WorldWideScience

Sample records for major public health

  1. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  2. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. This article is part of a Special Issue

  3. [Public health in major socio-economic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmacini, G

    2014-01-01

    The term "crisis" in different cultures (such as ancient Greece or China) can have a positive meaning, since it indicates a time of growth, change and opportunity. Over the centuries there have been times of severe economic and social crisis that led to the implementation of major reforms and improved population health. Nowadays, despite the new economic crisis which has also affected health care for its rising costs, health economics does not hesitate to affirm the importance of key objectives such as prevention and medical assistance. Prevention is not prediction. Prevention means "going upstream" and fixing a problem at the source; the goal is to reduce diseases' effects, causes and risk factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of costly medical conditions.

  4. Campylobacter in the environment: A major threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.

  5. Family planning: a major public health programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S

    1968-01-01

    India's increase of 12 million people each year nullifies almost all the considerable progress the country made in agriculture and industrial production during 19 years of her freedom. Today she ranks 2nd in population and 7th in land area of the world. She claims 15% of the world's population, on about 2.4% of the world's land area. The Government of India has taken family planning as a major national health program under her Five-Year Plans, but impact of this program is not felt as yet. Since this is a difficult complex problem with many facets, it has to be attacked forcefully, drastically, and on all fronts. An all-out war has to be waged against the population growth. India should attack it with all the weapons she had: education, propaganda, taxation, legalization of abortion, and even compulsory sterilization. Overnight change in the fertility pattern of the people is impossible.

  6. Monitoring public health following a major firework factory explosion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; IJzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: In May 2000, a firework factory exploded in a residential area in the Netherlands, resulting in 22 deaths, 947 wounded people, and about 2.000 severely damaged houses. Following the explosion, a largescale monitoring study was implemented to examine disaster-related health consequences

  7. EDITORIAL Road traffic accident: A major public health problem in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Damen Haile Mariam1. One of the articles in this issue demonstrates how road traffic accident is a serious, but neglected, health problem in Ethiopia using secondary data collected by the Amhara National Regional State. Police Commission from 2007-2011 (1). Fatalities due to traffic accidents are reported to be among.

  8. Major health service transformation and the public voice: conflict, challenge or complicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham P; Carter, Pam; Dent, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Calls for major reconfigurations of health services have been accompanied by recommendations that wide ranging stakeholders be involved. In particular, patients and the wider public are seen as critical contributors as both funders and beneficiaries of public health care. But public involvement is fraught with challenges, and little research has focused on involvement in the health service transformation initiatives. This paper examines the design and function of public involvement in reconfiguration of health services within the English NHS. Methods Qualitative data including interviews, observation and documents were collected in two health service 'transformation' programmes; interviews include involved public and professional participants. Data were analysed using parallel deductive and inductive approaches. Results Public involvement in the programmes was extensive but its terms of reference, and the individuals involved, were restricted by policy pressures and programme objectives. The degree to which participants descriptively or substantively represented the wider public was limited; participants sought to 'speak for' this public but their views on what was 'acceptable' and likely to influence decision-making led them to constrain their contributions. Conclusions Public involvement in two major service reconfiguration programmes in England was seen as important and functional, and could not be characterized as tokenistic. Yet involvement in these programmes fell short of normative ideals, and could inadvertently reduce, rather than enlarge, public influence on health service reconfiguration decisions.

  9. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  10. Smokeless tobacco: a major public health problem in the SEA region: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Ray, Cecily S; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Singh, Poonam K

    2011-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand's successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.

  11. Unsuccessfully Treated Hypertension: A Major Public Health Problem With a Potential Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furberg, Curt D; Sealey, Jean E; Blumenfeld, Jon D

    2017-09-01

    About one-half of all hypertensive adults do not have their blood pressure controlled. They are often prescribed medications that conform to national guidelines but they continue to have elevated blood pressure. This public health problem might be improved by applying plasma renin guided therapy. A contributor to the public health problem of unsuccessfully treated hypertension is that the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is not recognized in treatment guidelines as clinically relevant for the treatment of hypertension or as important as the body salt status for determining blood pressure levels. Another contributor to the problem is the lack of specificity in the package inserts for antihypertensive drugs. They do not specifically state under the heading "Indications" that RAS blockers are primarily most effective in hypertensive subjects with medium and high plasma renin levels; by contrast, natriuretic drugs are most effective in those with low plasma renin levels. Literature review. To address the problem of unsuccessfully treated hypertension, we recommend that the "Indications" section of package inserts for antihypertensive drugs be more specific. The primary indication for RAS blockers ought to be hypertension with medium and high plasma renin levels, and natriuretic agents for those with low plasma renin levels. Similar language ought to be added to treatment guidelines. Additionally, 3 other reasons for lack of blood pressure control also need to be addressed-failure to prescribe antihypertensive drugs to hypertensive subjects, failure of patients to fill prescriptions, and low drug adherence. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. A Cross Sectional Study of Kretek Smoking in Indonesia as a Major Risk to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous; Kosen, Soewarte; Tjandra, Aditama; Kadarmanto; Qureshi, Farukh; Andes, Linda; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable disease and death worldwide. Kreteks are clove-flavored cigarettes made from a combination of tobacco and ground-clove mixed with a sauce, smoked widely in Indonesia. Because health and social consequences of kretek smoking are potentially as great as those of traditional cigarettes, this study examines the prevalence of kretek smoking in Indonesia and associated risk factors. The study used nationally representative Indonesia Global Adult Tobacco Survey data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to identify correlates of kretek smoking. One- third of Indonesian adults smoked tobacco of which about 90.0% smoked kreteks. Prevalence of kretek smoking among men (60.9%) was more than 25 times the rate among women (2.3%). Overall, the highest prevalence of kretek use was in the age group 45-54 years (36.5%), followed by 34-44 (35.1%), 25-34 (34.2 %), and 55-64 years (32.8%). By wealth index, prevalence of kreteks smoking among those in the middle index was almost 50% above the rate for the wealthiest group (36.4% vs 24.8% respectively). Logistic regression results showed that being male, being older, having less education, and being less wealthy were significant predictors of kretek smoking, while urban vs rural residence was not. Kretek smoking is common in Indonesia and is entrenched in the sociocultural fabric of the country. However, potential consequences of kretek smoking, particularly as risks for noncommunicable diseases, underscore the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control as outlined in the World Health Organization's MPOWER strategies.

  13. Stability of Major Geogenic Cations in Drinking Water - An Issue of Public Health Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Kirstine; Hansen, Birgitte; Schullehner, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Concentrations and spatial variations of the four cations Na, K, Mg and Ca are known to some extent for groundwater and to a lesser extent for drinking water. Using Denmark as case, the purpose of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in the major cations in drinking water...

  14. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. Results In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. Conclusions The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy. PMID:20044938

  15. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Pamela W; Dickson, Hugh G; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Whyte, Linda

    2010-01-03

    No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy.

  16. Human skin wounds: A major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, C.K.; Gordillo, G.M.; Roy, S.

    2009-01-01

    . Forty million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 2000, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient surgeries. The need for post-surgical wound care is sharply on the rise. Emergency wound care in an acute setting has major significance not only in a war setting but also...... in homeland preparedness against natural disasters as well as against terrorism attacks. An additional burden of wound healing is the problem of skin scarring, a $12 billion annual market. The immense economic and social impact of wounds in our society calls for allocation of a higher level of attention...

  17. Synthetic Cathinone and Cannabinoid Designer Drugs Pose a Major Risk for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv M. Weinstein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of an increasing worldwide use of designer drugs, recent use of compounds containing cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids is especially prevalent. Here, we reviewed current literature on the prevalence, epidemiology, bio-behavioral effects, and detection of these compounds. Gender differences and clinical effects will also be examined. Chronic use of synthetic cathinone compounds can have major effects on the central nervous system and can induce acute psychosis, hypomania, paranoid ideation, and delusions, similar to the effects of other better-known amphetamine-type stimulants. Synthetic cannabinoid products have effects that are somewhat similar to those of natural cannabis but more potent and long-lasting than THC. Some of these compounds are potent and dangerous, having been linked to psychosis, mania, and suicidal ideation. Novel compounds are developed rapidly and new screening techniques are needed to detect them as well as a rigorous regulation and legislation reinforcement to prevent their distribution and use. Given the rapid increase in the use of synthetic cathinones and cannabinoid designer drugs, their potential for dependence and abuse, and harmful medical and psychiatric effects, there is a need for research and education in the areas of prevention and treatment.

  18. Public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  19. Widespread usage of infant formula in China: a major public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Yang, Yuxiong; Wu, Yan; Li, Yanxia; Qiu, Liqian

    2014-12-01

    The potential health risks of infant formula feeding are well established. This study investigated the opinions and perceptions of mothers and recommendations by hospital staff with respect to infant formula usage in China. A cross-sectional survey of 726 mothers within 6 months postpartum and 241 hospital staff, using structured questionnaires, was conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Overall, 474 of 726 (65.3%) infants aged within 6 months had consumed some infant formula. About 40.0 percent of mothers chose a hybrid brand of formula (manufactured in China but owned by a foreign company), over imported (< 32.0%) and domestic brands (< 28.0%), despite their higher level of confidence on the quality of imported brands. Perceived insufficient breastmilk production (86.2%) was the most common reason for giving infant formula, followed by return to work (24.6%). Of the 241 hospital staff, 97 (40.2%) gave no recommendation about infant formula brand for infants at any age. However, 47.2 percent of the remaining staff recommended a hybrid brand in combination with an imported and/or a domestic product. Perceptions by mothers and recommendations from hospital staff appear to contribute to the widespread usage of infant formula in China. It is important to ensure breastmilk substitutes are prescribed to Chinese infants strictly for medical reasons. Maternal education programs incorporating information on food safety issues and establishment of breastfeeding-friendly workplaces could curtail the common practice of formula feeding in China. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Public Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ian health ministry, and the Canadian. International ... Tanzanian and Canadian researchers began work on ... information on the major causes of death ... The effects have been dramatic. Accord- ... destroy mosquito breeding grounds, such.

  1. Issues in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sim, Fiona; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    ..., there is increasing understanding of the inevitable limits of individual health care and of the need to complement such services with effective public health strategies. Major improvements in people's health will come from controlling communicable diseases, eradicating environmental hazards, improving people's diets and enhancing the availability ...

  2. Liver diseases: A major, neglected global public health problem requiring urgent actions and large-scale screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, Patrick; Kutala, Blaise K

    2018-02-01

    CLDs represent an important, and certainly underestimated, global public health problem. CLDs are highly prevalent and silent, related to different, sometimes associated causes. The distribution of the causes of these diseases is slowly changing, and within the next decade, the proportion of virus-induced CLDs will certainly decrease significantly while the proportion of NASH will increase. There is an urgent need for effective global actions including education, prevention and early diagnosis to manage and treat CLDs, thus preventing cirrhosis-related morbidity and mortality. Our role is to increase the awareness of the public, healthcare professionals and public health authorities to encourage active policies for early management that will decrease the short- and long-term public health burden of these diseases. Because necroinflammation is the key mechanism in the progression of CLDs, it should be detected early. Thus, large-scale screening for CLDs is needed. ALT levels are an easy and inexpensive marker of liver necroinflammation and could be the first-line tool in this process. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Public health and Plowshare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, Jr, J G [Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, U.S. PubIic Health Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  4. Public health and Plowshare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, J.G. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The protection of public health and safety is a principal area of concern in any application of nuclear energy. A health and safety analysis must be conducted and reviewed by appropriate agencies and the final results made available to interested agencies and groups, both public and private, prior to the application. This is especially important for the Plowshare Program - the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives - where the public is to be the ultimate beneficiary. Because public health must be a primary concern in the Plowshare Program, it is essential that the potential risk be weighed against the expected benefits to the public. Public health agencies must play an increasingly important role in the planning and operational stages of the peaceful applications of nuclear explosives and in the final stage of consumer use of Plowshare-generated products. There are many long term and long distance ramifications of the Plowshare Program, such a the potential radiological contamination of consumer products that may reach the consumer at long times after the event or at great distances from the site of the event. Criteria for evaluating public exposure to radiation from these products need to be developed based on sound scientific research. Standards for radioactivity in consumer products must be developed in relation to potential exposure of the public. Above all, a clear benefit to the public with a minimum of risk must be shown. The major purpose of this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear-Explosives is to focus attention on the health and safety aspects, present the results of safety analyses accomplished to date and other information necessary to an understanding of the public health aspects, and to identify areas where additional research is required. A general overview of the total symposium content is presented with emphasis on the relationship of the topics to public health. (author)

  5. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in health care workers: First report from a major public hospital in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncompain, Carina Andrea; Suárez, Cristian Alejandro; Morbidoni, Héctor Ricardo

    Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous mild to severe infections in humans, both in health facilities and in the community. Patients and health care workers (HCWs) may disseminate strains during regular medical examinations or hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus among health care workers at Hospital Provincial del Centenario, a public general hospital in Rosario, Argentina. A transversal study was conducted on 320 health care workers. Nasal swabs were taken and presumptive S. aureus colonies were isolated. Bacterial identity and methicillin resistance status were confirmed by amplification of the nuc and mec genes. Chi square test and Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. Of 320 HCWs, 96 (30%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, 20 of whom (6.3%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 76 (23.7%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Carriage was within thepublished values for physicians (30%) and higher for technicians (57%). Accompanying resistance (62/96, 64.6%) was detected, including resistance to fluoroquinolones (23/96, 24%), aminoglucosides (13/96, 13.5%) or to macrolides (33/96, 34.4%). All the strains were susceptible to vancomycin whereas only 3.1% (3/96), all of them on MSSA strains, were resistant to mupirocin. This study is the first one of its kind in Argentina and one of the few performed in South America, to highlight the relevance of nasal carriage of MRSA and MSSA in health care personnel and brings to light the need for consensus recommendations for regular S. aureus carriage screening as well as for decolonization strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Challenges in the implementation of clinical practice guidelines in major public health institutions in Mexico: A multiple case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alba, Gaudencio; González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2015-01-01

    To identify, prioritize and relate barriers and facilitators in the implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (GPC, in Spanish). We used qualitative methods to study and compare the introduction of GPC across the domains of the consolidated research implementation framework in hospitals of the three main public institutions in a state of Mexico. Authorities and hospital staff were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The main barriers to implementation are the absence of standards, training, resources and incentives. The most important implementation facilitators are the characteristics of the GPC, which are perceived as properly designed and with simple language as well as with capacity to improve the work environment. The barriers to implementation must be solved to achieve the goal of standardizing the healthcare process across the sector; the positive perception of the GPC should promote the continuous actualization of the evidence and a sectoral view from their development stage to ensure adoption in the heterogeneous environments that characterize health institutions.

  7. Public Health Departments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — State and Local Public Health Departments in the United States Governmental public health departments are responsible for creating and maintaining conditions that...

  8. [The Journal de chimie médicale (Journal of Medical Chemistry) : a major innovation on French public health during the 19th century ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    JBA Chevallier is first known for his publication in 1850 of his book on falsifications. But he had also a major role for the opening of the pharmacy world to toxicological and Public Health issues, through the founding in 1825, and the management for more than 50 years, of the Journal de chimie médicale, de pharmacie et de toxicologie (Journal of Medical Chemistry, of Pharmacy and of Toxicology). The purpose of the present study has been to look at the evolution of that publication over the years and to compare its content with the reference pharmaceutical journal at that time : the Journal de pharmacie et de chimie (Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry). One can observe that the editorial lines of both journals will progressively diverge from each other, but Chevallier remained strongly connected with pharmacy, his journal merging finally in 1876 with the Répertoire de pharmacie (Index of Pharmacy).

  9. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  11. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  12. Bioethics and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Penchaszadeh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the evolution of bioethics a discipline from its initial focus, concerned with issues of personal autonomy and the conflicts around the use of complex technology in medicine, to where it is now; focused on major population issues in public health, with a focus on equality, justice and the right to health. As part of this it considers the 18 guiding principles and issues in bioethics contained in the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights of UNESCO.

  13. Internet use and television viewing in children and its association with vision loss: a major public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution of eye and vision conditions among school children in Qatar. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of excessive internet use and television viewing on low vision and its prevalence with socio-demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in the public and private schools of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the State of Qatar from September 2009 to April 2010. A total of 3200 students aged 6-18 years were invited to take part of whom 2586 (80.8% agreed. A questionnaire, that included questions about socio-demographic factors, internet use, and television viewing and computer games, co-morbid factors, and family history and vision assessment, was designed to collect information from the students. This was distributed by the school authorities. Of the school children studied (n=2586, 52.8% were girls and 47.2% boys. The overall prevalence of low vision was 15.2%. The prevalence of low vision was significantly higher in the age group 6-10 years (17.1%; P=0.05. Low vision was more prevalent among television viewers (17.2% than in infrequent viewers (14.0%. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher in frequent internet users and television viewers (21.3%. Also, low vision without aid was higher in frequent viewers. The study findings revealed a greater prevalence of low vision among frequent internet users and television viewers. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher among frequent viewers. The prevalence of low vision decreased with increasing age.

  14. Internet Use and Television Viewing in Children and its Association with Vision Loss: A Major Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S

    2012-03-07

    Little is known about the distribution of eye and vision conditions among school children in Qatar. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of excessive internet use and television viewing on low vision and its prevalence with socio-demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in the public and private schools of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the State of Qatar from September 2009 to April 2010. A total of 3200 students aged 6-18 years were invited to take part of whom 2586 (80.8%) agreed. A questionnaire, that included questions about socio-demographic factors, internet use, and television viewing and computer games, co-morbid factors, and family history and vision assessment, was designed to collect information from the students. This was distributed by the school authorities. Of the school children studied (n=2586), 52.8% were girls and 47.2% boys. The overall prevalence of low vision was 15.2%. The prevalence of low vision was significantly higher in the age group 6-10 years (17.1%; P=0.05). Low vision was more prevalent among television viewers (17.2%) than in infrequent viewers (14.0%). The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher in frequent internet users and television viewers (21.3%). Also, low vision without aid was higher in frequent viewers. The study findings revealed a greater prevalence of low vision among frequent internet users and television viewers. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher among frequent viewers. The prevalence of low vision decreased with increasing age.

  15. Major differences in prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany: determinants and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper-Nybelen, J; Lamerz, A; Bruning, N; Hebebrand, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Brenner, H

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany, and to establish the determinants responsible for differences in body mass index. The study was performed within the context of the 2001/2002 obligatory health examination before school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany. Of 2020 eligible children 1979 children were recruited (participation rate: 98%). Children's height and weight were measured using a standardised protocol. The parents completed a standardised questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and possible determinants of nutritional status. Being overweight was defined according to age and sex specific reference values for German children as well as according to international reference values. The study population included 452 (22.9%) children with other than German nationality. Among these children the prevalence of overweight was twice as high than among German children (14.8% v 7.2%). Prevalence of most known risk factors for overweight, such as low physical activity, high consumption of soft drinks, and frequent visits to fast-food restaurants was higher in the children with other nationalities than in the German children. Multivariate analyses revealed that most of the difference in prevalence of obesity by nationality is explained by known risk factors of overweight, especially education of mother and watching TV. The apparent ethnic differences could be explained by two non-ethnic but socioeconomic factors. In preventing overweight in children, there is the need to identify and deal with high risk environments rather than high risk ethnic groups.

  16. Public health risk of trace metals in fresh chicken meat products on the food markets of a major production region in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Chen, Gang; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2018-03-01

    Because most chickens are reared in intensive farms, where a range of feed additives are used routinely, concerns have been raised on the potential public health risk of chicken product consumption. This study was conducted to characterize the contents of trace metals in fresh chicken tissues (354 samples) on the food markets in Guangdong province of southern China, a major region of chicken production with heavy per capita chicken consumption, and to assess the public health risk from chronic dietary exposure to the trace metals through chicken consumption. With the exception of Cr, Ni, and Pb, the contents of trace metals were generally higher in the chicken giblets (livers, gizzards, hearts, and kidneys) compared to muscles (breasts and drumsticks). Chicken tissues from the urban markets generally contained higher levels of As, Cu, Mn, and Zn than those from the rural markets, while the contents of Pb were typically higher in the chicken muscles from the rural markets. Results of statistical analyses indicate that Cu, Zn, and As in the chicken tissues derived mainly from the feeds, which is consistent with the widespread use of Cu, Zn, and phenylarsenic compounds as feed supplements/additives in intensive poultry farming. No non-carcinogenic risk is found with the consumption of fresh chicken meat products on the food markets, while approximately 70% of the adult population in Guangzhou and 30% of those in Lianzhou have bladder and lung cancer risk above the serious or priority level (10 -4 ), which arises from the inorganic arsenic contained in the chicken tissues. These findings indicate that the occurrence of inorganic arsenic at elevated levels in chicken tissues on the food markets in Guangdong province poses a significant public health risk, thus the use of phenylarsenic feed additives in China's poultry farming should be significantly reduced and eventually phased out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Anaemia Have Major Public Health Importance in Children Aged 6-59 Months in the Duggina Fanigo District of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiku, Yohannes Samuel; Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Amare, Endale

    2018-01-01

    Globally, a large number of children aged 6-59 months are affected by anaemia. In Ethiopia, like other developing countries, more than 40% of children under 5 years are affected by anaemia. Anaemia during infancy and childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earning potential in their adult life. The aim of this research was to assess whether anaemia remained a major public health problem among children aged 6-59 months or not in Duggina Fanigo District of Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia in 2016. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2016, on 404 mothers with children aged 6-59 months who were selected through the systematic sampling method. Socio-demographic and other data on associated factors was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Capillary blood was taken from the fingertip of each child and hemoglobin was measured using Haemo-Cue digital photometer. All the necessary safety measures were taken during blood collection. Data analysis was made using SPSS version 21. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of independent variables with outcome variables and to control the possible confounding factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 51.4%. Anaemia was common among young children as compared to older children. After controlling the effect of confounding and adjusting for age, gender and altitude, explanatory variables like low dietary diversity (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI [1.68-6.23]), food insecurity (AOR = 3.63; 95% CI [2.18-6.04]), stunting (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.56-4.35]), underweight (AOR = 2.46; 95% CI [1.29-4.67]) and fever within 2 weeks (AOR = 2.49; 95% CI [1.29-4.81]) prior to the survey were significantly associated with anaemia. In conclusion, the overall prevalence of anaemia among children aged 6-59 months has remained a major public health importance in the study area. Integrated

  18. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  19. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  20. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  1. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  2. Information support for major public events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the IAEA illicit trafficking database is used to provide information on and assesment of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials to national authorities in charge of nuclear security of major public events. The information communicated to state parties cooperating with IAEA is on incidences confirmed to the agency on illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and also incidences reported in open sources which have not been confirmed.

  3. Environmental Public Health Tracking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast series, CDC scientists address frequently asked questions about the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, including using and applying data, running queries, and much more.

  4. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    "Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...

  5. A public health perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    EDITORIAL. Enabling local health departments to save more lives: A public ... promoting health through the organized efforts of society” (1) ... and synergistic with achieving the sustainable development goals because its furtherance brings a ...

  6. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  7. Public health and peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Ulrich; Donev, Donco; Bjegović, Vesna; Sarolli, Ylli

    2002-04-01

    The modern concept of public health, the New Public Health, carries a great potential for healthy and therefore less aggressive societies. Its core disciplines are health promotion, environmental health, and health care management based on advanced epidemiological methodologies. The main principles of living together in healthy societies can be summarized as four ethical concepts of the New Public Health essential to violence reduction equity, participation, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The following issues are discussed as violence determinants: the process of urbanization; type of neighborhood and accommodation, and consequent stigmatization; level of education; employment status; socialization of the family; women's status; alcohol and drug consumption; availability of the firearms; religious, ethnic, and racial prejudices; and poverty. Development of the health systems has to contribute to peace, since aggression, violence, and warfare are among the greatest risks for health and the economic welfare. This contribution can be described as follows: 1) full and indiscriminate access to all necessary services, 2) monitoring of their quality, 3) providing special support to vulnerable groups, and 4) constant scientific and public accountability of the evaluation of the epidemiological outcome. Violence can also destroy solidarity and social cohesion of groups, such as family, team, neighborhood, or any other social organization. Durkheim coined the term anomie for a state in which social disruption of the community results in health risks for individuals. Health professionals can make a threefold contribution to peace by 1) analyzing the causal interrelationships of violence phenomena, 2) curbing the determinants of violence according to the professional standards, and 3) training professionals for this increasingly important task. Because tolerance is an essential part of an amended definition of health, monitoring of the early signs of public intolerance is

  8. Children's Health Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each title has a brief description and link for downloading the full text. Includes the publications catalog, the Child Health Champion resource guide, student curriculum materials, reports, fact sheets, and booklets/brochures of advice and tools.

  9. GIS and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bertazzon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue on GIS and public health is the result of a highly selective process, which saw the participation of some 20 expert peer-reviewers and led to the acceptance of one half of the high-quality submissions received over the past year. Many threads link these papers to each other and, indeed, to our original call for papers, but the element that most clearly emerges from these works is the inextricable connection between public health and the environment. Indeed, GIS analysis of public health simply cannot disregard the geospatial dimension of environmental resources and risks. What consistently emerges from these analyses is that current geospatial research can only scratch the surface of the complex interactions of spatial resources, risks, and public health. In today’s world, or at least in the developed world, researchers and practitioners can count on virtually endless data, on inexpensive computational power, and on seamless connectivity. In this research environment, these papers point to the need for improved analytical tools, covering concepts, representation, modeling and reliability. These works are important contributions that help us to identify what advances in geospatial analysis can better address the complex interactions of public health with our physical and cultural environment, and bridge research and practice, so that geospatial analyses can inform public health policy making. [...

  10. Towards a public health profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders

    2015-01-01

    in the theoretical as well as the practical potential of the public health professional. Thus, he and she must be able to perform, what WHO Europe has developed as Essential Public Health Operations (EPHOs).3 This, in turn, implies that the public health professional possesses the set of intellectual (knowledge...... endorsed by WHO Europe’s member states as the basis for the public health education in Europe.5 The sections of the lists include: Public health methods; Population health and: Its social and economic determinants, and: Its material environmental determinants; Man-made interventions and systems, namely...... Health policy, health economics, organizational theory, health legislation, and public health leadership and management; Health promotion—health education, health protection, disease prevention; public health ethics. This should form the central part of the basis for all public health professionals...

  11. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues

  12. Financial statistics of major publicly owned electric utilities, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-31

    The Financial Statistics of Major Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues.

  13. Preparedness activities regarding the protection of public health in case of a major oil or chemical spill on the St-Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrier, P.; Manon, P.

