WorldWideScience

Sample records for major process determining

  1. Processing Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2015-01-01

    I propose that the course of development in first and second language acquisition is shaped by two types of processing pressures--internal efficiency-related factors relevant to easing the burden on working memory and external input-related factors such as frequency of occurrence. In an attempt to document the role of internal factors, I consider…

  2. Major disruption process in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Tuda, Takashi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-11-01

    The major disruption in a cylindrical tokamak is investigated by using the multi-helicity code, and the destabilization of the 3/2 mode by the mode coupling with the 2/1 mode is confirmed. The evolution of the magnetic field topology caused by the major disruption is studied in detail. The effect of the internal disruption on the 2/1 magnetic island width is also studied. The 2/1 magnetic island is not enhanced by the flattening of the q-profile due to the internal disruption. (author)

  3. 78 FR 67381 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    .... FEMA-4152-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4152-DR), dated October 29, 2013, and... dated October 29, 2013, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the...

  4. 76 FR 76171 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    .... FEMA-4047-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4047-DR), dated November 23, 2011, and... dated November 23, 2011, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the...

  5. 78 FR 64522 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    .... FEMA-4148-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4148-DR), dated September 30, 2013, and... dated September 30, 2013, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the...

  6. 76 FR 44029 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    .... FEMA-1986-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated May 20, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm...

  7. 76 FR 34089 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... FEMA-1981-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May 10, 2011...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting...

  8. 78 FR 67381 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    .... FEMA-4154-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4154-DR), dated October 31, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota...

  9. 75 FR 47612 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    .... FEMA-1929-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1929-DR), dated July 29, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from...

  10. 75 FR 71453 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    .... FEMA-1947-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1947-DR), dated November 2, 2010, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  11. 76 FR 36140 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    .... FEMA-1984-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated May 13, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on...

  12. 78 FR 72093 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    .... FEMA-4155-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-4155-DR), dated November 8, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  13. 75 FR 62135 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    .... FEMA-1938-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1938-DR), dated September 23... South Dakota resulting from severe storms and flooding during the period of July 21-30, 2010, is of...

  14. 75 FR 30418 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1914-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1914-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm on April 2, 2010...

  15. 75 FR 30420 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1915-DR;Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1915-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on March 10, 2010...

  16. 78 FR 5475 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    .... FEMA-4099-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4099-DR), dated January 10, 2013... Pennsylvania resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 26 to November 8, 2012, is of...

  17. Social determinants of self-care subsequent to major medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of the study it was concluded that education, residential status, marital status, and availability and ability to convert social network into social capital constitute major social determinants of self-care. It was recommended among others that the social determinants of self-care identified above should ...

  18. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  19. 77 FR 54601 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New Mexico resulting from flooding... State of New Mexico are eligible to apply for assistance under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. (The... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4079-DR), dated August 24, 2012, and related...

  20. 76 FR 44029 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Iowa resulting from flooding beginning on May 25... eligible to apply for assistance under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. The following Catalog of... of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1998-DR), dated June 27, 2011, and related...

  1. 76 FR 53926 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Missouri resulting from flooding... eligible to apply for assistance under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. (The following Catalog of... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Missouri (FEMA-4012-DR), dated August 12, 2011, and related...

  2. 76 FR 63940 - Kansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Kansas resulting from flooding... Act for Public Assistance and Hazard Mitigation will be limited to 75 percent of the total eligible... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Kansas (FEMA-4035-DR), dated September 23, 2011, and related...

  3. 76 FR 47221 - Ohio; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Ohio resulting from severe storms and flooding... apply for assistance under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. (The following Catalog of Federal... of a major disaster for the State of Ohio (FEMA-4002-DR), dated July 13, 2011, and related...

  4. 76 FR 54480 - Louisiana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Louisiana resulting from flooding... State of Louisiana are eligible to apply for assistance under the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. The... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Louisiana (FEMA-4015-DR), dated August 18, 2011, and related...

  5. 76 FR 44346 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Vermont resulting from severe storms and flooding... within the State of Vermont are eligible to apply for assistance under the Hazard Mitigation Grant... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Vermont (FEMA-1995-DR), dated June 15, 2011, and related...

  6. 29 CFR 99.520 - Major program determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditors § 99.520 Major program determination. (a) General. The auditor shall use a risk-based approach to... followed. (b) Step 1. (1) The auditor shall identify the larger Federal programs, which shall be labeled... size of Type A programs, the auditor shall consider this Federal program as a Type A program and...

  7. 7 CFR 3052.520 - Major program determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Auditors § 3052.520 Major program determination. (a) General. The auditor shall use a risk-based approach... section shall be followed. (b) Step 1. (1) The auditor shall identify the larger Federal programs, which... providing loans significantly affects the number or size of Type A programs, the auditor shall consider this...

  8. 77 FR 69647 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New York resulting from Hurricane... to Certain Applications for Public Facility and Public Housing Assistance, 42 U.S.C. 5153, shall be... as adversely affected by this major disaster: Bronx, Kings, Nassau, New York, Richmond, Suffolk, and...

  9. 77 FR 55221 - Louisiana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Louisiana resulting from Hurricane... following areas of the State of Louisiana have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  10. 77 FR 61012 - Alabama; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Alabama resulting from Hurricane Isaac... State of Alabama have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Baldwin, Mobile, and... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  11. Differential processing and attitude change following majority versus minority arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; van de Vliert, E.

    1996-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that majority (MAJ) influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change (AC) on focal issues (FISs), whereas minority (MIN) influence produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Ss were 86 high school students. Results

  12. Differential processing and attitude change following majority versus minority arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeDreu, CKW; DeVries, NK

    This experiment tested the general hypothesis that majority influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change on focal issues, whereas minority influence sometimes produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Results of a numerical support

  13. Detecting determinism from point processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejak, Ralph G; Mormann, Florian; Kreuz, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The detection of a nonrandom structure from experimental data can be crucial for the classification, understanding, and interpretation of the generating process. We here introduce a rank-based nonlinear predictability score to detect determinism from point process data. Thanks to its modular nature, this approach can be adapted to whatever signature in the data one considers indicative of deterministic structure. After validating our approach using point process signals from deterministic and stochastic model dynamics, we show an application to neuronal spike trains recorded in the brain of an epilepsy patient. While we illustrate our approach in the context of temporal point processes, it can be readily applied to spatial point processes as well.

  14. Neptunium determination in PUREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Neetika; Kar, Aishwarya S.; Tomar, B.S.; Pandey, M.P.; Umadevi, K.

    2016-10-01

    237 Np is one of the most important minor actinides present in nuclear spent fuel both from environmental and application point of view. The routing of neptunium to the particular stream of PUREX process is necessary for its separation and purification as 237 Np is the target nuclide for production of 238 Pu. The routing of neptunium to a particular PUREX stream will also help in better nuclear waste management, which in turn, will impart less bearing on the environment considering its long half life, alpha emitting properties and mobile nature. In order to route Neptunium to a particular stream of PUREX process, it is imperative to understand the distribution of neptunium in various process streams. Owing to high dose of actual samples, the neptunium distribution was studied using 239 Np tracer by simulating actual column conditions of PUREX streams in lab scale. The present study deals with neptunium determination in actual PUREX streams samples also. (author)

  15. Olfactory fingerprints for major histocompatibility complex-determined body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M L; Young, D A; Restrepo, D

    2001-04-01

    Recognition of individual body odors is analogous to human face recognition in that it provides information about identity. Individual body odors determined by differences at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC or H-2) have been shown to influence mate choice, pregnancy block, and maternal behavior in mice. Unfortunately, the mechanism and extent of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involvement in the discrimination of animals according to H-2-type has remained ambiguous. Here we study the neuronal activation patterns evoked in the MOB in different individuals on exposure to these complex, biologically meaningful sensory stimuli. We demonstrate that body odors from H-2 disparate mice evoke overlapping but distinct maps of neuronal activation in the MOB. The spatial patterns of odor-evoked activity are sufficient to be used like fingerprints to predict H-2 identity using a novel computer algorithm. These results provide functional evidence for discrimination of H-2-determined body odors in the MOB, but do not preclude a role for the AOB. These data further our understanding of the neural strategies used to decode socially relevant odors.

  16. 75 FR 8099 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... amended, Michael Bolch, of FEMA is appointed to act as the Federal Coordinating Officer for this major... this major disaster: Alleghany, Ashe, Avery, Buncombe, Burke, Caldwell, Haywood, Jackson, Madison...

  17. 78 FR 45548 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to [[Page 45549

  18. Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Major ion chemistry of the Son River, India: Weathering processes, dissolved fluxes and water quality assessment. Chinmaya Maharana, Sandeep Kumar Gautam,. Abhay Kumar Singh and Jayant K Tripathi. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124(6) cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary data ...

  19. 34 CFR 691.17 - Determination of eligible majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Application Procedures § 691.17... list of eligible majors identified by CIP code. (d) Designation of an additional eligible major. (1... include— (i) The CIP code and program title of the additional major; (ii) The reason or reasons the...

  20. 77 FR 69647 - New Jersey; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Atlantic, Cape May, Essex, Hudson, Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean, and Union Counties for Individual Assistance. Atlantic, Cape May, Essex, Hudson, Middlesex...

  1. 78 FR 36556 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  2. 78 FR 45549 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially...

  3. 78 FR 45549 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  4. 77 FR 20043 - Indiana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  5. 78 FR 36557 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  6. 78 FR 32414 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  7. 78 FR 41943 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  8. 78 FR 51202 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  9. 76 FR 44031 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  10. 78 FR 32415 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  11. 76 FR 34090 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  12. 78 FR 25462 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared...

  13. 78 FR 45547 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  14. 76 FR 32984 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  15. 75 FR 30419 - Kentucky; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  16. 76 FR 33775 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  17. 78 FR 50436 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  18. Endothelial lipase is a major determinant of HDL level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tatsuro; Choi, Sungshin; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Rubin, Edward M.; Cooper, Allen D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2003-01-30

    For the past three decades, epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse relationship between plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD). Population-based studies have provided compelling evidence that low HDL-C levels are a risk factor for CHD, and several clinical interventions that increased plasma levels of HDL-C were associated with a reduction in CHD risk. These findings have stimulated extensive investigation into the determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. Turnover studies using radiolabeled apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein component of HDL, suggest that plasma HDL-C concentrations are highly correlated with the rate of clearance of apolipoprotein AI. However, the metabolic mechanisms by which HDL are catabolized have not been fully defined. Previous studies in humans with genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and in mice lacking the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), have demonstrated that these proteins participate in the removal of cholesterol from HDL, while observations in individuals with mutations in hepatic lipase indicate that this enzyme hydrolyzes HDL triglycerides. In this issue of the JCI, reports from laboratories of Tom Quertermous and Dan Rader now indicate that endothelial lipase (LIPG), a newly identified member of the lipase family, catalyzes the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids and facilitates the clearance of HDL from the circulation. Endothelial lipase was initially cloned by both of these laboratories using entirely different strategies. Quertermous and his colleagues identified endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells undergoing tube formation, whereas the Rader group cloned endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 exposed to oxidized LDL. Database searches revealed that endothelial lipase shows strong sequence similarity to lipoprotein

  19. 76 FR 61731 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ..., under Executive Order 12148, as amended, Michael R. Scott, of FEMA is appointed to act as the Federal... adversely affected by this major disaster: Dubuque and Jackson Counties for Public Assistance. All counties...

  20. 77 FR 68800 - Connecticut; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Connecticut have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Fairfield, Middlesex, New Haven... within New London County for Individual Assistance. Fairfield, Middlesex, New Haven, and New London...

  1. 78 FR 72919 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Assistance Grant; [[Page 72920

  2. The Determining Finite Automata Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vinogradova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of formal languages widely uses finite state automata both in implementation of automata-based approach to programming, and in synthesis of logical control algorithms.To ensure unambiguous operation of the algorithms, the synthesized finite state automata must be deterministic. Within the approach to the synthesis of the mobile robot controls, for example, based on the theory of formal languages, there are problems concerning the construction of various finite automata, but such finite automata, as a rule, will not be deterministic. The algorithm of determinization can be applied to the finite automata, as specified, in various ways. The basic ideas of the algorithm of determinization can be most simply explained using the representations of a finite automaton in the form of a weighted directed graph.The paper deals with finite automata represented as weighted directed graphs, and discusses in detail the procedure for determining the finite automata represented in this way. Gives a detailed description of the algorithm for determining finite automata. A large number of examples illustrate a capability of the determinization algorithm.

  3. 38 CFR 41.520 - Major program determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... major programs. This risk-based approach shall include consideration of: Current and prior audit... of prior audit findings under § 41.510(a)(7) do not preclude the Type A program from being low-risk... this section), except this paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) does not require the auditor to audit more high-risk...

  4. 75 FR 52963 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... the damage in certain areas of the State of Illinois resulting from severe storms and flooding during... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Illinois (FEMA-1935-DR), dated August 19, 2010, and related... assistance is supplemental, any Federal funds provided under the Stafford Act for Hazard Mitigation and Other...

  5. 78 FR 32416 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  6. 78 FR 23278 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  7. 77 FR 73490 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  8. 78 FR 41942 - Alaska; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster...

  9. 78 FR 45548 - Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. Sec. Sec... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  10. 78 FR 27414 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  11. 78 FR 51200 - Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared...

  12. 78 FR 72918 - Nebraska; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  13. 76 FR 44031 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  14. 76 FR 36140 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... major disaster under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance.... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  15. 78 FR 51204 - Colorado; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  16. 78 FR 36557 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  17. 77 FR 44648 - Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  18. 78 FR 32415 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  19. 76 FR 61731 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster...

  20. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  1. 78 FR 59045 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  2. 75 FR 30419 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  3. 78 FR 38728 - Michigan; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  4. 78 FR 23278 - Maine; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  5. 77 FR 61425 - Washington; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  6. 76 FR 63939 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially...

  7. 76 FR 61374 - New Jersey; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  8. 76 FR 62085 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; [[Page 62086

  9. 77 FR 69648 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  10. 76 FR 72964 - Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  11. 77 FR 41195 - Colorado; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  12. 75 FR 45144 - Kentucky; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  13. 75 FR 65500 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared...

  14. 76 FR 61375 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... declared a major disaster under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  15. 76 FR 60515 - Connecticut; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have declared a major disaster under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  16. 78 FR 59044 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  17. 75 FR 49506 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  18. 76 FR 64097 - Maryland; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  19. 78 FR 51201 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  20. 76 FR 61729 - Massachusetts; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  1. 78 FR 51203 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  2. 75 FR 2882 - Alabama; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  3. 78 FR 38727 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  4. 77 FR 71813 - Maryland; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 26 to November 4, 2012, is of sufficient... following areas of the State of Maryland have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster...

  5. 77 FR 76061 - New Hampshire; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 26 to November 8, 2012, is of sufficient... adversely affected by this major disaster: Belknap, Carroll, Coos, Grafton, and Sullivan Counties for Public..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  6. 77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 29 to November 8, 2012, is of sufficient... designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Barbour, Boone, Braxton, Clay, Fayette, Kanawha... Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially...

  7. 78 FR 5476 - Massachusetts; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Massachusetts resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 27 to November 8, 2012, is of... Commonwealth of Massachusetts have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Barnstable... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  8. 78 FR 5476 - Ohio; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... flooding due to the remnants of Hurricane Sandy during the period October 29-30, 2012, is of sufficient... following areas of the State of Ohio have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  9. 76 FR 64959 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... resulting from Hurricane Irene during the period of August 25-31, 2011, is of sufficient severity and... State of Delaware have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Kent and Sussex... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  10. 76 FR 61728 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Commonwealth of Pennsylvania resulting from Hurricane Irene during the period of August 26-30, 2011, is of... Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Chester... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  11. 77 FR 76060 - Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 26 to November 8, 2012, is of sufficient... Commonwealth of Virginia have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: The counties of....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  12. 76 FR 60516 - Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... resulting from Hurricane Irene during the period of August 26-28, 2011, is of sufficient severity and... of the Commonwealth of Virginia have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  13. An Information Processing Approach to the Assessment of Creative Ability in College Music Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenshain, Kathryn; Biskin, Donald

    The research attempted to determine if there are creative processes which are independent of intelligence, as generally measured, and to describe these processes. An original test battery was designed and administered to 102 college music majors. The subjects were separated into the categories of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design by high or low…

  14. Processing Determinants of Reading Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark D.; McClelland, James L.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of undergraduates differing in reading ability were tested on a number of reaction-time tasks designed to determine the speed of encoding visual information at several different levels, tests of sensory functions, verbal and quantitative reasoning ability, short-term auditory memory span, and ability to comprehend spoken text.…

  15. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  16. 75 FR 51832 - Kansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... determinations. DATES: Effective Date: August 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Peggy Miller, Recovery... Hazard Mitigation will be limited to 75 percent of the total eligible costs. Further, you are authorized... Atchison, Brown, Butler, Chase, Clay, Cloud, Comanche, Doniphan, Ellis, Franklin, Greenwood, Harvey, Jewell...

  17. 76 FR 53927 - Kansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... determinations. DATES: Effective Date: July 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Peggy Miller, Office of... Public Assistance and Hazard Mitigation will be limited to 75 percent of the total eligible costs...: Barton, Clay, Cloud, Hamilton, Jewell, Lincoln, Logan, Lyon, Marion, Mitchell, Morton, Osage, Osborne...

  18. Social Determinants of Self-Care Subsequent to Major Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... determinants, therefore, have a big role in self-care after hospital ... whose profile met the study's objectives purposively chosen to provide the data for the ..... The study also explored how social network features in self-care .... made to run effectively it would ease the pressure on the heavy traffic of people to.

  19. Behavior is a major determinant of predation risk in zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; van Someren Gréve, Hans; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    as prey for different predatory copepods. Copepods with “active” feeding behaviors (feeding-current and cruising feeders) showed significantly higher mortality from predation (~2–8 times) than similarly sized copepods with low motility feeding behavior (ambush feeders). Copepod males, which have a more...... active motile behavior than females (mate-seeking behavior), suffered a higher predation mortality than females in most of the experiments. However, the predation risk for mate-searching behavior in copepods varied depending on feeding behavior with ambush feeders consistently having the greatest......Zooplankton exhibit different small-scale motile behaviors related to feeding and mating activities. These different motile behaviors may result in different levels of predation risk, which may partially determine the structure of planktonic communities. Here, we experimentally determined predation...

