of dicentrics and rings were determined in 129 victims [A.T. Ramalho, PhD Thesis, Subsidios a tecnica de dosimetria citogenetica gerados a partir da analise de resultados obtidos com o acidente radiologico de Goiania, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992]. We have followed some of these victims cytogenetically over the years seeking for parameters that could be used as basis for retrospective radiation dosimetry. Our data on translocation frequencies obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could be directly compared to the baseline frequencies of dicentrics available for those same victims. Our results provided valuable information on how precise these estimates are. The frequencies of translocations observed years after the radiation exposure were two to three times lower than the initial dicentrics frequencies, the differences being larger at higher doses (>1 Gy). The accuracy of such dose estimates might be increased by scoring sufficient amount of cells. However, factors such as the persistence of translocation carrying lymphocytes, translocation levels not proportional to chromosome size, and inter-individual variation reduce the precision of these estimates

  14. High-throughput microfluidics automated cytogenetic processing for effectively lowering biological process time and aid triage during radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, Adarsh

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear or radiation mass casualties require individual, rapid, and accurate dose-based triage of exposed subjects for cytokine therapy and supportive care, to save life. Radiation mass casualties will demand high-throughput individual diagnostic dose assessment for medical management of exposed subjects. Cytogenetic techniques are widely used for triage and definitive radiation biodosimetry. Prototype platform to demonstrate high-throughput microfluidic micro incubation to support the logistics of sample in miniaturized incubators from the site of accident to analytical labs has been developed. Efforts have been made, both at the level of developing concepts and advanced system for higher throughput in processing the samples and also implementing better and efficient methods of logistics leading to performance of lab-on-chip analyses. Automated high-throughput platform with automated feature extraction, storage, cross platform data linkage, cross platform validation and inclusion of multi-parametric biomarker approaches will provide the first generation high-throughput platform systems for effective medical management, particularly during radiation mass casualty events

  15. Laser-based flow cytometric analysis of genotoxicity of humans exposed to ionizing radiation during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.H.; Bigbee, W.L.; Langlois, R.G.; Grant, S.G.; Pleshanov, P.G.; Chirkov, A.A.; Pilinskaya, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical technique has been developed that allows laser-based flow cytometric measurement of the frequency of red blood cells that have lost allele-specific expression of a cell surface antigen due to genetic toxicity in bone marrow precursor cells. Previous studies demonstrated a correlation of such effects with the exposure of each individual to mutagenic phenomena, such as ionizing radiation, and the effects can persist for the lifetime of each individual. During the emergency response to the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, USSR, a number of people were exposed to whole body doses of ionizing radiation. Some of these individuals were tested with this laser-based assay and found to express a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of variant red blood cells that appears to be a persistent biological effect. All data indicate that this assay might well be used as a biodosimeter to estimate radiation dose and also as an element to be used for estimating the risk of each individual to develop cancer due to radiation exposure. 17 refs., 5 figs

  16. Comorbidity and radiation: methodological aspects of health assessment of persons exposed to the Chornobyl accident factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosach, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comorbidity is one of the most challenging problems of a modern medicine. In a population exposed to the factors of the Chornobyl accident there is an obvious increase in the number of diseases occurring simultaneously against the background of rising prevalence of different classes of chronic medical nosology. The scientific data analysis are presented on the methodological approaches that can be used to create a specialized system for integrated assessment of the health of patients with comorbid disorders. Developing such a system it should be taken into account the trends of chang