    1996-01-01

    A project was initiated to protect the health of people living in the St-Lawrence basin from contaminants associated with an oil or chemical spill. Between 1980 and 1990, more than 240 chemical spills and 300 oil spills were recorded in the region which has prompted concerns regarding the possible contamination of drinking water sources. 45% of Quebec's population relies on the St-Lawrence River as a source of drinking water. Thus far, the project has identified the major chemical and oil products transported on the St-Lawrence River, and the main health risks associated with these products. Computerized dispersion models which can determine the migration of the contaminants in water, are available. Simulation exercises have been carried out to train personnel in the event of an actual spill. 1 ref

  14. Gis and public health

    CERN Document Server

    Cromley, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises w

  15. Globalisation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health.

  16. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  17. Facebook and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey about the perceptions and practices of social media managers and experts in the area of public health. We have collected Facebook data from 153 public health care organizations and conducted a survey on them. 12% of organizations responded to the questionnaire....... The survey results were combined with the findings from our previous work of applying clustering and supervised learning algorithms on big social data from the official Facebook walls of these organizations. In earlier research, we showed that the most successful strategy that leads to higher post engagement...... is visual content. In this paper, we investigated if organisations pursue this strategy or some other strategy that was successful and has not been uncovered by the machine learning algorithms. Performance of each organisation on Facebook is based on the number of posts (volume share) and the number...

  18. Geomatics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, R; Jhonson, C P

    2006-01-01

    Geomatics technology has tremendous potential to address public health issues particularly under the present circumstances of global climate change and climate or technology induced human migration, which result in an increase in the geographical extent and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases. The authors present an overview of the science of geomatics, describe the potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases and review the applications of remote sensing for disease vector surveillance.

  19. Doping and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    rad av världens främsta idrottsvetare och dopningsexperter hade mött upp för att presentera papers till en intresserad och engagerad publik. Temat för konferensen var "Doping and Public Health", och den aspekten behandlades också; dock tolkade flera presentatörer temat på sina egna vis, och hela...

  20. Surgery, public health, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Syed Nabeel; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Surgical healthcare is rapidly gaining recognition as a major public health issue. Surgical disparities are large, with poorest populations receiving the least amount of emergency and essential surgical care. In light of recent evidence, developing countries, such as Pakistan, must acknowledge surgical disease as a major public health issue and prioritize research and intervention accordingly. We review information from various sources and describe the current situation of surgical health care in Pakistan and highlight areas of neglect. Pakistan suffers an annual deficit of 17 million surgeries. Surgical disease kills more people than infectious diseases inclusive of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal disease, and childhood infections. The incidence of trauma and maternal mortality ratio are staggeringly high. There is a severe dearth of surgical and anesthesia-related epidemiological data. Important information that would help to drive policy and planning is not available. Corruption and neglect have led to a dilapidated health care infrastructure. Surgical care is largely inaccessible to the poor, especially those living in rural areas. The country faces a dearth of healthcare professionals, especially paramedics, anesthetists, and surgeons. Unsafe surgery and anesthesia poses a significant risk to patients. There is no national policy on surgical illness and the preventive aspects of surgery are nonexistent. Consistent with other underdeveloped countries, surgical care in Pakistan is dismal. Neglecting surgery and safe anesthesia has led to countless deaths and disability. Physicians, researchers, policy makers, and the government health care system must engage and commit to provide access to emergency, essential, and safe surgical care.

  1. Major Changes in AGU Publication Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bill

    2010-12-01

    Effective with any manuscript submitted after 31 December 2010, AGU is eliminating color charges in all formats. At the same time that we eliminate color charges, we are simplifying publication fees. Articles published in Journal of Geophysical Research; Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems; and Radio Science will each have a flat fee of $1000, and Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) articles will each have a flat fee of $500. These prices represent a small drop from the average cost currently paid by authors. We will retain the excess page charges for full articles longer than 13 pages (including Water Resources Research) and 4 pages for letters, comments, and replies. This simplification means we can streamline the “calculator” authors must use when submitting manuscripts to AGU.

  2. Training public health superheroes: five talents for public health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Matthew; Shickle, Darren; Smith, Kevin; Zakariasen, Ken; Moskol, Jacob; Oliver, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Public health leaders have been criticized for their policy stances, relationships with governments and failure to train the next generation. New approaches to the identification and training of public health leaders may be required. To inform these, lessons can be drawn from public health 'superheroes'; public health leaders perceived to be the most admired and effective by their peers. Members and Fellows of the UK Faculty of Public Health were contacted via e-newsletter and magazine and asked to nominate their 'Public Health Superhero'. Twenty-six responses were received, nominating 40 different people. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis, based on 'grounded theory', was conducted. Five leadership 'talents' for public health were identified: mentoring-nurturing, shaping-organizing, networking-connecting, knowing-interpreting and advocating-impacting. Talent-based approaches have been effective for leadership development in other sectors. These talents are the first specific to the practice of public health and align with some aspects of existing frameworks. An increased focus on identifying and developing talents during public health training, as opposed to 'competency'-based approaches, may be effective in strengthening public health leadership. Further research to understand the combination and intensity of talents across a larger sample of public health leaders is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A global public health imperative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    Actions towards closing the health equity gap: A global public health imperative. Tewabech ... global health development. With only two ... of himself and of his family; including food, clothing .... impact on health equity and in the end issued the.

  4. Nanotechnology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Tanır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new revolution in technology; being used in different parts of life such as self-cleaning paints, dirt repellent fabrics, the destruction of cancer cells without harming the person, biosensors that can detect even a single bacterium, odorless socks due to the destruction of bacteria, germ-free refrigerators, disinfection etc. In this article, we consider in the perspective of public health the possible risks of this new technology, which is starting to appear in all areas of our daily lives. 

  5. Advances in dental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R D

    2001-07-01

    Dental public health has been defined as 'the science and art of preventing oral diseases, promoting oral health and improving the quality of life through the organised efforts of society'. Dental practitioners most often have the oral health of individual patients as their primary focus but the aim of public health is to benefit populations. Early developments in dental public health were concerned largely with demonstrating levels of disease and with treatment services. With greater appreciation of the nature of oral health and disease, and of their determinants has come recognition of the need for wider public health action if the effects of prevention and oral health promotion are to be maximized.

  6. Profile of Public Health Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ruth Gaskins; Greer, Annette; Clay, Maria; McFadden, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Public health leaders play pivotal roles in ensuring the population health for our nation. Since 2000, the number of schools of public health has almost doubled. The scholarly credentials for leaders of public health in academic and practice are important, as they make decisions that shape the future public health workforce and important public health policies. This research brief describes the educational degrees of deans of schools of public health and state health directors, as well as their demographic profiles, providing important information for future public health leadership planning. Data were extracted from a database containing information obtained from multiple Web sites including academic institution Web sites and state government Web sites. Variables describe 2 sets of public health leaders: academic deans of schools of public health and state health directors. Deans of schools of public health were 73% males and 27% females; the PhD degree was held by 40% deans, and the MD degree by 33% deans. Seventy percent of deans obtained their terminal degree more than 35 years ago. State health directors were 60% males and 40% females. Sixty percent of state health directors had an MD degree, 4% a PhD degree, and 26% no terminal degree at all. Sixty-four percent of state health directors received their terminal degree more than 25 years ago. In addition to terminal degrees, 56% of deans and 40% of state health directors held MPH degrees. The findings call into question competencies needed by future public health professionals and leadership and the need to clarify further the level of public health training and degree type that should be required for leadership qualifications in public health.

  7. Public Health Nursing: Public Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice , Alaska 99752 Phone: 442-7144 Fax: 442-7292 e-mail: Josephine Oke, Program Manager [back to top] North Phone: 852-0270 Fax: 852-2855 email: Andrey Boskhomdzhiev [back to top] Municipality of Anchorage P.O

  8. Critical perspectives in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Judith; Labonte, Ronald N

    2008-01-01

    ... the contemporary roles of 'critical voices' in public health research and practice from a range of disciplines and contexts. The book covers many of the pressing concerns for public health practitioners and researchers, including: * * * * * the implications of new genetic technologies for public health; the impact of globalisation on local practice...

  9. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  10. Feminism and public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

  11. Publication ethics in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Elger, Bernice S

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we describe and analyse three issues in publication ethics that are raised when conducting research in emergencies and disasters. These include reluctance to share data and samples because of concerns about publications, loss of individual authorship in high high-profile multi-entity publications, and the deaths of authors during dangerous research projects. An emergency research pledge may be useful in avoiding some of these issues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Neuroeconomics and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

      Objective: To identify and describe the parameters of the Frontal Power of Concentration (C). Method: Systematic review of EEG- and fMRI-studies from a neuroeconomic point of view. Results: C is a quadripartite executive integrator depending on: 1) Limbic system (L) generates emotions and cogni...... + εI → 1   Discussion:  How to reinforce volitional flexibility (c)? Firstly, cognitive predictions are improved by open-mindedness. Secondly, emotional control is best maintaining an appropriate level of physical fitness. Thirdly, our imagination is directly facilitated by in...... predicts that well-organized stress-management integrating LowTech-interventions as exercise (L↓ and c↑), in-depth-relaxation (c↓) and diet (integrating L, R and c) tailored to the individual would improve public health (national life expectancy) significantly...

  13. Mental health in prisons: A public health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A

    2009-01-01

    Mental illness affects the majority of prisoners. Mental health issues are beginning to take a central position in the development of prison health services, reflecting this burden of disease. This change in focus is not before time. But prison mental health services cannot exist in isolation. Public health systems should lead provision of care for patients with acute and severe illness. A whole prison approach to health and, specifically, mental health will offer the greatest likelihood that offenders will thrive, benefit from imprisonment, and lead law-abiding lives after release. Public awareness of the scale and commitment of prisons to mental health and illness, and understanding of prisons' role in society, are necessary developments that would protect and enhance public mental health, as well as creating a healthier and safer society. This article draws on recent reviews, information and statements to set out a public health agenda for mental health in prisons.

  14. Brucellosis is not a major cause of febrile illness in patients at public health care facilities in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, Tran T. T.; de Vries, Peter J.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the presence of brucellosis among patients with acute febrile illness at health care facilities in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam. A retrospective seroepidemiological study on serum samples collected at 13 not adjacent health care facilities using the Rose Bengal test as a rapid screening

  15. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  16. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  17. Mapping Rwanda public health research(1975-2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research on public health in Rwanda ... formed analyses on journals, most cited articles, authors, publication years, ... One of the major areas is public health. In fact, public health represented the needs ... In the advanced ... searches to get the main relevant topics.

  18. Conventional and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, G

    2009-09-01

    This paper suggests that current models of public health are no longer sufficient as a means for understanding the health challenges of the anthropogenic age, and argues for an alternative based upon an ecological model. The roots of this perspective originated within the Victorian era, although it found only limited expression at that time. Ecological thinking in public health has only been revived relatively recently. Derived from an analysis of obesity, this paper proposes the development of an approach to ecological public health based on four dimensions of existence: the material, the physiological, the social and the cultural-cognitive. The implications for public policy are considered.

  19. Climate Change and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    It is clear that the public health community is concerned about the human health impacts of climate change, but are we inadvertently underestimating the scope of the problem and obfuscating potentially useful interventions by using a narrow intellectual frame in our discussions with policy makers? If we take a more holistic approach, we see that the public health impacts of climate change are only one subset of the enormous public health impacts of fossil fuel burning. This broader perspective can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment that is more useful for decision making in public policy settings.

  20. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Five Classic Articles in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Borak, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In this brief review, Dr. Jonathan Borak comments on five seminal papers that helped shape the fields of epidemiology and public health. These papers include Hill?s criteria for inferring causality; the first proof of the multistage theory of cancer; the first evidence that subclinical lead exposures can cause neurobehavioral impairment in children; a simple yet robust study that had a major influence on setting current air pollution policies; and a landmark review of the general public?s per...

  2. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a variety of comprehensive classroom and curriculum resources. Framing The Future Faculty Resources Educational Models and Reports ... research, and regulate health systems to achieve these goals. Its reach is global. The public health field ...

  3. Breast cancer scenario in a regional cancer centre in Eastern India over eight years--still a major public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Choudhuri, Maitrayee; Guha, Subhas; Biswas, Jaydip

    2012-01-01

    In spite of screening and early diagnostic tests, the upward trend of breast cancer has become a matter of great concern in both developed and developing countries. The data collected by Population Based Cancer Registry in Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, a regional cancer centre in Kolkata, from 1997 to 2004 gives an insight about the scenario of breast cancer in this part of Eastern India. The total no of female breast cancer cases were steadily increasing from 1997 to 2001 and only slightly lower from 2002 to 2004. and majority were in the 40-49 year old age group during this period. The next most commonly affected age group was 50-59 years. Regarding the distribution according to treatment, the main modality was surgery and radiotherapy followed by combined surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and then combined surgery and chemotherapy. The commonest type was ductal followed by lobular cancer. In this eight year study in CNCI, status of patients on last day of the respective year was assessed. Number of patients alive was 43.5% in 1997. The percentage gradually increased up to 2000 and then gradually decreased to 47.4% in 2004. Also with every passing year, percentage mortality gradually decreased from 25.7% in 1997 to 16.8% in 2004. Better pattern of care (diagnosis and treatment) was reflected in this picture. However, lost to follow up, which also implies non compliance to treatment, increased to 30.8% in 1997 to 35.8% in 2004. Due to the small number of male breast cancers, only female cases were considered. In conclusion, breast cancer continues to be a major problem in Kolkata, India.

  4. Public health and the Australian Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C

    1995-06-01

    The powers vested in the Commonwealth Government by the Constitution contain the basis of much public health law in Australia. Yet this is not often recognised; public health law is generally, and historically, seen as the states' responsibility. This article surveys the broad range of constitutional powers that the Commonwealth Government can rely upon to make public health laws. It considers areas of power specified in the Constitution, such as those with respect to external affairs and corporations. Decisions of the High Court have interpreted the various heads of power very broadly and have significantly enhanced the potential of the Commonwealth to pass detailed and far-reaching public health law. To this fact must be added the taxation arrangements in Australia and, with these, the very extensive control that the Commonwealth can exercise through its monopoly of major taxation sources. Its power to make financial arrangements can tie dependent states into specific policies (including public health policies) as a condition of the grants made to them. However, these broad powers may be limited in some important respects: the High Court is increasingly identifying rights and freedoms in the Constitution that may increasingly bring both state and Commonwealth public health law under challenge. Despite this possibility, the Commonwealth may prove to be our most significant source of public health law, and public health policy makers should recognise the full potential of its power to make such laws.

  5. Insights in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Deborah; Sentell, Tetine; Albright, Cheryl; Lansidell, Doug; Nakagawa, Kazuma; Seto, Todd; Stevens, Joel Mark

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Blood pressure reduction and control are associated with reduced risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. To achieve optimal reduction and control, reliable and valid methods for blood pressure measurement are needed. Office based measurements can result in ‘white coat’ hypertension, which is when a patient's blood pressure in a clinical setting is higher than in other settings, or ‘masked’ hypertension, which occurs when a patient's blood pressure is normal in a clinical setting, but elevated outside the clinical setting. In 2015, the US Preventative Services Task Force recommended Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) as the “best method” for measuring blood pressure, endorsing its use both for confirming the diagnosis of hypertension and for excluding ‘white coat’ hypertension. ABPM is a safe, painless and non-invasive test wherein patients wear a small digital blood pressure machine attached to a belt around their body and connected to a cuff around their upper arm that enables multiple automated blood pressure measurements at designated intervals (typically every 15 to 30 minutes) throughout the day and night for a specified period (eg, 24 hours). Patients can go about their typical daily activities wearing the device as much as possible, except when they are bathing, showering, or engaging in heavy exercise. Given the importance of blood pressure monitoring and control to population public health, this article provides details on the relevance and challenges of blood pressure measurement broadly then describes ABPM generally and specifically in the Hawai‘i context. PMID:29164016

  6. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eYeatts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an experience trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they cover key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities.

  7. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda.

  8. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mental health in schools and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman, Howard S; Taylor, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for a greater focus on universal interventions to promote, prevent, and intervene as early after problem onset as is feasible. Those in the public health field are uniquely positioned to help promote the mental health of young people and to reshape how the nation thinks about and addresses mental health. And schools are essential partners for doing the work.

  10. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    prophylaxis methods. The multidisciplinary and multi-center approach in research will provide a better understanding of the processes and quality solutions. The implementation of strategies that encourage the promotion of research will lead to the establishment of joint action lines, allowing a general approach in enhancing biomedical research. In this sense and for social improvement, awareness of researchers in encouraging the detection of social problems is especially relevant. As mentioned it’s estimate the need for establish an adequate framework for public health research in loss-making countries, with results that impact on the advancement of the welfare of the people, advocating to take appropriate actions by the governments and health authorities. Therefore, the primary purpose must be to protect and improve the health of people. This specific aim is positioned on the border between basic research and development, so the contribution of ideas from clinical practice should be used in the treatment of health problems and advance of the prevention. At the same time, promotion of public health training habits will contribute to a better knowledge transfer and implementation of healthy behaviors to collaborate towards the development. There’s an extraordinary opportunity for the establishment of public health research, through the primary consideration of major health problems and providing workable solutions that contribute to improve the existing situation. Overcoming health challenges undoubtedly lead to advance in sustainability in the twenty-first century, producing a social benefit, promoting the progress of humanity in technological and communicative processes, and equity. The competition between research groups should be understood as a mechanism for constructive approach with the ultimate aim to improve society. In turn, the latter must understand and appreciate the progress made through biomedical research, so an effort to scientific communication and

  11. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  12. 77 FR 5750 - Major Capital Investment Projects (NPRM); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects (NPRM); Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Transit... Capital Investments program (``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts''). During these sessions, FTA staff will... amend the regulations for Major Capital Investment Projects at 49 CFR 611. The docket for comments on...

  13. Demographic profile and extent of healthcare resource utilisation of patients with severe traumatic brain injury: still a major public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jing Zhong; Yang, Yun Rui Jasmine; Lee, Qian Yi Ruth; Cao, Kelly; Chong, Chin Ted

    2016-09-01

    Trauma is the fifth principal cause of death in Singapore, with traumatic brain injury (TBI) being the leading specific subordinate cause. This study was an eight-year retrospective review of the demographic profiles of patients with severe TBI who were admitted to the neurointensive care unit (NICU) of the National Neuroscience Institute at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, between 2004 and 2011. A total of 780 TBI patients were admitted during the study period; 365 (46.8%) patients sustained severe TBI (i.e. Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8), with the majority (75.3%) being male. The ages of patients with severe TBI ranged from 14-93 years, with a bimodal preponderance in young adults (i.e. 21-40 years) and elderly persons (i.e. > 60 years). Motor vehicle accidents (48.8%) and falls (42.5%) were the main mechanisms of injury. Invasive line monitoring was frequently employed; invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring and central venous pressure monitoring were used in 81.6% and 60.0% of the patients, respectively, while intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement was required in 47.4% of the patients. The use of tiered therapy to control ICP (e.g. sedation, osmotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, moderate hyperventilation and barbiturate-induced coma) converged with international practices. The high-risk groups for severe TBI were young adults and elderly persons involved in motor vehicle accidents and falls, respectively. In the NICU, the care of patients with severe TBI requires heavy utilisation of resources. The healthcare burden of these patients extends beyond the acute critical care phase.

  14. Social media in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, Taha A; Alhinnawi, Hend

    2013-01-01

    While social media interactions are currently not fully understood, as individual health behaviors and outcomes are shared online, social media offers an increasingly clear picture of the dynamics of these processes. Social media is becoming an increasingly common platform among clinicians and public health officials to share information with the public, track or predict diseases. Social media can be used for engaging the public and communicating key public health interventions, while providing an important tool for public health surveillance. Social media has advantages over traditional public health surveillance, as well as limitations, such as poor specificity, that warrant additional study. Social media can provide timely, relevant and transparent information of public health importance; such as tracking or predicting the spread or severity of influenza, west nile virus or meningitis as they propagate in the community, and, in identifying disease outbreaks or clusters of chronic illnesses. Further work is needed on social media as a valid data source for detecting or predicting diseases or conditions. Also, whether or not it is an effective tool for communicating key public health messages and engaging both, the general public and policy-makers.

  15. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  16. Optimization of health protection of the public following a major nuclear accident: Interaction between radiation protection and social and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.T.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Ramsaev, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    National and international guidance on the optimization of countermeasures to reduce doses in the post-release phase of an accident rightly emphasizes the importance and relevance of psychological, social, and economic factors to this process (e.g., NRPB 1990; ICRP 1991: CEC 1993; IAEA 1994). However, whilst economic factors are, at least partially, taken into account in developing the advice, explicit guidance is not provided on how psychological and social factors should be included in the optimization. Instead it is suggested that this is a matter for those with the appropriate competence and those with responsibility for making the final decisions. This approach implicitly assumes that the optimization of psychological and social factors, and that the results of the two procedures can then be combined to arrive at an optimum course of action. We recognize that formal optimization only forms one input to the process of making decisions on countermeasures and that it is important that psychological and social factors, as well as any other factors, are not open-quotes double-counted.close quotes i.e., accounted for within international advice and then again at the time of the decision. It is our view that the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors, and certain psychological and social factors, should not be carried out independently. Research conducted by our respective organization indicates a number of areas in which the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors requires an understanding of key psychological and social processes. These areas fall into three groups; the need to ensure that countermeasures are successfully implemented, the need to achieve a net benefit for overall health, and the need to ensure a smooth transition back to normal living. 10 refs

  17. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Den Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Oers, Van Hans; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  18. Citizen Science for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in

  19. GIS and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cromley, Ellen K; McLafferty, Sara

    2012-01-01

    ...s. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy...

  20. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like Saba are about three to four times… https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/13/health/colombia- ... often be overlooked as a cause of death": https://insideclimatenews.… Environmental health matters: https://www.theatlantic.com/ ...

  1. Chiropractic care and public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues...... disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession...

  2. [Health services research for the public health service (PHS) and the public health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Wildner, M

    2015-03-01

    There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Why feminism in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A

    1999-12-01

    The issues raised in this editorial and exemplified within a number of the studies reported in this issue indicate new directions for public health, directions which take feminist scholarship, both outside and within the medical framework, into account. The changing potential of feminist public health, as derived from the articles in this issue, can be summarised within the following issues: new research areas, positioning women as actors, development of theoretical frameworks, reflexive theory of science, interplay between sex and gender, gender-sensitive methods, diversities among women/men, pro-feminist research on men's health and using the results for change. Thus, feminist public health represents a shift towards the new public health, with holistic and multidisciplinary activities, based on theoretical pluralism, multiple perspectives and collective actions with the aim of improving the health of gender-subordinated groups.

  4. Bioethics in Public Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Peguero

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioethics study method concerns the duties and values that must be fulfilled for respect for life. The aim of this article is to provide a reflection on bioethics in public health actions. It is a review article that includes authors with different positions. Bioethics, despite its apparent individual focus, is vital to fulfil essential functions in public health, and to guarantee the right to health and respect for human dignity.

  5. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K

    2000-09-01

    There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have particular relevance. Globalization, in turn, can be defined as a process that is changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres and along at least three dimensions. Understanding public health and globalization in these ways suggests the urgent need for research to better understand the linkages between the two, and effective policy responses by a range of public health institutions, including the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine. The paper is based on a review of secondary literature on globalization that led to the development of a conceptual framework for understanding potential impacts on the determinants of health and public health. The paper then discusses major areas of public health in relation to these potential impacts. It concludes with recommendations on how the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine might contribute to addressing these impacts through its various activities. Although there is growing attention to the importance of globalization to public health, there has been limited research and policy development in the United Kingdom. The UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine needs to play an active role in bringing relevant issues to the attention of policy makers, and encourage its members to take up research, teaching and policy initiatives. The potential impacts of globalization support a broader understanding and practice of public health that embraces a wide range of health determinants.

  6. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  7. Division of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontier Learn what marijuana means for Alaska and you It's your health - Teen Health Autism: Learn the Outbreak of Life-threatening Coagulopathy Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoids Use Friday, May 25, 2018 Impacts of Climate Change in Alaska PDF Monday, January 8, 2018 Breastfeeding mothers reporting marijuana

  8. Opportunities for Public Relations Research in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Considers how communication researchers have developed a solid body of knowledge in the health field but know little about the activities of public relations practitioners in public health bodies. Suggests that public relations scholarship and practice have much to offer the field of public health in helping public health bodies meet their…

  9. Viewpoint: Re-instating a 'public health' system under universal health care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew

    2015-02-01

    I examine possibilities for strengthening essential public health functions in the context of India's drive to implement universal health care. In a country where population health outcomes are rooted in social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological conditions, it is important to have a state mediated public health system that can modify the causes of the major public health problems. This calls for strengthening the social epidemiological approach in public health by demarcating public health functions distinct from medical care. This will be a prerequisite for the growth of the public health profession in the country, because it can offer avenues for newly trained professionals within the country to work in 'core' public health.

  10. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The 1992 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 4 years (1989 through 1992) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Four years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, {open_quotes}Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.{close_quotes} Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year, rather than a calendar year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. In previous editions of this publication, data were aggregated by the two most commonly reported fiscal years, June 30 and December 31. This omitted approximately 20 percent of the respondents who operate on fiscal years ending in other months. Accordingly, the EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents.

  11. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    .... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...

  12. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariwan M M Al-Bajalan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017.For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran.In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  13. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bajalan, Mariwan M M; Al-Jaf, Sirwan M A; Niranji, Sherko S; Abdulkareem, Dler R; Al-Kayali, Khudhair K; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017. For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran. In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  14. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data

  15. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    This publication presents 5 years (1990--94) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented. Composite tables present: Aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, financial indicators, electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data.

  16. Public health leadership education in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Hideo; Zakariasen,Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Hideo Uno, Kenneth ZakariasenDepartment of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Public health leadership is one of the priority disciplines public health professionals need to learn well if they are to deal with demanding public health issues effectively and efficiently. This article looks at the trends in public health leadership education by reviewing the literature and using the Internet to explore the public health leadershi...

  17. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs.

  18. What does social justice require for the public's health? Public health ethics and policy imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Powers, Madison

    2006-01-01

    Justice is so central to the mission of public health that it has been described as the field's core value. This account of justice stresses the fair disbursement of common advantages and the sharing of common burdens. It captures the twin moral impulses that animate public health: to advance human well-being by improving health and to do so particularly by focusing on the needs of the most disadvantaged. This Commentary explores how social justice sheds light on major ongoing controversies in the field, and it provides examples of the kinds of policies that public health agencies, guided by a robust conception of justice, would adopt.