  20. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicholas D; Seal, Marc L; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A

    2009-11-10

    Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our data suggest that MDD patients are able to perform high

  1. Effects of fire on major forest ecosystem processes: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong

    2006-09-01

    Fire and fire ecology are among the best-studied topics in contemporary ecosystem ecology. The large body of existing literature on fire and fire ecology indicates an urgent need to synthesize the information on the pattern of fire effects on ecosystem composition, structure, and functions for application in fire and ecosystem management. Understanding fire effects and underlying principles are critical to reduce the risk of uncharacteristic wildfires and for proper use of fire as an effective management tool toward management goals. This overview is a synthesis of current knowledge on major effects of fire on fire-prone ecosystems, particularly those in the boreal and temperate regions of the North America. Four closely related ecosystem processes in vegetation dynamics, nutrient cycling, soil and belowground process and water relations were discussed with emphases on fire as the driving force. Clearly, fire can shape ecosystem composition, structure and functions by selecting fire adapted species and removing other susceptible species, releasing nutrients from the biomass and improving nutrient cycling, affecting soil properties through changing soil microbial activities and water relations, and creating heterogeneous mosaics, which in turn, can further influence fire behavior and ecological processes. Fire as a destructive force can rapidly consume large amount of biomass and cause negative impacts such as post-fire soil erosion and water runoff, and air pollution; however, as a constructive force fire is also responsible for maintaining the health and perpetuity of certain fire-dependent ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological roles of fire in mediating and regulating ecosystems, fire should be incorporated as an integral component of ecosystems and management. However, the effects of fire on an ecosystem depend on the fire regime, vegetation type, climate, physical environments, and the scale of time and space of assessment. More ecosystem

  2. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  3. Consensus states of local majority rule in stochastic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yu-Pin [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, 63201, Taiwan (China); Tang, Chia-Wei; Xu, Hong-Yuan [Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jinn-Wen [Department of Applied Mathematics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ming-Chang, E-mail: mchuang@cycu.edu.tw [Center for Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-03

    A sufficient condition for a network system to reach a consensus state of the local majority rule is shown. The influence of interpersonal environment on the occurrence probability of consensus states for Watts–Strogatz and scale-free networks with random initial states is analyzed by numerical method. We also propose a stochastic local majority rule to study the mean first passage time from a random state to a consensus and the escape rate from a consensus state for systems in a noisy environment. Our numerical results show that there exists a window of fluctuation strengths for which the mean first passage time from a random to a consensus state reduces greatly, and the escape rate of consensus states obeys the Arrhenius equation in the window. - Highlights: • A sufficient condition for reaching a consensus. • The relation between the geometry of networks and the reachability of a consensus. • Stochastic local majority rule. • The mean first-passage time and the escape rate of consensus states.

  4. Consensus states of local majority rule in stochastic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yu-Pin; Tang, Chia-Wei; Xu, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Jinn-Wen; Huang, Ming-Chang

    2015-01-01

    A sufficient condition for a network system to reach a consensus state of the local majority rule is shown. The influence of interpersonal environment on the occurrence probability of consensus states for Watts–Strogatz and scale-free networks with random initial states is analyzed by numerical method. We also propose a stochastic local majority rule to study the mean first passage time from a random state to a consensus and the escape rate from a consensus state for systems in a noisy environment. Our numerical results show that there exists a window of fluctuation strengths for which the mean first passage time from a random to a consensus state reduces greatly, and the escape rate of consensus states obeys the Arrhenius equation in the window. - Highlights: • A sufficient condition for reaching a consensus. • The relation between the geometry of networks and the reachability of a consensus. • Stochastic local majority rule. • The mean first-passage time and the escape rate of consensus states

  5. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an Acid Mine Drainage affected estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asta, Maria P.; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixing of acid riverine water with alkaline seawater was studied in an estuary. • Combination of data and geochemical tools allowed modeling the water mixing. • The main geochemical processes were identified and for the first time quantified. • Water chemistry is the result of mixing, dissolution-precipitation and sorption. • Main reactions: gypsum and calcite dissolution and Al and Fe solids precipitation. - Abstract: This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion–ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH) 3 ); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn)

  6. Determining probabilities of geologic events and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.; Mann, C.J.; Cranwell, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has recently published a probabilistic standard for releases of high-level radioactive waste from a mined geologic repository. The standard sets limits for contaminant releases with more than one chance in 100 of occurring within 10,000 years, and less strict limits for releases of lower probability. The standard offers no methods for determining probabilities of geologic events and processes, and no consensus exists in the waste-management community on how to do this. Sandia National Laboratories is developing a general method for determining probabilities of a given set of geologic events and processes. In addition, we will develop a repeatable method for dealing with events and processes whose probability cannot be determined. 22 refs., 4 figs

  7. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an acid mine drainage affected estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Maria P; Calleja, Maria Ll; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F

    2015-02-15

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion-ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solutions to major world problems found in gamma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouwerkerk, T [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario. Commercial Products

    1984-01-01

    Food irradiation is well researched, but work has still to be done on process improvement and validation. Great potential is seen for disinfestation, salmonella control, and for controlling the quality of spices. Other promising applications of radiation are disinfection of airport and seaport wastes, of laboratory wastes, and of municipal sewage sludge.

  9. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Beatriz Espinosa; Altagracia Martínez, Marina; Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community. To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem. We conducted a MedLine search using the key words "determinants", "antibiotic", and "antibiotic resistance" to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded. The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance. Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.

  10. Geographical Detector-Based Identification of the Impact of Major Determinants on Aeolian Desertification Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ziqiang; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhitao; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas in North China are facing the challenge of a rising aeolian desertification risk (ADR) due to the intertwined effects of complex natural processes and intensified anthropogenic activities. An accurate quantitative assessment of the relationship between ADR and its determinants is beneficial for understanding the driving mechanisms of aeolian desertification and for controlling future desertification. Previous studies have failed to quantify the relative role of determinants driving ADR and have been limited in assessing their interactive impacts. In this study, a spatial variance analysis-based geographical detector methodology is used to quantify the effects of geological, physical, and human factors on the occurrence of ADR in an area characterized by mountains and hills in northern China. It is found that soil type, precipitation, and wind velocity are the major determinants of ADR, which implies that geological and physical elements (e.g., soil attribute) and climatic factors (e.g., precipitation and wind velocity) rather than human activities have played a greater role in the incidence of ADR. Particularly, the results show that the interaction of various determinants causes significant non-linearly enhanced impacts on the ADR. The findings of our study will assist local inhabitants and policy makers in developing measures for wind prevention and sand control to mitigate the effects of desertification in the region.

  11. Process Approach to Determining Quality Inspection Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    27 B.1 The Deming Rule...k1/k2? [5] At this stage it is assumed that the manufacturing process is capable and that inspection is effective. The Deming rule is explained in...justify reducing inspectors. (See Appendix B for Deming rule discussion.) Three quantities must be determined: p, the probability of a nonconformity

  12. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer31Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM, Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USABackground: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community.Objectives: To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem.Methods: We conducted a MedLine search using the key words “determinants”, “antibiotic”, and “antibiotic resistance” to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded.Results: The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance.Conclusions: Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.Keywords: antibiotic drug resistance

  13. Process and apparatus for determining molecular spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesl, U.; Neusser, H.J.; Schlag, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    A process for determining molecular spectra in unseparated mixtures, in particular unseparated isotopic mixtures, which comprises allowing said mixture to successively flow through a photoreactor which is irradiated by an adjustable-wavelength laser and then through a mass spectrometer wherein the concentration of particles of specified mass is determined by variation of the wavelength of the laser or variation of the mass setting of the mass spectrometer in such a manner that a two-dimensional spectrum results having the parameters of wavelength and mass

  14. Chronic depression : Determinants and consequences of chronic major depression in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is chronicity of major depressive disorder (MDD). The main aims of the study are to examine: 1. the duration of a major depressive episode (MDE) and the rate of a chronic duration of MDE in the general population, 2. the determinants of (chronic) duration of

  15. 78 FR 17422 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    .... FEMA-4103-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA-4103-DR), dated... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage to the lands associated with the Eastern...

  16. Inhibition of the Metabolic Degradation of Filtered Albumin Is a Major Determinant of Albuminuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, Julijana; Comper, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the degradation of filtered albumin has been proposed as a widespread, benign form of albuminuria. There have however been recent reports that radiolabeled albumin fragments in urine are not exclusively generated by the kidney and that in albuminuric states albumin fragment excretion is not inhibited. In order to resolve this controversy we have examined the fate of various radiolabeled low molecular weight protein degradation products (LMWDPs) introduced into the circulation in rats. The influence of puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis on the processing and excretion of LMWDPs is also examined. The status and destinies of radiolabeled LMWDPs in the circulation are complex. A major finding is that LMWDPs are rapidly eliminated from the circulation (>97% in 2 h) but only small quantities (24 h) due to binding to high molecular weight components in the circulation. If LMWDPs of albumin seen in the urine are produced by extra renal degradation it would require the degradation to far exceed the known catabolic rate of albumin. Alternatively, if an estimate of the role of extra renal degradation is made from the limit of detection of LMWDPs in plasma, then extra renal degradation would only contribute albumin. We confirm that the degradation process for albumin is specifically associated with filtered albumin and this is inhibited in albuminuric states. This inhibition is also the primary determinant of the massive change in intact albuminuria in nephrotic states. PMID:26010895

  17. Determination of hydroxylamine in purex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, D.; Weindel, P.

    1984-05-01

    In PUREX process solutions hydroxylamine or HAN (hydrolammonium nitrate) respectively, can be oxidized specifically to give nitrous acid, HNO 2 , which by sybsequent GRIESS reaction forms the well-known reddish azo-dye. Its absorbance is spectrophotometrically measured at 520 nm and results in linear calibration graphs covering the analytical range of 10 -5 to 10 -6 M NH 2 OH. The influence of other reductants (N 2 H 4 , Pu-III) as well as of further PUREX main constituents like U-VI, HNO 3 etc. was checked-up and determined quantitatively. There are no analytical limitations in case of HAN concentrations > 10 -2 M. (orig.) [de

  18. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE's long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: (1) Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. (2) Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. (3) Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: (1) Evaluation Criteria No.2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. (2) Evaluation Criteria No.3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary

  19. Traditional biomolecular structure determination by NMR spectroscopy allows for major errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, S.B.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Vuister, G.W.; Vriend, G.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major goals of structural genomics projects is to determine the three-dimensional structure of representative members of as many different fold families as possible. Comparative modeling is expected to fill the remaining gaps by providing structural models of homologs of the

  20. XRF determination of trace and major elements using a single-fused disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.R.; Haukka, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    A new fusion method using lithium metaborate, suitable for the determination of major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), has proven to be of comparable accuracy to other XRF methods for the ten major rock-forming oxides. The very low dilution allows determination of trace elements with a decrease in sensitivity of about a factor of 2 compared with XRF determination using pressed-powder pellets. A feature of the method is the flexibility of sample preparation allowed: the matrix-correction parameters may be used for a wide range of dilutions (sample/flux ratios), no 'Loss' correction is necessary, and imperfect or inhomogeneous discs may be crushed and pressed pellets made of the glass powder when required. Considerable savings in the time during preparation, analysis and correction of results are possible with current automation because of streamlining procedures

  1. A quantitative analysis of major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, S O

    1992-11-01

    "This paper discusses some major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria using the logit estimation technique. It utilizes cross-sectional data generated from a national sample survey of internal migration conducted...between January and March 1988.... The empirical results revealed that the significant determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria are income, contact, cost, spoken English, ability to speak two Nigerian languages, distance, marital status, sex and ethnicity. The results further suggest that rural-urban migration is selective of single people and males. Proximity to urban areas where prospective migrants have relatives, friends and townspeople is an important factor." excerpt

  2. Volatility Determination in an Ambit Process Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Graversen, Svend-Erik

    The probability limit behaviour of normalised quadratic variation is studied for a simple tempo-spatial ambit process, with particular regard to the question of volatility memorylessness.......The probability limit behaviour of normalised quadratic variation is studied for a simple tempo-spatial ambit process, with particular regard to the question of volatility memorylessness....

  3. Self-Referential Processing, Rumination, and Cortical Midline Structures in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Ayna Baladi; Fossati, Philippe; Lemogne, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Major depression is associated with a bias toward negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e., the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature, and is conceptualized as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasized in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course, and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. Self-referential processing in major depression seems associated with abnormally increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralized task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment. PMID:24124416

  4. Self-referential processing, rumination, and cortical midline structures in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayna Baladi Nejad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is associated with a bias towards negative emotional processing and increased self-focus, i.e. the process by which one engages in self-referential processing. The increased self-focus in depression is suggested to be of a persistent, repetitive and self-critical nature and is conceptualised as ruminative brooding. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential processing has been previously emphasised in acute major depression. There is increasing evidence that self-referential processing as well as the cortical midline structures play a major role in the development, course and treatment response of major depressive disorder. However, the links between self-referential processing, rumination, and the cortical midline structures in depression are still poorly understood. Here, we reviewed brain imaging studies in depressed patients and healthy subjects that have examined these links. The literature suggests that self-referential processing in major depression is associated with increased activity of the anterior cortical midline structures. Abnormal interactions between the lateralised task-positive network, and the midline cortical structures of the default mode network, as well as the emotional response network, may underlie the pervasiveness of ruminative brooding. Furthermore, targeting this maladaptive form of rumination and its underlying neural correlates may be key for effective treatment.

  5. Determination of Major and Minor Elements in the Code River Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Sukirno; Bambang Irianto

    2007-01-01

    Analyze major and minor elements in the Code river sediments has been done. The aim of this research is to determine the concentration of major and minor elements in the Code river sediments from upstream to downstream. The instrument used were X-ray Fluorescence using Si(Li) detector. The results show that major elements were Fe (1.66 ± 0.1% - 4.20 ± 0.7%) and Ca (4.43 ± 0.6% - 9.08 ± 1.3%); while minor elements were Ba (178.791 ± 21.1 ppm - 616.56 ± 59.4 ppm); Sr (148.22 ± 21.9 ppm - 410.25 ± 30.5 ppm); and Zr (9.71 ± 1.1 ppm - 22.11 ± 3.4 ppm). ANAVA method (confidence level of α 0.05 ) for statistic test was used. It was showed that there were significant influence of the sampling location difference on the concentration of major and minor elements in the sediment samples. (author)

  6. Lipoplex size is a major determinant of in vitro lipofection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P C; Hui, S W

    1999-04-01

    The inhibition effect of serum on the transfection efficiency of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) is a major obstacle to the application of this gene delivery vector both in vitro and in vivo. The size of the lipoplexes, as they are presented to targeted cells, is found to be the major determinant of their effectiveness in transfection. The transfection efficiency and the cell association and uptake of lipoplexes with CHO cells was found to increase with increasing lipoplex size. The influence on the transfection efficiency of lipoplexes by their cationic lipid:DNA ratios, types of liposomes, incubation time in polyanion containing media, and time of serum addition, are mediated mainly through size. Lipoplexes at a 2:1 charge ratio grow in size in media containing polyanions. The size growth may be arrested by adding serum to the incubation media. By using large lipoplexes, especially those made from multilamellar vesicles, the serum inhibition effect may be overcome.

  7. Environmental Determinants of Lexical Processing Effort

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation A central concern of psycholinguistic research is explaining the relative ease or difficulty involved in processing words. In this thesis, we explore the connection between lexical processing effort and measurable properties of the linguistic environment. Distributional information (information about a word’s contexts of use) is easily extracted from large language corpora in the form of co-occurrence statistics. We claim that su...

  8. Plant Abiotic Stress Proteomics: The Major Factors Determining Alterations in Cellular Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic

  9. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel's capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007. Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE's long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent sub-projects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the fifty year old antiquated marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety-related emergency diesel generators (EDGs), switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply. The second project will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps and motors. The third project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the current emergency firewater injection system (EFIS). The replacement water injection system will function as the primary emergency water injection system with the EFIS being retained as a defense-in-depth backup. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus (E-3) and switchgear and replacement of the existent aged primary coolant pumps and motors) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the

  10. Determination of acrylamide concentration in processed food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, acrylamide concentration in processed food products have become a very serious health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) of the European Union also confirmed this concern. In laboratory scale, it was found that acrylamide causes tumors in animals.

  11. Stress as a major determinant of migraine in women aged 25-65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a primary headache causing substantial disability in patients. The prevalence of migraine in women is still high. Menarche, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, and the use of hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement treatment may influence migraine occurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the major determinants of migraine in adult women aged 25-65 years. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2,747 women from the baseline study “Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases”. The dependent variable was migraine based on the diagnosis of health providers or symptoms. Independent variables were demographic (age, marital status, education and behavioral (smoking, diet, and stress characteristics, metabolic disorders (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hormonal factors (contraception and hormone therapy. Data were collected through interviews (characteristics, health and hormonal status, diet, measurement (anthropometrics, blood pressure, and health examination (blood specimens, neurology. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results Migraine in adult women was found in 710 cases (25.8% with symptoms of worsening with activity (15%, nausea and vomiting (13%, and photophobia/phonophobia (4.1%. The main determinant of migraine in adult women was stress with a 2.47-fold risk [95% CI = 2.07 to 2.95] as compared with no stress, after controlling for smoking, menstruation and hormonal drug consumption. Conclusion Stress is a major determinant of migraine in adult women, therefore health programs should be instituted through health promotion, prevention and education to control stress.

  12. Determination of Ag in technique process research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Tao; Zhang Lihua; Fan Dejun; Liu Huanliang; Wu Jizong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the chromogenic reaction of Ag with p-dimethylamino benzyl rhodanine, a new spectrophotometric method for determination of Ag in the presence of PVA-124 and Triton X-100 as surfactant is established. The factors such as acidity, reaction time and the concentration of surfactant were studied. The results show that the appropriate conditions are as the following. The concentrations of p-dimethylamino benzyl rhodanine, PVA and Triton X-100 are 0.1 g·L -1 , 10 g·L -1 and 0.16% respectively. Acidity is 1.0 mol·L -1 . Reaction time is 20 minutes. Absorption wavelength is 470 nm. The influence of several coexisting ions, especially Pu (Ⅳ) on analyzing Ag is also studied. The results indicate that when the concentration of Ag is less than five times of the concentration of Pu. PMBP is used to extract Pu (Ⅳ). The optimum extraction conditions are as follows. The concentration of PMBP is 0.1 mol·L-1. Acidity is 2.0 mol·L-1. The ratio of organic and water phase is 1:1. Extraction time is 3 minutes. Conformity to Berr's law was obtained with the scope of 0.1-1.0 μg·mL -1 . The determination limit of Ag is 0.1 μg·mL -1 . The relative standard deviation for this method is 2.6% (n=3). The recovery is 104-114%. (authors)

  13. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Advanced Test Reactor RDAS and LPCIS Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Korns

    2012-05-01

    The replacement of the ATR Control Complex's obsolete computer based Reactor Data Acquisition System (RDAS) and its safety-related Lobe Power Calculation and Indication System (LPCIS) software application is vitally important to ensure the ATR remains available to support this national mission. The RDAS supports safe operation of the reactor by providing 'real-time' plant status information (indications and alarms) for use by the reactor operators via the Console Display System (CDS). The RDAS is a computer support system that acquires analog and digital information from various reactor and reactor support systems. The RDAS information is used to display quadrant and lobe powers via a display interface more user friendly than that provided by the recorders and the Control Room upright panels. RDAS provides input to the Nuclear Engineering ATR Surveillance Data System (ASUDAS) for fuel burn-up analysis and the production of cycle data for experiment sponsors and the generation of the Core Safety Assurance Package (CSAP). RDAS also archives and provides for retrieval of historical plant data which may be used for event reconstruction, data analysis, training and safety analysis. The RDAS, LPCIS and ASUDAS need to be replaced with state-of-the-art technology in order to eliminate problems of aged computer systems, and difficulty in obtaining software upgrades, spare parts, and technical support. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project design did not lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification. The negative major modification determination is driven by the fact that the project requires a one-for-one equivalent replacement of existing systems that protects and maintains functional and operational requirements as credited in the safety basis.