  19. Financial statistics major US publicly owned electric utilities 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1996 edition of The Financial Statistics of Major US Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1992 through 1996) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided. Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 2 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Public Policy and Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine

    2018-04-05

    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Personalism for public health ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  2. Personalism for public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina; Requena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In public health ethics, as in bioethics, utilitarian approaches usually prevail, followed by Kantian and communitarian foundations. If one considers the nature and core functions of public health, which are focused on a population perspective, utilitarianism seems still more applicable to public health ethics. Nevertheless, faulting additional protections towards the human person, utilitarianism doesn't offer appropriate solutions when conflicts among values do arise. Further criteria must be applied to protect the fundamental principles of respect for human life. Personalism offers similar advantages to utilitarianism but warrants more protection to the human person. We suggest a possible adaptation of personalism in the specific field of public health by means of four principles: absolute respect for life or principle of inviolability; subsidiarity and the "minimum" mandatory principle; solidarity; justice and non discrimination.

  3. Academic dental public health diplomates: their distribution and recommendations concerning the predoctoral dental public health faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.

  4. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  5. Influencing public health without authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present processes, products and needs of post-graduate public health education for the health programming, implementation and oversight responsibilities at field level and suggests some solutions for the institutes to adopt or adapt for improving the quality of their scholars. Large number of institutions has cropped up in India in the recent years to meet the growing demand of public health specialists/practitioners in various national health projects, international development partners, national and international NGOs. Throwing open MPH courses to multi-disciplinary graduate's is a new phenomenon in India and may be a two edged sword. On one hand it is advantageous to produce multi-faceted Public health postgraduates to meet the multi tasking required, on the other hand getting all of them to a common basic understanding, demystifying technical teaching and churning out products that are acceptable to the traditional health system. These Institutions can and must influence public health in the country through producing professionals of MPH/ MD degree with right attitude and skill-mix. Engaging learners in experimentation, experience sharing projects, stepping into health professionals' roles and similar activities lead to development of relatively clear and permanent neural traces in the brain. The MPH institutes may not have all efficient faculties, for which they should try to achieve this by inviting veterans in public health and professionals from corporate health industry for interface with students on a regular basis. The corporate and public health stalwarts have the capacities to transmit the winning skills and knowledge and also inspire them to adopt or adapt in order to achieve the desired goals.

  6. Hawaii's public mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVoort, Debra J

    2005-03-01

    The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.

  7. Discrete Choice Experiments in Public Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, J.

    2015-01-01

    One approach to improve public health is to implement preventive programs that have been proven effective and cost-effective. For any preventive program to be successful, it is of paramount importance that a large majority of the target population participates. Unfortunately, it is not self-evident

  8. Innovation and motivation in public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Maroto, Andrés; Rubalcaba, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Innovations in public health services promote increases in the health status of the population. Therefore, it is a major concern for health policy makers to understand the drivers of innovation processes. This paper focuses on the differences in behaviour of managers and front-line employees in the pro-innovative provision of public health services. We utilize a survey conducted on front-line employees and managers in public health institutions across six European countries. The survey covers topics related to satisfaction, or attitude towards innovation or their institution. We undertake principal components analysis and analysis of variance, and estimate a multinomial ordered probit model to analyse the existence of different behaviour in managers and front-line employees with respect to innovation. Perception of innovation is different for managers and front-line employees in public health institutions. While front-line employees' attitude depends mostly on the overall performance of the institution, managers feel more involved and motivated, and their behaviour depends more on individual and organisational innovative profiles. It becomes crucial to make both managers and front-line employees at public health institutions feel participative and motivated in order to maximise the benefits of technical or organisational innovative process in the health services provision.

  9. Maternal Mortality in Nigerian and Public Health Interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health related goals are majorly driven by public health interventions, and some good progress has been noticed in issues relating to maternal mortality and morbidity i.e. Improve Maternal Health (MDG 5). 1The public health interventions utilized include, but are not limited to: surveillance, outreach, referral and follow up, ...

  10. A Framework for Project Governance in Major Public IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter Georg; Riis, Eva

    2016-01-01

    such a framework. It was developed from the literature on major and mega-projects, both public and private, that concern infrastructure, engineering and IT. The proposed framework for project governance comprises six major elements: governance structure, management approach, stakeholders, value, systems......The rising number of major public IT projects is mirrored by a growing research interest in the management of such projects. Both can benefit from a more complete understanding of project governance that should lead to a practical framework for project governance. The present paper proposes...... integration and complexity. Empirical research has identified a number of characteristics for these project governance elements. In the second part of the paper the framework was tested in a case study of the Danish smart card Rejsekort project. The framework was found to be robust, and that in this case...

  11. A Framework for Project Governance in Major Public IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Eva; Harboe, Peter Georg

    2016-01-01

    integration and complexity. Empirical research has identified a number of characteristics for these project governance elements. In the second part of the paper the framework was tested in a case study of the Danish smart card Rejsekort project. The framework was found to be robust, and that in this case......The rising number of major public IT projects is mirrored by a growing research interest in the management of such projects. Both can benefit from a more complete understanding of project governance that should lead to a practical framework for project governance. The present paper proposes...... such a framework. It was developed from the literature on major and mega-projects, both public and private, that concern infrastructure, engineering and IT. The proposed framework for project governance comprises six major elements: governance structure, management approach, stakeholders, value, systems...

  12. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities.

  13. Digital government and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  14. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  15. The right to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2016-06-01

    Much work in public health ethics is shaped by an 'autonomy first' view, which takes it to be axiomatic that it is difficult to justify state interference in the lives of competent adults unless the behaviours interfered with are compromised in terms of their autonomy, or would wrongfully infringe on the autonomy of others. However, such an approach is difficult to square with much of traditional public heath practice. Recent years have seen running battles between those who assume that an 'autonomy first' approach is basically sound (and so much the worse for public health practice) and those who assume that public health practice is basically sound (and so much the worse for the 'autonomy first' approach). This paper aims to reconcile in a normatively satisfying way what is best about the 'autonomy first' approach with what is best about a standard public health approach. It develops a positive case for state action to promote and protect health as a duty that is owed to each individual. According to this view, the state violates individuals' rights if it fails to take cost-effective and proportionate measures to remove health threats from the environment. It is thus a mistake to approach public health in the way that 'autonomy first' accounts do, as primarily a matter of individual entitlements versus the common good. Too little state intervention in the cause of improving population health can violate individuals' rights, just as too much can. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Citizen Science for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Devilee, Jeroen; Van Oers, Hans; Schuit, A Jantine; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2016-12-23

    Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed. Despite these challenges, we expect that Citizen Science or similar approaches such as participatory action research and 'popular epidemiology' may yield better knowledge, empowered communities, and improved community health. We provide a draft framework to enable evaluation of Citizen Science in practice, consisting of a descriptive typology of different kinds of Citizen Science and a causal framework that shows how Citizen Science in public health might benefit both the knowledge produced as well as the 'Citizen Scientists' as active participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Periodontal health and global public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Baehni, Pierre C

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a growing burden to people, to health-care systems and to societies across the world. The rapid increase in the burden of chronic diseases is particularly prevalent in the developing countries. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing...... to the global burden of chronic disease. In addition to social determinants, periodontal health status is related to several proximal factors. Modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet and nutrition, obesity, psychological stress and insufficient personal....../oral hygiene, are important and these principal risk factors for periodontal disease are shared by other chronic diseases. The present monograph is devoted to the existing evidence on the practice of public health related to periodontal health. Public health is defined as the process of mobilizing and engaging...

  18. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Crowdsourcing applications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Daren C; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kirchner, Thomas R; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2014-02-01

    Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed, problem-solving, and production model that uses the collective intelligence of networked communities for specific purposes. Although its use has benefited many sectors of society, it has yet to be fully realized as a method for improving public health. This paper defines the core components of crowdsourcing and proposes a framework for understanding the potential utility of crowdsourcing in the domain of public health. Four discrete crowdsourcing approaches are described (knowledge discovery and management; distributed human intelligence tasking; broadcast search; and peer-vetted creative production types) and a number of potential applications for crowdsourcing for public health science and practice are enumerated. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  20. Public health financial management competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Costich, Julia F

    2009-01-01

    The absence of appropriate financial management competencies has impeded progress in advancing the field of public health finance. It also inhibits the ability to professionalize this sector of the workforce. Financial managers should play a critical role by providing information relevant to decision making. The lack of fundamental financial management knowledge and skills is a barrier to fulfilling this role. A national expert committee was convened to examine this issue. The committee reviewed standards related to financial and business management practices within public health and closely related areas. Alignments were made with national standards such as those established for government chief financial officers. On the basis of this analysis, a comprehensive set of public health financial management competencies was identified and examined further by a review panel. At a minimum, the competencies can be used to define job descriptions, assess job performance, identify critical gaps in financial analysis, create career paths, and design educational programs.

  1. Causal inference in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.

  2. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  3. Digital Government and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agencys readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, manage...

  4. Nuclear power and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has always emphasized the health and safety aspects of the various stages of power production. Nevertheless, the question of public acceptance is becoming increasingly important in the expansion of nuclear power programmes. Objections may arise partly from the tendency to accept familiar hazards but to react violently to unfamiliar ones such as radiation, which is not obvious to the senses and may result in delayed adverse effects, sometimes manifested only in the descendants of the individuals subjected to the radiation. The public health authorities therefore have an important role in educating the public to overcome these fears. However, they also have the duty to reassure the public and convince it that proper care has been taken to protect man and his environment. This duty can be fulfilled by means of independent evaluation and control to ensure that safe nuclear facilities are built, care is taken with their siting, they are operated safely, and the effects of possible accidents are minimized. The selection and development of a nuclear power facility should be carried out with a sound understanding of the factors involved. WHO has collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the preparation of a booklet summarizing the available information on the subject. It deals with the role of atomic energy in meeting future power needs, radiation protection standards, the safe handling of radioactive materials, disturbances of the environment arising from plant construction and ancillary operations, and the public health implications

  5. Nuclear power and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has always emphasized the health and safety aspects of the various stages of power production. Nevertheless, the question of public acceptance is becoming increasingly important in the expansion of nuclear power programmes. Objections may arise partly from the tendency to accept familiar hazards but to react violently to unfamiliar ones such as radiation, which is not obvious to the senses and may result in delayed adverse effects, sometimes manifested only in the descendants of the individuals subjected to the radiation. The public health authorities therefore have an important role in educating the public to overcome these fears. However, they also have the duty to reassure the public and convince it that proper care has been taken to protect man and his environment. This duty can be fulfilled by means of independent evaluation and control to ensure that safe nuclear facilities are built, care is taken with their siting, they are operated safely, and the effects of possible accidents are minimized. The selection and development of a nuclear power facility should be carried out with a sound understanding of the factors involved. WHO has collaborated with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the preparation of a booklet summarizing the available information on the subject. It deals with the role of atomic energy in meeting future power needs, radiation protection standards, the safe handling of radioactive materials, disturbances of the environment arising from plant construction and ancillary operations, and the public health implications.

  6. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  7. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  8. Policy, politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. ENC 2002: Setting the scene for a major public event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The series of European Conferences were coupled with the only major nuclear science and industry exhibitions of truly world dimension. They offer the perfect opportunity to serve as a platform for a clear and positive message on nuclear power in Europe to the public to promote an image of openness and sound business. Main objectives were: ease of access for the target groups; politically favourable environment; cost efficiency to be assured in the interest of the industry; state-of-the-art facilities; exhibition and conference under one roof

  10. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH IN LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled "Public expenditure on health in local budgets" aims analysing and deepening major spending categories that public authorities finance at local level, namely health expenditure. In the first part of the article we have specified the content and role of this category of expenditure in local budgets and also made some feedback on decentralization in health. In the second part of the work, based on data available in Statistical Yearbook of Romania, we have carried out an analysis of the dynamics of health spending from local budgets to emphasize their place and role in the health care expenses. The research carried out follows that the evolution and structure of health expenditure financed from local budgets is determined, along with the legislative framework in the field, by several variables that differ from one territorial administrative unit to another: the existence of sanitary units, their type, the involving of local public authorities in their development and modernization, the number and the social structure of the population. The research shows that over the period 1993-2015, the dynamics of the share of health spending in total expenditures of local budgets is sinusoidal, with a minimum threshold in 2000 of only 0.3%.

  11. Health security as a public health concept: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldis, William

    2008-11-01

    There is growing acceptance of the concept of health security. However, there are various and incompatible definitions, incomplete elaboration of the concept of health security in public health operational terms, and insufficient reconciliation of the health security concept with community-based primary health care. More important, there are major differences in understanding and use of the concept in different settings. Policymakers in industrialized countries emphasize protection of their populations especially against external threats, for example terrorism and pandemics; while health workers and policymakers in developing countries and within the United Nations system understand the term in a broader public health context. Indeed, the concept is used inconsistently within the UN agencies themselves, for example the World Health Organization's restrictive use of the term 'global health security'. Divergent understandings of 'health security' by WHO's member states, coupled with fears of hidden national security agendas, are leading to a breakdown of mechanisms for global cooperation such as the International Health Regulations. Some developing countries are beginning to doubt that internationally shared health surveillance data is used in their best interests. Resolution of these incompatible understandings is a global priority.

  12. [Social marketing and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  13. Gambling and the Health of the Public: Adopting a Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, David A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade there has been an unprecedented expansion of legalized gambling throughout North America. Three primary forces appear to be motivating this growth: (1) the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; (2) tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and (3) the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (e.g., video lottery terminals, powerball mega-lotteries, and computer offshore gambling). Associated with this phenomenon, there has been an increase in the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling among the general adult population, as well as a sustained high level of gambling-related problems among youth. To date there has been little dialogue within the public health sector in particular, or among health care practitioners in general, about the potential health impact of gambling or gambling-related problems. This article encourages the adoption of a public health perspective towards gambling. More specifically, this discussion has four primary objectives:1. Create awareness among health professionals about gambling, its rapid expansion and its relationship with the health care system;2. Place gambling within a public health framework by examining it from several perspectives, including population health, human ecology and addictive behaviors;3. Outline the major public health issues about how gambling can affect individuals, families and communities;4. Propose an agenda for strengthening policy, prevention and treatment practices through greater public health involvement, using the framework of The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion as a guide.By understanding gambling and its potential impacts on the public's health, policy makers and health practitioners can minimize gambling's negative impacts and appreciate its potential benefits.

  14. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  15. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomberg, John P.; Haimson, Oliver L.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant’s likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74

  16. Public-Private Partnerships In Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalid BOUTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract:The current importance of public debt requires governments to increasingly shift towards Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs. They are long-term contracts of private financing method providing or contributing to public service. The payment is made by the public partner and/or users of the service.The World Health Organization (WHO defines this type of partnership as ‘‘a means to bring together a set of actors for the common goal of improving the health of populations based on mutually agreed roles and principles.’’Historically, the principle of PPP was established by the Private Finance Initiative (PFI, launched by the conservative government of John Major in 1992. It was from this moment that this model quickly spread to the rest of the world. In the mid-90s and from Australia, PPP agreement began to become part of the language of governments. In 1997, Labour with Tony Blair leading, strongly developed this management method, first and particularly in hospitals and then, in the entire public sector and spreading to the Royal Navy. Today, 10-15% of British public investments are made using PFI method....

  17. Three lifestyle-related issues of major significance for public health among the Inuit in contemporary Greenland: a review of adverse childhood conditions, obesity, and smoking in a period of social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L

    2018-01-01

    Greenland is a country in transition from a colonial past with subsistence hunting and fishing to an urban Nordic welfare state. Epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases has been evident since the 1950s. Ninety percent of the population is Inuit. We studied three public health issues based on published literature, namely adverse childhood experiences, addictive behavior, and suicide; diet and obesity; and smoking. Alcohol consumption was high in the 1970s and 1980s with accompanying family and social disruption. This is still a cause of poor mental health and suicides in the generations most affected. The diet is changing from a traditional diet of fish and marine mammals to imported food including food items rich in sugar and fat from domestic animals, and the level of physical activity is decreasing with an ensuing epidemic rise in obesity. The prevalence of smoking is high at around 60% among both men and women and is only slowly decreasing. Smoking shows large social variation, and tobacco-related diseases are widespread. The diseases and conditions outlined above all contribute towards a low life expectancy at birth-69 years for men and 74 years for women in 2011-2015-compared with 78 and 84 years for men and women, respectively, on average in the European countries. The translation of government public health programs into local activities needs strengthening, and it must be realized that the improvement of public health is a long-term process.

  18. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  19. Public health adaptation to climate change in OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austin, Stephanie E.; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D.; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will—or should—include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine

  20. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Business Cases for Major Public Infrastructure Projects in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Iacobacci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When governments announce that they are going to spend vast sums of taxpayers’ money on a new public infrastructure project, you can be certain they will praise all the terrific new benefits that the project will bring to citizens, making everyone’s life easier, safer, greener and better. But this does not tell us whether we are better off as a society, after accounting for the cost of these projects borne by taxpayers today and well into the future. In reality, there is a meaningful risk that a project undertaken without a proper business case could end up making citizens’ lives worse. That new commuter train might look sleek and shiny and seem convenient for some, but a close business case analysis of recent transit projects in Canada’s three largest cities suggests that in as many as four cases out of 21 projects, the burden of paying for the projects does not justify the public investment. In a review of thirteen recent public transit projects in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA, at least three projects had benefits that fell short of the costs. Yet, all three projects went ahead (or have been funded. Only one project showed large net benefits for citizens once all considerations were accounted for. Three projects showed small net benefits – of a size that can be easily offset by a modest cost over-run. The six remaining projects did not have any publicly available business cases. In the Greater Montreal area, a review of three recent major transit projects turned up no evidence of a publicly available business case for any of them. As a result, Montrealers are in the dark as to how much benefit or value destruction the three projects are responsible for. Things are far more encouraging in Vancouver, however, where three out of the five major transit projects undertaken or funded in recent years were backed by business cases showing a net benefit. Only one project did not show a net benefit and one project did not have a

  2. Surfing the net for public health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C; Hemingway, A; Hartwell, H

    2011-08-01

    To identify public health open educational resources (OER) available online, map the identified OER to The Public Health Skills and Career Framework (PHSCF), and triangulate these findings with public health practitioners. Systematic online search for public health OER. An online search was undertaken using a pre-defined set of search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Public health OER were then mapped against the UK PHSCF. The findings of the search were discussed with public health specialists to determine whether or not they used these resources. A number of public health OER were identified, located on 42 websites from around the world. Mapping against the UK PHSCF demonstrated a lack of coverage in some areas of public health education. It was noted that many of the OER websites identified were not those generally used in practice, and those sites preferred by public health specialists were not identified by the online search. Public health OER are available from a number of providers, frequently universities and government organizations. However, these reflect a relatively small pool of original OER providers. Tagging of websites does not always identify their public health content. In addition, users of public health OER may not use search engines to identify resources but locate them using other means. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Public health and demographic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, C.H.; Loebl, A.S.; Miller, F.L.; Ritchey, P.N. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  4. The Partnership of Public Health and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenc, Marjetka

    2016-06-01

    Public health focuses on health of the population and it is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. Anthropology covers most aspects that concern human beings. Both sciences converge on community and this fact represents a foundation for the partnership between public health and anthropology. Biological/medical anthropology is one of the highly developed fi elds of anthropology and the most important for public health.

  5. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  6. Public understandings of genetics and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, C M

    2010-01-01

    This review of adult public understandings of genetics related to health indicates that the public's understandings overlap with those of professionals in some areas, but not others. Specifically, the majority of the world's people who have been studied understand genetics through the lens of heredity, not in terms of the structural and functional nature of genes. Public understandings of hereditary processes are influenced by models of social relationships and by experiential familiarity with particular conditions as much as by academic research results. Most people hold a fairly strong belief that many health conditions are substantially influenced by both genes and other factors. However, they do not have a stable understanding of the nature of gene-environment interactions. People in cultures where science is not a prominent cultural mode are even less likely to hold the belief structures of professional geneticists. In some areas--notably with regard to racialization of genetic medicine and characterizations of genetic variations as 'mutations'--at least some members of the public strongly reject some geneticists' constructions. Public understanding of details pertinent to genetic testing generally appears to be weak.

  7. East African Journal of Public Health: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines; » Copyright Notice; » Privacy Statement ... and noncommunicable diseases, health leadership and management issues. ... current scientific and policy debates, including methodological issues in public health research.

  8. The public health system in England

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, David J; Marks, Linda; Smith, Katherine E

    2010-01-01

    .... The Public Health System in England offers a wide-ranging, provocative and accessible assessment of challenges confronting a public health system, exploring how its parameters have shifted over time...

  9. Survey of public knowledge about digestive health and diseases: implications for health education.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, G L; Ruben, B D; Baker, M W; Rosenthal, S R

    1987-01-01

    Increasing emphasis in recent years has been placed on health promotion, prevention, and the self-management of health care. These strategies presume the public has sufficient levels of relevant health information, as well as necessary attitudes and skills for the effective use of this information in the management of their own health care. This study tests this assumption as it relates to the level of public knowledge of digestive health and disease, a major health concern affecting an estim...

  10. The case for transforming governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen; Gursky, Elin A

    2006-01-01

    Changing threats to the public's health necessitate a profound transformation of the public health enterprise. Despite recent attention to the biodefense role of public health, policymakers have not developed a clear, realistic vision for the structure and functionality of the governmental public health system. Lack of leadership and organizational disconnects across levels of government have prevented strategic alignment of resources and undermined momentum for meaningful change. A transformed public health system is needed to address the demands of emergency preparedness and health protection. Such transformation should include focused, risk-based resource allocation; regional planning; technological upgrades; workforce restructuring; improved integration of private-sector assets; and better performance monitoring.

  11. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  12. The pull of public health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Braine, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Public health has burgeoned over the past 100 years, from the study of tropical diseases in the 19th century to national public health systems after World War One and, more recently, to include international public health. Education has kept up with these trends, and today there are hundreds of schools around the world, many flourishing in developing countries.

  13. [Public health services between "new public health" and "new public management"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppen, M

    1996-04-01

    Today, a substantial reorientation of the Public Health services in the Federal Republic of Germany is broadly seen necessary. Patterns of functional and organisational restructuring of Public Health services on the regional and the communal level are closely linked with concepts of prevention and health promotion. Hence, a number of agencies have already adopted new tasks and functions like comprehensive and transorganizational planning, coordination and evaluation as well as the establishment of new reporting systems. Presently, the transformation process from the bureaucratic mode of administering matters of health to a new Public Health orientation receives new impacts from the international "New Public Management" movement. Comparatively late, with the beginning of the 1990s, a growing number of German municipalities has introduced new concepts of administration. Local government administrations, of which the Public Health services are a part, follow the model of modern service organizations producing services in a more efficient, professionalized and consumer-oriented way. Specific elements of economising modernisation programmes like re-distribution of tasks, de-centralisation, extension of managerial capacities, setting of stimulating working conditions that provide employees with greater independence of action as well as career opportunities, are at the same time prerequisites for innovative strategies of health protection and coordination policies of Public Health services.

  14. Public health strategies for Mäori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durie, M

    2000-06-01

    When the New Zealand Department of Public Health was established in 1900, Maöri health status was compromised to the extent that survival itself was threatened. The remarkable turnaround was unexpected and owes much to pioneer Maöri professionals, especially the first Maöri medical practitioner, Dr. Maui Pomare, who graduated in the United States in 1899. As "Medical Officer to the Maöris," and later as Minister of Health, he made major changes through a five-part strategy: recognizing Maöri community leaders as leaders in health, improving access to societal goods and services (especially housing and education), appealing to cultural practices that were linked to good health, wise use of political power, and developing a skilled Maori health workforce to complement community leadership. Although mental health disorders and lifestyle illnesses have largely replaced infectious diseases, malnutrition, and tuberculosis, Pomare's strategy has continuing relevance and warrants serious consideration as a model for health promotion.

  15. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  16. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".

  17. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for Major Public Events. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism remains a threat to international stability and security. High profile international and national major public events occur regularly, capturing great public interest and receiving intense media coverage. It is widely acknowledged that there is a substantial threat of a terrorist attack on major public events such as high profile political or economic summit meetings or major sporting contests. The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism remains on the international security agenda. Nevertheless, to reduce this risk, the international community has made great progress in securing nuclear and other radioactive material that could otherwise be used in a terrorist act. This progress is contingent on the efforts of all States to adopt strong nuclear security systems and measures. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The hazards of this material vary according to composition and intensity. Additionally, the use of explosives in combination with this material can drastically enhance the impact of a criminal or terrorist act. If a criminal or terrorist group managed to detonate a so-called 'dirty' bomb in an urban area, the result could be mass panic, widespread radioactive contamination and major economic and social disruption. Major public events are seldom held in the same State or at the same location or even at the same venue. At the national level, the hosting of major public events with proper nuclear security arrangements can provide a foundation on which to build an enduring national framework for nuclear security; one that can exist long after the event. The organization of a major public event in which large numbers of people congregate presents complex security challenges for the State hosting such an event. Criminal or terrorist acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material at any major public event could result in

  18. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for Major Public Events. Implementing Guide (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism remains a threat to international stability and security. High profile international and national major public events occur regularly, capturing great public interest and receiving intense media coverage. It is widely acknowledged that there is a substantial threat of a terrorist attack on major public events such as high profile political or economic summit meetings or major sporting contests. The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism remains on the international security agenda. Nevertheless, to reduce this risk, the international community has made great progress in securing nuclear and other radioactive material that could otherwise be used in a terrorist act. This progress is contingent on the efforts of all States to adopt strong nuclear security systems and measures. There are large quantities of diverse radioactive material in existence, which are used in areas such as health, the environment, agriculture and industry. The hazards of this material vary according to composition and intensity. Additionally, the use of explosives in combination with this material can drastically enhance the impact of a criminal or terrorist act. If a criminal or terrorist group managed to detonate a so-called 'dirty' bomb in an urban area, the result could be mass panic, widespread radioactive contamination and major economic and social disruption. Major public events are seldom held in the same State or at the same location or even at the same venue. At the national level, the hosting of major public events with proper nuclear security arrangements can provide a foundation on which to build an enduring national framework for nuclear security; one that can exist long after the event. The organization of a major public event in which large numbers of people congregate presents complex security challenges for the State hosting such an event. Criminal or terrorist acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material at any major public event could result in

  19. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab World. While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little improvement in ensuring equitable access to health care. In most countries, the majority of people have limited access to basic health services. These are ...

  20. Shaping and authorising a public health profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Czabanowska

    2015-12-01

    doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.

  1. East African Journal of Public Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Journal of Public Health is a multi-disciplinary journal publishing scientific research work from a range of public health related disciplines including community medicine, epidemiology, nutrition, behavioural sciences, health promotion, health education, communicable and non-communicable disease.

  2. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of a...

  3. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  4. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  5. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  6. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  7. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Orvik, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutio...

  8. Climate change and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Benny

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.

  9. Utility and justice in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Kathryn

    2017-12-11

    Many public health practitioners and organizations view themselves as engaged in the promotion or achievement of equity. However, discussions around public health frequently assume that practitioners and policy-makers take a utilitarian approach to this work. I argue that public health is better understood as a social justice endeavor. I begin by presenting the utility view of public health and then discuss the equity view. This is a theoretical argument, which should help public health to justify interventions for communicable and non-communicable diseases equally, and which contributes to breaking down the 'old/new' public health divide. This argument captures practitioners' views of the work they are engaged in and allows for the moral and policy justification of important interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases. Systemic interventions are necessary to remedy high rates of disease among certain groups and, generally, to improve the health of entire populations. By viewing diseases as partly the result of failures of health protective systems in society, public health may justify interventions in communicable and non-communicable diseases equally. Public health holds a duty to improve the health of the worst-off in society; by prioritizing this group, the health of the whole community may improve. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaferstein, F.

    1997-01-01

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  11. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  12. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaferstein, F. [Director, Programme of Food Safety and Food Aid, WHO, CH-1211, Geneva 27, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Post-harvest losses due to sprouting, insect infestation and spoilage by microorganisms is a serious problem in many countries and commonly aggravates the problem of food shortages. In addition, many developing countries also depend largely on agricultural produce, such as grain, tuber and tropical fruit, as major export crops to earn foreign exchange. The use of ionizing radiation as an effective means of disinfecting and/or prolonging the self-life of several food products has been well documented in a number of developing countries. The World health organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce food borne pathogens in food and improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. In regard to its contribution to food safety, food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection or limitation of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (Author)

  13. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  15. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-29

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  16. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention

  17. Public Health's Falling Share of US Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-01-01

    We examined trends in US public health expenditures by analyzing historical and projected National Health Expenditure Accounts data. Per-capita public health spending (inflation-adjusted) rose from $39 in 1960 to $281 in 2008, and has fallen by 9.3% since then. Public health's share of total health expenditures rose from 1.36% in 1960 to 3.18% in 2002, then fell to 2.65% in 2014; it is projected to fall to 2.40% in 2023. Public health spending has declined, potentially undermining prevention and weakening responses to health inequalities and new health threats.

  18. Assessing entrepreneurship in governmental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Wu, Helen W; Lauer, Johanna R

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the feasibility and desirability of public health entrepreneurship (PHE) in governmental public health. Using a qualitative case study approach with semistructured interview protocols, we conducted interviews between April 2010 and January 2011 at 32 local health departments (LHDs) in 18 states. Respondents included chief health officers and senior LHD staff, representatives from national public health organizations, health authorities, and public health institutes. Respondents identified PHE through 3 overlapping practices: strategic planning, operational efficiency, and revenue generation. Clinical services offer the strongest revenue-generating potential, and traditional public health services offer only limited entrepreneurial opportunities. Barriers include civil service rules, a risk-averse culture, and concerns that PHE would compromise core public health values. Ongoing PHE activity has the potential to reduce LHDs' reliance on unstable general public revenues. Yet under the best of circumstances, it is difficult to generate revenue from public health services. Although governmental public health contains pockets of entrepreneurial activity, its culture does not sustain significant entrepreneurial activity. The question remains as to whether LHDs' current public revenue sources are sustainable and, if not, whether PHE is a feasible or desirable alternative.

  19. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  20. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  1. The State Public Health Laboratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Stanley L; Astles, J Rex; Gradus, Stephen; Malmberg, Veronica; Snippes, Paula M; Wilcke, Burton W; White, Vanessa A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development since 2000 of the State Public Health Laboratory System in the United States. These state systems collectively are related to several other recent public health laboratory (PHL) initiatives. The first is the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories, a white paper that defined the basic responsibilities of the state PHL. Another is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Laboratory System (NLS) initiative, the goal of which is to promote public-private collaboration to assure quality laboratory services and public health surveillance. To enhance the realization of the NLS, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) launched in 2004 a State Public Health Laboratory System Improvement Program. In the same year, APHL developed a Comprehensive Laboratory Services Survey, a tool to measure improvement through the decade to assure that essential PHL services are provided.

  2. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  3. What makes health public?: a critical evaluation of moral, legal, and political claims in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggon, John

    2012-01-01

    .... Covering important works from legal, moral, and political theory, public health, public health law and ethics, and bioethics, this is a foundational text for scholars, practitioners and policy bodies interested in freedoms, rights and responsibilities relating to health"--

  4. Creating training opportunities for public health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D; Healton, C; Hamburg, M; Rosenfield, A; Cagan, E; Van Wie, W; Haviland, M L

    1999-04-01

    In response to several reports issued by the federal government and private foundations on the under-training of public health practitioners, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University (SPH) and the New York City Department of Health (NYC DOH) initiated the Public Health Scholars program (SPH-PHS) to make degree-level public health training available to NYC DOH employees. Public Health Scholars receive a 50% tuition scholarship and enroll part-time while working full-time at NYC DOH. Sixteen scholars have enrolled during the past three years. The SPH-PHS program is considered a success by both SPH and NYC DOH. This article details the history of the collaboration between the two agencies and the structure of the program and provides a critical analysis of the SPH-PHS program based on interviews with 16 scholars. It also examines the cost and benefit to other schools of public health of implementing such a program.

  5. Public health legal preparedness in Indian country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ralph T; Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D

    2009-04-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health-related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities.

  6. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Islamophobia, Health, and Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen; Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Zulfacar

    2018-06-01

    In 2017, a "Muslim ban" on immigrants to the United States was coupled with a continued rise in Islamophobia and hate crimes toward Muslims. Islamophobia undermines health equity, yet delineating the effects of Islamophobia globally is challenging as it affects a myriad of groups (geographically, racially, and socially). Additionally, stereotypes equate all Muslims with populations from the Middle East and South Asia. To date, health research pays insufficient attention to Islamophobia, Muslims, and those racialized to be Muslim. This literature review advances our understanding of racism and health by examining the racialization of religion, by specifically examining Islamophobia as a form of discrimination. Per PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a search in October 2017 using PubMed-MEDLINE and a combination of terms. We identified additional articles using other search engines. For inclusion, articles needed to include a descriptor of discrimination, contain an identifier of Muslim or Muslim-like identity (i.e., groups commonly perceived as Muslim, including Arabs, Middle Easterners, North Africans, and South Asians), include a health outcome, be in English, and be published between 1990 and 2017. We identified 111 unique peer-reviewed articles. We excluded articles that did not meet the following criteria: (1) examined Islamophobia, discrimination, or racism among a Muslim or Muslim-like population; (2) included a health outcome or discussion of health disparities; and (3) was conducted in North America, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand. This yielded 53 articles. The majority of studies (n = 34; 64%) were quantitative. The remaining studies were qualitative (n = 7; 13%), mixed methods (n = 2; 4%), or reviews (n = 10; 19%). Most studies were based in the United States (n = 31; 58%). Nearly half of the reviewed studies examined mental health (n = 24; 45%), and one fourth examined physical health or health behaviors (n = 13; 25%). Others

  8. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design: A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results: Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions: The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the

  9. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  10. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.

  11. The new genetics and the public's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunton, Robin; Petersen, Alan R., Ph. D

    2002-01-01

    ...; discusses the role of the media in framing debate about genetics, health and medicine. The New Genetics and the Public's Health addresses the emerging social and political consequences of the new genetics and provides a stimulating critique of current research and practice in public health. Alan Petersen is Professor in Sociolo...

  12. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  13. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  14. Editorial: Ethics in public health: Bloomberg's battle and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Dawson, A.

    2013-01-01

    The growing prevalence of obesity and related conditions such as Type II diabetes is held by many to be a major public health problem in developed countries, and increasingly in developing countries as well (Popkin et al., 2012). If we wish to tackle this problem, it will be a major task.

  15. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  16. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-12-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  17. REFLECTIONS ABOUT NURSES WORK IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alves Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This research is a part of CIPESC (Classification of Nursing Practice in Public Health project, with national coordination by ABEn (Brazilian Nursing Association witch purpose was to elaborate an inventory of activities developed by Public Health Nurses. It sough to analyze the contribution of the nurses in public health in the South Sanitary District in the city of Goiânia (GO – Brazil, and to identify the meaning of nurses work contribution at Public Health Services, by users and managers. The study was developed by a descriptive-analytical investigation in a qualitative approach. The subjects were managers and users of the Public Health System. Data was collected by individual semi-structured interview directed to the managers and controlling and the Technique of Focal Group. The results had been grouped in three categories: "Performance of the professional", "Education Perspective of Nurses Work”, and "Health-care attendance". As conclusion was found that the nurses give great contribution in the implantation and maintenance of the health politics; that it has concern with the professional formation, that many times is responsible for the incompatibility between the service and the expected potential; it is stand out performance of the nurse as health education professional in the inserted activities in the public health, being intense its contact with the community. KEY WORDS: Public Health; Nursing; Public Health Nursing.

  18. Public health challenges in sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Melody J; Weinstock, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens are a popular choice for protection from ultraviolet radiation, and hence, important components in the public health campaign to reduce the burden of skin cancer. Public health messages in skin cancer prevention have been used effectively in educational campaigns. The benefits of sunscreen extend beyond skin cancer prevention into other aspects of health and disease prevention: sunscreen decreases the risk for sunburn during physical activity outdoors and seems not to increase the risk for osteoporosis. Public health efforts have laid a solid foundation on which to face the continuing challenge of promoting and developing effective public health campaigns and health policies that encourage sunscreen use, sun protection, and the primary prevention of skin cancer. In this article, the controversies, concerns, and challenges of sunscreen use as it relates to public health are discussed.

  19. Public health emergencies in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Prasad Acharya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergencies in urban India can be caused by natural or man-made disasters. Occurrence of a public health emergency adds to the already stretched health system. This paper looks into the public health emergency conditions in urban India, and our preparedness to tackle them. To address this composite threat to nation’s health and development, a concerted public health response is needed, that can ensure efficient delivery in emergency situations Public health emergency is an occurrence or eminent threat of an illness or health condition caused by bio-terrorism, epidemic or pandemic disease, or novel and highly fatal infectious agent or biological toxin, that possess a substantial risk of a significant number of human facilities or incidents or permanent or long–term disability (1. It is a condition that requires the government to declare a state of public health emergency. The declaration of a state of public health emergency permits the government to suspend state regulations,and change the functions of state agencies (2. Term “Urban” refers to perplexing variety of environments.  Health circumstances of small cities and town differ in many ways from larger cities and metros. Within cities, change in lifestyle of residents is observed. The urban system is often present with full array of health providers ranging from traditional healer, street drug seller to highly –trained surgeons (3.

  20. Genetics, health care, and public policy: an introduction to public health genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Alison

    2007-01-01

    ... initiative About this book Further reading and resources Principles of public health The emergence of public health genetics The human genome project and 'genomic medicine' Community genetics Current developments in public health genetics Genomics and global health 2 Genetic science and technology Basic molecular genetics Genes and the geno...

  1. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  2. Bureau of Radiological Health publications index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    The Key Word in Context (KWIC) index to the publications of the Bureau of Radiological Health was prepared to aid in the retrieval and identification of publications originated or authored by Bureau staff or published by the Bureau. These publications include journal articles, government publications and technical reports, selected staff papers, and Bureau news releases issued by HEW. For convenience, the document is divided into four sections, KWIC Index, Author Index, Bibliography Index, and BRH Publications Subject Index

  3. Medicine and public health in a multiethnic world

    OpenAIRE

    Bhopal, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Achievement of medical and public health goals requires mutual understanding between professionals and the public, a challenge in diverse societies. Despite their massive diversity humans belong to one species, with race and ethnicity used to subgroup/classify humans and manage diversity. Classifications are contextual and vary by time, place and classifier. As classifications show major variations in health status, and risk factors, research using race and ethnicity has accelerated....

  4. International public health strategies in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbase, A.C.; Roman, G.; Zemouri, C.; Rangel Bonamigo, R.; Torres Dornelles, S.I.

    2018-01-01

    Structured strategies to tackle skin diseases and related infections provide a framework and direct actions against their burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) develops, updates, advocates, and disseminates international public health strategies and implementation tools including guidelines.

  5. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    ... human health and well-being. The author covers a wealth of topics including foundations, the joint history of public health and urban planning, transportation and land use, infrastructure and natural disasters, assessment tools...

  6. The built environment and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopez, Russ

    2012-01-01

    "This text combines an examination of how the physical environment affects our health with a description of how public health and urban planning can work together to create environments that improve...

  7. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  8. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  9. Rethinking schools of public health: a strategic alliance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloughney, Brent W; Skinner, Harvey A

    2006-01-01

    Canada is in the midst of rejuvenation of public health organizations, mandates and infrastructure. Major planning exercises are underway regarding public health human resources, where academic institutions have a key role to play. To what extent could schools of public health be part of the solution? Many universities across Canada are considering or in the process of implementing MPH programs (some 17 programs planned and/or underway) and possible schools of public health. However, concerns are raised about critical mass, quality and standards. We encourage innovation and debate about ways to enhance collaborative and structural arrangements for education programs. A school of public health model might emerge from this, but so too might other models. Also, novel types of organizational structure need consideration. One example is a "strategic alliance" model that is broad-based, integrative and adaptive--building on the interdisciplinary focus needed for addressing public health concerns in the 21st century. From our perspective, the central question is: what (new) types of organizational structures and, equally important, collaborative networks will enable Canada to strengthen its public health workforce so that it may better address local and global challenges to public health?

  10. Educating the Public Health Workforce: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Tao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scoping review was to identify and characterize the recent literature pertaining to the education of the public health workforce worldwide. The importance of preparing a public health workforce with sufficient capacity and appropriate capabilities has been recognized by major organizations around the world (1. Champions for public health note that a suitably educated workforce is essential to the delivery of public health services, including emergency response to biological, manmade, and natural disasters, within countries and across the globe. No single repository offers a comprehensive compilation of who is teaching public health, to whom, and for what end. Moreover, no international consensus prevails on what higher education should entail or what pedagogy is optimal for providing the necessary education. Although health agencies, public or private, might project workforce needs, the higher level of education remains the sole responsibility of higher education institutions. The long-term goal of this study is to describe approaches to the education of the public health workforce around the world by identifying the peer-reviewed literature, published primarily by academicians involved in educating those who will perform public health functions. This paper reports on the first phase of the study: identifying and categorizing papers published in peer-reviewed literature between 2000 and 2015.

  11. Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaal, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the role of the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic in radiation protection in the Slovak Republic. Public Health Authority is budgetary organization, which depends on the funding of the Ministry of Health. As the state administration authority performs execution of state regulatory activities in the field of health protection in Slovak republic and radiation protection as well. Radiation Protection Supervision is performed according to the act on public health protection. Organization scheme of radiation protection in the Slovak Republic is presented

  12. The Public Health Practitioner of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-08-01

    The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response. Equipping the public health practitioner with the requisite capabilities and capacities will require new content and methods for those in public health academia, as well as a recommitment to lifelong learning on the part of the practitioner, within an increasingly uncertain and polarized political environment.

  13. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  14. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  15. Homicídios no Brasil: o grande vilão da saúde pública na década de 80 Homicides in Brazil: the major villain for public health in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinilsa R. de Souza

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda o fenômeno da violência no Brasil na década de 80. Para isso, utilizam-se os dados de mortalidade em residentes, fornecidos pelo Ministério da Saúde. Busca-se demonstrar o crescimento do impacto da violência na Saúde Pública do país a partir das mortes violentas, especialmente os homicídios. São apresentadas proporções e taxas de mortalidade por homicídios, segundo faixas etárias e sexo, para o Brasil e capitais de regiões metropolitanas. Ressalta-se a elevação, no período, dos óbitos por homicídios entre as idades mais jovens, bem como no sexo feminino. Conclui-se tecendo comentários e sugerindo propostas de abordagens e soluções para a problemática investigada.This paper focuses on the phenomenon of violence in Brazil in the 1980s. Mortality data provided by the Ministry of Health are used. The purpose is to demonstrate the growth of violence and its impact on the country's public health, using data on violent deaths, particularly homicides. It presents proportions and rates of homicides, by age and gender, for the country and capitals of metropolitan areas. The article points to an increase in murder of young people and females during the period under study. The author concludes by commenting on the results and proposing approaches and solutions to the problem.

  16. Vision for a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C.K.; Frank, John; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Orlova, Anna; Lin, Vivian; Vaillancourt, Alain D.M.G.; Puska, Pekka; Pang, Tikki; Skinner, Harvey A.; Marsh, Marsha; Mokdad, Ali H.; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Lindner, M. Cristina; Sherman, Gregory; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Green, Lawrence W.; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Sainsbury, Peter; Yan, Yongping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zevallos, Juan C.; Ho, Suzanne C.; de Salazar, Ligia M.

    2007-01-01

    In public health, the generation, management, and transfer of knowledge all need major improvement. Problems in generating knowledge include an imbalance in research funding, publication bias, unnecessary studies, adherence to fashion, and undue interest in novel and immediate issues. Impaired generation of knowledge, combined with a dated and inadequate process for managing knowledge and an inefficient system for transferring knowledge, mean a distorted body of evidence available for decisionmaking in public health. This article hopes to stimulate discussion by proposing a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies. This prospective, comprehensive system for tracking research in public health could help enhance collaboration and improve efficiency. Practical problems must be discussed before such a vision can be further developed. PMID:17413073

  17. Museums and art galleries as partners for public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camic, Paul M; Chatterjee, Helen J

    2013-01-01

    The majority of public health programmes are based in schools, places of employment and in community settings. Likewise, nearly all health-care interventions occur in clinics and hospitals. An underdeveloped area for public health-related planning that carries international implications is the cultural heritage sector, and specifically museums and art galleries. This paper presents a rationale for the use of museums and art galleries as sites for public health interventions and health promotion programmes through discussing the social role of these organisations in the health and well-being of the communities they serve. Recent research from several countries is reviewed and integrated into a proposed framework for future collaboration between cultural heritage, health-care and university sectors to further advance research, policy development and evidence-based practice.

  18. [Targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch government funds health research in several ways. One component of public funding consists of funding programmes issued by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). The majority of ZonMw's programmes provide funding for research in specific health research areas. Such targeted funding plays an important role in addressing knowledge gaps and in generating products for which there is a need. Good governance of the allocation of targeted funding for health research requires three elements: a research agenda, an overview of the health research currently being conducted, and a transparent decision-making process regarding the distribution of funds. In this article, we describe how public funding for health research is organized in the Netherlands and how the allocation of targeted funds is governed. By describing the questions that the current model of governance raises, we take a first step towards a debate about the governance of targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands.

  19. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  20. Contributions of Public Health to nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Method: Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Final considerations: Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care.

  1. Obesity stigma: important considerations for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2010-06-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health.

  2. Migration: a core public health ethics issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, V; Dawson, A

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we outline the link between migration, public health and ethics. Discussing relevant arguments about migration from the perspective of public health and public health ethics. Critical review of theories and frameworks, case-based analysis and systematic identification and discussion of challenges. Migration is a core issue of public health ethics and must take a case-based approach: seeking to identify the specific ethical dimensions and vulnerabilities in each particular context. Public health as a practice, built upon the core value of justice, requires the protection and promotion of migrants' well-being (even if this produces tension with immigration services). Ethical analysis should take all phases of migration into account: before, during and after transit. We argue that migration policies, at least as they relate to migrants' well-being, should be founded upon a shared humanity, respect for human rights and on the idea that effective public health cannot and should not be confined within the borders and to the citizens of any host country. We make the case for migration to be seen as a core issue of public health ethics. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  4. Routledge handbook of global public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Richard G; Sommer, Marni

    2011-01-01

    ... processes such as the growth of inequalities between the rich and the poor in countries around the world, the globalisation of trade and commerce, new patterns of travel and migration, as well as a reduction in resources for the development and sustainability of public health infrastructures. The Routledge Handbook of Global Public Health explores ...

  5. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  7. Public health systems under attack in Canada: Evidence on public health system performance challenges arbitrary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Ak'ingabe; Perreault, Robert

    2016-10-20

    Public health is currently being weakened in several Canadian jurisdictions. Unprecedented and arbitrary cuts to the public health budget in Quebec in 2015 were a striking example of this. In order to support public health leaders and citizens in their capacity to advocate for evidence-informed public health reforms, we propose a knowledge synthesis of elements of public health systems that are significantly associated with improved performance. Research consistently and significantly associates four elements of public health systems with improved productivity: 1) increased financial resources, 2) increased staffing per capita, 3) population size between 50,000 and 500,000, and 4) specific evidence-based organizational and administrative features. Furthermore, increased financial resources and increased staffing per capita are significantly associated with improved population health outcomes. We contend that any effort at optimization of public health systems should at least be guided by these four evidence-informed factors. Canada already has existing capacity in carrying out public health systems and services research. Further advancement of our academic and professional expertise on public health systems will allow Canadian public health jurisdictions to be inspired by the best public health models and become stronger advocates for public health's resources, interventions and outcomes when they need to be celebrated or defended.

  8. Partners in Public Health: Public Health Collaborations With Schools of Pharmacy, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Ochs, Leslie; Ranelli, Paul L; Kahaleh, Abby A; Lahoz, Monina R; Patel, Radha V; Garza, Oscar W; Isaacs, Diana; Clark, Suzanne

    To collect data on public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy, we sent a short electronic survey to accredited and preaccredited pharmacy programs in 2015. We categorized public health collaborations as working or partnering with local and/or state public health departments, local and/or state public health organizations, academic schools or programs of public health, and other public health collaborations. Of 134 schools, 65 responded (49% response rate). Forty-six (71%) responding institutions indicated collaborations with local and/or state public health departments, 34 (52%) with schools or programs of public health, and 24 (37%) with local and/or state public health organizations. Common themes of collaborations included educational programs, community outreach, research, and teaching in areas such as tobacco control, emergency preparedness, chronic disease, drug abuse, immunizations, and medication therapy management. Interdisciplinary public health collaborations with schools of pharmacy provide additional resources for ensuring the health of communities and expose student pharmacists to opportunities to use their training and abilities to affect public health. Examples of these partnerships may stimulate additional ideas for possible collaborations between public health organizations and schools of pharmacy.

  9. Mobile Technologies and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-05

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Eric Holman, President of SmartReply, discuss why mobile technologies are an important communications tool for disseminating health messages.  Created: 9/5/2008 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 1/12/2009.

  10. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  11. Scaring the Public: Fear Appeal Arguments in Public Health Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cummings

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of threat and fear appeal arguments has given rise to a sizeable literature. Even within a public health context, much is now known about how these arguments work to gain the public’s compliance with health recommendations. Notwithstanding this level of interest in, and examination of, these arguments, there is one aspect of these arguments that still remains unexplored. That aspect concerns the heuristic function of these arguments within our thinking about public health problems. Specifically, it is argued that threat and fear appeal arguments serve as valuable shortcuts in our reasoning, particularly when that reasoning is subject to biases that are likely to diminish the effectiveness of public health messages. To this extent, they are rationally warranted argument forms rather than fallacies, as has been their dominant characterization in logic.

  12. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  13. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  14. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies.

  15. Environmental policy and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Barry L. (Barry Lee)

    2007-01-01

    ... or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission ...

  16. Public health workforce research in review: a 25-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Tracy M; Boulton, Matthew L

    2012-05-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation commissioned a systematic review of public health workforce literature in fall 2010. This paper reviews public health workforce articles published from 1985 to 2010 that support development of a public health workforce research agenda, and address four public health workforce research themes: (1) diversity; (2) recruitment, retention, separation, and retirement; (3) education, training, and credentialing; and (4) pay, promotion, performance, and job satisfaction. PubMed, ERIC, and Web of Science databases were used to search for articles; Google search engine was used to identify gray literature. The study used the following inclusion criteria: (1) articles written in English published in the U.S.; (2) the main theme(s) of the article relate to at least one of the four public health workforce research themes; and (3) the document focuses on the domestic public health workforce. The literature suggests that the U.S. public health workforce is facing several urgent priorities that should be addressed, including: (1) developing an ethnically/racially diverse membership to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse nation; (2) recruiting and retaining highly trained, well-prepared employees, and succession planning to replace retirees; (3) building public health workforce infrastructure while also confronting a major shortage in the public health workforce, through increased education, training, and credentialing; and (4) ensuring competitive salaries, opportunities for career advancement, standards for workplace performance, and fostering organizational cultures which generate high levels of job satisfaction for effective delivery of services. Additional research is needed in all four thematic areas reviewed to develop well-informed, evidence-based strategies for effectively addressing critical issues facing the public health workforce. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Mental health status in patients with Thalassemia major in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Nasiri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia major is a genetic blood disorder that is detected by the symptoms of chronic and severe anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, failure to thrive and bone deformities in particular deformed face and bulging forehead. Due to changes in physical appearance, the disease can influence on other aspects of the patient's life, so the disease can have a strong impact on the mental health of these patients and their families. Previous studies showed that 80% of patients with thalassemia major have at least one psychiatric disorder. The aim of this paper was to review the mental health status of patients with Beta-thalassemia major in Iran.

  18. Conceptualizing ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH - Public health management and leadership perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orvik, Arne

    The thesis introduces a new conceptual model of organizational health and discusses its implications for public health management and leadership. It is developed with reference to organizational theories and ideologies, including New Public Management, the use of which has coincided with increasing...... as the disintegration of such values. Possible implications for public health management and leadership include four different forms. The application of the conceptual model can potentially draw attention to value conflicts and help to clarify contradictory, institutional logics. It can also potentially support health...... workplace health problems in health care organizations. The model is based on empirical research and theories in the fields of public health, health care organization and management, and institutional theory. It includes five dimensions and defines organizational health in terms of how an organization...