  14. Developing Third Year Thai Major Students’ Researching Skill Using Coaching and Mentoring Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimonrat Soonthornrojana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the study were (1 to develop third year Thai major students’ researching skill according to the criterion of 80 percent, and (2 to study third and fourth year Thai major students’ satisfaction in Coaching and Mentoring process. 95 participants were selected using purposive sampling from third year Thai major students. Five research instruments were used in this study ; (1 classroom research comprehension tests, (2 outline evaluation forms, lesson plan evaluation forms and achievement tests, teaching performance evaluation forms and research report evaluation forms, (3 research behavioral observation forms for third year Thai major students, (4 third year Thai major students interview forms, and (5 satisfaction questionnaire. Statistics used in the study were percentage average, and standard deviation. The result showed third year Thai major students who had taken research course using Coaching and Mentoring process scored 80% in researching skill according to the criterion and had positive satisfaction with average value of 4.54 or 90.79%. Moreover, the result found that fourth year students had positive satisfaction in counseling third year students with average value of 4.73 or 96.38%.

  15. UPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Three Major Metabolites of Mequindox in Holothurian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method for the detection of three major metabolites of mequindox, including 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, 1-desoxymequindox, and 1,4-bisdesoxymequindox (MQCA, 1-DMEQ, and BDMEQ, in holothurian. Target analytes were simplified with ultrasound-assisted acidolysis extracted without complicated enzymolysis steps. After that, each sample was centrifuged and purified by an Oasis MAX cartridge. Then, the processed samples were separated and monitored by UPLC-MS/MS. This developed method has been validated according to FDA criteria. At fortified levels of 2, 10, and 20 μg/kg, recoveries ranged from 82.5% to 93.5% with the intraday RSD less than 7.27% and interday RSD less than 11.8%. The limit of detection (LOD of all the three metabolites ranged from 0.21 to 0.48 μg/kg, while the limit of quantification (LOQ ranged from 0.79 to 1.59 μg/kg. On application to commercial samples, 14 of 20 samples were detected positive for the three target analytes, with positive rate at 70 percentage. The result indicated that this method was specific, sensitive, and suitable for the quantification and conformation of the three major metabolites of MEQ in holothurian.

  16. Genetic variants are major determinants of CSF antibody levels in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, An; Pauwels, Ine; Gustavsen, Marte W; van Son, Brechtje; Hilven, Kelly; Bos, Steffan D; Celius, Elisabeth Gulowsen; Berg-Hansen, Pål; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Barizzone, Nadia; Leone, Maurizio A; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Sorosina, Melissa; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Kockum, Ingrid; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Bedri, Sahl Khalid; Hemmer, Bernhard; Buck, Dorothea; Berthele, Achim; Knier, Benjamin; Biberacher, Viola; van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian; Bang Oturai, Annette; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Sellebjerg, Finn; Jensen, Poul Erik H; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Pérez-Boza, Jennifer; Malhotra, Sunny; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Broadley, Simon; Slee, Mark; Taylor, Bruce; Kermode, Allan G; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Sawcer, Stephen J; Andreassen, Bettina Kullle; Dubois, Bénédicte; Harbo, Hanne F

    2015-03-01

    as female gender, age at onset and severity. This is the largest study population so far investigated for the genetic influence on antibody levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis, including 6950 patients. We confirm that genetic factors underlie these antibody levels and identify both the major histocompatibility complex and immunoglobulin heavy chain region as major determinants. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Genetic variants are major determinants of CSF antibody levels in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Ine; Gustavsen, Marte W.; van Son, Brechtje; Hilven, Kelly; Bos, Steffan D.; Celius, Elisabeth Gulowsen; Berg-Hansen, Pål; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Barizzone, Nadia; Leone, Maurizio A.; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Sorosina, Melissa; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Kockum, Ingrid; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Bedri, Sahl Khalid; Hemmer, Bernhard; Buck, Dorothea; Berthele, Achim; Knier, Benjamin; Biberacher, Viola; van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian; Bang Oturai, Annette; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Sellebjerg, Finn; Jensen, Poul Erik H.; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Pérez-Boza, Jennifer; Malhotra, Sunny; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Broadley, Simon; Slee, Mark; Taylor, Bruce; Kermode, Allan G.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Andreassen, Bettina Kullle; Dubois, Bénédicte; Harbo, Hanne F.

    2015-01-01

    as female gender, age at onset and severity. This is the largest study population so far investigated for the genetic influence on antibody levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis, including 6950 patients. We confirm that genetic factors underlie these antibody levels and identify both the major histocompatibility complex and immunoglobulin heavy chain region as major determinants. PMID:25616667

  18. Socioeconomic Determinants of Income From Fresh and Processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total sample size of 84 crayfish marketers were in all randomly selected across three major Cray ... determine the income derived from fresh crayfish marketing while household size and purchasing ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  19. Extraction and determination of major hypotensive compounds in bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of three major hypotensive compounds, namely geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide in the bark of Eucommia ulmoides. Soxhlet extraction of GPA, GPS, and CA from E. ulmoides was optimized according to the Taguchi experimental design. Maximum global yields were obtained using the following conditions: extraction temperature, 80°C; extraction time, 1 h; number of extractions, three; solvent volume, 16 ml/g of sample; and 50% ethanol concentration in water. Optimal conditions of separation and detection were achieved on a Diamonsil ODS C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm with a linear gradient of methanol and 0.04% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and detection wavelength of 240 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999 within test ranges. The relative deviation of this method was less than 3% for intra- and inter-day assays, and the recovery percentage of the method was 95-104%, with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D. of less than 5%. The current assay method was used for quantitative determination of geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide in five samples of E. ulmoides with different age. The results indicate that the developed method could be readily utilized as a quality control method in working with E. ulmoides.

  20. 44 CFR 206.209 - Arbitration for Public Assistance determinations related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arbitration for Public Assistance determinations related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Major disaster declarations DR-1603, DR... determinations related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (Major disaster declarations DR-1603, DR-1604, DR-1605, DR...

  1. CXCL13 is the major determinant for B cell recruitment to the CSF during neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowarik Markus C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemokines and cytokines CXCL13, CXCL12, CCL19, CCL21, BAFF and APRIL are believed to play a role in the recruitment of B cells to the central nervous system (CNS compartment during neuroinflammation. To determine which chemokines/cytokines show the strongest association with a humoral immune response in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, we measured their concentrations in the CSF and correlated them with immune cell subsets and antibody levels. Methods Cytokine/chemokine concentrations were measured in CSF and serum by ELISA in patients with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 20, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 30, multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 20, Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB, n = 8 and patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 30. Albumin, IgG, IgA and IgM were measured by nephelometry. CSF immune cell subsets were determined by seven-color flow cytometry. Results CXCL13 was significantly elevated in the CSF of all patient groups with inflammatory diseases. BAFF levels were significantly increased in patients with LNB and OIND. CXCL12 was significantly elevated in patients with LNB. B cells and plasmablasts were significantly elevated in the CSF of all patients with inflammatory diseases. CXCL13 showed the most consistent correlation with CSF B cells, plasmablasts and intrathecal Ig synthesis. Conclusions CXCL13 seems to be the major determinant for B cell recruitment to the CNS compartment in different neuroinflammatory diseases. Thus, elevated CSF CXCL13 levels rather reflect a strong humoral immune response in the CNS compartment than being specific for a particular disease entity.

  2. Using ecological momentary assessment to determine media use by individuals with and without major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Silk, Jennifer S; DeLozier, Christian R; Shadel, William G; Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R; Dahl, Ronald E; Switzer, Galen E

    2011-04-01

    To use ecological momentary assessment techniques to measure the association of major depressive disorder (MDD) with media use. Data were collected using an ecological momentary assessment protocol with cellular telephone-based brief interviews. Participants received as many as 60 telephone calls from a trained staff member during 5 extended weekends in an 8-week period. One hundred six adolescent participants who were part of a larger neurobehavioral study of depression in Pittsburgh from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2008. At each call, participants were asked whether they were using the following 5 types of media: television or movies, music, video games, Internet, and print media, such as magazines, newspapers, and books. We developed multivariable models to determine the independent association of each type of media use with MDD, controlling for sociodemographic variables. Of the 106 participants, 46 were diagnosed as having MDD. In multivariable models controlling for age, sex, and race, each increasing quartile of audio use was associated with an 80% increase in the odds of having MDD (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.8; P = .01 for trend). Conversely, each increasing quartile of print media use was associated with a 50% decrease in the odds of having MDD (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.9; P = .009 for trend). Major depressive disorder is positively associated with popular music exposure and negatively associated with reading print media such as books. Further research elucidating the directionality and strength of these relationships may help advance understanding of the relationships between media use and MDD.

  3. Work ability as a major determinant of clinical nurses' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Milan; Golubic, Rajna; Knezevic, Bojana; Golubic, Karlo; Bubas, Marija; Mustajbegovic, Jadranka

    2011-10-01

    To examine quality of life determinants among clinical nurses in Croatia with an emphasis on their work ability. An important personnel management challenge is to explore factors that stimulate or hinder the development of individual work ability and quality of life throughout a career. A cross-sectional study. The study was performed during 2007-2008 in six randomly selected hospitals in Croatia. The self-administered questionnaires included the Work Ability Index (WAI) developed by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, the Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQL-BREF) developed by the World Health Organization and additional socio-demographic questions. A total number of 1212 nurses completed the questionnaires, giving a response rate of 67(.) 3%. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess how socio-demographic characteristics and work ability groups predict each of the WHOQL-BREF domains. Having a satisfactory WAI score (WAI ≥ 37) was significantly the most important predictor for all quality of life domains, with the odds ratios (OR) being as follows: OR = 6(.) 8 (95% CI: 4(.) 8-9(.) 6) for the physical domain, OR = 2(.) 3 (95% CI: 1(.) 7-3(.) 1) for the psychological domain, OR = 1(.) 7 (95% CI: 1(.) 3-2(.) 4) for the social relationship domain and OR = 1(.) 7 (95% CI: 1(.) 3-2(.) 3) for the environmental domain. Satisfactory work ability was a major quality of life determinant in all WHOQL-BREF domains with the highest odds ratio for the physical domain. Maintaining clinical nurses' work ability is an important issue, because it is foundational for the quality of life of the workforce. Our study provides quantified estimates of the extent to which a satisfactory WAI score predicts a better score in physical, psychosocial, social relationships and environmental domain of nurses' quality of life. Therefore, maintaining or improving nurses' work ability remains the essential aim of hospital managers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Is mechanical dyssynchrony still a major determinant for responses after cardiac resynchronization therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qing; Yu Cheuk Man

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of mechanical dyssynchrony by advanced echocardiographic technologies and its importance in selecting more appropriate candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have been disputed, after the announcement of the Predictors of Response to CRT (PROSPECT) trial, as the first evidence derived from a multicenter study. However, attempts in this field have never been stopped, as it appears that the fundamental mechanism of CRT is the correction of dyssynchrony where the detection of baseline dyssynchrony is of particular significance. The QRS width provides simple but very limited information. On the other hand, non-invasive imaging tools such as echocardiography have the capacity for more detailed analysis of mechanical dyssynchrony. We reviewed a number of clinical studies published in the post-PROSPECT era, designed to figure out a predictive algorithm where dyssynchrony measure is included, for identifying the most suitable patients before device implantation. From the analysis, mechanical dyssynchrony remains to be a major determinant for clinical outcomes after CRT, although discrepancies have arisen with respect to the single-center nature, echocardiographic methodologies, and relative merit when compared with other predicting factors. (author)

  5. Gasification processes old and new: a basic review of the major technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breault, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the paper is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being marketed today. Some of these are already fully developed while others are in various stages of development. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. (author)

  6. Determination of Five Major 8-Prenylflavones in Leaves of Epimedium by Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan-ping; Xiang, Ji-ming; Zhu, Zhong-liang

    2016-01-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible method which is based on the capillary electrophoresis, coupled with solid-phase extraction, has been developed for simultaneous determination of multiple 8-prenylflavones from Chinese Herba Epimedii. In this study, the author has mainly illustrated the experimental process and research results of five major components including epimedin C, icariin, diphylloside A, epimedoside A and icarisoside A that have been extracted and identified from Herba Epimedii for the first time. Experimental conditions have been optimized to achieve the best separation efficiency for the following factors: the buffer pH, buffer concentration and applied voltage. The experiment can be conducted through two separable stages: the first stage is to obtain the crude extracts through the solid-phase extraction; and the second stage is to further separate five major components by using the capillary electrophoresis. The separation of the five components and the analysis of the experiment are relatively fast and can be completed within 20 min. The concentration ranges of the construction of standard curves of five major 8-prenylflavones are 32.0–395.0, 23.4–292.0, 42.1–526.0, 18.8–233.5 and 29.7–371.0 µg mL−1 respectively, which have showed acceptable linearity with a correlation coefficient, r ≥ 0.999. The coefficient varies within 2.0% for both intra- and inter-days tests. The recoveries of five components range from 92.3 to 104.1%. The relative standard deviations of recoveries of five components range from 1.2 and 2.8%. This new method will facilitate the extraction and expedite the determination of medical components from Herba Epimedii. PMID:26865656

  7. Determination of major boswellic acids in plasma by high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbeth, Kathleen; Meins, Juergen; Kirste, Simon; Momm, Felix; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2011-12-15

    Until now, dexamethasone is the medication of choice to reduce peritumoral edema associated with primary and secondary brain tumors. Because of the severe side effects accompanying such a treatment the interest in alternative agents that may be co-administered with glucocorticoids and help to reduce the required dose is constantly increasing. Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts (BSE), which have been designated an orphan drug status by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 2002 for the treatment of peritumoral edema, may represent a promising supplemental herbal remedy. However, clinical studies on the effect of BSE on brain edema as well as analyzes of serum levels are very scarce. Based on that background a prospective, placebo controlled, and double blind clinical pilot trial was conducted on 14 patients applying for the first time a high dose of 4200 mg BSE per day and 13 patients receiving placebo. For monitoring the serum levels of all major boswellic acids (BAs) a highly sensitive HPLC-MS method has been developed that allows the determination of KBA and AKBA from 5.0 ng/ml to 3000 ng/ml and of αBA, βBA, AαBA and AβBA from 0.5 ng/ml to 12,000 ng/ml. It is the first validated method that covers such a wide concentration range, which makes it suitable to be used as standard method in clinical trials as it compensates for the great pharmacokinetic variability in the plasma levels of BAs observed in clinical practice. Average steady concentrations (ng/ml) in the range of 6.4-247.5 for KBA, 0-15.5 for AKBA, 36.7-4830.1 for αBA, 87.0-11948.5 for βBA, 73.4-2985.8 for AαBA and 131.4-6131.3 for AβBA were determined in the verum group. The here quantified steady state levels suggest βBA to be a possible candidate for the anti-inflammatory and anti-edemateous effects of BSE. In general, the serum level analysis underlines the promising clinical results of BSE on cerebral edema. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of antidepressant medication use on emotional information processing in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tony T; Clerkin, Elise M; Ellis, Alissa J; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-02-01

    Acute administration of antidepressant medication increases emotional information processing for positive information in both depressed and healthy persons. This effect is likely relevant to the therapeutic actions of these medications, but it has not been studied in patients with major depressive disorder taking antidepressants as typically prescribed in the community. The authors used eye tracking to examine the effects of antidepressant medication on selective attention for emotional stimuli in a sample of 47 patients with major depressive disorder (21 medicated and 26 unmedicated) and 47 matched comparison subjects without depression. Participants completed a passive-viewing eye-tracking task assessing selective attention for positive, dysphoric, threatening, and neutral stimuli in addition to providing medication information and self-report measures of depression and anxiety severity. Depressed participants currently taking antidepressants and nondepressed comparison subjects demonstrated greater total gaze duration and more fixations for positive stimuli compared with unmedicated depressed participants. Depressed participants on medication also had fewer fixations for dysphoric stimuli compared with depressed participants not on medication. Antidepressants, as prescribed in the community to patients with depression, appear to modify emotional information processing in the absence of differences in depression severity. These results are consistent with previous work and indicate a robust effect for antidepressants on positive information processing. They also provide further evidence for modification of information processing as a potential mechanism of action for antidepressant medication.

  9. Determinants of Successful Internationalisation Processes in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Henry; Guzmán, Alexander; Trujillo, María-Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the internationalisation process in business schools as a response to the globalisation phenomena and argue that environmental pressures, isomorphic forces, the pool of internal resources and the alignment of the process with the institution's general strategic plan are the main determinants of a successful internationalisation process.…

  10. Using the domain identification model to study major and career decision-making processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendhar, Chosang; Singh, Kusum; Jones, Brett D.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which (1) a domain identification model could be used to predict students' engineering major and career intentions and (2) the MUSIC Model of Motivation components could be used to predict domain identification. The data for this study were collected from first-year engineering students. We used a structural equation model to test the hypothesised relationship between variables in the partial domain identification model. The findings suggested that engineering identification significantly predicted engineering major intentions and career intentions and had the highest effect on those two variables compared to other motivational constructs. Furthermore, results suggested that success, interest, and caring are plausible contributors to students' engineering identification. Overall, there is strong evidence that the domain identification model can be used as a lens to study career decision-making processes in engineering, and potentially, in other fields as well.