  19. Role of the Public Health Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R T [Bureau of Radiological Health, RockviIle, MD (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)

  20. Role of the Public Health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.T.

    1969-01-01

    The Public Health Service must assume the role of the overall Public Health Coordinator, seeking to afford the highest level of health protection both to the nearby population as well as to the more distant groups. Data will be given relative to the limited experience the PHS has had in the removal of populations from areas of suspected hazards. Problems inherent in the evacuation of civilians of all ages will be discussed. (author)

  1. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  2. Public engagement on global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emma R M; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-05-20

    Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  3. Is globalization really good for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2016-10-01

    In the light of recent very prominent studies, especially that of Mukherjee and Krieckhaus (), one should be initially tempted to assume that nowadays globalization is a driver of a good public health performance in the entire world system. Most of these studies use time series analyses based on the KOF Index of Globalization. We attempt to re-analyze the entire question, using a variety of methodological approaches and data. Our re-analysis shows that neoliberal globalization has resulted in very important implosions of public health development in various regions of the world and in increasing inequality in the countries of the world system, which in turn negatively affect health performance. We use standard ibm/spss ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions, time series and cross-correlation analyses based on aggregate, freely available data. Different components of the KOF Index, most notably actual capital inflows, affect public health negatively. The "decomposition" of the available data suggests that for most of the time period of the last four decades, globalization inflows even implied an aggregate deterioration of public health, quite in line with globalization critical studies. We introduce the effects of inequality on public health, widely debated in global public health research. Our annual time series for 99 countries show that globalization indeed leads to increased inequality, and this, in turn, leads to a deteriorating public health performance. In only 19 of the surveyed 99 nations with complete data (i.e., 19.1%), globalization actually preceded an improvement in the public health performance. Far from falsifying globalization critical research, our analyses show the basic weaknesses of the new "pro-globalization" literature in the public health profession. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Social determinants and lifestyles: integrating environmental and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H; White, P C L

    2016-12-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have been associated with an epidemiological transition, from communicable to non-communicable disease, and a geological transition that is moving the planet beyond the stable Holocene epoch in which human societies have prospered. The lifestyles of high-income countries are major drivers of these twin processes. Our objective is to highlight the common causes of chronic disease and environmental change and, thereby, contribute to shared perspectives across public health and the environment. Integrative reviews focused on social determinants and lifestyles as two 'bridging' concepts between the fields of public health and environmental sustainability. We drew on established frameworks to consider the position of the natural environment within social determinants of health (SDH) frameworks and the position of social determinants within environmental frameworks. We drew on evidence on lifestyle factors central to both public health and environmental change (mobility- and diet-related factors). We investigated how public health's focus on individual behaviour can be enriched by environmental perspectives that give attention to household consumption practices. While SDH frameworks can incorporate the biophysical environment, their causal structure positions it as a determinant and one largely separate from the social factors that shape it. Environmental frameworks are more likely to represent the environment and its ecosystems as socially determined. A few frameworks also include human health as an outcome, providing the basis for a combined public health/environmental sustainability framework. Environmental analyses of household impacts broaden public health's concern with individual risk behaviours, pointing to the more damaging lifestyles of high-income households. The conditions for health are being undermined by rapid environmental change. There is scope for frameworks reaching across public health and environmental

  5. Do black lives matter in public health research and training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans.In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications by race using linear spline models. We also compared the number of courses available at the top schools of public health relevant to the top causes of death contributor to PYLL for black and white Americans.Homicide was the number one contributor to PYLL among black Americans, while ischemic heart disease was the number one contributor to PYLL among white Americans. Firearm-related violence accounted for 88% of black PYLL attributed to homicide and 71% of white PYLL attributed to homicide. Despite the high burden of PYLL, homicide research was the focus of few federal grants or publications. In comparison, ischemic heart disease garnered 341 grants and 594 publications. The number of public health courses available relevant to homicide (n = 9 was similar to those relevant to ischemic heart disease (n = 10.Black Americans are disproportionately affected by homicide, compared to white Americans. For both black and white Americans, the majority of PYLL due to homicide are firearm-related. Yet, homicide research is dramatically underrepresented in public health research investments in terms of grant funding and publications, despite available public health training opportunities. If left unchecked, the observed disproportionate distribution of investments in public health resources threatens to perpetuate a system that disadvantages black Americans.

  6. Do black lives matter in public health research and training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly; Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Townes, Ashley; Bengtson, Angela M

    2017-01-01

    To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans. In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL) across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications) by race using linear spline models. We also compared the number of courses available at the top schools of public health relevant to the top causes of death contributor to PYLL for black and white Americans. Homicide was the number one contributor to PYLL among black Americans, while ischemic heart disease was the number one contributor to PYLL among white Americans. Firearm-related violence accounted for 88% of black PYLL attributed to homicide and 71% of white PYLL attributed to homicide. Despite the high burden of PYLL, homicide research was the focus of few federal grants or publications. In comparison, ischemic heart disease garnered 341 grants and 594 publications. The number of public health courses available relevant to homicide (n = 9) was similar to those relevant to ischemic heart disease (n = 10). Black Americans are disproportionately affected by homicide, compared to white Americans. For both black and white Americans, the majority of PYLL due to homicide are firearm-related. Yet, homicide research is dramatically underrepresented in public health research investments in terms of grant funding and publications, despite available public health training opportunities. If left unchecked, the observed disproportionate distribution of investments in public health resources threatens to perpetuate a system that disadvantages black Americans.

  7. Health, nutrition, and public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, J.; Coutre, le J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Blum, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between health and the economy is complex and hardly a matter of unidirectional cause and consequence. With health increasingly being understood as a stimulus for the economy, nutrition directly assumes the status of an economic identifier. This paper discusses the growing

  8. Success of the Undergraduate Public Health Program At Tulane University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luann Ellis White

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (SPHTM launched the Bachelors of Science in Public Health (BSPH in 2005. The BSPH has steadily grown and comprises one third of the total enrollment in the school. A review of the organizational structure demonstrates that direct responsibility for undergraduate education by a school of public health is advantageous to the success of the program. The competency and skills-based curriculum attracts students. Outcome measures show the enrollment is steadily increasing. The majority of the BSPH graduates continue onto competitive graduate and professional degree programs. Those who seek jobs find employment related to their public health education, but outside of the traditional governmental public health agencies. The combined BSPH/MPH degree is a pipeline for students to pursue a MPH and increases the likelihood students will pursue careers in public health. The range and depth of study in the bachelors program is continually examined. Topics once within the purview of graduate education are now being incorporated into undergraduate courses. Undergraduate public health is one of a number of factors that is influencing changes in the MPH degree.

  9. Public health ethics theory: review and path to convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics is a nascent field, emerging over the past decade as an applied field merging concepts of clinical and research ethics. Because the "patient" in public health is the population rather than the individual, existing principles might be weighted differently, or there might be different ethical principles to consider. This paper reviewed the evolution of public health ethics, the use of bioethics as its model, and the proposed frameworks for public health ethics through 2010. Review of 13 major public health ethics frameworks published over the past 15 years yields a wide variety of theoretical approaches, some similar foundational values, and a few similar operating principles. Coming to a consensus on the reach, purpose, and ends of public health is necessary if we are to agree on what ethical underpinnings drive us, what foundational values bring us to these underpinnings, and what operating principles practitioners must implement to make ethical decisions. If public health is distinct enough from clinical medicine to warrant its own set of ethical and philosophical underpinnings, then a decision must be made as to whether a single approach is warranted or we can tolerate a variety of equal but different perspectives. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. PUBLIC HEALTH Health problems flow freely across borders ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 oct. 2010 ... For four decades, IDRC has supported research across the developing world that has saved lives and reduced illness by tackling threats to public health such as infections diseases, tobacco, dilapidated health systems, and degraded environments.

  11. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  12. Blogging, Mobile Phones, and Public Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-15

    In this podcast, Erin Edgerton, CDC, and Craig Lefebvre, George Washington University discuss social media, blogs, and mobile technologies and how they can be used for public health.  Created: 5/15/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM), Division of eHealth Marketing (DeHM).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  13. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  14. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.

  15. Innovative statistical methods for public health data

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together experts working in public health and multi-disciplinary areas to present recent issues in statistical methodological development and their applications. This timely book will impact model development and data analyses of public health research across a wide spectrum of analysis. Data and software used in the studies are available for the reader to replicate the models and outcomes. The fifteen chapters range in focus from techniques for dealing with missing data with Bayesian estimation, health surveillance and population definition and implications in applied latent class analysis, to multiple comparison and meta-analysis in public health data. Researchers in biomedical and public health research will find this book to be a useful reference, and it can be used in graduate level classes.

  16. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  17. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Training physician investigators in medicine and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Marc N; Jay, Melanie R; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; Foltin, George L; Lipkin, Mack; Schwartz, Mark D

    2012-07-01

    We have described and evaluated the impact of a unique fellowship program designed to train postdoctoral, physician fellows in research at the interface of medicine and public health. We developed a rigorous curriculum in public health content and research methods and fostered linkages with research mentors and local public health agencies. Didactic training provided the foundation for fellows' mentored research initiatives, which addressed real-world challenges in advancing the health status of vulnerable urban populations. Two multidisciplinary cohorts (6 per cohort) completed this 2-year degree-granting program and engaged in diverse public health research initiatives on topics such as improving pediatric care outcomes through health literacy interventions, reducing hospital readmission rates among urban poor with multiple comorbidities, increasing cancer screening uptake, and broadening the reach of addiction screening and intervention. The majority of fellows (10/12) published their fellowship work and currently have a career focused in public health-related research or practice (9/12). A fellowship training program can prepare physician investigators for research careers that bridge the divide between medicine and public health.

  19. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  20. Bioterrorism, public health, and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

    2002-01-01

    The controversy over the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act has underscored the enduring tension in public health between guarding the common welfare and respecting individual liberty. The current version of the act, crafted in response to extensive public commentary, attempts to strike a balance between these values but has failed to allay the concerns of many civil libertarians and privacy advocates. Although the debates over the model act have been triggered by the threat of bioterrorism, they illustrate broader philosophical differences, with profound implications for all realms of public health policy.

  1. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stephanie E.; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D.; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will—or should—include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation—cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning—and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning. PMID:27618074

  2. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stephanie E; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D

    2016-09-07

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will-or should-include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation-cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning-and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning.

  3. Public health workforce employment in US public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Virginia C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the number and distribution of 26 administrative, professional, and technical public health occupations across the array of US governmental and nongovernmental industries. This study used data from the Occupational Employment Statistics program of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. For each occupation of interest, the investigator determined the number of persons employed in 2006 in five industries and industry groups: government, nonprofit agencies, education, healthcare, and all other industries. Industry-specific employment profiles varied from one occupation to another. However, about three-fourths of all those engaged in these occupations worked in the private healthcare industry. Relatively few worked in nonprofit or educational settings, and less than 10 percent were employed in government agencies. The industry-specific distribution of public health personnel, particularly the proportion employed in the public sector, merits close monitoring. This study also highlights the need for a better understanding of the work performed by public health occupations in nongovernmental work settings. Finally, the Occupational Employment Statistics program has the potential to serve as an ongoing, national data collection system for public health workforce information. If this potential was realized, future workforce enumerations would not require primary data collection but rather could be accomplished using secondary data.

  4. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response.

  5. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  6. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  7. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  8. [Public health, genetics and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow, Miguel H

    2002-10-01

    Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics.

  9. Public health has no place in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A

    1994-12-01

    It is time to review the reasons for including public health in medical education. Undergraduate medical students are interested above all in the diagnosis and treatment of individual cases of disease; population-based health care means little to most students, and is seldom regarded as important. Should public health teachers concentrate their efforts in other areas, where students are more receptive? This paper presents arguments for and against the proposition that public health has no place in the undergraduate medical course. In favour of the proposition, it is argued that the clinical imperative is so firmly entrenched in the minds of students and in the cultures of medical schools that public health will always be diminished and elbowed to one side in medical curricula. Moreover, the major gains in the health of populations will be won in other arenas. Therefore public health should rupture the links with medical schools that were formed in another age and, in any event, are now weakening as public health strikes a new identity. The effort that currently goes into teaching unwilling medical students would have better returns if it was invested elsewhere. Against the proposition, it is argued that the health of populations will not be improved without participation of all groups with an interest in and an influence on health care. No group is more influential in the organization and delivery of health services than the medical profession, so it would be foolish for public health to withdraw from medical education. Moreover, effective medical practice requires an ability to think in terms of populations as well as individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Training child psychiatrists in rural public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, T A; Benswanger, E G; Fialkov, M J; Sonis, M

    1987-04-01

    Lack of appropriate training in both public mental health service and rural mental health service is a major factor in the critical shortage of child psychiatrists in rural settings. The authors describe a residency training program in rural public mental health designed to help alleviate that shortage. The program familiarizes fourth-year residents in child psychiatry with the clinical, political, and social aspects of rural public mental health services through didactic and supervisory sessions as well as an eight-month practicum experience involving provision of inservice training and administrative and case-related consultation to staff of mental health agencies. An assessment of the program indicated that participants felt it was beneficial, but the program was only partly successful in increasing the number of child psychiatrists entering practice in rural areas. The authors urge that residency programs in child psychiatry give priority to training child psychiatrists for work in rural settings.

  11. [Brazilian bibliographical output on public oral health in public health and dentistry journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Warmling, Cristine Maria

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe characteristics of the scientific output in the area of public oral health in journals on public health and dentistry nationwide. The Scopus database of abstracts and quotations was used and eight journals in public health, as well as ten in dentistry, dating from 1947 to 2011 were selected. A research strategy using key words regarding oral health in public health and key words about public health in dentistry was used to locate articles. The themes selected were based on the frequency of key words. Of the total number of articles, 4.7% (n = 642) were found in oral health journals and 6.8% (n = 245) in public health journals. Among the authors who published most, only 12% published in both fields. There was a percentile growth of public oral health publications in dentistry journals, though not in public health journals. In dentistry, only studies indexed as being on the topic of epidemiology showed an increase. In the area of public health, planning was predominant in all the phases studied. Research to evaluate the impact of research and postgraduate policies in scientific production is required.

  12. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE... topic's public health importance, existing challenges, and opportunities for action to decrease the...

  13. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; Allen, Ryan W

    2011-12-21

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances roads as the zone of primary interest. Census data at the city and neighborhood levels were used to evaluate relationships between school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00), while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km²: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16). Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of

  14. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  15. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical ... Historical events were described from its first record in Ethiopia in 1905. ... information on patterns of distribution and relation of transmission to seasons and ...

  16. Public health informatics and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Magnuson, J A

    2013-01-01

    In a revised edition, this book covers all aspects of public health informatics, and discusses the creation and management of an information technology infrastructure that is essential in linking state and local organizations in their efforts to gather data.

  17. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the ... a Distinguished Medical Science Award for his global leadership in cancer research and the development of combination ...

  18. Advancing Public Health in Cancer - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is the leading cause of death from disease among Americans under 85. Learn how NCI advances public health by conducting research to improve the delivery of quality cancer prevention, screening, and treatment to all Americans.

  19. VT - Environmental Public Health Tracking Data Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — What is Environmental Public Health Tracking?Tracking is an ongoing national effort to better understand how environmental hazards can contribute to certain...

  20. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  1. Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  2. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  3. Public health communications for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, E

    1994-03-30

    Public health communication aims to influence health practices of large populations, including maternal health care providers (traditional birth attendants, (TBAs), nurse-midwives, other indigenous practitioners, and physicians). A quality assurance process is needed to give public sector health providers feedback. Computerized record keeping is needing for quality assurance of maternal health programs. The Indian Rural Medical Association has trained more than 20,000 rural indigenous practitioners in West Bengal. Training of TBAs is expensive and rarely successful. However, trained health professional leading group discussions of TBAs is successful at teaching them about correct maternity care. Health education messages integrated into popular songs and drama is a way to reach large illiterate audiences. Even though a few donor agencies and governments provide time and technical assistance to take advantage of the mass media as a means to communicate health messages, the private sector has most of the potential. Commercial advertisements pay for Video on Wheels, which, with 100 medium-sized trucks each fitted with a 100-inch screen, plays movies for rural citizens of India. They are exposed to public and family planning messages. Jain Satellite Television (JST) broadcasts 24 hours a day and plans to broadcast programs on development, health and family planning, women's issues, and continuing education for all health care providers (physicians, nurses, TBAs, community workers, and indigenous practitioners). JST and the International Federation for Family Health plan to telecast courses as part of an Open University of Health Sciences.

  4. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  5. Political Economy of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith W. Leavitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation. Steven Palmer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. xi + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.00 Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Paul Farmer, edited by Haun Saussy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. xii + 660 pp. (Paper US$ 27.50

  6. Natural radioactivity and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The radioactivity have been existing everywhere in the nature for the night of times. The most radioactive places such Guarapari in Brazil or Ramsar in Iran or springs of Bad Gastein in Austria do not reveal more cancers linked to radioactivity than everywhere else. Only the important radiation doses over 100 MSv received in one time are dangerous for health. (N.C.)

  7. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  8. Sepsis is a preventable public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Jordan A; Wang, Henry E; Martin, Greg S

    2018-05-06

    There is a paradigm shift happening for sepsis. Sepsis is no longer solely conceptualized as problem of individual patients treated in emergency departments and intensive care units but also as one that is addressed as public health issue with population- and systems-based solutions. We offer a conceptual framework for sepsis as a public health problem by adapting the traditional model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

  9. Music and Public Health - An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Theorell, Töres

    2018-01-01

    Introduction to Music and Public Health as a new research field. The history of the field in the Nordic countries is presented, and the 13 contributions to the book are briefly reviewed.......Introduction to Music and Public Health as a new research field. The history of the field in the Nordic countries is presented, and the 13 contributions to the book are briefly reviewed....

  10. Ecological public health and climate change policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, George P

    2010-01-01

    The fact that health and disease are products of a complex interaction of factors has long been recognized in public health circles. More recently, the term 'ecological public health' has been used to characterize an era underpinned by the paradigm that, when it comes to health and well-being, 'everything matters'. The challenge for policy makers is one of navigating this complexity to deliver better health and greater equality in health. Recent work in Scotland has been concerned to develop a strategic approach to environment and health. This seeks to embrace complexity within that agenda and recognize a more subtle relationship between health and place but remain practical and relevant to a more traditional hazard-focused environmental health approach. The Good Places, Better Health initiative is underpinned by a new problem-framing approach using a conceptual model developed for that purpose. This requires consideration of a wider social, behavioural etc, context. The approach is also used to configure the core systems of the strategy which gather relevant intelligence, subject it to a process of evaluation and direct its outputs to a broad policy constituency extending beyond health and environment. This paper highlights that an approach, conceived and developed to deliver better health and greater equality in health through action on physical environment, also speaks to a wider public health agenda. Specifically it offers a way to help bridge a gap between paradigm and policy in public health. The author considers that with development, a systems-based approach with close attention to problem-framing/situational modelling may prove useful in orchestrating what is a necessarily complex policy response to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

  11. Big social data analytics for public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straton, Nadiya; Hansen, Kjeld; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, social media has offered new opportunities for interaction and distribution of public health information within and across organisations. In this paper, we analysed data from Facebook walls of 153 public organisations using unsupervised machine learning techniques to understand...

  12. Public knowledge and attitudes regarding public health inspections of restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Grimm, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Foodborne diseases cause 76 million illnesses in the U.S. each year, and almost half of all money spent on food is spent in restaurants. Restaurant inspections are a critical public health intervention for the prevention of foodborne disease. A telephone survey of randomly selected Tennessee residents aged > or =18 was performed. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and expectations regarding restaurant inspections. Of 2000 respondents, 97% were aware that restaurants are inspected regularly by the health department. More than half of the respondents believed that inspections should be performed at least 12 times per year; only one third were aware that inspections currently occur only twice per year in Tennessee. More than one third of the respondents considered an inspection score of > or =90 acceptable for a restaurant at which they would eat; the mean score in Tennessee is 82. When presented with a variety of scenarios, an overwhelming number of respondents felt that public health responses to safety violations should be far more draconian than they actually are. Survey answers did not differ consistently based on respondents' race, gender, or history of having worked in a restaurant. This study identified a number of public misconceptions and unrealistically high expectations of the public health restaurant-inspection system. It is important to improve consumers' understanding of inspection scores and the limitations of regulatory inspections, as well as the role of such inspections in disease prevention.

  13. Why Do People Work in Public Health? Exploring Recruitment and Retention Among Public Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Wisniewski, Janna M; Amos, Kathleen; Bialek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The public health workforce is critical to the functioning of the public health system and protection of the population's health. Ensuring a sufficient workforce depends on effectively recruiting and retaining workers. This study examines factors influencing decisions to take and remain in jobs within public health, particularly for workers employed in governmental public health. This cross-sectional study employed a secondary data set from a 2010 national survey of US public health workers. Survey respondents were included in this study if they responded to at least 1 survey item related to recruitment and retention. A total of 10 859 survey responses fit this criterion. Data examined demographics of public health workers and factors that influenced decisions to take jobs in and remain in public health. Job security (β = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.56) and competitive benefits (β = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70) were significantly and positively associated with governmental employees' decisions to take positions with their current employers compared with public health workers employed by other types of organizations. The same finding held with regard to retention: job security (β = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.57) and competitive benefits (β = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.24-0.83). Two personal factors, personal commitment to public service (β = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42) and wanted a job in the public health field (β = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-0.69), were significantly and positively related to governmental employees deciding to remain with their current employers. It is important to recognize the value of competitive benefits for both current and potential employees. Public health agencies should maintain these if possible and make the value of these benefits known to policy makers or other agencies setting these benefit policies. Job security associated with governmental public health jobs also appears to offer public health an advantage in recruiting and retaining employees.

  14. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the microbiological origin. The impressive progress in understanding the nexus between soil and health has been achieved by experimentation with preserved soil microbial systems functioning along with the metagenomic characterization. The objective of this work is to present an overview of some recent onsets. In the food safety arena, survival of human pathogens in soils has been related to the degree of soil eutrophication and/or related structure of soil microbial communities. Soil microbial systems affect the affinity of plants to internalizing pathogenic organisms. Pharmaceutical arsenals benefit from using field soil environment for developing antibiotics. Enzyme production by soil bacteria is used as the signal source for drug activation. Sanitary functions of sols are dependent on soil microbial system workings. The healthy living can be enhanced by the human immune system training received from direct contact with soils. The hygiene hypothesis considers the microbial input due to exposure to soil as the essential ecosystem service. The invisible links between soil and public health result in large-scale consequences. Examples of concurrent degradation of soil and public health are worth scrutinizing. Public health records can provide valuable sources of 'soil-public health' interactions. It may be worthwhile to examine current assessments of soil health from the public health standpoint. Soil management can be an efficient instrument of public health control.

  15. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernick, M S

    1997-11-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well.

  16. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.

  17. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  18. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  19. Determinants of public health expenditure growth in Tanzania: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies some major drivers of per capita public health expenditure growth in Tanzania using nationally representative annual data between 1995 and 2014. It used Bayesian model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. The empirical result shows that both the real GDP per capita and ...

  20. Setting international standards for the management of public health pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have highlighted the urgency of sound management of public health pesticides in vector-borne–disease–endemic countries. Major shortcomings are evident in national-level management practices throughout the pesticide life cycle from production to disposal; these shortcomings will

  1. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system. [Chandy S, Abraham P and ..... distribution of the hosts through international shipping routes. The majority of SEOV-related .... Dalrymple J M 1994 Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus, ...

  2. STI precention in Local Public Health: from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) have been recognized as a major public health problem for many years. It is estimated that, worldwide, over 340 million new cases of curable STIs – syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomonas – occur every year in men and women aged 15-49 years.

  3. Occupational Health and Safety in the Nigerian Public Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is to explore the issue of occupational health and safety ... this paper seeks to examine major causes of occupational hazards in the public ... not report to the management for fear of negative effect that may result from it.

  4. The early NHS and the crisis of public health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C

    2000-01-01

    Establishment of the NHS in 1948 is rightly seen as a major turning point in health care in the United Kingdom. Notwithstanding conditions of severe austerity, the NHS succeeded remarkably well in its basic remit to make all essential medical care available to the entire population, free at point of delivery. The benefits of the new system extended across the entire front of its services. However, it is important to recognise that the reforms of 1948 were uniformly advantageous. It has for instance long been recognised that the NHS failed to bring about the expected transformation in standards of general medical practice. In this short paper the author argues that public health represented a further major sphere of underdevelopment. The fact that, with minor exceptions, public health is the least studied aspect of the early NHS is itself suggestive of its status as the Cinderella of the modern health services. The author also underlines the adverse implications of this inferior position for domiciliary midwifery, district nursing and health visiting. These constituted small but strategically important sectors of nursing, all of which fell under public health administration in the new health service. The author concentrates on the first phase of the NHS, the period between 1948 and 1974, now often regarded as its golden age. For the purposes of this discussion, most of the evidence relates to the formative phase of the new service, when many major policy questions relating to public health were first confronted. It is suggested that the early neglect of public health and its constituent nursing functions has left a legacy of problems that have still not entirely been resolved. For the purposes of this paper the term will be used to embrace the totality of health functions administered by departments of local government in the period from 1948 to 1974. Most of these services fell within the public health departments of local government, headed by the Medical Office

  5. Equity, social determinants and public health programmes--the case of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2011-12-01

    The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health issued the 2008 report 'Closing the gap within a generation - health equity through action on the social determinants of health' in response to the widening gaps, within and between countries, in income levels, opportunities, life expectancy, health status, and access to health care. Most individuals and societies, irrespective of their philosophical and ideological stance, have limits as to how much unfairness is acceptable. In 2010, WHO published another important report on 'Equity, Social Determinants and Public Health Programmes', with the aim of translating knowledge into concrete, workable actions. Poor oral health was flagged as a severe public health problem. Oral disease and illness remain global problems and widening inequities in oral health status exist among different social groupings between and within countries. The good news is that means are available for breaking poverty and reduce if not eliminate social inequalities in oral health. Whether public health actions are initiated simply depends on the political will. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) and subsequent charters have emphasized the importance of policy for health, healthy environments, healthy lifestyles, and the need for orientation of health services towards health promotion and disease prevention. This report advocates that oral health for all can be promoted effectively by applying this philosophy and some major public health actions are outlined. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Public health financial management needs: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia F; Honoré, Peggy A; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here builds on the identification of public health financial management practice competencies by a national expert panel. The next logical step was to provide a validity check for the competencies and identify priority areas for educational programming. We developed a survey for local public health finance officers based on the public health finance competencies and field tested it with a convenience sample of officials. We asked respondents to indicate the importance of each competency area and the need for training to improve performance; we also requested information regarding respondent education, jurisdiction size, and additional comments. Our local agency survey sample drew on the respondent list from the National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 local health department survey, stratified by agency size and limited to jurisdiction populations of 25,000 to 1,000,000. Identifying appropriate respondents was a major challenge. The survey was fielded electronically, yielding 112 responses from 30 states. The areas identified as most important and needing most additional training were knowledge of budget activities, financial data interpretation and communication, and ability to assess and correct the organization's financial status. The majority of respondents had some postbaccalaureate education. Many provided additional comments and recommendations. Health department finance officers demonstrated a high level of general agreement regarding the importance of finance competencies in public health and the need for training. The findings point to a critical need for additional training opportunities that are accessible, cost-effective, and targeted to individual needs.

  7. Globalization of public health law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myongsei

    2012-09-01

    The Constitution of the World Health Organization (1946) states that the "enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social position." The international legal framework for this right was laid by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and reaffirmed in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) and the Declaration of Alma-Ata (1978). In recent years, the framework has been developed on 10 key elements: national and international human rights, laws, norms, and standards; resource constraints and progressive realization; obligations of immediate effect; freedoms and entitlements; available, accessible, acceptable, and good quality; respect, protect, and fulfill; non-discrimination, equality, and vulnerability; active and informed participation; international assistance and cooperation; and monitoring and accountability. Whereas public health law plays an essential role in the protection and promotion of the right to health, the emergence of SARS (2003) highlighted the urgent need to reform national public health laws and international obligations relating to public health in order to meet the new realities of a globalized world, leading to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) and the revision of the WHO International Health Regulations (2005). The Asian Institute for Bioethics and Health Law, in conjunction with the Republic of Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare and the WHO International Digest of Health Legislation, conducted a comparative legal analysis of national public health laws in various countries through a project entitled Domestic Profiles of Public/Population Health Legislation (2006), which underscored the importance of recognizing the political and social contexts of distinct legal cultures, including Western, Asian, Islamic, and African.

  8. Explaining the Public-Sector Pay Gap: The Role of Skill and College Major

    OpenAIRE

    Max Schanzenbach

    2015-01-01

    This paper reassesses the public-sector pay gap using AFQT score and college major as measures of skill. Among the college educated, there is strong evidence that those with lower skills enter the public sector. In contrast to the private sector, for college-educated public-sector workers, AFQT score is not correlated with pay, and college major is only weakly predictive of pay. Furthermore, simple controls for college major explain most of the public-private-sector pay gap. I conclude that t...

  9. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  10. Student-Life Stress in Education and Health Service Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascavage, Victoria; Winterman, Kathleen G.; Buot, Max; Wies, Jennifer R.; Lyzinski, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the effects of student-life stress on Education and Health Service majors (n = 195) at a private, religious, Midwestern university in the USA, we assessed student perception of overall stress level and physical stress level using the Student-life Stress Inventory. The targeted sample consisted of students with…

  11. Assessment on major livestock health problems in southern zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted to identify the major livestock health problems in southern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia from July 2014 to June 2016. Questionnaire survey and case observational study were employed for data collection. A total of 120 respondents were interviewed for the questionnaire survey.

  12. The public health implications of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Jean; Bousquet, Philippe J; Godard, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre

    2005-07-01

    Asthma is a very common chronic disease that occurs in all age groups and is the focus of various clinical and public health interventions. Both morbidity and mortality from asthma are significant. The number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to asthma worldwide is similar to that for diabetes, liver cirrhosis and schizophrenia. Asthma management plans have, however, reduced mortality and severity in countries where they have been applied. Several barriers reduce the availability, affordability, dissemination and efficacy of optimal asthma management plans in both developed and developing countries. The workplace environment contributes significantly to the general burden of asthma. Patients with occupational asthma have higher rates of hospitalization and mortality than healthy workers. The surveillance of asthma as part of a global WHO programme is essential. The economic cost of asthma is considerable both in terms of direct medical costs (such as hospital admissions and the cost of pharmaceuticals) and indirect medical costs (such as time lost from work and premature death). Direct costs are significant in most countries. In order to reduce costs and improve quality of care, employers and health plans are exploring more precisely targeted ways of controlling rapidly rising health costs. Poor control of asthma symptoms is a major issue that can result in adverse clinical and economic outcomes. A model of asthma costs is needed to aid attempts to reduce them while permitting optimal management of the disease. This paper presents a discussion of the burden of asthma and its socioeconomic implications and proposes a model to predict the costs incurred by the disease.

  13. Missing Citations, Bulking Biographies, and Unethical Collaboration: Types of Cheating among Public Relations Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Giselle A.

    2013-01-01

    Students cheat. For the field of public relations, which continually struggles for credibility, the issue of student cheating should be paramount, as the unethical students of today become tomorrow's practitioners. Through a survey of 170 public relations majors, this study examined the importance students place on the Public Relations Society of…

  14. Radiological protection and public health: crossbreeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, Patrick; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper summarizes the scope of activities, ongoing experience and current results of the Expert Group on the Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection (EGPH) of the Committee of Radiological Protection and Public Health, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. While the prime and general task of the EGPH group is looking at how the public health and radiation protection can better take an advantage of their respective perspectives, the following four areas have been explored in detail: a) Exposure to radon; b) Justification of medical exposures; c) Public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence; and d) Management of individual differences. In most of these areas, a targeted telephone survey on public policies in selected countries was used for collecting information from stake holders (public, consumers groups, public health and radiation protection regulators, governmental bodies, medical practitioners, patients, scientific communities, NGOs, etc.). The presented paper also highlights key issues of collected information and summarises existing approaches and policies. The case study on exposure to radon collects national information on approaches to the management of domestic radon risks, focusing on the integration of radiation protection and public health aspects (quality of dwellings, overall quality of indoor air, perception of radon levels, position of radon risk in the pool of other risks). In the case of justification of medical exposures, the Group studies the applications of the justification principle in opportunistic screenings (responsibilities, management of the situation, risk assessment). The precautionary principle and its impact on policy judgement in the light of significant scientific uncertainties can have a large influence on radiological-protection decision making. The case study on public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence is exploring how these uncertainties and

  15. Public Health Service Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, J R [Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  16. Public Health Service Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  17. Public Health Crisis in War and Conflict - Health Security in Aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John; Zelený, Tomáš; Subramaniam, Rammika; Bencko, Vladimír

    2017-03-01

    Public health status of populations is multifactorial and besides other factors it is linked to war and conflict. Public health crisis can erupt when states go to war or are invaded; health security may be reduced for affected populations. This study reviews in aggregate multiple indices of human security, human development and legitimacy of the state in order to describe a predictable global health portrait. Paradigm shift of large global powers to that non-state actors and proxies impact regional influence through scaled conflict and present major global health challenges for policy makers. Small scale conflict with large scale violence threatens health security for at-risk populations. The paper concludes that health security is directly proportional to state security. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  18. Emerging health isues in Asia and the Pacific: implications for public health policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amarakoon Bandara

    2005-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region is confronted with several emerging healthrelated issues. The prevalence of diseases causing high rates of mortality and morbidity, and the lack of skilled health personnel, infrastructure, financial resources and health systems that are responsive to the needs of society, are among them. A pragmatic approach with a focus on issues of major health and socio-economic concern is vital for the development of successful public health services. Striking a balance between di...

  19. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  20. Public Swimming Pools | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illness Disease Reporting and Surveillance Bureau of Public Health Laboratories Environmental Health Air Air Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Indoor Air Quality Mold Radon Water Aquatic Toxins Beach Water Quality purification, testing, treatment, and disinfection procedures. To ensure that the pool technicians are

  1. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  2. Cities and the health of the public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2006-01-01

    ... and urban renewal on health, and the challenges facing cities in the developing world. It also examines conditions such as infectious diseases, violence and disasters, and mental illness. Nicholas Freudenberg is Distinguished Professor of Public Health and Social Psychology, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York. Sandro G...

  3. EDITORIAL PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE HEALTH PROFESSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DSB

    and comedians, there is a lot of serious introspection by health professionals and where possible remedial corrective measures are ... The public perception of health professionals is heavily influenced by greatly skewed media reporting. ... because of the resulting intense itch and could hardly sleep at night. The tourist ...

  4. Ethical issues in public health promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... Health promotion has three main ethical issues: (i) what are the ultimate goals for public .... construction of new norms, the shaping of existing norms, the .... despite the fact that we know they are bad for people's health. There.

  5. Mold prevention strategies and possible health effects in the aftermath of hurricanes and major floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mary; Brown, Clive; Burkhart, Joe; Burton, Nancy; Cox-Ganser, Jean; Damon, Scott; Falk, Henry; Fridkin, Scott; Garbe, Paul; McGeehin, Mike; Morgan, Juliette; Page, Elena; Rao, Carol; Redd, Stephen; Sinks, Tom; Trout, Douglas; Wallingford, Kenneth; Warnock, David; Weissman, David

    2006-06-09

    Extensive water damage after major hurricanes and floods increases the likelihood of mold contamination in buildings. This report provides information on how to limit exposure to mold and how to identify and prevent mold-related health effects. Where uncertainties in scientific knowledge exist, practical applications designed to be protective of a person's health are presented. Evidence is included about assessing exposure, clean-up and prevention, personal protective equipment, health effects, and public health strategies and recommendations. The recommendations assume that, in the aftermath of major hurricanes or floods, buildings wet for health effects in susceptible persons regardless of the type of mold or the extent of contamination. For the majority of persons, undisturbed mold is not a substantial health hazard. Mold is a greater hazard for persons with conditions such as impaired host defenses or mold allergies. To prevent exposure that could result in adverse health effects from disturbed mold, persons should 1) avoid areas where mold contamination is obvious; 2) use environmental controls; 3) use personal protective equipment; and 4) keep hands, skin, and clothing clean and free from mold-contaminated dust. Clinical evaluation of suspected mold-related illness should follow conventional clinical guidelines. In addition, in the aftermath of extensive flooding, health-care providers should be watchful for unusual mold-related diseases. The development of a public health surveillance strategy among persons repopulating areas after extensive flooding is recommended to assess potential health effects and the effectiveness of prevention efforts. Such a surveillance program will help CDC and state and local public health officials refine the guidelines for exposure avoidance, personal protection, and clean-up and assist health departments to identify unrecognized hazards.

  6. [The fight against bacterial resistance, a public health priority].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria represents a major danger for the health of humans and animals. Combined with an almost complete absence of new antibiotics, it is one of the most alarming public health issues of our time. Measures must be taken in order to control the use of these drugs and safeguard their effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Health outcome after major trauma: what are we measuring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Karen; Cole, Elaine; Playford, E Diane; Grill, Eva; Soberg, Helene L; Brohi, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients. To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006-2012) were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries. Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts. 34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%), functional activities (11%) and environmental factors (2%). Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care.

  8. Health outcome after major trauma: what are we measuring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hoffman

    Full Text Available Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients.To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma.MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006-2012 were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries.Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts.34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%, functional activities (11% and environmental factors (2%.Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care.

  9. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-05

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  10. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  11. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  12. Big Data's Role in Precision Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Precision public health is an emerging practice to more granularly predict and understand public health risks and customize treatments for more specific and homogeneous subpopulations, often using new data, technologies, and methods. Big data is one element that has consistently helped to achieve these goals, through its ability to deliver to practitioners a volume and variety of structured or unstructured data not previously possible. Big data has enabled more widespread and specific research and trials of stratifying and segmenting populations at risk for a variety of health problems. Examples of success using big data are surveyed in surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease. Using novel big data or big data approaches has risks that remain to be resolved. The continued growth in volume and variety of available data, decreased costs of data capture, and emerging computational methods mean big data success will likely be a required pillar of precision public health into the future. This review article aims to identify the precision public health use cases where big data has added value, identify classes of value that big data may bring, and outline the risks inherent in using big data in precision public health efforts.

  13. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson Jaclyn A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%, severe weather (68% and poor air-quality (57%. Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into

  14. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs

  15. Organizational factors influencing successful primary care and public health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; O'Mara, Linda

    2018-06-07

    Public health and primary care are distinct sectors within western health care systems. Within each sector, work is carried out in the context of organizations, for example, public health units and primary care clinics. Building on a scoping literature review, our study aimed to identify the influencing factors within these organizations that affect the ability of these health care sectors to collaborate with one another in the Canadian context. Relationships between these factors were also explored. We conducted an interpretive descriptive qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 74 key informants from three provinces, one each in western, central and eastern Canada, and others representing national organizations, government, or associations. The sample included policy makers, managers, and direct service providers in public health and primary care. Seven major organizational influencing factors on collaboration were identified: 1) Clear Mandates, Vision, and Goals; 2) Strategic Coordination and Communication Mechanisms between Partners; 3) Formal Organizational Leaders as Collaborative Champions; 4) Collaborative Organizational Culture; 5) Optimal Use of Resources; 6) Optimal Use of Human Resources; and 7) Collaborative Approaches to Programs and Services Delivery. While each influencing factor was distinct, the many interactions among these influences are indicative of the complex nature of public health and primary care collaboration. These results can be useful for those working to set up new or maintain existing collaborations with public health and primary care which may or may not include other organizations.

  16. Ambivalent helpers and unhealthy choices: public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2005-03-01

    Public health practitioners in Australian indigenous health work in a complex political environment. Public health training is limited in providing them with conceptual tools needed to unpack the postcolonial nexus of 'fourth-world' health. A workshop was designed by the authors to facilitate critical reflection on how the concepts of race and culture are used in constructions of indigenous ill-health. It was attended by researchers, students, clinicians and bureaucrats working in public health in northern Australia. A thematic analysis of the workshop minutes provided insight into public health practitioners' narratives of Indigenous ill-health. The major themes that emerged included tension between structure and agency and between sameness and difference, and ambivalence surrounding the 'helper' identity of public health practitioners. We suggest that these narratives can be understood as attempts to maintain the moral integrity of both Indigenous people and practitioners. This task is necessitated by the specter of cultural relativism intrinsic to contemporary liberal discourses of multiculturalism that attempt to reconcile the universal rights of the citizen with the special rights of minority groups. We argue that the concepts of self-determination and neocolonialism mark the spaces where universal and particular discourses overlap and clash. Practitioners who seek to escape neocolonialism must inhabit only the discursive space of public health congruent with self-determination, leaving them in a bind common to many postcolonial situations. They must relieve the ill-health of indigenous people without acting upon them; change them without declaring that change is required.

  17. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  18. Is periodontal disease a public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, P

    2014-10-01

    Clinically defined periodontal disease is highly prevalent, has considerable impacts on individuals and society and is costly to treat; the cost of dental care is the fourth highest costs of all diseases and consuming between 5 and 10% of all healthcare resources. Changes in the epidemiology of clinically defined periodontal diseases suggest that the prevalence of severe periodontal disease is low and rates of progression of periodontal destruction tend to be relatively slow. Current periodontal care modalities have a remarkably weak evidence base, with considerable resources allocated to fund interventions that include oral hygiene instruction, scale and polishes through to surgical interventions. The public health problem lies more in the failure in design of a contract between dental professionals and the state. Such a contract needs to recognise both the wider determinants of disease and the role that dental professionals could play: a contract that concentrated on rewarding outcomes, namely a diminution in treatment need, as opposed to one based simply on the number of interventions would be a major step forward.

  19. Influence of worklife on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, G

    1999-12-01

    The paper discusses worklife changes with broad public health impacts. Central concepts for the analysis of the labor market are flexibility and differentiation. One conclusion is that there is ongoing polarization and differentiation--with an increased group of people in time-restricted (contingent) employment and self-employment and a reduced group of core workers. Greater demands for adaptability are being imposed on the majority of employees. Concepts related to flexibility and differentiation at an individual level are adaptability, identity formation, loss of control, trust and lack of trust, allostatic load, long-term strain, and psychological contracting. The labor market and organizational changes are discussed in relation to what can be called "institutional effectiveness". These changes refer to how institutions commissioned to act for the prevention of injuries and to contribute to worklife quality handle the new conditions. Finally, work-environment research is discussed in relation to a new and more complex pattern of exposures and interactions. One conclusion drawn is that it is becoming increasingly difficult to identify workplaces at risk.

  20. Our health and theirs: forced migration, othering, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Natalie J; Zwi, Anthony B

    2006-04-01

    This paper uses 'othering' theory to explore how forced migrants are received in developed countries and considers the implications of this for public health. It identifies a variety of mechanisms by which refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants are positioned as 'the other' and are defined and treated as separate, distant and disconnected from the host communities in receiving countries. The paper examines how this process has the potential to affect health outcomes both for individuals and communities and concludes that public health must engage with and challenge this othering discourse. It argues that public health practitioners have a critical role to play in reframing thinking about health services and health policies for forced migrants, by promoting inclusion and by helping shape a narrative which integrates and values the experiences of this population.

  1. The new frontier of public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, David; Gretsinger, Kathryn; Ellis, Ursula

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to describe the experience and educational benefits of a course that has several unique educational design features. Design/methodology/approach This includes narrative description of faculty and student experience from participants in a flipped-instructional-design inter-professional education course. Findings "Improving Public Health - An Interprofessional Approach to Designing and Implementing Effective Interventions" is an undergraduate public health course open to students regardless of background. Its student activities mirror the real-life tasks and challenges of working in a public health agency, including team-building and leadership; problem and project definition and prioritization; evidence-finding and critical appraisal; written and oral presentation; and press interviews. Students successfully developed project proposals to address real problems in a wide range of communities and settings and refined those proposals through interaction with professionals from population and public health, journalism and library sciences. Practical implications Undergraduate public health education is a relatively new endeavor, and experience with this new approach may be of value to other educators. Originality/value Students in this course, journalism graduate students who conducted mock interviews with them and instructors who oversaw the course all describe unique aspects and related personal benefit from this novel approach.

  2. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. An International Comparison of the Instigation and Design of Health Registers in the Epidemiological Response to Major Environmental Health Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbod, Behrooz; Leonardi, Giovanni; Motreff, Yvon; Beck, Charles R; Yzermans, Joris; Lebret, Erik; Muravov, Oleg I; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy Funk; Lauriola, Paolo; Close, Rebecca; Crabbe, Helen; Pirard, Philippe

    Epidemiological preparedness is vital in providing relevant, transparent, and timely intelligence for the management, mitigation, and prevention of public health impacts following major environmental health incidents. A register is a set of records containing systematically collected, standardized data about individual people. Planning for a register of people affected by or exposed to an incident is one of the evolving tools in the public health preparedness and response arsenal. We compared and contrasted the instigation and design of health registers in the epidemiological response to major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Consultation with experts from the 5 nations, supplemented with a review of gray and peer-reviewed scientific literature to identify examples where registers have been used. Populations affected by or at risk from major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Nations were compared with respect to the (1) types of major incidents in their remit for considering a register; (2) arrangements for triggering a register; (3) approaches to design of register; (4) arrangements for register implementation; (5) uses of registers; and (6) examples of follow-up studies. Health registers have played a key role in the effective public health response to major environmental incidents, including sudden chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear, as well as natural, more prolonged incidents. Value has been demonstrated in the early and rapid deployment of health registers, enabling the capture of a representative population. The decision to establish a health register must ideally be confirmed immediately or soon after the incident using a set of agreed criteria. The establishment of protocols for the instigation, design, and implementation of health registers is recommended as part of preparedness activities. Key stakeholders must be

  4. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  5. Manual on public health action in radiation emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Over the years, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a series of reports and publications providing guidance on the public health aspects of nuclear power production, in line with target 11 of the European policy for health for all, which calls for the reduction of injury, disability and death from accidents. Immediately after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986, the WHO Regional Office for Europe established an emergency operation to provide technical cooperation and communication links with Member States. A special project on the public health dimensions of radiation emergencies was subsequently established, which included a series of activities related both directly to the Chernobyl accident and to emergency planning for future accidents. This manual brings together the experience gained in the special project to improve the planning for and response to emergencies. It has been prepared to meet public health needs arising from all types of major radiation emergency in the European Region. The manual describes the guiding principles and advises on the practical application of measures to protect and inform the public in a radiation emergency. It is hoped that the manual will promote close interaction between the WHO Member States in this field. The advice given in earlier WHO publications on radiation emergencies has been examined and revised in the light of recent experience 12 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Manual on public health action in radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Over the years, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a series of reports and publications providing guidance on the public health aspects of nuclear power production, in line with target 11 of the European policy for health for all, which calls for the reduction of injury, disability and death from accidents. Immediately after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986, the WHO Regional Office for Europe established an emergency operation to provide technical cooperation and communication links with Member States. A special project on the public health dimensions of radiation emergencies was subsequently established, which included a series of activities related both directly to the Chernobyl accident and to emergency planning for future accidents. This manual brings together the experience gained in the special project to improve the planning for and response to emergencies. It has been prepared to meet public health needs arising from all types of major radiation emergency in the European Region. The manual describes the guiding principles and advises on the practical application of measures to protect and inform the public in a radiation emergency. It is hoped that the manual will promote close interaction between the WHO Member States in this field. The advice given in earlier WHO publications on radiation emergencies has been examined and revised in the light of recent experience

  7. Ophthalmic public health; the way ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, F; Rahimi, A; Gharebaghi, R

    2012-01-01

    Visual sciences have been progressing quickly in recent decades through globalization phenomenon. An enormous change has taken place in ocular health issues, however, there are various problems facing ophthalmic public health worldwide. In the previous years, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eradicate avoidable blindness by the year 2020, VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has concentrated on the prevention of blindness disability and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. In view of challenges ahead of visual sciences, close collaboration between international agencies at the global level to implement new strategies and monitor the progress will be mandatory. In these circumstances non-governmental organizations should not be neglected. World Sight Day 2012 would be a great opportunity to be a focus on importance of visual impairment as an important public health issue and discovering new challenges ahead.

  8. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  10. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  11. Energy policy and the public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, B.

    1979-01-01

    The various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and its effect on public health are described. For the U.K., it is shown that the maximum doses to an individual of the general public are well below the ICRP standards. For nuclear workers, the standard mortality ratio rate for UKAEA and BNFL workers is less than the national average and considerably less than that for miners, quarrymen and other industrial employees. The radiological risk to the general public from nuclear plant accidents is very small compared to the general hazards of life. In conclusion, the hazards involved in nuclear technology are no different in kind or in scale to those of existing technologies and indeed the radiological effects on health are better understood than the health risks associated with other technologies. (U.K.)

  12. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  13. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  14. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH) at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA). Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then...

  15. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Public health implications of emerging zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, F X; Stöhr, K; Heymann, D

    2000-04-01

    Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. A wide variety of animal species, both domestic and wild, act as reservoirs for these pathogens, which may be viruses, bacteria or parasites. Given the extensive distribution of the animal species affected, the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases pose a significant challenge. The authors describe the direct and indirect implications for public health of emerging zoonoses. Direct implications are defined as the consequences for human health in terms of morbidity and mortality. Indirect implications are defined as the effect of the influence of emerging zoonotic disease on two groups of people, namely: health professionals and the general public. Professional assessment of the importance of these diseases influences public health practices and structures, the identification of themes for research and allocation of resources at both national and international levels. The perception of the general public regarding the risks involved considerably influences policy-making in the health field. Extensive outbreaks of zoonotic disease are not uncommon, especially as the disease is often not recognised as zoonotic at the outset and may spread undetected for some time. However, in many instances, the direct impact on health of these new, emerging or re-emerging zoonoses has been small compared to that of other infectious diseases affecting humans. To illustrate the tremendous indirect impact of emerging zoonotic diseases on public health policy and structures and on public perception of health risks, the authors provide a number of examples, including that of the Ebola virus, avian influenza, monkeypox and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Recent epidemics of these diseases have served as a reminder of the existence of infectious diseases and of the capacity of these diseases to occur unexpectedly in new

  17. Hospital Adoption of Health Information Technology to Support Public Health Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel M; Diana, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Health information technology (IT) has the potential to improve the nation's public health infrastructure. In support of this belief, meaningful use incentives include criteria for hospitals to electronically report to immunization registries, as well as to public health agencies for reportable laboratory results and syndromic surveillance. Electronic reporting can facilitate faster and more appropriate public health response. However, it remains unclear the extent that hospitals have adopted IT for public health efforts. To examine hospital adoption of IT for public health and to compare hospitals capable of using and not using public health IT. Cross-sectional design with data from the 2012 American Hospital Association annual survey matched with data from the 2013 American Hospital Association Information Technology Supplement. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare hospital characteristics. Inverse probability weights were applied to adjust for selection bias because of survey nonresponse. All acute care general hospitals in the United States that matched across the surveys and had complete data available were included in the analytic sample. Three separate outcome measures were used: whether the hospital could electronically report to immunization registries, whether the hospital could send electronic laboratory results, and whether the hospital can participate in syndromic surveillance. A total of 2841 hospitals met the inclusion criteria. Weighted results show that of these hospitals, 62.7% can electronically submit to immunization registries, 56.6% can electronically report laboratory results, and 54.4% can electronically report syndromic surveillance. Adjusted and weighted results from the multivariate analyses show that small, rural hospitals and hospitals without electronic health record systems lag in the adoption of public health IT capabilities. While a majority of hospitals are using public health IT, the infrastructure still has

  18. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Ahmed, Jamil; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Rehan; Hafeez, Assad

    2013-01-09

    Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee's work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.

  19. The genesis of public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L

    2004-11-01

    As bioethics emerged in the 1960s and 1970s and began to have enormous impacts on the practice of medicine and research--fuelled, by broad socio-political changes that gave rise to the struggles of women, African Americans, gay men and lesbians, and the antiauthoritarianism impulse that characterised the New Left in democratic capitalist societies--little attention was given to the question of the ethics of public health. This was all the more striking since the core values and practices of public health, often entailing the subordination of the individual for the common good, seemed opposed to the ideological impulses of bioethics. Of what relevance is autonomy-focused bioethics for public health, with its mix of justifications including those that are either implicitly or explicitly paternalistic or that seek to impose strictures on individuals and communities in the name of collective welfare? To examine the deep divide between the central commitments of bioethics and the values that animate the practice of public health, we focus on a series of controversies implicating the concepts of privacy, liberty, and paternalism. Recognising the role of moral values in decision-making was a signal contribution of bioethics in its formative period. Over the past three decades a broad array of perspectives emerged under the rubric of bioethics but individualism remains central. As we commence the process of shaping an ethics of public health, it is clear that bioethics is the wrong place to start when thinking about the balances required in defence of the public's health.

  20. Metabolomics in Sepsis and Its Impact on Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Bauer, Pia; Reumann, Matthias; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Lehrach, Hans; Brand, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis, with its often devastating consequences for patients and their families, remains a major public health concern that poses an increasing financial burden. Early resuscitation together with the elucidation of the biological pathways and pathophysiological mechanisms with the use of "-omics" technologies have started changing the clinical and research landscape in sepsis. Metabolomics (i.e., the study of the metabolome), an "-omics" technology further down in the "-omics" cascade between the genome and the phenome, could be particularly fruitful in sepsis research with the potential to alter the clinical practice. Apart from its benefit for the individual patient, metabolomics has an impact on public health that extends beyond its applications in medicine. In this review, we present recent developments in metabolomics research in sepsis, with a focus on pneumonia, and we discuss the impact of metabolomics on public health, with a focus on free/libre open source software. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Engaging students in community health: a public health advocacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Nell; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    Individual risk assessment and behavior change dominate the content of high school health education instruction whereas broader social, political, and economic factors that influence health-known as upstream causes-are less commonly considered. With input from instructors and students, we developed a 10-lesson experiential Public Health Advocacy Curriculum that uses classroom-based activities to teach high school students about the upstream causes of health and engages them in community-based health advocacy. The Curriculum, most suitable for health- or advocacy-related elective classes or after-school programs, may be taught in its entirety or as single lessons integrated into existing coursework. Although students at many schools are using the Curriculum, it has been formally evaluated with 110 predominantly Latino students at one urban and one semirural public high school in Northern California (six classes). In pre-post surveys, students showed highly significant and positive changes in the nine questions that covered the three main Curriculum domains (Upstream Causes, Community Exploration, and Public Health Advocacy), p values .02 to Curriculum is being widely disseminated without charge to local, national, and international audiences, with the objective of grooming a generation of youth who are committed to the public health perspective to health.