  11. Snowmelt runoff from northern alpine tundra hillslopes: major processes and methods of simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Quinton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern alpine tundra, large slope gradients, late-lying snow drifts and shallow soils overlying impermeable substrates all contribute to large hillslope runoff volumes during the spring freshet. Understanding the processes and pathways of hillslope runoff in this environment is, therefore, critical to understanding the water cycle within northern alpine tundra ecosystems. This study: (a presents the results of a field study on runoff from a sub-alpine tundra hillslope with a large snow drift during the spring melt period; (b identifies the major runoff processes that must be represented in simulations of snowmelt runoff from sub-alpine tundra hillslopes; (c describes how these processes can be represented in a numerical simulation model; and d compares field measurements with modelled output to validate or refute the conceptual understanding of runoff generation embodied in the process simulations. The study was conducted at Granger Creek catchment, 15 km south of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada, on a north-facing slope below a late-lying snow drift. For the freshet period, the major processes to be represented in a runoff model include the rate of meltwater release from the late-lying snowdrift, the elevation and thickness of the saturated layer, the magnitude of the soil permeability and its variation with depth. The daily cycle of net all-wave radiation was observed to drive the diurnal pulses of melt water from the drift; this, in turn, was found to control the daily pulses of flow through the hillslope subsurface and in the stream channel. The computed rate of frost table lowering fell within the observed values; however, there was wide variation among the measured frost table depths. Spatial variability in frost table depth would result in spatial variabilities in saturated layer depth and thickness, which would, in turn, produce variations in subsurface flow rates over the slope, including preferential flowpaths. Keywords

  12. Bottom-Up Determination of Air-Sea Momentum Exchange Under a Major Tropical Cyclone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jarosz, Ewa; Mitchell, Douglas A; Wang, David W; Teague, William J

    2007-01-01

    .... Using current observations recorded during a major tropical cyclone, we have estimated this momentum transfer from the ocean side of the air-sea interface, and we discuss it in terms of the drag coefficient...

  13. Adaptation to environmental temperature is a major determinant of molecular evolutionary rates in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussin, Mathieu; Gouy, Manolo

    2011-09-01

    Methods to infer the ancestral conditions of life are commonly based on geological and paleontological analyses. Recently, several studies used genome sequences to gain information about past ecological conditions taking advantage of the property that the G+C and amino acid contents of bacterial and archaeal ribosomal DNA genes and proteins, respectively, are strongly influenced by the environmental temperature. The adaptation to optimal growth temperature (OGT) since the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) over the universal tree of life was examined, and it was concluded that LUCA was likely to have been a mesophilic organism and that a parallel adaptation to high temperature occurred independently along the two lineages leading to the ancestors of Bacteria on one side and of Archaea and Eukarya on the other side. Here, we focus on Archaea to gain a precise view of the adaptation to OGT over time in this domain. It has been often proposed on the basis of indirect evidence that the last archaeal common ancestor was a hyperthermophilic organism. Moreover, many results showed the influence of environmental temperature on the evolutionary dynamics of archaeal genomes: Thermophilic organisms generally display lower evolutionary rates than mesophiles. However, to our knowledge, no study tried to explain the differences of evolutionary rates for the entire archaeal domain and to investigate the evolution of substitution rates over time. A comprehensive archaeal phylogeny and a non homogeneous model of the molecular evolutionary process allowed us to estimate ancestral base and amino acid compositions and OGTs at each internal node of the archaeal phylogenetic tree. The last archaeal common ancestor is predicted to have been hyperthermophilic and adaptations to cooler environments can be observed for extant mesophilic species. Furthermore, mesophilic species present both long branches and high variation of nucleotide and amino acid compositions since the last archaeal

  14. Experiences and performance of the Harshaw dosimetry system at two major processing centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, R.A.; Olhalber, T.; Rathbone, B.

    1996-01-01

    The installations, operating practice, dose algorithms and results and maintenance experience at two major dosimetry processing centres are described. System selection considerations and a comprehensive quality programme are described in the light of the publication of testing requirements by various dosimetry regulatory organisations. Reported information from Siemens Dosimetry Services comprises their selection of dosemeters and processing equipment including service history, a description of their dose computation algorithm, and detailed results of their testing against DOELAP standards. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) provides a description of their dosemeters and equipment with service history; in addition, a discussion of their new neural network approach to a dose computation algorithm and test results from that algorithm are presented. (Author)

  15. Manufacturing history of etanercept (Enbrel®): Consistency of product quality through major process revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Brian; Singh, Ena; Mahgoub, Ehab; O'Brien, Julie; Vicik, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Etanercept (ETN) (Enbrel®) is a soluble protein that binds to, and specifically inhibits, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a proinflammatory cytokine. ETN is synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells by recombinant DNA technology as a fusion protein, with a fully human TNFRII ectodomain linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1. Successful manufacture of biologics, such as ETN, requires sophisticated process and product understanding, as well as meticulous control of operations to maintain product consistency. The objective of this evaluation was to show that the product profile of ETN drug substance (DS) has been consistent over the course of production. Multiple orthogonal biochemical analyses, which included evaluation of attributes indicative of product purity, potency, and quality, were assessed on >2,000 batches of ETN from three sites of DS manufacture, during the period 1998-2015. Based on the key quality attributes of product purity (assessed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography HPLC), binding activity (to TNF by ELISA), potency (inhibition of TNF-induced apoptosis by cell-based bioassay) and quality (N-linked oligosaccharide map), we show that the integrity of ETN DS has remained consistent over time. This consistency was maintained through three major enhancements to the initial process of manufacturing that were supported by detailed comparability assessments, and approved by the European Medicines Agency. Examination of results for all major quality attributes for ETN DS indicates a highly consistent process for over 18 years and throughout changes to the manufacturing process, without affecting safety and efficacy, as demonstrated across a wide range of clinical trials of ETN in multiple inflammatory diseases.

  16. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O'Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J. W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M. L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T. Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O'Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F.; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M.; Perlmutter, Aaron M.; Pierce, Michael N.; Pincus, Jonathan M.; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C.; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D.; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E.; Rubin, David S.; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R.; Sanchez, William C.; Sanjana, Veeraf M.; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M.; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N.; Silebi, Vanessa I.; Sizemore, James M.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M.; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T.; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F. Lisa; Stone, Valerie E.; Stone, David R.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A.; Tedaldi, Ellen M.; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A.; Trinh, Phuong D.; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J.; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M.; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H.; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J.; Warner, Daniel A.; Weber, Robert D.; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G.; van't Wout, Angelique; Wright, David P.; Yang, Otto O.; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon W.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide

  17. Relationships determining the toxicity of major ion mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant impacts to aquatic systems can occur due to increases in major ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, HCO3) from various anthropogenic activities, these impacts varying with both the specific combination of ions that are elevated and the chemistry of the background water. A s...

  18. 76 FR 72965 - District of Columbia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  19. 76 FR 64959 - District of Columbia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... of Columbia resulting from Hurricane Irene during the period of August 26 to September 1, 2011, is of... following areas of the District of Columbia have been designated as adversely affected by this major... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  20. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO 3 ) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities

  1. Red Queen Processes Drive Positive Selection on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Jan Ejsmond

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes code for proteins involved in the incitation of the adaptive immune response in vertebrates, which is achieved through binding oligopeptides (antigens of pathogenic origin. Across vertebrate species, substitutions of amino acids at sites responsible for the specificity of antigen binding (ABS are positively selected. This is attributed to pathogen-driven balancing selection, which is also thought to maintain the high polymorphism of MHC genes, and to cause the sharing of allelic lineages between species. However, the nature of this selection remains controversial. We used individual-based computer simulations to investigate the roles of two phenomena capable of maintaining MHC polymorphism: heterozygote advantage and host-pathogen arms race (Red Queen process. Our simulations revealed that levels of MHC polymorphism were high and driven mostly by the Red Queen process at a high pathogen mutation rate, but were low and driven mostly by heterozygote advantage when the pathogen mutation rate was low. We found that novel mutations at ABSs are strongly favored by the Red Queen process, but not by heterozygote advantage, regardless of the pathogen mutation rate. However, while the strong advantage of novel alleles increased the allele turnover rate, under a high pathogen mutation rate, allelic lineages persisted for a comparable length of time under Red Queen and under heterozygote advantage. Thus, when pathogens evolve quickly, the Red Queen is capable of explaining both positive selection and long coalescence times, but the tension between the novel allele advantage and persistence of alleles deserves further investigation.

  2. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  3. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I W; Walker, Bruce D; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J; Pulit, Sara L; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M; Carlson, Jonathan M; Heckerman, David; Graham, Robert R; Plenge, Robert M; Deeks, Steven G; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L; Lemay, Paul; O'Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M; Allen, Todd M; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Haas, David W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Robbins, Gregory K; Shafer, Robert W; Gulick, Roy M; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E; Daar, Eric S; Ribaudo, Heather J; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L; Allen, Brady L; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C; Benson, Anne M; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F; Bernard, Annette M; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J; Bolan, Robert K; Boudreaux, Emilie T; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F; Brndjar, Jon E; Brown, Stephen J; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H; Carmichael, J Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M; Cimoch, Paul J; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T; Cristofano, Michael V; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L; Dahman, Joseph M; Daly, Jennifer S; Davis, Benjamin T; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E; Ellerin, Todd B; Eron, Joseph J; Fangman, John J W; Farel, Claire E; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A; French, Neel K; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Fuller, Jon D; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C; Gaultier, Cyril R; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A; Gottlieb, Michael S; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K; Gurley, T Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W David; Harrigan, P Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M; Henry, W Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P; Horton, James M; Hsu, Ricky K; Huhn, Gregory D; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J; Illeman, Mark L; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A; Johnson, Kristin L; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C; Kauffman, Carol A; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K; Kim, Arthur Y; Kim, David D; Kinder, Clifford A; Kirchner, Jeffrey T; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M; Lee, David M; Lee, Jean M L; Lee, Marah J; Lee, Edward T Y; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A; Llibre, Josep M; Liguori, Michael A; Little, Susan J; Liu, Anne Y; Lopez, Alvaro J; Loutfy, Mono R; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K; Marconi, Vincent C; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N; Martin, Harold L; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A; McGovern, Barbara H; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C; Nagami, Ellen H; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G; Nelson, Margret O; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L; O'Connor, David H; Ojikutu, Bisola O; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O; Oldfield, Edward C; Olender, Susan A; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M; Perlmutter, Aaron M; Pierce, Michael N; Pincus, Jonathan M; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J; Rhame, Frank S; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C; Rosenberg, Eric S; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E; Rubin, David S; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R; Sanchez, William C; Sanjana, Veeraf M; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N; Silebi, Vanessa I; Sizemore, James M; Skolnik, Paul R; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F Lisa; Stone, Valerie E; Stone, David R; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A; Tedaldi, Ellen M; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A; Trinh, Phuong D; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J; Warner, Daniel A; Weber, Robert D; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A; White, David J; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G; van't Wout, Angelique; Wright, David P; Yang, Otto O; Yurdin, David L; Zabukovic, Brandon W; Zachary, Kimon C; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2010-12-10

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.

  4. A Single IGF1 Allele Is a Major Determinant of Small Size in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M.; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G.; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S.; Parker, Heidi G.; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S.; Lawler, Dennis F.; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Nordborg, Magnus; Lark, K. Gordon; Wayne, Robert K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a selective sweep spanning a single gene (IGF1), encoding insulin-like growth factor 1. A single IGF1 single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype is common to all small breeds and nearly absent from giant breeds, suggesting that the same causal sequence variant is a major contributor to body size in all small dogs. PMID:17412960

  5. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Pereyra, Florencia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Walker, Bruce D.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Carrington, Mary; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Pereyra, Florencia; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O’Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; Deeks, Steven G.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J.W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M.L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T.Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O’Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F.; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M.; Perlmutter, Aaron M.; Pierce, Michael N.; Pincus, Jonathan M.; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C.; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E.; Rubin, David S.; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R.; Sanchez, William C.; Sanjana, Veeraf M.; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M.; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N.; Silebi, Vanessa I.; Sizemore, James M.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M.; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T.; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F. Lisa; Stone, Valerie E.; Stone, David R.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A.; Tedaldi, Ellen M.; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A.; Trinh, Phuong D.; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J.; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M.; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H.; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J.; Warner, Daniel A.; Weber, Robert D.; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G.; Wout, Angelique van’t; Wright, David P.; Yang, Otto O.; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon W.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection. PMID:21051598

  6. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. W...

  7. A Single IGF1 Allele Is a Major Determinant of Small Size in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Chase, Kevin; Gray, Melissa M.; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Karlins, Eric; Davis, Sean; Jones, Paul G.; Quignon, Pascale; Johnson, Gary S.; Parker, Heidi G.; Fretwell, Neale; Mosher, Dana S.

    2007-01-01

    The domestic dog exhibits greater diversity in body size than any other terrestrial vertebrate. We used a strategy that exploits the breed structure of dogs to investigate the genetic basis of size. First, through a genome-wide scan, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 15 influencing size variation within a single breed. Second, we examined genetic variation in the 15-megabase interval surrounding the QTL in small and giant breeds and found marked evidence for a...

  8. ITS1 locus: a major determinant of genetic diversity of Plantago spp. (plantaginaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altantestseg, K.; Baatartsogt, O.; Enkhchimeg, V.

    2018-01-01

    By this study, ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) regions in the nuclear DNA of 10 Plantago samples collected from Mongolia (5 samples) and Vietnam (5 samples) were sequenced and constructed Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees for establishing the genetic relationship. The results showed that 10 samples belonged to 2 species (7 Plantago major and 3 Plantago depressa). The length of sequences ranged from 632 to 644 bp (ITS1 ranged from 210-222 bp, 5.8S was 162 bp, and ITS2 259 - 261 bp). The ITS1 region was highly variable among the sequences whereas ITS2 and 5.8S regions were more conservative. The MP and NJ trees apparently separated P. major and P. depressa into 2 different groups, supported with high bootstrap values. P. depressa was first time reported in Mongolia. The results highlighted that ITS sequences could distinguish P. major and P. depressa, which is certainly important for pharmacist to use crude drugs derived from Plantago. (author)

  9. Model determination and validation for reactive wetting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, F.G.; O`Toole, E.J.; Sackinger, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, T.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that dissolutive wetting initially yields a metastable equilibrium. A compact model for the kinetics of approach to this metastable state is described. The technique for constructing these kinetics stems from the early work of Onsager and begins with a relationship for the entropy production. From this, a coupled set of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations can be written directly. The equations are solved numerically for the wetted area and compared with experimental data. The model captures many of the subtle complexities of dissolutive wetting such as multiple metastable states. Sessile drop experiments involving a variety of Bi-Sn alloys on solid Bi substrates were performed. Substrates prepared from small and large-grained polycrystals and single crystals were used to measure equilibrium and metastable contact angles and estimate the surface tension and equilibrium contact angle of the solid-liquid interface. The substrates were also used to investigate the coupling of the dissolution and wetting processes and to investigate the effect of substrate grain size on wetting. It was determined that the equilibrium wetting geometry is independent of linear scale and that grain size has little influence on wetting or dissolution in the Bi-Sn system. To investigate the atomic behavior of liquids at interfaces during wetting, the authors simulated wetting in the Ag-Cu system using molecular dynamics with atomic potentials and observed both atomic dynamics and structural correlations of the liquid-solid interface. The authors found that spreading is prompted by interactions between the liquid and the substrate surface that cause the liquid layer in contact with the substrate to take on some of the symmetry of the substrate surface and result in the formation of a liquid monolayer that extends beyond the major part of the liquid droplet.

  10. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  11. Optimization of Malaxation Process using Major Aroma Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Cevik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Optimization of major aroma compounds in olive oils produced from fruits at three maturity stages wasstudied. A central composite design was used for the optimization of malaxation conditions of temperature and times, each at five levels with 13 runs including five central points. The responses of interest were trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, which were investigated and their contents were optimized. A full quadratic second order regression model including the linear, quadratic, and two factor interaction effects was proposed to explain the variation in the contents of target compounds depending on the malaxation conditions. Adequacies of models were evaluated by checking regression coefficients for each model. Models were found to work with high success for trans-2-hexenal prediction for oils from fruits at both purple and black stages, whereas the model for hexanalwas only in black stage oil. Their regression coefficients were higher than 0.86. Influences of time and temperature for the malaxation process were found to be significant for the transition of major aroma compounds from the fruit matrix to olive oil. The optimum conditions of temperature and time pairs to maximize trans-2-hexenal and hexanal was found to be 23°C/31 minutes for black olive and to maximize only trans-2-hexenal was also 29°C/41 minutes for purple olive.

  12. A simple NAA process for multielement determination of spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling; Tian Weizhi

    1998-01-01

    Forty elements in NIST 1570a (or IAEA-331), an intercomparison material, spinach, have been determined using the NAA techniques. Among them, 31 elements, i.e. Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Re, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, V, Zn and Zr, were determined by employing INAA. A series of simple and quantitative radiochemical separation procedures were established for the determination of 9 additional elements. Among them, Cd, Lu, Mo, Sm, Yb and U were determined by removing the major interfering nuclide 82 Br; Cu by 0.048 mol/L NaDDTC/CHCl 3 extraction from 1 mol/L HCl medium; and As and P by using an inorganic exchange column of acid aluminum oxide (AAO). The interferences from fission products and γ spectrum of 235 U have been corrected by the NAA software, ADVNAA

  13. Determination of incoming solar radiation in major tree species in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Koc, Ayhan

    2012-07-01

    Light requirements and spatial distribution of major forest tree species in Turkey hasn't been analyzed yet. Continuous surface solar radiation data, especially at mountainous-forested areas, are needed to put forward this relationship between forest tree species and solar radiation. To achieve this, GIS-based modeling of solar radiation is one of the methods used in rangelands to estimate continuous surface solar radiation. Therefore, mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation maps of whole Turkey were computed spatially using GRASS GIS software "r.sun" model under clear-sky (cloudless) conditions. 147498 pure forest stand point-based data were used in the study for calculating mean global solar radiation values of all the major forest tree species of Turkey. Beech had the lowest annual mean total global solar radiation value of 1654.87 kWh m(-2), whereas juniper had the highest value of 1928.89 kWh m(-2). The rank order of tree species according to the mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation values, using a confidence level of p solar radiation values of sites and light requirements of forest trees ranked similarly.

  14. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  15. Major differences between human atopic dermatitis and murine models as determined by global transcriptomic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, David Adrian; Noda, Shinji; Oliva, Margeaux

    2017-01-01

    , and a comparison of these models with the human AD transcriptomic fingerprint is lacking. We sought to evaluate the transcriptomic profiles of six common murine models and determine how they relate to human AD skin. Transcriptomic profiling was performed using microarrays and qRT-PCR on biopsies from NC/Nga, flaky...