  2. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies (electronic resource)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Karen; Lurie, Nicole; Stoto, Michael A; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Dausey, David J; Meade, Barbara; Diamond, Alexis; Molander, Roger C

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  3. Tests to evaluate public health disease reporting systems in local public health agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dausey, David J

    2005-01-01

    ... to evaluate the ability to receive and respond to case reports 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We refined these tests by beta-testing them at 20 metropolitan area local public health agencies across the country over the course of 10 months. The contents of this manual will be of interest to public health professionals at the state and local l...

  4. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  5. The dancing plague: a public health conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L J; Cavanagh, J; Rankin, J

    1997-07-01

    The phenomenon of mass, frenzied dancing affected large populations in various parts of Europe from the thirteenth century and lasted, on and off, for three centuries. The exact aetiology of the Dancing Plague (or Dancing Mania) is still unclear. Retrospective historical review of this public health problem reveals claims for causative factors including demonic possession, epilepsy, the bite of a tarantula, ergot poisoning and social adversity. It seems unlikely that Dancing Mania resulted from a single cause but rather resulted from multiple factors combining with a predisposing cultural background and triggered by adverse social circumstances. Dancing Mania remains one of the unresolved mysteries of public health.

  6. Association of green tea consumption with mortality due to all causes and major causes of death in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-07-01

    We examined the association between green tea consumption and mortality due to all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan. We studied 90,914 Japanese (aged between 40 and 69 years) recruited between 1990 and 1994. After 18.7 years of follow-up, 12,874 deaths were reported. The association between green tea consumption and risk of all causes and major causes of mortality was assessed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among men who consumed green tea compared with those who drank less than 1 cup/day were 0.96 (0.89-1.03) for 1-2 cups/day, 0.88 (0.82-0.95) for 3-4 cups/day, and 0.87 (0.81-0.94) for more than 5 cups/day (P for trend death in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  8. Obesity, stigma and public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lynne; Edwards, Nancy; Garrard, Michael; Sims-Jones, Nicki; Clinton, Kathryn; Ashley, Lisa

    2009-03-01

    Given the rise in obesity rates in North America, concerns about obesity-related costs to the health care system are being stressed in both the popular media and the scientific literature. With such constant calls to action, care must be taken not to increase stigmatization of obese people, particularly of children. While there is much written about stigma and how it is exacerbated, there are few guidelines for public health managers and practitioners who are attempting to design and implement obesity prevention programs that minimize stigma. We examine stigmatization of obese people and the consequences of this social process, and discuss how stigma is manifest in health service provision. We give suggestions for designing non-stigmatizing obesity prevention public health programs. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  9. [Economic problems in military public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A

    2000-03-01

    There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.

  10. Learning About Self: Leadership Skills for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Rob

    2016-04-26

    As public health practitioners and as clinicians we are taught to care for our patients, and for our community members. But how much do we teach and learn about how to lead, manage and care for our colleagues, our team members and ourselves? This paper emphasizes the need for leadership learning and teaching to become an essential element of the practice of public health. The paper presents the author's perspective on the leadership skills required for public health and describes a five-day intensive course designed to enable participants to develop these skills over time. The paper briefly covers leadership definitions, styles and types and key leadership skills. It mainly focuses on the design and ethos of the course, skills self-assessment, group interaction and methods for developing and refining leadership skills. The course uses a collaborative learning approach where the power differential between teachers, facilitators, guests and participants is minimized. It is based on creating an environment where any participant can reveal his or her stories, successes, failures, preferences and dislikes in a safe manner. It encourages continual, constructive individual reflection, self-assessment and group interaction. The course is aimed at the practice of public health leadership, with a particular emphasis on the leadership of self, of knowing oneself, and of knowing and understanding colleagues retrospectively as well as prospectively. The most important outcome is the design and implementation of participants' own plans for developing and nurturing their leadership skills. Significance for public healthThe nature of public health is changing rapidly and increasing in complexity. These changes include major shifts in the burden of disease and the insatiable demands of clinical medicine swamping those of public health. Public health practitioners have failed over many years to systematically ensure that leadership and management skills are essential parts of public

  11. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Osipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role of sociology in the scientific management of society — namely — the social construction aimed at the prevention of adverse events and the creation of social realities desirable for the individual and society. One of the areas of social reality, as well as the most important sphere of social life which are subject to social construction is public health. Public health is considered as an integrated expression of the dynamics of individual levels of the health of all members of society. The author emphasizes that the public health of the people is formed by the interaction of two groups of factors — endogenous (sex, biological age, race, body type, heredity and type of the human nervous system and exogenous (natural and social factors. The last are created by people themselves in the course of their ability to live and are operated, that is socially designed. The author analyzes the negative processes related to public health, the most important of which is a complex situation in the health system, lack of faith in the possibility of human medicine. An equally important role belongs to the deterioration of environmental significant share of people’s living conditions and social stress. If earlier scientists did not specify, in what degree of threat of infringement of global ecosystems are connected with a state of health and features of diseases of the population now it is established that various forms of irreversible change of environment are directly dangerous to public health. From an antiquity the effect of discrepancy of the wished (abstractly and actually arising future wished (abstractly — effect of human activity is known: people wish one, however actually all terminates differently, practically, on the contrary. And these characteristics of a public sincere, mental condition can be extremely inconsistent in relation to knowledge. They are the basis of so-called “involuntary behaviors

  12. Hypertension – a public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is considered an important public health problem in Brazil,which is aggravated by its high prevalence and late detection. In addition, it is oneof the major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Hypertension, considered a “silent murder”, is the largest social problem indeveloped countries and in a large number of developing countries. Despite of knownefficacy and affectivity of various preventive and control measures, including thepharmacological ones, hypertension will continue, for decades, representing oneof the largest health challenges and high cost disease for individuals and society. Ifcontrol of existed cases, as well as control and prevention of risks factors for thisdisease are not implemented, this problematic will affect a large proportion of thepopulation in our country, which, in 2020, will have had increase significantly over60 years of age.Hypertension is a multifactor, multisystem syndrome. It can be cause bymultiple causes, being related to inadequate life style, constitutional factors, suchas: sex, age, race/color and family history; as well as environmental issues, suchas: sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, alcoholism, inadequate diet and obesity.Due to its silent course, a person can be surprised by its complications, beingnecessary learn to live with its chronic nature on an every day basis. Nevertheless,this type of problem is influenced by a series of determinants, including personalitycharacteristics, forms to face the disease, self-concept, self-image, experience withthe disease and health care professionals attitudes.One of the difficulties found in the treatment of persons with hypertensionis the lack of adhesion to the treatment, as 50% of the known patients withhypertension don’t treat themselves, and among those who do, few have controlledblood pressure. Between 30 and 50% of persons with hypertension stop treatmentwithin the first year of treatment, and 75% after five

  13. Public Health and International Drug Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Executive summary In September 2015, the member states of the United Nations endorsed sustainable development goals (SDG) for 2030 that aspire to human rights-centered approaches to ensuring the health and well-being of all people. The SDGs embody both the UN Charter values of rights and justice for all and the responsibility of states to rely on the best scientific evidence as they seek to better humankind. In April 2016, these same states will consider control of illicit drugs, an area of social policy that has been fraught with controversy, seen as inconsistent with human rights norms, and for which scientific evidence and public health approaches have arguably played too limited a role. The previous UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs in 1998 – convened under the theme “a drug-free world, we can do it!” – endorsed drug control policies based on the goal of prohibiting all use, possession, production, and trafficking of illicit drugs. This goal is enshrined in national law in many countries. In pronouncing drugs a “grave threat to the health and well-being of all mankind,” the 1998 UNGASS echoed the foundational 1961 convention of the international drug control regime, which justified eliminating the “evil” of drugs in the name of “the health and welfare of mankind.” But neither of these international agreements refers to the ways in which pursuing drug prohibition itself might affect public health. The “war on drugs” and “zero-tolerance” policies that grew out of the prohibitionist consensus are now being challenged on multiple fronts, including their health, human rights, and development impact. The Johns Hopkins – Lancet Commission on Drug Policy and Health has sought to examine the emerging scientific evidence on public health issues arising from drug control policy and to inform and encourage a central focus on public health evidence and outcomes in drug policy debates, such as the important deliberations of

  14. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for ...

  15. [Pedagogical training in stricto sensu graduate programs in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Guilherme Torres; Ribeiro, Victoria Maria Brant

    2013-06-01

    The scope of this research is to discuss the relevance and need for pedagogical training of university lecturers in the Public Health field. The contention is that college teaching is a practice that requires specific training, since it is characterized by complex elements that transcend the mastery of given content. Considering stricto sensu graduate studies as an important stage in the training of future university lecturers, an attempt was made to identify and analyze the subjects and practices of pedagogical training in academic masters and doctorate programs in Public Health. To achieve the research aim, this work was based on Pierre Bourdieu's field theory and on Tomaz Tadeu da Silva's curriculum theory. Results indicate that the programs do not consider the aspect of teacher training as a major issue. With regard to the Public Health field approximately 61% of masters and 38% of doctorate programs have pedagogical training subjects/practices. Furthermore, there is a tendency for technical-instrumental training, which is in line with the history of the Public Health field. The conclusion is that there is a need to develop a culture that values college and graduate Public Health teaching, considering the complexity of pedagogical practice in all its dimensions.

  16. Public health nursing competency in a rural/frontier state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, Jeri L; Otterness, Nancy; Gehrke, Pam

    2010-01-01

    To assess the self-reported levels of competency among public health nurses (PHNs) in Idaho. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. The sample consisted of 124 PHNs, including 30 in leadership roles, currently practicing in Idaho's official public health agencies. Structured interviews were conducted with participants who provided self-ratings in the 8 domains of public health competency as developed by the Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice and the Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations. The findings indicated that the overall level of competency was most strongly associated with the duration of professional experience. No major differences in the competency levels were found in relation to nurses' level of education or licensure. Nurses in leadership positions reported the highest levels of competency. Rurality, as measured by district population density, was not significantly correlated with competency levels, except in relation to community dimensions of practice skills. The findings suggest that PHNs' self-perceived levels of competence are most strongly influenced by their years of professional experience, particularly in leadership roles. Professional development efforts should focus on the domains with the lowest perceived competency: policy development/program planning skills, analytic assessment skills, and financial planning/management skills.

  17. Health needs and public health functions addressed in scientific publications in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benie-Bi, J; Cambon, L; Grimaud, O; Kivits, J; Alla, F

    2013-09-01

    To describe the reporting of public health research in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSA). A bibliometric research study of scientific public health publications in FSA, which includes 24 countries and approximately 260 million people. Two researchers analysed original articles published in 2007 in the medical or social sciences fields and indexed in Scopus. At least one co-author of articles had to be based in FSA. The analysis focused on research field, public health function (WHO classification), FSA country author's affiliation, language, journal type and global burden of disease (WHO classification). Of 1047 articles retrieved by the search, 212 were from the public health field. The number of articles per country varied from 0 to 36. Public health functions examined were health service research (24.5%), health monitoring (27.4%), prevention (15%) and legislation (0.5%). The distribution of health needs described in the articles was close to that of the WHO data for Africa for 2004: infectious and parasitic diseases (70% vs 54%), maternal and perinatal conditions (15% vs 17%), non-communicable diseases (15.6% vs 21%), and injuries (0.5% vs 8%). The areas reported in published articles from sub-Saharan Africa reflect the health needs distribution in Africa; however, the number of publications is low, particularly for prevention. In light of the current focus on evidence-based public health, this study questions whether the international scientific community adequately considers the expertise and perspectives of African researchers and professionals. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Climate Services to Improve Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Máñez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers. PMID:24776719

  19. Nuclear Security Systems and Measures for Major Public Events. Implementing Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides an overview, based on practical experience and lessons learned, for establishing nuclear security systems and measures for major public events. It covers technical and administrative nuclear security measures for developing the necessary organizational structure, developing plans, strategies and concepts of operations, and making arrangements for implementing the developed plans, strategies and concepts.

  20. Sexual and reproductive health: a public health perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Look, P. F. A. van; Heggenhougen, Kris; Quah, Stella R

    2011-01-01

    .... Major changes have taken place in the last 15 years in the way decision-makers think about the subject and the manner in which programmes deliver comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services...

  1. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; Payne, Hannah; Hanson, Carl L; Barnes, Michael D; Davis, Siena F; Manwaring, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM) as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  2. The Public Health Innovation Model: Merging Private Sector Processes with Public Health Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Lister

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health enjoyed a number of successes over the twentieth century. However, public health agencies have arguably been ill equipped to sustain these successes and address the complex threats we face today, including morbidity and mortality associated with persistent chronic diseases and emerging infectious diseases, in the context of flat funding and new and changing health care legislation. Transformational leaders, who are not afraid of taking risks to develop innovative approaches to combat present-day threats, are needed within public health agencies. We propose the Public Health Innovation Model (PHIM as a tool for public health leaders who wish to integrate innovation into public health practice. This model merges traditional public health program planning models with innovation principles adapted from the private sector, including design thinking, seeking funding from private sector entities, and more strongly emphasizing program outcomes. We also discuss principles that leaders should consider adopting when transitioning to the PHIM, including cross-collaboration, community buy-in, human-centered assessment, autonomy and creativity, rapid experimentation and prototyping, and accountability to outcomes.

  3. Mind the gap: social media engagement by public health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brett; Labrique, Alain; Jain, Kriti M; Pekosz, Andrew; Levine, Orin

    2014-01-14

    The traditional vertical system of sharing information from sources of scientific authority passed down to the public through local health authorities and clinicians risks being made obsolete by emerging technologies that facilitate rapid horizontal information sharing. The rise of Public Health 2.0 requires professional acknowledgment that a new and substantive forum of public discourse about public health exists on social media, such as forums, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Some public health professionals have used social media in innovative ways: to surveil populations, gauge public opinion, disseminate health information, and promote mutually beneficial interactions between public health professionals and the lay public. Although innovation is on the rise, most in the public health establishment remain skeptical of this rapidly evolving landscape or are unclear about how it could be used. We sought to evaluate the extent to which public health professionals are engaged in these spaces. We conducted a survey of professorial- and scientist-track faculty at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We asked all available faculty via email to complete a 30-question survey about respondent characteristics, beliefs about social media, and usage of specific technologies, including blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. A total of 181 (19.8%) of 912 professor- and scientist-track faculty provided usable responses. The majority of respondents rarely used major social media platforms. Of these 181 respondents, 97 (53.6%) had used YouTube, 84 (46.4%) had used Facebook, 55 (30.4%) had read blogs, and 12 (6.6%) had used Twitter in the prior month. More recent degree completion was the best predictor of higher usage of social media. In all, 122 (67.4%) agreed that social media is important for disseminating information, whereas only 55 (30.4%) agreed that social media is useful for their research. In all, 43 (23.8%) said social media

  4. ONCHOCERCIASIS – A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic disease with a wide range of cutaneous and ocular manifestations. It is caused by the tissue nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, and it is transmitted by the bite of a female black fly, Simulium damnosum. Onchocerciasis is a serious public health and socio-economic problem with 95% of all ...

  5. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, G.F.M.; Friele, R.D.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used

  6. Getting public health ethics into practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maeckelberghe, Els

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethics is the philosophical discipline that advises on decision making criteria when difficult choices are to be made. Research has shown over the last years that public health researchers and practitioners ‘must confront numerous ethical choices' but they ‘often feel ill-prepared to make

  7. Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  8. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  9. The public health impact of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the

  10. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  11. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the m...

  12. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  13. Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications of Tuberculosis Among Nomadic Pastoralists in Three Local Governments of Plateau State, North ... Bovine and human tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, and apart from meat inspection at the abattoir, which is not very effective, no control measures are ...

  14. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  15. Medicine and public health in a multiethnic world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Raj

    2009-09-01

    Achievement of medical and public health goals requires mutual understanding between professionals and the public, a challenge in diverse societies. Despite their massive diversity humans belong to one species, with race and ethnicity used to subgroup/classify humans and manage diversity. Classifications are contextual and vary by time, place and classifier. As classifications show major variations in health status, and risk factors, research using race and ethnicity has accelerated. Medical sciences, including epidemiology, are learning fast to extract value from such data. Among the debatable issues is the value of the relative risk versus absolute risk approaches (the latter is gaining ground), and how to assess ethnicity and race (self-assignment is favoured in the UK and North America, country of birth in continental Europe). Racial and ethnic variations in disease and risk factors are often large and usually unexplained. There is a compelling case for ethnic monitoring, despite its difficulties, for tackling inequalities and as a foundation for research. Medical and public health goals require good data collected in a racism-free social environment. Health professionals need to find the benefits of exploring differences while avoiding social division. Advances in health care, public health and medical science will follow.

  16. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  17. Public health educational comprehensiveness: The strategic rationale in establishing networks among schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otok, Robert; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Foldspang, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The establishment and continuing development of a sufficient and competent public health workforce is fundamental for the planning, implementation, evaluation, effect and ethical validity of public health strategies and policies and, thus, for the development of the population's health and the cost-effectiveness of health and public health systems and interventions. Professional public health strategy-making demands a background of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary curriculum including mutually, dynamically coherent competences - not least, competences in sociology and other behavioural sciences and their interaction with, for example, epidemiology, biostatistics, qualitative methods and health promotion and disease prevention. The size of schools and university departments of public health varies, and smaller entities may run into problems if seeking to meet the comprehensive curriculum challenge entirely by use of in-house resources. This commentary discusses the relevance and strength of establishing comprehensive curriculum development networks between schools and university departments of public health, as one means to meet the comprehensiveness challenge. This commentary attempts to consider a two-stage strategy to develop complete curricula at the bachelor and master's as well as PhD levels.

  18. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH) in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  19. Developing an academia-based public health observatory: the new global public health observatory with emphasis on urban health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castillo-Salgado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health observatories may differ according to their mission, institutional setting, topical emphasis or geographic coverage. This paper discusses the development of a new urban-focused health observatory, and its operational research and training infrastructure under the academic umbrella of the Department of Epidemiology and the Institute of Urban Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (BSPH in Baltimore, USA. Recognizing the higher education mission of the BSPH, the development of a new professional training in public health was an important first step for the development of this observatory. This new academia-based observatory is an innovative public health research and training platform offering faculty, investigators, professional epidemiology students and research partners a physical and methodological infrastructure for their operational research and training activities with both a local urban focus and a global reach. The concept of a public health observatory and its role in addressing social health inequalities in local urban settings is discussed.

  20. Assessing the public health impact of using poison center data for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Lyons, Rebecca; Choudhary, Ekta; Wolkin, Amy; Schier, Joshua

    2017-12-13

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.

  1. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.

  2. Should public health be exempt from ethical regulations? Intricacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Literature review of published papers regarding ethical regulations in public health practice. Results: There is a current criticism of public health ethics as hindering rather than facilitating public health research. There is also an existing dilemma as to which Public health activities constitute research and are ...

  3. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the Federal...

  4. Epigenetics: relevance and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozek, Laura S; Dolinoy, Dana C; Sartor, Maureen A; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-01-01

    Improved understanding of the multilayer regulation of the human genome has led to a greater appreciation of environmental, nutritional, and epigenetic risk factors for human disease. Chromatin remodeling, histone tail modifications, and DNA methylation are dynamic epigenetic changes responsive to external stimuli. Careful interpretation can provide insights for actionable public health through collaboration between population and basic scientists and through integration of multiple data sources. We review key findings in environmental epigenetics both in human population studies and in animal models, and discuss the implications of these results for risk assessment and public health protection. To ultimately succeed in identifying epigenetic mechanisms leading to complex phenotypes and disease, researchers must integrate the various animal models, human clinical approaches, and human population approaches while paying attention to life-stage sensitivity, to generate effective prescriptions for human health evaluation and disease prevention.

  5. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  6. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  7. Big Social Data in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kjeld S.; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the notion of "Socially Shared Health Information" (SSHI) referring to the phenomena of users and health organizations explicitly sharing health related information on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. In order to investigate the phenomena of SSHI, in this paper, we...... present a multi-method case study of the organizational strategies for and user engagement with the Facebook page of the official portal for the public Danish Healthcare Services (Sundheds.dk). We analysed qualitative data in the form of a semi-structured interview with the social media editor of Sundhed.......dk and netnographic observations, and quantitative data from the full historic fetch of the official Facebook wall. Our results show a good alignment between the organizational and social media strategies of the public Danish Healthcare Services but point out the lack of domain-specific metrics to measure its...

  8. Making the case for a 'fifth wave' in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, P; Carlisle, S; Hannah, M; Reilly, D; Lyon, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper will argue that the UK has seen several phases of public health improvement since the Industrial Revolution, and that each of these can be linked to major shifts in thinking about the nature of society and health itself. The authors are not, however, attempting to delineate firm sequences of events (or imply causality) as this would require a level of analysis of the relationship between economy, society and culture which is beyond the scope of this paper. Rather, it is suggested that each phase of health improvement can be thought of in metaphorical terms as a 'wave'. The first wave is associated with great public works and other developments arising from social responses to the profound disruptions which followed the Industrial Revolution. The second wave saw the emergence of medicine as science. The third wave involved the redesign of our social institutions during the 20th Century and gave birth to the welfare state. The fourth wave has been dominated by efforts to combat disease risk factors and the emergence of systems thinking. Although a trough of public health activity continues from each wave, none exerts the same impact as when it first emerged. This paper will discuss the complex challenges of obesity, inequality and loss of wellbeing, together with the broader problems of exponential growth in population, money creation and energy usage. As exponential growth is unsustainable on a finite planet, inevitable change looms. Taken together, these analyses suggest that a fifth wave of public health development is now needed; one which will need to differ radically from its forerunners. The authors invite others to join them in envisioning its nature and in furthering the debate about future public health. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The next public health revolution: public health information fusion and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ali S; Fleischauer, Aaron; Casani, Julie; Groseclose, Samuel L

    2010-07-01

    Social, political, and economic disruptions caused by natural and human-caused public health emergencies have catalyzed public health efforts to expand the scope of biosurveillance and increase the timeliness, quality, and comprehensiveness of disease detection, alerting, response, and prediction. Unfortunately, efforts to acquire, render, and visualize the diversity of health intelligence information are hindered by its wide distribution across disparate fields, multiple levels of government, and the complex interagency environment. Achieving this new level of situation awareness within public health will require a fundamental cultural shift in methods of acquiring, analyzing, and disseminating information. The notion of information "fusion" may provide opportunities to expand data access, analysis, and information exchange to better inform public health action.

  10. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  11. [Blind alleys and misconceptions in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H E

    1995-07-01

    The concept of hygiene was created in the 19th century although Hippocrates had already conceived an influence of atmosphere, soil and water on human health. The concept of a public health organisation, however, is a fairly recent one. Environmental and social hygiene were the two poles of the new discipline that focussed on public health. However, the ideologies of capitalism, communism and socialism as well as of social darwinism and "survival of the elite" discredited social hygiene. The decline of totalitarianism was associated with a "loss of face" of state-controlled medicine, including social hygiene. Both the post-World War II German constitution and the previous German statutory health insurance ordinance had blocked it, and hence, no Federal bill on public health was carried. The consequences of this disregard of public health are poor protection by vaccination, a gap in compulsory notification and in epidemics control and high rates of nosocomial infections. Absolutely no development of the science of epidemiology was possible whereas that of medical microbiology is choked by the system now in existence. There is a great misconception within individual hygiene by identifying it merely with cleanliness. Hygiene became a synonym for cleanliness, although that had evolved during a long cultural sociological process centuries before hygiene was established. The modern evolution of the science of hygiene shows the danger that emphasis on healthy lifestyles or on environmental protection may result in regulations and finally in a tyranny that may threaten the liberty of human rights. The so-called "principle of concern" is an example of such irrationality because there is no sensible proportion between risk and expense.

  12. Twitter and Public Health (Part 1): How Individual Public Health Professionals Use Twitter for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole E; Islam, Sabrina; Pizarro, Katherine

    2017-09-20

    The use of social networking sites is increasingly being adopted in public health, in part, because of the barriers to funding and reduced resources. Public health professionals are using social media platforms, specifically Twitter, as a way to facilitate professional development. The objective of this study was to identify public health professionals using Twitter and to analyze how they use this platform to enhance their formal and informal professional development within the context of public health. Keyword searches were conducted to identify and invite potential participants to complete a survey related to their use of Twitter for public health and professional experiences. Data regarding demographic attributes, Twitter usage, and qualitative information were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. Open-response survey questions were analyzed using the constant comparison method. "Using Twitter makes it easier to expand my networking opportunities" and "I find Twitter useful for professional development" scored highest, with a mean score of 4.57 (standard deviation [SD] 0.74) and 4.43 (SD 0.76) on a 5-point Likert scale. Analysis of the qualitative data shows the emergence of the following themes for why public health professionals mostly use Twitter: (1) geography, (2) continuing education, (3) professional gain, and (4) communication. For public health professionals in this study, Twitter is a platform best used for their networking and professional development. Furthermore, the use of Twitter allows public health professionals to overcome a series of barriers and enhances opportunities for growth. ©Mark Hart, Nichole E Stetten, Sabrina Islam, Katherine Pizarro. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.09.2017.

  13. Keeping the “Public” in Schools of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation’s public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation’s largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  14. Intercultural competency in public health: a call for action to incorporate training into public health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFleckman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultural roles needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. In focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  15. Health Resources Statistics; Health Manpower and Health Facilities, 1968. Public Health Service Publication No. 1509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    This report is a part of the program of the National Center for Health Statistics to provide current statistics as baseline data for the evaluation, planning, and administration of health programs. Part I presents data concerning the occupational fields: (1) administration, (2) anthropology and sociology, (3) data processing, (4) basic sciences,…

  16. Public Health in Europe : 10 years EUPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kirch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    What is Public Health (PH? What are the links between Public Health research and policy in Europe? Where is PH coming from in the 20th century and where is it directed to?

    These are some of the questions addressed by Public Health in Europe – 10 years EUPHA, the volume, edited by Prof.W. Kirch and published by Springer in 2004, that presents a selection of the manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of EUPHA, held in Dresden in 2002.

    Gunnar Tellness, the President of EUPHA, reminds us what PH is, or what it should be: the science devoted to reduce in the population the amount of disease, premature death and disease-related discomfort, sickness and disability.

    In addressing these themes,Tellness suggests to improve PH by employing healthpromoting and cultural activities, in order to establish strong collaborations between public agencies, private business, organisations and pioneers.

  17. Design and Build: Views from some Major Public Clients in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P C Chan

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the views of clients in public sector on design and build(D&B procurement method. Specifically, their reasons of adopting D&B and refusing to adopt it were explored. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with ten senior staff from four major public organisations in Hong Kong. The findings indicate that public clients held different views on D&B methods based on different grounds. Apart from functional requirements such as project completion time, cost certainty, etc., internal resources and political force would also influence client's adoption of D&B method in the public sector.