  16. Using Major Elements to Determine Sources of Nitrate in Groundwater, Suffolk County, Long Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, J.; Hanson, G.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2004-05-01

    Suffolk County is the eastern most county on Long Island with an area of 2,500 square kilometers and a population of 1.4 million. Groundwater is the only source of potable water for Suffolk County. Nitrate levels have become a concern as a result of the continued eastward urbanization of Long Island since the mid 1900's. In 2003, 2% of 1000 public supply wells had greater than 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate, 8% had 6 to 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate and 62% of the wells were rated as susceptible to increased nitrate contamination based on land use, travel time and prevalence. Nitrogen as nitrate above 10 ppm is harmful to infants and is currently the drinking water standard of the Environmental Protection Agency. The major sources of the nitrate in the urbanized areas are most likely turf grass fertilizer and sewage from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants that provide only secondary treatment. Turf grass occupies about 28% of the land. Two-thirds of the houses have septic tank/cesspool systems and a majority of the sewage treatment plants discharge effluent to the groundwater. Previous investigators of the sources of nitrate in groundwater on Long Island have used 15N values of nitrate-nitrogen to identify nitrate contamination (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Flipse and Bonner, 1985; Flipse et al., 1984; Kreitler et al., 1978). However, due to overlapping source signatures, nitrogen isotopes alone were not sufficient to characterize the sources of nitrate. More recent studies have shown that major elements that accompany nitrate in the groundwater (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Elhatip et al., 2003; Trauth and Xanthopoulos, 1997) may distinguish sources of nitrate with less ambiguity. In this study samples of waste water from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants and samples of soil water collected below turf grass that is not fertilized, fertilized with organic fertilizer and fertilized with chemical fertilizer were analyzed for major elements

  17. Identification of naturally processed hepatitis C virus-derived major histocompatibility complex class I ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Wölk

    Full Text Available Fine mapping of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses against hepatitis C virus (HCV is based on external loading of target cells with synthetic peptides which are either derived from prediction algorithms or from overlapping peptide libraries. These strategies do not address putative host and viral mechanisms which may alter processing as well as presentation of CTL epitopes. Therefore, the aim of this proof-of-concept study was to identify naturally processed HCV-derived major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I ligands. To this end, continuous human cell lines were engineered to inducibly express HCV proteins and to constitutively express high levels of functional HLA-A2. These cell lines were recognized in an HLA-A2-restricted manner by HCV-specific CTLs. Ligands eluted from HLA-A2 molecules isolated from large-scale cultures of these cell lines were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and further analyzed by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (MS/tandem MS. These analyses allowed the identification of two HLA-A2-restricted epitopes derived from HCV nonstructural proteins (NS 3 and 5B (NS3₁₄₀₆₋₁₄₁₅ and NS5B₂₅₉₄₋₂₆₀₂. In conclusion, we describe a general strategy that may be useful to investigate HCV pathogenesis and may contribute to the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines in the future.

  18. Risk Importance Determination Process of CANDU Maintenance Rule Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Mi Ro; Jo, Ha Yan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    2009-01-01

    In Korea, Maintenance Rule (MR) programs development for all PWR were completed. However, in case of PHWR (CANDU type, Wolsong Unit 1,2,3,4), the study of MR program was delayed, since the design concepts and operating experiences are different from those of PWR. This paper describes the process and results for the risk importance determination process of functions in scope. The risk importance was determined by PSA Basic Event Mapping and Delphi method. For Delphi evaluation, Delphi evaluation item for CANDU need to be developed because the design and normal operation functions are different from PWR

  19. Determinants of underage college student drinking: implications for four major alcohol reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Guided by the assumptions of the social ecological model and the social marketing approach, this study provides a simultaneous and comprehensive assessment of 4 major alcohol reduction strategies for college campuses: school education programs, social norms campaigns, alcohol counter-marketing, and alcohol control policies. Analysis of nationally representative secondary survey data among 5,472 underage students reveals that alcohol marketing seems to be the most formidable risk factor for underage drinking, followed by perceived drinking norms (injunctive norm) and lax policy enforcement. This analysis suggests that, to make social norms campaigns and alcohol control policies more effective, alcohol reduction strategies should be developed to counter the powerful influence of alcohol marketing and promotions.

  20. Altered neural processing of reward and punishment in adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, I; Bakos, S; Kohls, G; Bartling, J; Schulte-Körne, G; Greimel, E

    2018-05-01

    Altered reward and punishment function has been suggested as an important vulnerability factor for the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Prior ERP studies found evidence for neurophysiological dysfunctions in reinforcement processes in adults with MDD. To date, only few ERP studies have examined the neural underpinnings of reinforcement processing in adolescents diagnosed with MDD. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms of anticipation and consumption of reward and punishment in adolescents with MDD in one comprehensive paradigm. During ERP recording, 25 adolescents with MDD and 29 healthy controls (12-17 years) completed a Monetary Incentive Delay Task comprising both a monetary reward and a monetary punishment condition. During anticipation, the cue-P3 signaling attentional allocation was recorded. During consumption, the feedback-P3 and Reward Positivity (RewP) were recorded to capture attentional allocation and outcome evaluation, respectively. Compared to controls, adolescents with MDD showed prolonged cue-P3 latencies to reward cues. Furthermore, unlike controls, adolescents with MDD displayed shorter feedback-P3 latencies in the reward versus punishment condition. RewPs did not differ between groups. It remains unanswered whether the observed alterations in adolescent MDD represent a state or trait. Delayed neural processing of reward cues corresponds to the clinical presentation of adolescent MDD with reduced motivational tendencies to obtain rewards. Relatively shorter feedback-P3 latencies in the reward versus punishment condition could indicate a high salience of performance-contingent reward. Frequent exposure of negatively biased adolescents with MDD to performance-contingent rewards might constitute a promising intervention approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on performance of a simultaneous spectrometer of ICP emission source for the determination of the major elements in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization of operational parameters of a simultaneous spectrometer coupled to an ICP excitation source in order to establish an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the major elements in rocks is studied. The mutual spectral interferences, calibration curves for the acid and saline matrix and the internal standard method with ytrium are analyzed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  2. Source/process apportionment of major and trace elements in sinking particles in the Sargasso sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Conte, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental composition of the particle flux at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) time-series site off Bermuda was measured from January 2002 to March 2005. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba and Pb) in sediment trap material from 500, 1500 and 3200 m depths were quantified using fusion-HR-ICPMS. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to elucidate sources, elemental associations and processes that affect geochemical behavior in the water column. Results provide evidence for intense elemental cycling between the sinking flux material and the dissolved and suspended pools within mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters. Biological processing and remineralization rapidly deplete the sinking flux material in organic matter and associated elements (N, P, Cd, Zn) between 500 and 1500 m depth. Suspended particle aggregation, authigenic mineral precipitation, and chemical scavenging enriches the flux material in lithogenic minerals, barite and redox sensitive elements (Mn, Co, V, Fe). A large increase in the flux of lithogenic elements is observed with depth and confirms that the northeast Sargasso is a significant sink for advected continental materials, likely supplied via Gulf Stream circulation. PMF resolved major sources that contribute to sinking flux at all depths (carbonate, high-Mg carbonate, opal, organic matter, lithogenic material, and barite) as well as additional depth-specific elemental associations that contribute about half of the compositional variability in the flux. PMF solutions indicate close geochemical associations of barite-opal, Cd-P, Zn-Co, Zn-Pb and redox sensitive elements in the sinking flux material at 500 m depth. Major reorganizations of element associations occur as labile carrier phases break down and elements redistribute among new carrier phases deeper in the water column. Factor scores show strong covariation and similar temporal phasing among the three trap depths and indicate a tight

  3. Spatiotemporal Variation in Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity and Associated Determinants across Major Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands (UHIs created through urbanization can have negative impacts on the lives of people living in cities. They may also vary spatially and temporally over a city. There is, thus, a need for greater understanding of these patterns and their causes. While previous UHI studies focused on only a few cities and/or several explanatory variables, this research provides a comprehensive and comparative characterization of the diurnal and seasonal variation in surface UHI intensities (SUHIIs across 67 major Chinese cities. The factors associated with the SUHII were assessed by considering a variety of related social, economic and natural factors using a regression tree model. Obvious seasonal variation was observed for the daytime SUHII, and the diurnal variation in SUHII varied seasonally across China. Interestingly, the SUHII varied significantly in character between northern and southern China. Southern China experienced more intense daytime SUHIIs, while the opposite was true for nighttime SUHIIs. Vegetation had the greatest effect in the day time in northern China. In southern China, annual electricity consumption and the number of public buses were found to be important. These results have important theoretical significance and may be of use to mitigate UHI effects.

  4. An Examination of the Sociodemographic and Health Determinants of Major Depressive Disorder Among Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka N; Doamekpor, Lauren A; Gardner, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Black women disproportionately share the distribution of risk factors for physical and mental illnesses. The goal of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms among black women. Pooled data from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to assess the sociodemographic and health correlates of MDD symptoms among black women (n = 227). Multivariate logistic regression techniques assessed the association between MDD symptoms and age, socioeconomic status, health status, and health behaviors. Poverty income ratio and smoking status were significantly associated with the likelihood of having MDD symptoms. Black women who were smokers were also more likely to have MDD symptoms compared to non-smokers [OR = 8.05, 95% CI = (4.56, 14.23)]. After controlling for all other socioeconomic and health variables, this association remained statistically significant. In addition, after controlling for all other variables, the multivariate analyses showed that black women below 299% federal poverty level (FPL) were nearly three times more likely to have MDD symptoms compared to women above 300% FPL [OR = 2.82, 95% CI = (1.02, 7.96)]. These analyses suggest that poverty and smoking status are associated with MDD symptoms among black women. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms and key factors which influence MDD symptoms are needed in order to develop and create mental health programs targeting women of color.

  5. Methodology for determining major constituents of ayahuasca and their metabolites in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2012-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in potential medical applications of ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea with a long cultural history of indigenous medical and religious use. Clinical research into ayahuasca will require specific, sensitive and comprehensive methods for the characterization and quantitation of these compounds and their metabolites in blood. A combination of two analytical techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and/or fluorescence detection and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection) has been used for the analysis of some of the constituents of ayahuasca in blood following its oral consumption. We report here a single methodology for the direct analysis of 14 of the major alkaloid components of ayahuasca, including several known and potential metabolites of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and the harmala alkaloids in blood. The method uses 96-well plate/protein precipitation/filtration for plasma samples, and analysis by HPLC-ion trap-ion trap-mass spectrometry using heated electrospray ionization to reduce matrix effects. The method expands the list of compounds capable of being monitored in blood following ayahuasca administration while providing a simplified approach to their analysis. The method has adequate sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility to make it useful for clinical research with ayahuasca. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Okazaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from educators’ perspectives have seldom been explored. The data collection takes place in three major Brazilian universities. In total, 446 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Our structural equation modeling reveals that ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant antecedents of attitude, which in turn affects intention. However, unlike the original TAM, perceived usefulness is not a direct driver of intention. In terms of moderation, gender affects three relationships: (1 ease of use –› perceived usefulness; (2 perceived usefulness –› attitude, and (3 intention –› actual behavior. The analysis is carried out in a single country; thus, caution should be taken in generalization of the results. The findings will help academics, educators, and policy makers to better understand the mechanism of e-learning adoption in Brazil.

  7. Determination of the major phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Toselli, Moreno; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-06-05

    Traditionally, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been consumed as fresh fruit or as pomegranate juice. In this study, the main phenolic compounds of 12 pomegranate varieties and 5 pomegranate clones were determined by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS. Two chromatographic methods with a fused-core C18 column and a classical HPLC system were developed. Thirteen anthocyanins and fourteen other phenolic compounds were determined in the pomegranate juices. As far as we are concerned, a new flavonol-glycoside, phellatin or its isomer amurensin, has been tentatively identified for the first time in pomegranate juices. Total phenolic content ranged from 580.8 to 2551.3 mg/L of pomegranate juice. Anthocyanins varied between 20 to 82% of total phenolic content. Flavonoids were 1.6-23.6% of total phenolic compounds, while phenolic acids and ellagitannins were in the range 16.4-65.8%. The five clones reported a phenolic content comparable with that of the other pomegranate samples.

  8. 20 CFR 404.1619 - Quick disability determination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quick disability determination process. 404.1619 Section 404.1619 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... that is fully favorable to the individual or if there is an unresolved disagreement between the...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1019 - Quick disability determination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quick disability determination process. 416.1019 Section 416.1019 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... disagreement between the disability examiner and the medical or psychological consultant, the State agency will...

  10. Effect of rapid rigor mortis processes on protein functionality in pectoralis major muscle of domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, M; Greaser, M L; Sosnicki, A A

    1997-08-01

    The pale, soft, exudative (PSE) phenomenon in turkey pectoralis major (breast) muscle was studied using a combination of biochemical, meat quality, microscopic, and gel electrophoresis techniques. Breast muscle samples were collected from turkeys characterized by slow vs fast postmortem glycolysis assessed by muscle pH at 20 min after death. The PSE group was characterized by lower muscle ATP (P < .05) and higher lactate levels (P < .05) compared with the normal group. Excess water-holding capacity and cooking yield were significantly lower (P < .05) in the PSE group than in normal turkeys. Breast muscle of the PSE group was also lighter (P < .05) than that in the normal group as determined by Minolta L* values. The SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that phosphorylase, a soluble enzyme, became tightly associated with the myofibrils in muscle from the PSE group. Also, less myosin could be solubilized from PSE vs normal myofibril samples. The results indicate that irreversible myosin insolubility due to low pH and high-temperature conditions is decisive in the development of PSE turkey breast muscle.

  11. [Research on UPLC-PDA fingerprint of andrographis paniculata and quantitative determination of 4 major constituents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Tong, Ling; Ding, Li

    2014-11-01

    Andrographis paniculata from different parts and origins were analyzed by UPLC-PDA fingerprint to provide refererice for related preparation technology. Using the peak of andrographolide as reference, 27 common peaks were identified, and digitized UPLC-PDA fingerprints for 23 batches of andrographis paniculata were established in this research. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out after feature extraction. The contents of andrographolide, neoandrographolide, deoxyandrographolide, dehydroandrographolide were determined by external standard method. The Plackett-Burman design combined with pareto chart was used to analyze the factors influencing the robustness of the method. It was found that the medicinal part has a more remarkable influence on the quality of andrographis paniculata than the origin. The contents of the 4 lactones the differ greatly in the different parts of andrographis paniculata, and the pH of the mobile phase is an important factor that influenced the robustness of the method.

  12. Perceived Risk and Trust as Major Determinants of Actual Purchase, Transcending The Influence of Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Indiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed online purchasing behavior in the hotel industry through an integrative framework, utilizing sets of variables rarely used in previous studies. The analysis was focused on the influence of online purchase intention, perceived risk, and trust upon actual purchase, with the idea of further determining which construct has the strongest impact. It also analyzed two new measurement items for website quality. The sample consisted of travelers who have recently made hotel reservations online. The model was tested with Structural Equation Modeling. Perceived risk was found to have the strongest impact on actual purchase, followed by trust and online purchase intention. The weak influence of online purchase intention is quite interesting since it stands in contrast to previous research findings. Perceived risk also perfectly mediates the relationship between website quality and eWOM towards online purchase intention. Being descriptive in nature, this study did not manipulate the antecedents in the manner of an experimental study.

  13. Social relationships as a major determinant in the valuation of health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Ulrich; Irving, Hyacinth; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    To empirically determine the impact of the capacity to sustain social relationships on valuing health states. 68 clinical experts conducted a health state valuation exercise in five sites using pairwise comparison, ranking, and person trade-off as elicitation methods. 23,840 pairwise comparisons of a total of 379 health states were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Social relationships had a clear monotonic association with perceived disability: the more limited the capacity to sustain social relationships, the more disabling the resulting health state valuations. The highest level of limitations with respect to social relationships was associated with slightly lower impact on health state valuations compared to the highest level of limitations in physical functioning. Social relationships showed an independent contribution to health state valuations and should be included in health state measures.

  14. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Victor

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however.To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants.Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22 and healthy controls (HC; n=25 underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups.The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex.Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  15. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Teresa A; Furey, Maura L; Fromm, Stephen J; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Öhman, Arne; Drevets, Wayne C

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however. To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants. Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22) and healthy controls (HC; n=25) underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups. The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex. Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  16. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  17. Abnormal proactive and reactive cognitive control during conflict processing in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; De Paepe, Annick; Aarts, Kristien; Otte, Georges; Van Dorpe, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    According to the Dual Mechanisms of Control framework, cognitive control consists of two complementary components: proactive control refers to anticipatory maintenance of goal-relevant information, whereas reactive control acts as a correction mechanism that is activated when a conflict occurs. Possibly, the well-known diminished inhibitory control in response to negative stimuli in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients stems from a breakdown in proactive control, and/or anomalies in reactive cognitive control. In our study, MDD patients specifically showed increased response latencies when actively inhibiting a dominant response to a sad compared with a happy face. This condition was associated with a longer duration of a dominant ERP topography (800-900 ms poststimulus onset) and a stronger activity in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting abnormal reactive control when inhibiting attention to a negative stimulus. Moreover, MDD patients showed abnormalities in proactive cognitive control when preparing for the upcoming imperative stimulus (abnormal modulation of the contingent negative variation component), accompanied by more activity in brain regions belonging to the default mode network. All together, deficits to inhibit attention to negative information in MDD might originate from an abnormal use of both proactive resources and reactive control processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Broad spectrum detoxification: the major longevity assurance process regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, David; McElwee, Joshua J

    2005-03-01

    Our recent survey of genes regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests a role for a number of gene classes in longevity assurance. Based on these findings, we propose a model for the biochemistry of longevity assurance and ageing, which is as follows. Ageing results from molecular damage from highly diverse endobiotic toxins. These are stochastic by-products of diverse metabolic processes, of which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely to be only one component. Our microarray analysis suggests a major role in longevity assurance of the phase 1, phase 2 detoxification system involving cytochrome P450 (CYP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. Unlike superoxide and hydrogen peroxide detoxification, this system is energetically costly, and requires the excretion from the cell of its products. Given such costs, its activity may be selected against, as predicted by the disposable soma theory. CYP and UGT enzymes target lipophilic molecular species; insufficient activity of this system is consistent with age-pigment (lipofuscin) accumulation during ageing. We suggest that IIS-regulated longevity assurance involves: (a) energetically costly detoxification and excretion of molecular rubbish, and (b) conservation of existing proteins via molecular chaperones. Given the emphasis in this theory on investment in cellular waste disposal, and on protein conservation, we have dubbed it the green theory.

  19. Process to determine light elements content of steel and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintella, Cristina M.A.L.T.M.H.; Castro, Martha T.P.O. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. LabLaser; Mac-Culloch, Joao N.L.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work reports a process to determine qualitatively and quantitatively elements of molar mass inferior to 23 within materials, by X rays spectra associated with multivariate data analysis, or chemometric analysis. The spectra is acquired between 5 keV and 22 keV when the materials are exposed to X radiation. Here is reported the direct determination of carbon content in steel and metallic alloys. The process is more effective when using spectral regions which are not usually used. From the analysis of these spectral regions which were not considered before, it was possible to detect light elements with molar mass lower than 23, which have low capacity of absorbing and emitting radiation, but have high capacity of scattering radiation. The process here reported has the advantage that X-Ray spectra obtained are calibrated multivariately, showing high potential for development in order to be used in a portable field equipment. (author)

  20. A full belly and colostrum: two major determinants of filial love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, David; Simon, Maud; Nowak, Raymond

    2004-11-01

    out the major role played by the gut-brain axis in the development of filial bonding. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Yield gap determinants for wheat production in major irrigated cropping zones of punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Aujla, K.M.; Badar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Yield gap is useful measurement for crop productivity and the extent to which crop productivity falls below some potential level. The study was carried out to analyze the yield gap and determinants of wheat production in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is based on cross sectional data from 210 farmers for the crop year 2009-10. Results suggest that farm level wheat yields are less than the potential yield level by 33.0%, 43.0% and 50.6% in the mixed-cropping, cotton-wheat and rice-wheat zones of the province, respectively. Ordinary least square regression analysis of wheat production by assuming Cobb-Douglas specification reveals that the number of irrigations, usage of farm yard manure and fertilizers contribute positively and significantly to wheat crop production. Coefficients of dummy variables for cropping zones indicate that farmers in the mixed cropping zone are obtaining better yield of the wheat crop as compared to their counterparts in other selected cropping zones. These results suggested that farmers can increase wheat productivity by increasing the use of factor inputs; however, poverty may be a constraint on realizing these gains. Thus, wheat production can be increased in the country by helping resource poor farmers through suitable support mechanisms. (author)

  2. Surgeons' efficiency change is a major determinant of their productivity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yuichi; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Yoshimura, Tatsuya; Otake, Hiroshi; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The sustainability of the Japanese healthcare system is in question because the government has had a huge fiscal debt. Despite an enormous effort to cut the deficit, our healthcare expenditure is increasing every year because of the rapidly aging population. One of the solutions for this problem is to improve the productivity of healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that change surgeons' productivity in one year. Design/methodology/approach - The authors collected data of all surgical procedures performed at Teikyo University Hospital from April 1 through September 30 in 2014 and 2015, and computed the surgeons' Malmquist index (MI), efficiency change (EC) and technical change (TC) using non-radial and non-oriented Malmquist model under the constant returns-to-scale assumptions. The authors then divided the surgeons into two groups; one whose productivity progressed and the other whose productivity regressed. These two groups were compared to identify factors that may influence their MI. Findings - The only significant difference between the two groups was ECs (p productivity change. The best way to improve surgeons' productivity may be to enhance their efficiency regardless of their surgical volume and personal backgrounds.

  3. Major differences between human atopic dermatitis and murine models, as determined by using global transcriptomic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, David A.; Noda, Shinji; Oliva, Margeaux

    2017-01-01

    , and a comparison of these models with the human AD transcriptomic fingerprint is lacking. Objective We sought to evaluate the transcriptomic profiles of 6 common murine models and determine how they relate to human AD skin. Methods Transcriptomic profiling was performed by using microarrays and quantitative RT......-PCR on biopsy specimens from NC/Nga, flaky tail, Flg-mutated, ovalbumin-challenged, oxazolone-challenged, and IL-23–injected mice. Gene expression data of patients with AD, psoriasis, and contact dermatitis were obtained from previous patient cohorts. Criteria of a fold change of 2 or greater and a false...... discovery rate of 0.05 or less were used for gene arrays. Results IL-23–injected, NC/Nga, and oxazolone-challenged mice show the largest homology with our human meta-analysis–derived AD transcriptome (37%, 18%, 17%, respectively). Similar to human AD, robust TH1, TH2, and also TH17 activation are seen in IL...

  4. Determination of major elements in annual tree rings by acid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belacy, N.; Abou EL-Nour, F.; Simpson, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    A method utilizing acid extraction of Na, K, Ca and Mg from the wood of annual growth rings of egyptian trees was executed. The method was applied on a Morus Alba tree located at Nile delta, northern of egypt. The acid extraction method includes the use of dilute nitric acid to extract the elements of the wood. The wood was soaked for one hour with continuous stirring at room temperature. Element contents of both leachant and ash of the extracted wood dissolved in 2N HNO 3 , were then estimated using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The method was optimized and led to an accurate determination of the elements in the wood of the examined tree rings. The results showed a difference in the level of these elements along the annual rings of the examined tree. The data obtained in this work can help in understanding the correlation between the concentration of these elements in the annual growth rings of the egyptian trees and the expected changes in the salinity of water of irrigation before and after the high dam project

  5. Fuel poverty as a major determinant of perceived health: the case of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, E; Chaton, C

    2015-05-01

    The number of households in fuel poverty is growing. Individuals increasingly struggle to heat their homes, and therefore, a growing number of individuals are exposed to low temperatures, which can affect their health. This study sought to determine the link between a subjective measure of fuel poverty (self-reported feeling cold) and self-reported health. The impact of other particular individual and environmental features on self-reported health were also analysed. Econometric analysis. The study method uses self-reported perception of thermal discomfort (self-reported feeling cold) as a proxy for fuel poverty. The French database of the Healthcare and Insurance survey carried by the Institute for Research and Information on Health Economics (IRDES) was used to estimate a dichotomous probit model. The estimation allows us to infer a negative impact of fuel poverty on self-reported health. Thus, a person in fuel poverty is 2.36 percentage points more likely to report poor or fair health status than a person who is not in fuel poverty. It may be appropriate to reduce the impacts of fuel poverty to provide support for the most vulnerable categories of individuals with respect to the health impacts of fuel poverty and cold homes, e.g., chronic patients who experience difficulty heating their homes. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural selection and molecular evolution in primate PAX9 gene, a major determinant of tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tiago V; Salzano, Francisco M; Mostowska, Adrianna; Trzeciak, Wieslaw H; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Chies, José A B; Saavedra, Carmen; Nagamachi, Cleusa; Hurtado, Ana M; Hill, Kim; Castro-de-Guerra, Dinorah; Silva-Júnior, Wilson A; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira

    2006-04-11

    Large differences in relation to dental size, number, and morphology among and within modern human populations and between modern humans and other primate species have been observed. Molecular studies have demonstrated that tooth development is under strict genetic control, but, the genetic basis of primate tooth variation remains unknown. The PAX9 gene, which codes for a paired domain-containing transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of mammal dentition, has been associated with selective tooth agenesis in humans and mice, which mainly involves the posterior teeth. To determine whether this gene is polymorphic in humans, we sequenced approximately 2.1 kb of the entire four-exon region (exons 1, 2, 3 and 4; 1,026 bp) and exon-intron (1.1 kb) boundaries of 86 individuals sampled from Asian, European, and Native American populations. We provided evidence that human PAX9 polymorphisms are limited to exon 3 only and furnished details about the distribution of a mutation there in 350 Polish subjects. To investigate the pattern of selective pressure on exon 3, we sequenced ortholog regions of this exon in four species of New World monkeys and one gorilla. In addition, orthologous sequences of PAX9 available in public databases were also analyzed. Although several differences were identified between humans and other species, our findings support the view that strong purifying selection is acting on PAX9. New World and Old World primate lineages may, however, have different degrees of restriction for changes in this DNA region.

  7. The Ratio of Unesterified/esterified Cholesterol is the Major Determinant of Atherogenicity of Lipoprotein Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Babak; Alikhani, Asal; Mokhtari, Hossein; Rasouli, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that the atherogenicity of lipoporotein fractions is correlated with the content of unesterified cholesterol. To evaluate the role and prognostic values of unesterified and esterified cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions for coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population consisted of 400 patients who were divided to CAD controls and cases according to the data of coronary angiography. Fractional cholesterol esterification (FCE) as well as the complete profile of lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were determined. Total cholesterol was increased significantly in CAD patients (196.3 ± 52.3 mg/dL vs. 185.7 ± 48.0, p≤ 0.049) and the increment occurred totally in unesterified portion (77.2 ± 28.4 mg/dL vs. 71.1 ± 24.4, p≤ 0.031). HDL cholesterol showed a significant decrease in CAD group (39.9 ± 9.5 mg/dL vs. 44.6 ± 10.5, p≤ 0.001), but the decrement occurred wholly in the esterified portion (26.2 ± 9.2 mg/dL vs. 31.1 ± 8.1, p≤ 0.001). NonHDL cholesterol was increased significantly in CAD group (156.8 ± 48.3 mg/dL vs. 140.3 ± 43.6, p≤ 0.001), and the changes occurred in both un- and esterified portions. FCE in HDL was diminished significantly in CAD patients (64.8 ± 13.9% vs. 69.3 ± 7.9, p≤ 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, unesterified cholesterol in NonHDL (UeNonHDLc) and esterified cholesterol in HDL (EsHDLc) excluded total cholesterol and HDLc respectively from the regression equation. In ROC analysis, the ratio of UeNonHDLc/EsHDLc was the strongest predictor for CAD among cholesterol subfractions. The results confirm that UeNonHDLc is atherogenic and EsHDLc is antiatherogenic and are independent risk factors for CAD.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors are major determinants of thrombotic risk in patients with the lupus anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Florian; Gebhart, Johanna; Rand, Jacob H; Koder, Silvia; Quehenberger, Peter; Pengo, Vittorio; Ay, Cihan; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2017-03-10

    Patients with the lupus anticoagulant (LA) are at an increased risk of thrombotic events, which in turn increase the risk of death. Understanding the determinants of thrombotic risk in patients with LA may pave the way towards targeted thromboprophylaxis. In the Vienna Lupus Anticoagulant and Thrombosis Study (LATS), we systematically evaluate risk factors for thrombotic events in patients with LA. We followed 150 patients (mean age: 41.3 years, female gender: n = 122 (81.3%), history of thrombosis or pregnancy complications: n = 111 (74.0%)), who tested repeatedly positive for LA until development of thrombosis, death, or censoring. The primary endpoint was a composite of arterial or venous thrombotic events (TEs). During a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range: 12 days-13.6 years) and 1076 person-years, 32 TEs occurred (arterial: n = 16, venous: n = 16; cumulative 10-year TE incidence: 24.3%). A prolonged lupus-sensitive activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-LA) (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.07--5.02), diabetes (adjusted SHR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.42-13.57), and active smoking (adjusted SHR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.14-5.02) emerged as independent risk factors of both arterial and venous thrombotic risk. A risk model that includes a prolonged lupus-sensitive aPTT, smoking, and diabetes enabled stratification of LA patients into subgroups with a low, intermediate, and high risk of thrombosis (5-year TE risk of 9.7% (n = 77), 30.9% (n = 51), and 56.8% (n = 22). Long-term thrombotic risk in patients with LA is clustered within subjects harboring typical cardiovascular risk factors in addition to a prolonged lupus-sensitive aPTT, whereas patients with none of these risk factors represent a large subgroup with a low risk of thrombosis.

  9. Determination of import process during Yucca Mountain Site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.S.; Gwyn, D.W.; Wemheuer, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    Construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site precedes the design of a potential repository, with site characterization testing and ESF construction conducted as parallel activities. As a result of this fact, a program is required to: (1) provide for inclusion of the underground excavation into a potential repository, (2) minimize the potential impact of ESF construction on site characterization test results, and (3) minimize the potential impact of ESF construction and site characterization testing on the waste isolation capabilities of the site. At Yucca Mountain, the Determination of Importance (DI) process fulfills these goals. This paper addresses the evolution of the DI process; describes how the DI process fits into design, testing, and construction programs: and discusses how the process is implemented through specification requirements

  10. Determination of reduction yield of lithium metal reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kyu; Cho, Young Hwan; Kim, Taek Jin; Jee, Kwang Young

    2004-01-01

    Metal reduction of spent oxide fuel is the first step for the effective storage of spent fuel in Korea as well as transmutation purpose of long-lived radio-nuclides. During the reduction of uranium oxide by lithium metal to uranium metal, lithium oxide is stoichiometrically produced. By determining the concentration of lithium oxide in lithium chloride, we can estimate that how much uranium oxide is converted to uranium metal. Previous method to determine the lithium oxide concentration in lithium chloride is tedious and timing consuming. This paper describe the on-line monitoring method of lithium oxide during the reduction process

  11. Evaluation of a coupled dispersion and aerosol process model against measurements near a major road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, M. A.; Pirjola, L.; Karppinen, A.; Härkönen, J.; Ketzel, M.; Kukkonen, J.

    2007-02-01

    A field measurement campaign was conducted near a major road "Itäväylä" in an urban area in Helsinki in 17-20 February 2003. Aerosol measurements were conducted using a mobile laboratory "Sniffer" at various distances from the road, and at an urban background location. Measurements included particle size distribution in the size range of 7 nm-10 μm (aerodynamic diameter) by the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and in the size range of 3-50 nm (mobility diameter) by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), total number concentration of particles larger than 3 nm detected by an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC), temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, driving route of the mobile laboratory, and traffic density on the studied road. In this study, we have compared measured concentration data with the predictions of the road network dispersion model CAR-FMI used in combination with an aerosol process model MONO32. The vehicular exhaust emissions, and atmospheric dispersion and transformation of fine and ultrafine particles was evaluated within the distance scale of 200 m (corresponding to a time scale of a couple of minutes). We computed the temporal evolution of the number concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions of various particle size classes. The atmospheric dilution rate of particles is obtained from the roadside dispersion model CAR-FMI. Considering the evolution of total number concentration, dilution was shown to be the most important process. The influence of coagulation and condensation on the number concentrations of particle size modes was found to be negligible at this distance scale. Condensation was found to affect the evolution of particle diameter in the two smallest particle modes. The assumed value of the concentration of condensable organic vapour of 1012 molecules cm-3 was shown to be in a disagreement with the measured particle size evolution, while the modelling runs with the

  12. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  13. Quantitative determination of major and minor elements in alloys by emission spectroscopy using Grimm glow discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, T.C.O. da.

    1987-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in alloys, using the Grimm glow discharge lamp as spectroscopic excitation source is studied. Alloys of copper, aluminium, stainless and carbon steel, including the determination of the elements: Cu, Fe, Al, Ni, Cr, Mn, Nb, Si, Mo, Ti, V, Zn, Mg and Co are analyzed. Some parameters as optimal entrance slit position, pre-burning time and integration time of the analytical signal, current, argon pressure, tension pulse and applied power are studied. (M.J.C.) [pt

  14. The use KPI's to determine the waste in production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsos, G.; Iacob, C. C.; Calefariu, G.

    2016-11-01

    In theory and practice of management is well-known Lean approach about forms of waste from production processes (Muda) and the method VSM (Value Stream Map), one of the most effective methods for determining the activities generating value within industrial companies. It is also obvious concern of the specialists for performance measurement regardless of purview of the organizations. The literature review has shown that the link between performance indicators and the objectives of the companies is researched in detail. However, the correlation between indicators and the forms of waste that generate deviations from the setpoints is rather nature practical and it depends on the talent and managerial skills of those directing production processes. The paper presents the results of a applied study, performed by the authors, through which it was has sought to will create a system of performance indicators specific to manufacturing activity that to be a useful tool to quantify the losses and to determining ways to improve default losses.

  15. Determination of the relationship between major fault and zinc mineralization using fractal modeling in the Behabad fault zone, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Ahmad; Afzal, Peyman; Mirzaei Ilani, Shapour; Aliyari, Farhang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine a relationship between zinc mineralization and a major fault in the Behabad area, central Iran, using the Concentration-Distance to Major Fault (C-DMF), Area of Mineralized Zone-Distance to Major Fault (AMZ-DMF), and Concentration-Area (C-A) fractal models for Zn deposit/mine classification according to their distance from the Behabad fault. Application of the C-DMF and the AMZ-DMF models for Zn mineralization classification in the Behabad fault zone reveals that the main Zn deposits have a good correlation with the major fault in the area. The distance from the known zinc deposits/mines with Zn values higher than 29% and the area of the mineralized zone of more than 900 m2 to the major fault is lower than 1 km, which shows a positive correlation between Zn mineralization and the structural zone. As a result, the AMZ-DMF and C-DMF fractal models can be utilized for the delineation and the recognition of different mineralized zones in different types of magmatic and hydrothermal deposits.

  16. Rapid determination of fluorine in the pulp process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, V.N.; Levitskaya, O.N.

    1994-01-01

    The control of enrichment of mineral raw materials in order to increase the yield of enriched minerals is an important problem of modern industry. A possible solution is an automatic control system (ACS), which makes possible the monitoring and optimization of the enrichment. In terms of future applications, the nuclear-physical analysis, which is based on the use of a radionuclide source of neutrons, is a promising method. The advantages of this method (high rate, the possibility of performing the analysis directly in the flow, high accuracy, and high sensitivity) make themselves evident in the determination of short-lived isotopes, such as F, Ag, Si, Al, V, etc. Both an instrumental complex and a method for the rapid neutron activation determination (RNAD) of fluorine in the pulp flow of the enrichment process of raw materials were developed at the Institute of Chemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences. The analytical complex for RNAD comprises an activator; a densitometer; a pump; a pulp-feed system; a gamma-ray detector; a data acquisition apparatus; and a computer for processing the input/output data and controlling the analysis. The authors found that the RNAD of fluorine using radionuclide Pu-Be sources allows the determination in a 6-L pulp under recirculation conditions with an error of less than 1% in 3-5 minutes. The method allows the routine monitoring of the enrichment process of mineral raw materials

  17. Colorimetric determination of reducing normality in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1983-07-01

    Adjustment of the valence state of plutonium from extractable Pu(IV) to nonextractable Pu(III) in the Purex process is accomplished by addition of reductants such as Fe(II), hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN), or U(IV). To implement on-line monitoring of this reduction step for improved process control at the Savannah River Plant, a simple colorimetric method for determining excess reductant (reducing normality) was developed. The method is based on formation of a colored complex of Fe(II) with FerroZine (Hach Chemical Company). The concentration of Fe(II) is determined directly. The concentration of HAN or U(IV), in addition to Fe(II), is determined indirectly as Fe(II), produced through reduction of Fe(III). Experimental conditions for a HAN-Fe(III) reaction of known stoichiometry were established. The effect of hydrazine, which stabilizes U(IV), was also determined. Real-time measurements of color development were made that simulated on-line performance. A laboratory analytical procedure is included. 5 references, 8 figures

  18. Systematic and heuristic processing of majority and minority-endorsed messages: the effects of varying outcome relevance and levels of orientation on attitude and message processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robin; Hewstone, Miles; Martin, Pearl Y

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the conditions under which majority and minority sources instigate systematic processing of their messages. Both experiments crossed source status (majority vs. minority) with message quality (strong vs. weak arguments). In each experiment, message elaboration was manipulated by varying either motivational (outcome relevance, Experiment 1) or cognitive (orientating tasks, Experiment 2) factors. The results showed that when either motivational or cognitive factors encouraged low message elaboration, there was heuristic acceptance of the majority position without detailed message processing. When the level of message elaboration was intermediate, there was message processing only for the minority source. Finally, when message elaboration was high, there was message processing for both source conditions. These results show that majority and minority influence is sensitive to motivational and cognitive factors that constrain or enhance message elaboration and that both sources can lead to systematic processing under specific circumstances.