  18. Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1998-11-01

    Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.

  19. The public health leadership certificate: a public health and primary care interprofessional training opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia.

  20. FORMULATION OF INDONESIAN PUBLIC HEALTH DEVELOPMENT INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of formulation the Indonesian Public Health Development Index (IPHDI was to describe the successful development of public health based on composite several community-based health indicators. Cross sectional study design.The data analyzed was a combination of a nationwide survey covering Baseline Health Research (Riskesdas 2007, National Social Economic Survey (Susenas 2007 and the Village Potential (Podes in 2008. Selection of appropriate indicators included in IPHDI associated with LE at birth, selected on the basis of consensus expert team. When the indicator has the RSE (relative standard error value of less than 30% and the value was held for more than 75% of districts. then the indicator is a candidate in the calculation IPHDI. The team doing the analysis on 22 models of the combination of indicators. The number of indicators chat involved between 18 to 24. These models have been made and tested for correlation weighting of life expectancy each district. Results of correlation ranged from 0.314 to 0.512 and all models have a significance value p< 0.001. The model was chosen considering the variables that are considered priorities and values of correlation. IPHDI Highest value is 0.708959 (Magelang City, Central Java and the lowest is 0.247059 (Pegunungan Bintang district, Papua. Conclusion. IPHDI utilization is to know district who has severe health problems, resulting in enhancement programs that have intervened, resulting in focusing the target location, and became one of the parameters for the calculation of aid allocations fairly from center to the region. Key words: health indicators, Indonesian public health development index, life expectancy

  1. The Public Health Responsibility Deal: brokering a deal for public health, but on whose terms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Clare; Caraher, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Coalitions of multinational food and drink businesses have pledged to reformulate their products and to market them responsibly. Largely business-led and self-regulated, the integrity of these voluntary initiatives has been questioned. The Public Health Responsibility Deal in England is an example of a voluntary initiative that is government-led. Does this approach provide evidence that with public leadership there is potential for voluntary actions to deliver meaningful results for public health? The subject of the research is the calorie reduction initiative of the Responsibility Deal. Source material was obtained primarily through a series of UK Freedom of Information requests and comprises previously unpublished Department of Health documentation relating to relevant meetings held during 2011 and 2012. The Responsibility Deal approach to calorie reduction deliberately involves the food industry in the specification of the measures it is to implement (reformulation and portion control). Finding the common ground between private and public interests has resulted in the deflection of public health objectives and the preclusion of adequate monitoring and evaluation. The Responsibility Deal approach is fundamentally flawed in its expectation that industry will take voluntary actions that prioritise public health interests above its own. Being government-led counts for little in the absence of sanctions to drive compliance. Instead the initiative affords private interests the opportunity to influence in their favour the public health policies and strategies that affect their products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracking Master of Public Health graduates: Linking higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Master of Public Health (MPH) students come from a wide range of health professional backgrounds. Graduate programmes in public health should equip alumni with knowledge and skills to analyse and integrate health research findings, and have a practical approach to current public health issues. In South ...

  3. Radiation hormesis, public health, and public policy: a commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R J; Bowers, E J; Clelland, R C

    1983-03-01

    Public policy affecting public health regarding effects of low-level ionizing radiations has been, and is being, determined by effects estimates based on linear or other monotonic extrapolation from high-level radiation dose-response data to presumed ecologically realistic low-level exposure effects. Such predictive, unmeasured estimates are very possibly in serious error; they are incompatible with observed low-level dose-response data that indicate a negative correlation between low-level radiation data and health effects, such as cancer mortality rates. Observed negative correlations with low-level radiation data are to be expected on the basis of evidence supporting the validity of the hormesis phenomenon. Hormesis theory, derived in part from evolutionary biology, asserts that while high levels of exposure to an agent such as ionizing radiation are indeed hazardous, ecologically realistic low levels can be stimulatory and largely beneficial. Stimulation of activities of DNA and other repair mechanisms may be involved. Although evidence of the reality of radiation hormesis has been reported in about 1000 scientific publications over the last century, this effect has been largely unrecognized. Moreover, this widespread non-acceptance of hormesis as a real-world phenomenon is usually but not always present in the case of chemical hormesis; the oversight appears systematic. The ignoring of the hormesis phenomenon seems to constitute a very serious error in modern biomedical science and in preventive medicine. A mathematical model is offered that describes the general shape of certain dose-response functions when radiation hormesis at low-level exposure is taken into consideration along with the well-known detrimental effects of high-level radiation.

  4. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion

  5. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  6. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  7. [Health literacy as one of the contemporary public health challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    One of the fundamental public health challenges in the 21st century should be the improvement of people's health literacy, namely the understanding of health messages. The acquired high level of health literacy means that one knows how and where information concerning health determinants can be found, is able to assess it critically and in favorable conditions even modify them, which seems to be of particular importance from the perspective of heath promotion, prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, for professionals in these fields, knowledge of ways how to improve health literacy, as well as awareness of related benefits and the consequences of its poor level, seems to be indispensable. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explain the term of "health literacy", its determinants and implications.

  8. [About development of public health of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepin, O P

    2013-01-01

    The article presents public health system characterized by public responsibility for health of citizen under various forms of property. The issues of management, planning, financing and organization of health care are discussed.

  9. LINKING PUBLIC HEALTH AND AIR QUALITY DATA FOR ACCOUNTABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program Area: Environmental HealthTopic Area: Linking Public Health Data into ActionTitle of Presentation: Linking Public Health and Air Quality Data for AccountabilityBackground and Significance Tracking environmental exposures to air pollutan...

  10. Shaping public health education, research, and policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab countries often face multifaceted health challenges, including gaps and ... play a critical role in filling this gap by educating the public health workforce as well as ... implement an alternative institutional model for public health based on a ...

  11. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  12. Equity in health personnel financing after Universal Coverage: evidence from Thai Ministry of Public Health?s hospitals from 2008?2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ruangratanatrai, Wilailuk; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2015-01-01

    Background Shortage and maldistribution of the health workforce is a major problem in the Thai health system. The expansion of healthcare access to achieve universal health coverage placed additional demand on the health system especially on the health workers in the public sector who are the major providers of health services. At the same time, the reform in hospital payment methods resulted in a lower share of funding from the government budgetary system and higher share of revenue from hea...

  13. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-12-09

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change's health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities.

  15. Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Solange; Rudolph, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses a major threat to public health. Strategies that address climate change have considerable potential to benefit health and decrease health inequities, yet public health engagement at the intersection of public health, equity, and climate change has been limited. This research seeks to understand the barriers to and opportunities for advancing work at this nexus. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 113) with public health and climate change professionals and thematic analysis. Barriers to public health engagement in addressing climate change include individual perceptions that climate change is not urgent or solvable and insufficient understanding of climate change’s health impacts and programmatic connections. Institutional barriers include a lack of public health capacity, authority, and leadership; a narrow framework for public health practice that limits work on the root causes of climate change and health; and compartmentalization within and across sectors. Opportunities include integrating climate change into current public health practice; providing inter-sectoral support for climate solutions with health co-benefits; and using a health frame to engage and mobilize communities. Efforts to increase public health sector engagement should focus on education and communications, building leadership and funding, and increasing work on the shared root causes of climate change and health inequities. PMID:26690194

  16. Workplace health promotion in the context of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe M. Masanotti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern societies, work is the source of most individual, corporate and community wealth. The level of each society’s health is therefore particularly vulnerable to disruption caused by employee illness. Today healthy workplaces are one of the most important determinants of health. However, public health has tended to completely ignore health in the workplace and occupational medicine has tended to ignore it in part. This article refers to the Italian and European context and, through a review of international recommendations, research and direct field experiences, presents workplace health promotion as an important tool in the field of public health.

    Through the years, several initiatives have been tested. One of the platforms that has demonstrated to be cost effective is based on the principles included in the Ottawa Charter which, when applied to the workplace, define workplace health promotion. In the last twelve years, the European Commission has recognized the workplace as a key determinant of health and has outlined a methodology of workplace health promotion as defined in the Luxemburg Declaration. The basis of this methodology is planning. Without correct strategy and policy development it will not be possible to create a sustainable society. The enforcement of Lisbon treaty seems to be a substantial step forward for Europe.

  17. Globalisation and global health governance: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a defining economic and social trend of the past several decades. Globalisation affects health directly and indirectly and creates economic and health disparities within and across countries. The political response to address these disparities, exemplified by the Millennium Development Goals, has put pressure on the global community to redress massive inequities in health and other determinants of human capability across countries. This, in turn, has accelerated a transformation in the architecture of global health governance. The entrance of new actors, such as private foundations and multi-stakeholder initiatives, contributed to a doubling of funds for global health between 2000 and 2010. Today the governance of public health is in flux, with diminished leadership from multilateral institutions, such as the WHO, and poor coherence in policy and programming that undermines the potential for sustainable health gains. These trends pose new challenges and opportunities for global public health, which is centrally concerned with identifying and addressing threats to the health of vulnerable populations worldwide.

  18. An international partnership interdisciplinary training programme on public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrioti, Despena; Charalambous, George; Skitsou, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Targeted training programmes are more efficient towards skills development. Literature on assessing training needs in order to formulate programmes through international partnerships is very limited. This study intended to identify perceived training needs in public health with an aim...... at providing the respective training in cooperation with the World Health Organization, European Office. Method and Material: We distributed a questionnaire to Greek professionals such as doctors, nurses, administrative personnel and social scientists, employed in the public sector all over the country. We...... analysed 197 structured self-administered questionnaires using one way ANOVA to identify associations between individual characteristics of health professionals and perceived training needs. Results: The majority of participants were women (n=143, 73%) and men (n=53, 27%). In terms of motivation...

  19. Evolutionary public health: introducing the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Nesse, Randolph M; Sear, Rebecca; Johnstone, Rufus A; Stearns, Stephen C

    2017-07-29

    The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity. Ecological interactions that influence mortality risk, nutrient availability, and pathogen burden shape energy allocation strategies throughout the life course, thereby affecting diverse health outcomes. Public health interventions could improve their own effectiveness by incorporating an evolutionary perspective. In particular, evolutionary approaches offer new opportunities to address the complex challenges of global health, in which populations are differentially exposed to the metabolic consequences of poverty, high fertility, infectious diseases, and rapid changes in nutrition and lifestyle. The effect of specific interventions is predicted to depend on broader factors shaping life expectancy. Among the important tools in this approach are mathematical models, which can explore probable benefits and limitations of interventions in silico, before their implementation in human populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  1. Social media in public health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Henriksen, Helle Zinner

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of social media use in Danish public health care with respect to capabilities, interactions, orientations, and value distribution. Taking an exploratory approach, the paper draws on an array of quantitative and qualitative data, and puts forward four propositions......: social media transform the access to health-related information for patients and general practitioners, the uptake of social media can be a cost driver rather than a cost saver, social media provide empowerment to patients, and the uptake of social media is hindered by legal and privacy concerns...

  2. Florence Nightingale: nurse and public health pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    August 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who must be, without doubt, the most famous name in nursing. Most people, even those in the health professions, think of her as 'The Lady with the Lamp'; the heroine of the Crimean War, who tended the sick and wounded soldiers at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution, which continued long after Crimea, was in the organization of nursing training, in hospital planning, public and military health, and in effective collection of medical statistics.

  3. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  4. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.

  5. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ``Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities`` publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ``Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.`` Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs.

  6. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The 1997 edition of the ''Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities'' publication presents 5 years (1993 through 1997) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, operating revenue, and electric energy account data. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, ''Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities.'' Public electric utilities file this survey on a fiscal year basis, in conformance with their recordkeeping practices. The EIA undertook a review of the Form EIA-412 submissions to determine if alternative classifications of publicly owned electric utilities would permit the inclusion of all respondents. The review indicated that financial indicators differ most according to whether or not a publicly owned electric utility generates electricity. Therefore, the main body of the report provides summary information in generator/nongenerator classifications. 2 figs., 101 tabs

  7. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century.

  8. PPACA and public health: creating a framework to focus on prevention and wellness and improve the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majette, Gwendolyn Roberts

    2011-01-01

    PPACA epitomizes comprehensive health care reform legislation. Public health, disease prevention, and wellness were integral considerations in its development. This article reveals the author's personal experiences while working on the framework for health care reform in the United States Senate and reviews activity in the United States House of Representatives. This insider's perspective delineates PPACA's positive effect on public health by examining the infrastructure Congress designed to focus on prevention, wellness, and public health, with a particular focus on the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council; the National Prevention, Health Promotion, Public Health, and Integrative Health Care Strategy; and the Prevention and Public Health Fund. The Council, strategy, and fund are especially important because they reflect compliance with some of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations to improve public health in the United States, as well as international health and human rights norms that protect the right to health. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

  10. The public health implications of asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Bousquet, Jean; Bousquet, Philippe J.; Godard, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a very common chronic disease that occurs in all age groups and is the focus of various clinical and public health interventions. Both morbidity and mortality from asthma are significant. The number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to asthma worldwide is similar to that for diabetes, liver cirrhosis and schizophrenia. Asthma management plans have, however, reduced mortality and severity in countries where they have been applied. Several barriers reduce the availabi...

  11. Public health capacity in the provision of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services.

  12. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  13. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  14. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  15. Public health implications of wireless technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Carpenter, David O

    2009-08-01

    Global exposures to emerging wireless technologies from applications including mobile phones, cordless phones, DECT phones, WI-FI, WLAN, WiMAX, wireless internet, baby monitors, and others may present serious public health consequences. Evidence supporting a public health risk is documented in the BioInitiative Report. New, biologically based public exposure standards for chronic exposure to low-intensity exposures are warranted. Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future. Regardless of whether or not the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Such action is fully compatible with the precautionary principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration, the European Constitution Principle on Health (Section 3.1) and the European Union Treaties Article 174.

  16. A knowledge management tool for public health: health-evidence.ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbins Maureen

    2010-08-01

    among the largest groups of registered users, followed by librarians, dieticians, medical officers of health, and nutritionists. The majority of users (67% access the website from direct traffic (e.g., have the health-evidence.ca webpage bookmarked, or type it directly into their browser. Conclusions Consistent use of health-evidence.ca and particularly the searching for reviews that correspond with current public health priorities illustrates that health-evidence.ca may be playing an important role in achieving evidence-informed public health decision making.

  17. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  18. A tool to guide the process of integrating health system responses to public health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model of health system responses to public health problems is considered to be the most preferable approach. Accordingly, there are several models that stipulate what an integrated architecture should look like. However, tools that can guide the overall process of integration are lacking. This tool is designed to guide the entire process of integration of health system responses to major public health problems. It is developed by taking into account the contexts of health systems of developing countries and the emergence of double-burden of chronic diseases in these settings. Chronic diseases – HIV/AIDS and NCDs – represented the evidence base for the development of the model. System level horizontal integration of health system responses were considered in the development of this tool.

  19. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [ health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could...... medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed...

  20. Conference on the public health aspects of protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The Conference on Public Health Aspects of Protection against Ionizing Radiation was convened by the World Health Organization at Duesseldorf, Germany, from 25 June - 4 July 1962. It was designed to examine the part which public health authorities should play in controlling the hazards of ionizing radiation, and it was attended by 63 participants from 36 countries and from a number of international organizations. The aims of the Conference were: a) to specify the role of public health services in respect of radiation protection; b) to review, on the basis of existing material and information to be made available at the Conference, the present situation of radiation protection services in different countries and to discuss desirable trends in the organization and administration of these services within the public health services; and c) to consider requirements as regards qualifications and training of public health personnel in charge of radiation protection services. The programme of the Conference centred around seven major topics: 1) ionizing radiation as a public health problem; 2) principles of public health in radiation protection; 3) review of existing laws, regulations, codes of practice and examples of radiation protection services; 4) the role of public health radiation protection services; 5) the role of public health services in planning for and dealing with emergencies (incidents and accidents); 6) qualifications and training of public health personnel in charge of radiation protection services; 7) health education of the public in the field of radiation protection

  1. Conference on the public health aspects of protection against ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-07-01

    The Conference on Public Health Aspects of Protection against Ionizing Radiation was convened by the World Health Organization at Duesseldorf, Germany, from 25 June - 4 July 1962. It was designed to examine the part which public health authorities should play in controlling the hazards of ionizing radiation, and it was attended by 63 participants from 36 countries and from a number of international organizations. The aims of the Conference were: a) to specify the role of public health services in respect of radiation protection; b) to review, on the basis of existing material and information to be made available at the Conference, the present situation of radiation protection services in different countries and to discuss desirable trends in the organization and administration of these services within the public health services; and c) to consider requirements as regards qualifications and training of public health personnel in charge of radiation protection services. The programme of the Conference centred around seven major topics: 1) ionizing radiation as a public health problem; 2) principles of public health in radiation protection; 3) review of existing laws, regulations, codes of practice and examples of radiation protection services; 4) the role of public health radiation protection services; 5) the role of public health services in planning for and dealing with emergencies (incidents and accidents); 6) qualifications and training of public health personnel in charge of radiation protection services; 7) health education of the public in the field of radiation protection.

  2. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  3. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  4. Public health foundations and the tobacco industry: lessons from Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, J; Tsoukalas, T; Glantz, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether private foundations can be created in a way that will insulate them from attacks by the tobacco industry, using the Minnesota Partnership for Action Against Tobacco (MPAAT) as a case study. Design: Information was collected from internal tobacco industry documents, court documents, newspapers, and interviews with health advocates and elected officials. Results: The creation of MPAAT as an independent foundation did not insulate it from attacks by tobacco industry allies. During 2001–2002, MPAAT was repeatedly attacked by Attorney General Mike Hatch and major media, using standard tobacco industry rhetoric. This strategy of attack and demands for information were reminiscent of previous attacks on Minnesota's Plan for Nonsmoking and Health and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST). MPAAT was ultimately forced to restructure its programme to abandon effective community norm change interventions around smoke-free policies and replace them with less effective individual cessation interventions. Neither MPAAT nor other health advocates mounted an effective public response to these attacks, instead relying on the insider strategy of responding in court. Conclusion: It is not possible to avoid attacks by the tobacco industry or its political allies. Like programmes administered by government agencies, tobacco control foundations must be prepared for these attacks, including a proactive plan to educate the public about the principles of community based tobacco control. Public health advocates also need to be willing to take prompt action to defend these programmes and hold public officials who attack tobacco control programmes accountable for their actions. PMID:15333877

  5. Public health system - current status and world experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyeva І.А.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the review, the evolution of Public Health and global development tendencies of Public Health system have been discussed. Stages of formation of the updated concept, principles of Public Health organization and the role of various organizations have been shown in the connection with development of the global concept of "Health for All". A well-functioning public health system is primarily the result of multisectoral cooperation. The aim of modern Public Health is to provide conditions of access to appropriate and cost-effective health care for all population groups, including health promotion and disease prevention.

  6. Public relations work for major railway projects; Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit fuer grosse Bahnprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guertner, R. [Tram Zuerich West, Verkehrsbetriebe Zuerich (Switzerland); Braun, D.; Steiner, R. [Basler und Hofmann Ingenieure und Planer AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Major railway construction projects attract a lot of public attention. They involve heavy investment, and cause local residents a good deal of inconvenience. This tends to obscure the fact that new railway lines and new railway tunnels bring significant improvements for the majority of citizens: better connections, more comfortable travel and frequently also less local noise. Furthermore, only a few people in the know are aware of how much technical and human effort lies behind the new structures. All the more reason therefore to make a serious public relations effort - on the part of the clients as well as the contractors involved. (orig.)

  7. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  8. Protecting Health and Saving Lives: The Part-Time/Internet-Based Master of Public Health Program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…

  9. Radiological Dispersal Polonium-210, and Lessons for Public Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcomb, R. C.; Miller, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 23, 2006, Alexander Litvinenko died in London as a result of being poisoned with Polonium-210. Public health authorities in the United Kingdom (UK) subsequently found Polonium-210 contamination at a number of locations in and around London. UK authorities have determined that citizens of 48 countries other than the UK, including the United States, may have been exposed to this contamination. UK authorities asked the CDC to contact approximately 160 individuals who may have been exposed to Po-210. These citizens have been advised that their risk of adverse health effects is likely to be low, but, if they are concerned, they should contact their primary health care provider. In turn, physicians are referred to state and local public health departments or CDC for further information on Po-210, including where they can seek testing of 24 hour urine samples for Po-210, if desired. CDC posted guidance for members of the public and physicians on its web site, and it responded to numerous inquiries from national media. Working with our UK colleagues, CDC developed guidelines for judging when a measurement of Po-210 in urine was or was not a level of concern. Because the death of Mr. Litvinenko is an ongoing criminal investigation, one of the major challenges of this response to what is a radiological dispersal device event has been the inability to obtain all of the technical detail desired to perform assessments. This has complicated the ability to communicate effectively with citizens and members of the public health community. These and other lessons learned from this response will help prepare the public health community to respond more effectively to future contamination events involving radioactive dispersal in the environment.(author)

  10. Human and veterinary medicine: the priority for public health synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mantovani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of ‘one medicine’ and 'one ‘health’ are supported and visualised as a tree (medicine, placed on the fertile soil (basic sciences, which divides into the two major branches of human and veterinary medicine, connected by the large branch of public health; minor branches (specialisations depart from the three larger ones. The synergy between human and veterinary medicine is not only a must for public health, but also implies ethical considerations. The basic reasons requiring synergy are found in the common sharing of the environment, in the use of animal products by humans, in the common culture and in the many problems to be faced together. The long list of adversities requiring synergy is topped by zoonoses (intended both in the classic and in the extended sense and food safety that extends to many other items connected with nutrition, environment, human/animal coexistence and the management of public health; the entire quality of human life is affected. Human and veterinary medicine have a strong cultural background (many subject matters in common, but unfortunately the undergraduate and postgraduate education programme (with few important exceptions do not offer training in cooperation. The synergy between human and veterinary medicines is an indicator of 'good public health practice' and any obstacles to this collaboration should be identified and eliminated. The logo for a public health founded on synergy is drawn as an umbrella formed by the medical and veterinary activities, protecting the population (consumers and producers, the animals and their products and the environment from the possible adversities linked to health.

  11. Public health and Web 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardey, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This article examines the nature and role of Web 2.0 resources and their impact on health information made available though the Internet. The transition of the Web from version one to Web 2.0 is described and the main features of the new Web examined. Two characteristic Web 2.0 resources are explored and the implications for the public and practitioners examined. First, what are known as 'user reviews' or 'user testimonials', which allow people to comment on the health services delivered to them, are described. Second, new mapping applications that take advantage of the interactive potential of Web 2.0 and provide tools to visualize complex data are examined. Following a discussion of the potential of Web 2.0, it is concluded that it offers considerable opportunities for disseminating health information and creating new sources of data, as well as generating new questions and dilemmas.

  12. Light water reactor accidents - is there really a major public risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, M [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)

    1983-04-01

    During the past decade, a major mismatch has developed between the actual public risk from nuclear power and the public perception of that risk. Extensive analyses have been performed on the probability of accidents at nuclear power plants, but such analyses have used assumed consequences rather than those that have been scientifically derived. The assumed consequences have been overstated and needlessly scare the public or lead to unwarranted evacuations. The 40 years of experience in research, development and testing, and the history of actual accidents, provide a sound basis for assessment-a basis that has not been utilized.

  13. The public health workforce: An assessment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, M.

    2015-01-01

    The public health workforce is a key resource of population health. How many people work in public health in the Netherlands, what are their characteristics and who does what? Remarkably, such information about the size and composition of the public health workforce in the Netherlands is lacking. A

  14. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs.

  15. Financial statistics of major U.S. publicly owned electric utilities 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The 1995 Edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents 5 years (1991 through 1995) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator (Tables 3 through 11) and nongenerator (Tables 12 through 20) summaries are presented in this publication. Five years of summary financial data are provided (Tables 5 through 11 and 14 through 20). Summaries of generators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, nongenerators for fiscal years ending June 30 and December 31, and summaries of all respondents are provided in Appendix C. The composite tables present aggregates of income statement and balance sheet data, as well as financial indicators. Composite tables also display electric operation and maintenance expenses, electric utility plant, number of consumers, sales of electricity, and operating revenue, and electric energy account data. 9 figs., 87 tabs

  16. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  17. 41 CFR 102-79.65 - May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access levels, courtyards and rooftops of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access levels, courtyards and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.65... Utilization of Space Outleasing § 102-79.65 May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access...

  18. Statistical methods used in the public health literature and implications for training of public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Powell, Amanda; Johnson, Tessa; Cadwell, Betsy L

    2017-01-01

    Statistical literacy and knowledge is needed to read and understand the public health literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify basic and advanced statistical methods used in public health research. We randomly sampled 216 published articles from seven top tier general public health journals. Studies were reviewed by two readers and a standardized data collection form completed for each article. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency distributions. Results were summarized for statistical methods used in the literature, including descriptive and inferential statistics, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and statistical software used. Approximately 81.9% of articles reported an observational study design and 93.1% of articles were substantively focused. Descriptive statistics in table or graphical form were reported in more than 95% of the articles, and statistical inference reported in more than 76% of the studies reviewed. These results reveal the types of statistical methods currently used in the public health literature. Although this study did not obtain information on what should be taught, information on statistical methods being used is useful for curriculum development in graduate health sciences education, as well as making informed decisions about continuing education for public health professionals.

  19. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  20. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straten, G F M; Friele, R D; Groenewegen, P P

    2002-07-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used in a research project to monitor trust and to predict behaviour of people such as consulting "alternative practitioners". The idea for the research was suggested by economic research into public trust. In the study, a phased design was used to overcome the operationalization problem. In the first phase, a qualitative study was conducted; and, in the second, a quantitative study. In the first phase, more than 100 people were interviewed to gain insight into the issues they associated with trust. Eight categories of issues that were derived from the interviews were assumed to be possible dimensions of trust. On the basis of these eight categories and the interviews, a questionnaire was developed that was used in the second phase. In this phase, the questionnaire was sent to 1500 members of a consumer panel; the response was 70 percent. The analysis reveals that six of the eight possible dimensions appear in factor analysis. These dimensions are trust in: the patient-focus of health care providers; macro policies level will have no consequences for patients; expertise of health care providers; quality of care; information supply and communication by care providers and the quality of cooperation. The reliability of most scales is higher than 0.8. The validity of the dimensions is assessed by determining the correlation between the scales on the one hand, and people's experience and a general mark they would assign on the other. We conclude that public trust is a multi-dimensional concept, including not only issues that relate to the patient-doctor relationship, but also issues that relate to health care institutions. The instrument appears to be reliable and valid.