  19. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  20. A time-driven, activity-based costing methodology for determining the costs of red blood cell transfusion in patients with beta thalassaemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E; Haysom, H E; Higgins, A M; Waters, N; Tahiri, R; Rushford, K; Dunstan, T; Saxby, K; Kaplan, Z; Chunilal, S; McQuilten, Z K; Wood, E M

    2018-04-10

    To describe the methodology to estimate the total cost of administration of a single unit of red blood cells (RBC) in adults with beta thalassaemia major in an Australian specialist haemoglobinopathy centre. Beta thalassaemia major is a genetic disorder of haemoglobin associated with multiple end-organ complications and typically requiring lifelong RBC transfusion therapy. New therapeutic agents are becoming available based on advances in understanding of the disorder and its consequences. Assessment of the true total cost of transfusion, incorporating both product and activity costs, is required in order to evaluate the benefits and costs of these new therapies. We describe the bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing methodology used to develop process maps to provide a step-by-step outline of the entire transfusion pathway. Detailed flowcharts for each process are described. Direct observations and timing of the process maps document all activities, resources, staff, equipment and consumables in detail. The analysis will include costs associated with performing these processes, including resources and consumables. Sensitivity analyses will be performed to determine the impact of different staffing levels, timings and probabilities associated with performing different tasks. Thirty-one process maps have been developed, with over 600 individual activities requiring multiple timings. These will be used for future detailed cost analyses. Detailed process maps using bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing for determining the cost of RBC transfusion in thalassaemia major have been developed. These could be adapted for wider use to understand and compare the costs and complexities of transfusion in other settings. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  1. A case study: application of statistical process control tool for determining process capability and sigma level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Vikram; Bairagi, Mukesh; Trivedi, P; Nagar, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the measurement and analysis of variation process. Various regulatory authorities such as Validation Guidance for Industry (2011), International Conference on Harmonisation ICH Q10 (2009), the Health Canada guidelines (2009), Health Science Authority, Singapore: Guidance for Product Quality Review (2008), and International Organization for Standardization ISO-9000:2005 provide regulatory support for the application of statistical process control for better process control and understanding. In this study risk assessments, normal probability distributions, control charts, and capability charts are employed for selection of critical quality attributes, determination of normal probability distribution, statistical stability, and capability of production processes, respectively. The objective of this study is to determine tablet production process quality in the form of sigma process capability. By interpreting data and graph trends, forecasting of critical quality attributes, sigma process capability, and stability of process were studied. The overall study contributes to an assessment of process at the sigma level with respect to out-of-specification attributes produced. Finally, the study will point to an area where the application of quality improvement and quality risk assessment principles for achievement of six sigma-capable processes is possible. Statistical process control is the most advantageous tool for determination of the quality of any production process. This tool is new for the pharmaceutical tablet production process. In the case of pharmaceutical tablet production processes, the quality control parameters act as quality assessment parameters. Application of risk assessment provides selection of critical quality attributes among quality control parameters. Sequential application of normality distributions, control charts, and capability analyses provides a valid statistical

  2. An Empirical Study on the Application of Process Approach in Non-English Majors' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Process approach has been introduced to China for more than two decades. This approach which views writing as a recursive mental cognitive process is one of the most popular methods for teaching writing. It attaches more importance to a series of activities in the process of writing and the interaction among the student writers. Meanwhile, it…

  3. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  4. Preferences, constraints, and the process of sex segregation in college majors: A choice analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsenfeld, Fabian

    2016-03-01

    The persistence of horizontal sex segregation in higher education continues to puzzle social scientists. To help resolve this puzzle, we analyze a sample of college entrants in Germany with a discrete choice design that allows for social learning from the experiences of others. We make at least two contributions to the state of research. First, we test whether essentialist gender stereotypes affect major selection mostly through internalization or rather as external constraints that high school graduates adapt their behavior to. Empirically, we find that internalized vocational interests better explain gendered major choices than conformance with friends' and parents' expectations does. Second, we scrutinize whether segregation results from women's anticipation of gendered family roles or from their anticipation of sex-based discrimination, but we find no evidence for either of these hypotheses. As in most previous studies, differences in mathematics achievement fail to explain gendered patterns of selection into college majors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sample processing method for the determination of perchlorate in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, Jason V.; Kirk, Andrea B.; Kalyani Martinelango, P.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many different water sources and foods have been reported to contain perchlorate. Studies indicate that significant levels of perchlorate are present in both human and dairy milk. The determination of perchlorate in milk is particularly important due to its potential health impact on infants and children. As for many other biological samples, sample preparation is more time consuming than the analysis itself. The concurrent presence of large amounts of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, etc., demands some initial cleanup; otherwise the separation column lifetime and the limit of detection are both greatly compromised. Reported milk processing methods require the addition of chemicals such as ethanol, acetic acid or acetonitrile. Reagent addition is undesirable in trace analysis. We report here an essentially reagent-free sample preparation method for the determination of perchlorate in milk. Milk samples are spiked with isotopically labeled perchlorate and centrifuged to remove lipids. The resulting liquid is placed in a disposable centrifugal ultrafilter device with a molecular weight cutoff of 10 kDa, and centrifuged. Approximately 5-10 ml of clear liquid, ready for analysis, is obtained from a 20 ml milk sample. Both bovine and human milk samples have been successfully processed and analyzed by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS). Standard addition experiments show good recoveries. The repeatability of the analytical result for the same sample in multiple sample cleanup runs ranged from 3 to 6% R.S.D. This processing technique has also been successfully applied for the determination of iodide and thiocyanate in milk

  6. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in salmon egg by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in salmon egg was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. First, salmon eggs (30 eggs used) were digested with conc. nitric acid and 60% perchloric acid by heating almost to dryness repeatedly. Finally, the residues of salmon eggs were dissolved in 1 M nitric acid and the sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements could be determined over the concentration range in 9 orders of magnitude. The concentrations of bio-essential elements, such as Zn, Fe, and Cu, in salmon egg were 10-100 times higher than those in human blood serum. In addition, the major-to-ultratrace elements in cell cytoplasm and cell membrane were separately determined in a similar manner to those in whole egg cell. The concentrations of most bio-essential elements were higher in cell cytoplasm than in cell membrane, while those of Fe and Cu were higher in cell membrane than in cell cytoplasm of salmon egg. (author)

  7. Determination of a cleaning and decontamination process using solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Schipfer, P.

    1967-03-01

    This work has been carried out on samples of the white cotton serge material of which most of the working overalls of the Nuclear Research Centre are made. The aims are: - to determine,from the decontamination and cleaning points of view, the efficiency of various solvents (white-spirit, trichloroethylene, perchlorethylene and tri-chloro-trifluoroethane) and the role of additives likely to improve the treatment; - to control the textile from the wear and shrinkage points of view; - to try to develop a basic cleaning and decontamination process as a function of the possibilities of each solvent considered. (authors) [fr

  8. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1988-01-01

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continuous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determining the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commissioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization. (author)

  9. Using the Domain Identification Model to Study Major and Career Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendhar, Chosang; Singh, Kusum; Jones, Brett D.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which (1) a domain identification model could be used to predict students' engineering major and career intentions and (2) the MUSIC Model of Motivation components could be used to predict domain identification. The data for this study were collected from first-year engineering students. We…

  10. Decision support systems for major accident prevention in the chemical process industry : A developers' survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Foubert, B.

    2006-01-01

    Solid major accident prevention management is characterized by efficient and effective risk assessments. As a means of addressing the efficiency aspect, decision support analysis software is becoming increasingly available. This paper discusses the results of a survey of decision support tools for

  11. Implementing Best Practices for Major Business Processes in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-24

    Inventory Optimization. ✩ Walmart requires major suppliers to connect directly to its own inventory management system, making suppliers...unity of effort. ★ Senior Leadership Governance of Supply Chain. ✩ Ford, IBM, and Walmart rely on centralized executive “C-Suite level” management

  12. Determination of major sodium iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors in drinking waters using ion chromatography with conductivity detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Bilgin, Ayse Kevser

    2016-02-20

    Goiter is an important health problem all over the world and iodine deficiency is its most common cause. Perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate (called as major NIS inhibitors) are known to competitively inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid gland and thus, human exposure to major NIS inhibitors is a public health concern. In this study, an ion chromatographic method for the determination of most common NIS inhibitor ions in drinking waters was developed and validated. This is the first study where an analytical method is used for the determination of major NIS inhibitors in drinking water by an ion chromatography system in a single run. Chromatographic separations were achieved with an anion-exchange column and separated ions were identified by a conductivity detector. The method was found to be selective, linear, precise accurate and true for all of interested ions. The limits of the detections (LOD) were estimated at 0.003, 0.004 and 0.025mgL(-1) for perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate, respectively. Possible interference ions in drinking waters were examined for the best separation of NIS inhibitors. The excellent method validation data and proficiency test result (Z-score for nitrate: -0.1) of the FAPAS(®) suggested that the developed method could be applied for determination of NIS inhibitor residues in drinking waters. To evaluate the usefulness of the method, 75 drinking water samples from Antalya/Turkey were analyzed for NIS inhibitors. Perchlorate concentrations in the samples ranged from not detected (less than LOD) to 0.07±0.02mgL(-1) and the range of nitrate concentrations were found to be 3.60±0.01mgL(-1) and 47.42±0.40mgL(-1). No thiocyanate residues were detected in tested drinking water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The application of modern project management principles and processes in major nuclear decommissioning programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    The UKAEA has embarked upon an accelerated programme of decommissioning works. This has resulted in a review of its project management systems and processes. This paper describes these processes and their application to nuclear decommissioning and associated new build construction projects. Efficiencies from these processes are necessary. In addition this paper describes how UKAEA, where appropriate, utilizes modern forms of alliance contract so as to work in partnership with its contractors. (author)

  14. Network formation determined by the diffusion process of random walkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nobutoshi

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diffusion process of random walkers in networks formed by their traces. This model considers the rise and fall of links determined by the frequency of transports of random walkers. In order to examine the relation between the formed network and the diffusion process, a situation in which multiple random walkers start from the same vertex is investigated. The difference in diffusion rate of random walkers according to the difference in dimension of the initial lattice is very important for determining the time evolution of the networks. For example, complete subgraphs can be formed on a one-dimensional lattice while a graph with a power-law vertex degree distribution is formed on a two-dimensional lattice. We derived some formulae for predicting network changes for the 1D case, such as the time evolution of the size of nearly complete subgraphs and conditions for their collapse. The networks formed on the 2D lattice are characterized by the existence of clusters of highly connected vertices and their life time. As the life time of such clusters tends to be small, the exponent of the power-law distribution changes from γ ≅ 1-2 to γ ≅ 3

  15. Major constituent quantitative determination in uranium alloys by coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and X ray fluorescence wavelength dispersive spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luis Claudio de; Silva, Adriana Mascarenhas Martins da; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves; Silva, Ieda de Souza

    2013-01-01

    A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometric method for determination of major constituents elements (Zr, Nb, Mo) in Uranium/Zirconium/Niobium and Uranium/Molybdenum alloy samples were developed. The methods use samples taken in the form of chips that were dissolved in hot nitric acid and precipitate particles melted with lithium tetraborate and dissolved in hot nitric acid and finally analyzed as a solution. Studies on the determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using matched matrix in calibration curve were developed. The same samples solution were analyzed in both methods. The limits of detection (LOD), linearity of the calibrations curves, recovery study, accuracy and precision of the both techniques were carried out. The results were compared. (author)

  16. Optimization of Malaxation Process using Major Aroma Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cevik,Serife; Ozkan,Gulcan; Kıralan,Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimization of major aroma compounds in olive oils produced from fruits at three maturity stages wasstudied. A central composite design was used for the optimization of malaxation conditions of temperature and times, each at five levels with 13 runs including five central points. The responses of interest were trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, which were investigated and their contents were optimized. A full quadratic second order regression model including the linear, quadratic, and two...

  17. DETERMINATION OF DIVERSITY OF THE WORKSTATUSES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TKACH T. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Implementation of the plans is accompanied by an increase in the uncertainty of the state of the production system, which largely depends on the organizational and technological decisions laid down in the calendar plan at the stage of its development. Determining the changes in the diversity of the system statuses, in terms of the implementation stages of the plan, will allow to outline the likely crisis periods and to prepare for them in advance. In accordance with this, research in the field of improving of the methodology for developing the calendar plans in order to expand of the factors on which its feasibility is assessed, determines the relevance of this work. Purpose of the article. To determine the impact of organizational and technological decisions of the calendar plan on the appearance of parametric failures of a separate work. Conclusion. A methodology for calculating the dynamics of the diversity of possible statuses the process of the eхecuting of a separate work, to monitor the intensity of the increase in the uncertainty of the system status by the stages of the implementation of the calendar plan.

  18. Gesture analysis of students' majoring mathematics education in micro teaching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Agnesya; Usodo, Budi; Subanti, Sri

    2017-08-01

    In the process of learning, especially math learning, process of interaction between teachers and students is certainly a noteworthy thing. In these interactions appear gestures or other body spontaneously. Gesture is an important source of information, because it supports oral communication and reduce the ambiguity of understanding the concept/meaning of the material and improve posture. This research which is particularly suitable for an exploratory research design to provide an initial illustration of the phenomenon. The goal of the research in this article is to describe the gesture of S1 and S2 students of mathematics education at the micro teaching process. To analyze gesture subjects, researchers used McNeil clarification. The result is two subjects using 238 gesture in the process of micro teaching as a means of conveying ideas and concepts in mathematics learning. During the process of micro teaching, subjects using the four types of gesture that is iconic gestures, deictic gesture, regulator gesturesand adapter gesture as a means to facilitate the delivery of the intent of the material being taught and communication to the listener. Variance gesture that appear on the subject due to the subject using a different gesture patterns to communicate mathematical ideas of their own so that the intensity of gesture that appeared too different.

  19. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where 210 Pb is produced at 222 Rn decay) or without support, as 210 Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g -1 and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g -1 , respectively. (author)

  20. Determination of action zone in the nuclear / radiology handling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade Awalludin

    2013-01-01

    Assessment has been conducted on determination of action zone in nuclear or radiological emergency. The assessment is taken into account radiological risk level in nuclear or radiological emergency management process outside nuclear installation. Managing of nuclear emergency is same as that one of other emergency by adding the principles of radiation protection. This study aims to provide guidance in making of safety and security perimeter outside the nuclear installation for first responders during nuclear/radiological emergency based on dose rate, contamination level or distance from the scene. Separation of working zone is important for first responder safety that works in radiological environment in the event of nuclear or radiation emergency without violating their standard operating procedure. Value limit of safety and security perimeter has been made according to the conditions in Indonesia and considering the applicability in practical. (author)

  1. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: jbsb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where {sup 210}Pb is produced at {sup 222}Rn decay) or without support, as {sup 210}Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g{sup -1} and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  2. Mapping and validation of the major sex-determining region in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. Using RAD sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Palaiokostas

    Full Text Available Sex in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia is principally determined by an XX/XY locus but other genetic and environmental factors also influence sex ratio. Restriction Associated DNA (RAD sequencing was used in two families derived from crossing XY males with females from an isogenic clonal line, in order to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and map the sex-determining region(s. We constructed a linkage map with 3,802 SNPs, which corresponded to 3,280 informative markers, and identified a major sex-determining region on linkage group 1, explaining nearly 96% of the phenotypic variance. This sex-determining region was mapped in a 2 cM interval, corresponding to approximately 1.2 Mb in the O. niloticus draft genome. In order to validate this, a diverse family (4 families; 96 individuals in total and population (40 broodstock individuals test panel were genotyped for five of the SNPs showing the highest association with phenotypic sex. From the expanded data set, SNPs Oni23063 and Oni28137 showed the highest association, which persisted both in the case of family and population data. Across the entire dataset all females were found to be homozygous for these two SNPs. Males were heterozygous, with the exception of five individuals in the population and two in the family dataset. These fish possessed the homozygous genotype expected of females. Progeny sex ratios (over 95% females from two of the males with the "female" genotype indicated that they were neomales (XX males. Sex reversal induced by elevated temperature during sexual differentiation also resulted in phenotypic males with the "female" genotype. This study narrows down the region containing the main sex-determining locus, and provides genetic markers tightly linked to this locus, with an association that persisted across the population. These markers will be of use in refining the production of genetically male O. niloticus for aquaculture.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite in simulated Purex Process solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.daC. de; Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de

    1984-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for nitrite determination in simulated Purex Process solutions is presented, utilizing the Griess reagent for the formation of the coloured azocompound with an absorption maximum at 525 nm. Molar absortivity was 36,262 and the sensitivity of the method 10/sup -6/M for nitrite. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 2 to 30..mu..g NO/sup -//sub 2//25 ml in cells of 1 cm optical path. The method can be used in the presence of uranium up to limits of an U/NO/sup -//sub 2/ ratio of 150. Test solutions were prepared to simulate composition and concentrations as obtained by irradiating standard fuel with a neutro flux of 3.2 x 10/sup 13/ n.s/sup -1/.cm/sup -2/, with a burn-up value of 33,000 Mwd/T and cooling time of two years. Nitrite determinations in these solutions were accurate within limits of 5%.

  4. Robotic Automation Process - The next major revolution in terms of back office operations improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagnoste Sorin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forced to provide results consistent results to shareholders the organizations turned to Robotic Process Automation (RPA in order to tackle the following typical challenges they face: (1 Cost reduction, (2 Quality increase and (3 Faster processes. RPA is now considered the next big thing for the Shared Services Centers (SSC and Business Process Outsourced (BPO around the world, and especially in Central and Eastern Europe. In SSCs and BPOs the activities with the highest potential for automation are in finance, supply chain and in human resource departments. This means that the problems these business are facing are mostly related to high data entry volumes, high error rates, significant rework, numerous manual processes, multiple not-integrated legacy systems and high turnover due to repetitive/low value added activities. One advantage of RPA is that it can be trained by the users to undertake structured repeatable, computer based tasks interacting in the same time with multiple systems while performing complex decisions based on algorithms. By doing this, the robot can identify the exceptions for manual processing, remove idle times and keep logs of actions performed. Another advantage is that the automated solutions can work 24/7, it can be implemented fast, work with the existing architecture, cut data entry costs by up to 70% and perform at 30% of the cost of a full time employee, thus providing a quick and tangible return to organizations. For Romania, a key destination for SSCs and BPOs, this technology will make them more competitive, but also will lead to a creation of a series of high-paid jobs while eliminating the low-input jobs. The paper will analyze also the most important vendor providers of RPA solutions on the market and will provide specific case studies from different industries, thus helping future leaders and organizations taking better decisions.

  5. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  6. Information fusion in signal and image processing major probabilistic and non-probabilistic numerical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The area of information fusion has grown considerably during the last few years, leading to a rapid and impressive evolution. In such fast-moving times, it is important to take stock of the changes that have occurred. As such, this books offers an overview of the general principles and specificities of information fusion in signal and image processing, as well as covering the main numerical methods (probabilistic approaches, fuzzy sets and possibility theory and belief functions).

  7. Degassing of primordial hydrogen and helium as the major energy source for internal terrestrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Lev Gilat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Examples of the mightiest energy releases by great earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and hypotheses providing explanations for them are analyzed along with the results of some recently published researches and visualizations. The emerging conclusions are that the mechanism of the strong earthquake is a chemical explosion; that volcanic eruption is a special type of earthquake wherein the hypocenter rises to the earth-surface; and that there is an association between the seismic-volcanic processes and mantle “fluids” and the lack of energy for mantle plumes. A conceptual system of hypotheses is put forward to explain the conservation of energy during Earth’s accretion, its quasi-stable release by primordial H- and He-degassing and of the crucial role of the energy of degassing-comprising-reactions in endogenic processes. Specific mechanisms and chemical processes are proposed for the gas-liquid mantle plumes melting through the solid mantle using heat-energy released in reactions of their metamorphic and chemical transformation under gradual decrease of pressure and temperature; volcanic gases are put forward as energy carriers. 3He performance as a unique measuring transformer correlative to the internal heat flow was used for calculation of energy release by degassing; it equals to 5.12 × 1020 J/yr, an amount of energy five-fold greater than the entire energy loss involved in earthquake and volcanic activity. The hypotheses proposed are objectively testable.

  8. Direct Determination of Contaminants and Major and Minor Nutrients in Solid Fertilizers Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Daniel F; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2016-10-11

    Contaminants (Cd, Cr, and Pb) as well as minor (B, Cu, Mn, Na, and Zn) and major (Ca and Mg) elements were directly determined in solid fertilizer samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Factorial designs were used to define the most appropriate LIBS parameters and pellet pressure on solid fertilizers. Emission lines for all of the analytes were collected and employed 12 signal normalization modes. The best results were obtained using a laser energy of 75 mJ, a spot size of 50 μm, a pressure of 10 t/in., and a delay of 2.0 μs. Good correlation was obtained between the calibration model's prediction using the proposed LIBS method and the reference values obtained with ICP-OES. The limits of detection (LOD) for the proposed method varied from 2 mg/kg (for Cd) to 1% (for Zn).

  9. Determination of major aromatic constituents in vanilla using an on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanshan; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Yao, Jinting; Huang, Taohong; Zhou, Ting

    2018-04-01

    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography method was developed for the determination of four major aromatic constituents in vanilla. The parameters of supercritical fluid extraction were systematically investigated using single factor optimization experiments and response surface methodology by a Box-Behnken design. The modifier ratio, split ratio, and the extraction temperature and pressure were the major parameters which have significant effects on the extraction. While the static extraction time, dynamic extraction time, and recycle time had little influence on the compounds with low polarity. Under the optimized conditions, the relative extraction efficiencies of all the constituents reached 89.0-95.1%. The limits of quantification were in the range of 1.123-4.747 μg. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.3368-1.424 μg. The recoveries of the four analytes were in the range of 76.1-88.9%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and interday precision ranged from 4.2 to 7.6%. Compared with other off-line methods, the present method obtained higher extraction yields for all four aromatic constituents. Finally, this method has been applied to the analysis of vanilla from different sources. On the basis of the results, the on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography method shows great promise in the analysis of aromatic constituents in natural products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Reliability of trans-abdominal ultrasonography in determining exact location of placenta in patients of placenta previa major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Hayat, N; Gul, U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of trans-abdominal ultrasonographical localization of placenta in cases of placenta previa major, by taking peroperative finding as gold standard. Study Design: Validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Maternity ward, Obstetrics and Gynecology department, Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 2007 to 2008. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. These patients were admitted to the maternity ward, where trans-abdominal ultrasound was performed, site of the placenta and its relation to the internal os was documented. These patients under went elective cesarean section, during which the site and relation of the placenta to the internal os was confirmed. Results: The mean age of patients was 34.23 +- 6.76 years. Transabdominal ultrasound had a sensitivity of 93.4 percent in localizing major placenta previa while the specificity was 83 percent. Positive predictive value was 94.7 percent, negative predictive value was 80 percent and accuracy 91 percent. Conclusion: Trans-abdominal ultrasound was found highly effective in diagnosing and localizing placenta previa. (author)

  11. Automated detection and classification of major retinal vessels for determination of diameter ratio of arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of retinal vasculatures can indicate health conditions in the body, such as the high blood pressure and diabetes. Providing automatically determined width ratio of arteries and veins (A/V ratio) on retinal fundus images may help physicians in the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy, which may cause blindness. The purpose of this study was to detect major retinal vessels and classify them into arteries and veins for the determination of A/V ratio. Images used in this study were obtained from DRIVE database, which consists of 20 cases each for training and testing vessel detection algorithms. Starting with the reference standard of vasculature segmentation provided in the database, major arteries and veins each in the upper and lower temporal regions were manually selected for establishing the gold standard. We applied the black top-hat transformation and double-ring filter to detect retinal blood vessels. From the extracted vessels, large vessels extending from the optic disc to temporal regions were selected as target vessels for calculation of A/V ratio. Image features were extracted from the vessel segments from quarter-disc to one disc diameter from the edge of optic discs. The target segments in the training cases were classified into arteries and veins by using the linear discriminant analysis, and the selected parameters were applied to those in the test cases. Out of 40 pairs, 30 pairs (75%) of arteries and veins in the 20 test cases were correctly classified. The result can be used for the automated calculation of A/V ratio.

  12. Metabolomics of dates (Phoenix dactylifera) reveals a highly dynamic ripening process accounting for major variation in fruit composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diboun, Ilhame; Mathew, Sweety; Al-Rayyashi, Maryam; Elrayess, Mohamed; Torres, Maria; Halama, Anna; Méret, Michaël; Mohney, Robert P; Karoly, Edward D; Malek, Joel; Suhre, Karsten

    2015-12-16

    Dates are tropical fruits with appreciable nutritional value. Previous attempts at global metabolic characterization of the date metabolome were constrained by small sample size and limited geographical sampling. In this study, two independent large cohorts of mature dates exhibiting substantial diversity in origin, varieties and fruit processing conditions were measured by metabolomics techniques in order to identify major determinants of the fruit metabolome. Multivariate analysis revealed a first principal component (PC1) significantly associated with the dates' countries of production. The availability of a smaller dataset featuring immature dates from different development stages served to build a model of the ripening process in dates, which helped reveal a strong ripening signature in PC1. Analysis revealed enrichment in the dry type of dates amongst fruits with early ripening profiles at one end of PC1 as oppose to an overrepresentation of the soft type of dates with late ripening profiles at the other end of PC1. Dry dates are typical to the North African region whilst soft dates are more popular in the Gulf region, which partly explains the observed association between PC1 and geography. Analysis of the loading values, expressing metabolite correlation levels with PC1, revealed enrichment patterns of a comprehensive range of metabolite classes along PC1. Three distinct metabolic phases corresponding to known stages of date ripening were observed: An early phase enriched in regulatory hormones, amines and polyamines, energy production, tannins, sucrose and anti-oxidant activity, a second phase with on-going phenylpropanoid secondary metabolism, gene expression and phospholipid metabolism and a late phase with marked sugar dehydration activity and degradation reactions leading to increased volatile synthesis. These data indicate the importance of date ripening as a main driver of variation in the date metabolome responsible for their diverse nutritional and

  13. A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colorimetric determinations of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three water samples collected during June to October 1982 from the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin were originally analyzed by simultaneous multielement direct-current plasma (DCP) atomic-emission spectrometry, flame atomic-absorption spectrometry, graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (thallium only), ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry.Determinations were made for the following metallic and semi-metallic constituents: AI, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe(11), Fe(total), Li, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Sb, Se, Si, Na, Sr, TI, V, and Zn. These samples were re-analyzed later by simultaneous multielement inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic-emission spectrometry and Zeeman-corrected GFAAS to determine the concentrations of many of the same constituents with improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The result of this analysis has been the generation of comparative concentration values for a significant subset of the solute constituents. Many of the more recently determined values replace less-than-detection values for the trace metals; others constitute duplicate analyses for the major constituents. The multiple determinations have yielded a more complete, accurate, and precise set of analytical data. They also have resulted in an opportunity to compare the performance of the plasma-emission instruments operated in their respective simultaneous multielement modes. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for Na and K and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for As because of their lower detection limit and relative freedom from interelement spectral effects. Colorimetric determination using ferrozine as the color agent was judged most accurate, precise, and sensitive for Fe. Cadmium, lead, and vanadium concentrations were too low in this set of samples to enable a determination of whether ICP or DCP is a more suitable technique. Of

  14. Determination of the Priority Aspect in Process of Determining Urban Residential Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhekti Pribadi, Cherie; Hariyanto, Teguh

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the population growth is increasingly crowded in urban area and as a source of land supply for housing development into the needs of each individual becomes increasingly limited. the home is one of the basic rights of the people and therefore every citizen has the right to reside and got a good environment and healthy. Besides the house is also a basic human need to enhance the dignity, the dignity, quality of life and livelihood, as well as personal self-reflection in order to improve the standard of living, as well as the formation of character, character and personality of the nation. The construction of such housing should always take into consideration many aspects in order to create a balanced environment not only based on the suitability of land but also based on the aspects that exist in surrounding. Therefore, this study will be to analyze the priority aspect in process of determining urban residential area using Analytical Hierarchy Process Method. This method aims to determine priority aspect were used based on primary data collection form of questionnaires and interviews to respondents who expert in the field.

  15. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of major Australian red wines throughout the winemaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjom, Irine R; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Caffin, Nola A; Gidley, Michael J

    2010-09-22

    Three Australian red wine types (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot) were analyzed for antioxidant activity and a range of phenolic component contents using various spectral methods. More than half of the total phenolic compounds were tannins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavonols were present in much lesser amounts (wine samples from all stages of winemaking showed progressive changes toward those of commercial wines. The antioxidant activity of the wines in DPPH and ABTS assays was positively correlated with total phenolic contents and tannins. Comparisons of the three wine varieties based on their individual phenolic component groups and antioxidant activities showed limited differences between the different varieties. However, when all of the variables were combined in a principal component analysis, variety differentiation was observed. The three varieties of red wines all contained similar and high concentrations of antioxidants despite differences in grape variety/maturity and winemaking process, suggesting that related health benefits would accrue from all of the red wines studied.

  16. Digital signal processing reveals circadian baseline oscillation in majority of mammalian genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A Ptitsyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian periodicity has been described for gene expression in the hypothalamus and multiple peripheral tissues. It is accepted that 10%-15% of all genes oscillate in a daily rhythm, regulated by an intrinsic molecular clock. Statistical analyses of periodicity are limited by the small size of datasets and high levels of stochastic noise. Here, we propose a new approach applying digital signal processing algorithms separately to each group of genes oscillating in the same phase. Combined with the statistical tests for periodicity, this method identifies circadian baseline oscillation in almost 100% of all expressed genes. Consequently, circadian oscillation in gene expression should be evaluated in any study related to biological pathways. Changes in gene expression caused by mutations or regulation of environmental factors (such as photic stimuli or feeding should be considered in the context of changes in the amplitude and phase of genetic oscillations.

  17. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based bioavailability determination of the major classes of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylos, Evgenios; Chatziathanasiadou, Maria V; Syriopoulou, Aggeliki; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2017-03-15

    Natural products derived from plants have served as an inexhausted source for drug discovery and drug development. They have been evolutionary amplified with drug-like properties and have already illustrated immense therapeutic potential over an array of different diseases. However, their incorporation in the drug discovery pipeline has been diminished the last two decades. This was probably due to barriers related to their inherent difficulties to be integrated in high-throughput screening assays as also their largely unexplored bioavailability. Analytical procedures have come into the spotlight, a result of the continuous development of the instrumentation's capabilities as far as detection and separation is concerned. Integral part of this technological evolution is LC-MS instrumentation and its extended use for the determination of various compounds. The fact that it provides extra sensitivity, specificity and good separation in complex samples, makes LC-MS/MS the ultimate tool in the determination of many types of chemical compounds, such as phytochemicals. Herein, we focus on the achievements of the last five years in quantitative analysis of the major classes of phytochemicals (flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, glycosides and saponins) in plasma, through LC-MS/MS, as also their bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biofilm is a Major Virulence Determinant in Bacterial Colonization of Chronic Skin Ulcers Independently from the Multidrug Resistant Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilm is a major factor in delayed wound healing and high levels of biofilm production have been repeatedly described in multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs. Nevertheless, a quantitative correlation between biofilm production and the profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in delayed wound healing remains to be determined. Microbial identification, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production were assessed in 135 clinical isolates from 87 patients. Gram-negative bacteria were the most represented microorganisms (60.8% with MDROs accounting for 31.8% of the total isolates. Assessment of biofilm production revealed that 80% of the strains were able to form biofilm. A comparable level of biofilm production was found with both MDRO and not-MDRO with no significant differences between groups. All the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and 80% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MDR strains were found as moderate/high biofilm producers. Conversely, less than 17% of Klebsiella pneumoniae extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL, Escherichia coli-ESBL and Acinetobacter baumannii were moderate/high biofilm producers. Notably, those strains classified as non-biofilm producers, were always associated with biofilm producer bacteria in polymicrobial colonization. This study shows that biofilm producers were present in all chronic skin ulcers, suggesting that biofilm represents a key virulence determinant in promoting bacterial persistence and chronicity of ulcerative lesions independently from the MDRO phenotype.

  19. Study of runaway electron generation process during major disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyusnin, V.V.; Riccardo, V.; Alper, B.; Kiptily, V.G.; Popovichev, S.; Helander, P.; Jaspers, R.; Mlynar, J.; Luna, E. de La; Andersson, F.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of a large number of JET disruptions has provided further data on the trends of the disruption induced runaway process in large tokamaks. The role of primary runaway electrons generated at the thermal quench has been examined to assess their influence on secondary avalanching, which is recognized as a main source of large runaway currents created during disruptions. The tomographic reconstruction of the soft X-ray emission during the thermal quench has made possible the observation of the magnetic flux geometry evolution and the locating of the most probable zones for generation and confinement of the primary runaway electrons. Runaway currents have been found to increase with toroidal magnetic field and pre-disruption plasma current values. The average conversion efficiency is approximately 40-45% at a wide range of plasma currents. This agrees well with results of numerical simulations, which predict similar conversion rates at an assumed post-disruption plasma electron temperature of 10 eV. The experimental trends and numerical simulations show that runaway electrons might be an issue for ITER and therefore it remains prudent to develop mitigation methods, which suppress runaway generation. (author)

  20. Silicon Regulates Potential Genes Involved in Major Physiological Processes in Plants to Combat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si, the quasi-essential element occurs as the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. Biological importance of Si in plant kingdom has become inevitable particularly under stressed environment. In general, plants are classified as high, medium, and low silicon accumulators based on the ability of roots to absorb Si. The uptake of Si directly influence the positive effects attributed to the plant but Si supplementation proves to mitigate stress and recover plant growth even in low accumulating plants like tomato. The application of Si in soil as well as soil-less cultivation systems have resulted in the enhancement of quantitative and qualitative traits of plants even under stressed environment. Silicon possesses several mechanisms to regulate the physiological, biochemical, and antioxidant metabolism in plants to combat abiotic and biotic stresses. Nevertheless, very few reports are available on the aspect of Si-mediated molecular regulation of genes with potential role in stress tolerance. The recent advancements in the era of genomics and transcriptomics have opened an avenue for the determination of molecular rationale associated with the Si amendment to the stress alleviation in plants. Therefore, the present endeavor has attempted to describe the recent discoveries related to the regulation of vital genes involved in photosynthesis, transcription regulation, defense, water transport, polyamine synthesis, and housekeeping genes during abiotic and biotic stress alleviation by Si. Furthermore, an overview of Si-mediated modulation of multiple genes involved in stress response pathways such as phenylpropanoid pathway, jasmonic acid pathway, ABA-dependent or independent regulatory pathway have been discussed in this review.

  1. Major hydrogeochemical processes in the two reservoirs of the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin; Liu, Wei

    2007-10-01

    The Yangbajing geothermal field with the highest reservoir temperature in China is located about 90 km northwest to Lhasa City, capital of Tibet, where high temperature geothermal fluids occur both in shallow and deep reservoirs. The geophysical survey by the INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalayas) project group proved the existence of magmatic heat source at Yangbajing. In the study area, the hydrochemistry of cold surface waters and groundwaters and that of thermal groundwaters from both reservoirs are distinctively different. However, analysis of the relationship between enthalpy values and Cl concentrations of cold groundwaters and geothermal fluids indicates that the geothermal fluids from the shallow reservoir were formed as a result of mixing of cold groundwaters with geothermal fluids from the deep reservoir. In other words, the geothermal fluids from the deep reservoir flowed upwards into the shallow reservoir where it was diluted by the shallow cold groundwaters to form the shallow geothermal fluids with much lower temperature. A binary mixing model with two endmembers (the cold groundwaters and the deep geothermal fluids) was proposed and the mixing ratios for the geothermal fluid from each shallow well were estimated. Using the mixing ratios, the concentrations of some constituents in shallow geothermal fluids, such as As, B, SiO 2, SO 42- and F, were calculated and their differences with the actual concentrations were estimated. The results show that the differences between estimated and actual concentrations of As and B are small (the average absolute values being only 1.9% and 7.9%, respectively), whereas those of SiO 2, SO 42- and F are much bigger, indicating that other hydrogeochemical processes are responsible for the concentrations of these constituents. It is postulated that SiO 2 precipitation due to water temperature decrease, H 2S oxidation and ion exchange between OH - in geothermal waters and exchangeable F - in

  2. Microenvironment acidity as a major determinant of tumor chemoresistance: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sophie; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Azzarito, Tommaso; Rauch, Cyril; Fais, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Despite the major progresses in biomedical research and the development of novel therapeutics and treatment strategies, cancer is still among the dominant causes of death worldwide. One of the crucial challenges in the clinical management of cancer is primary (intrinsic) and secondary (acquired) resistance to both conventional and targeted chemotherapeutics. Multiple mechanisms have been identifiedthat underlie intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance: these include impaired drug uptake, increased drug efflux, deletion of receptors, altered drug metabolism, quantitative and qualitative alterations in drug targets, increased DNA damage repair and various mechanisms of anti-apoptosis. The fast efflux of anticancer drugs mediated by multidrug efflux pumps and the partial or complete reversibility of chemoresistance combined with the absence of genetic mutations suggests a multifactorial process. However, a growing body of recent evidence suggests that chemoresistance is often triggered by the highly acidic microenvironment of tumors. The vast majority of drugs, including conventional chemotherapeutics and more recent biological agents, are weak bases that are quickly protonated and neutralized in acidic environments, such as the extracellular microenvironment and the acidic organelles of tumor cells. It is therefore essential to develop new strategies to overcome the entrapment and neutralization of weak base drugs. One such strategy is the use of proton pump inhibitors which can enhance tumor chemosensitivity by increasing the pH of the tumor microenvironment. Recent clinical trials in animals with spontaneous tumors have indicated that patient alkalization is capable of reversing acquired chemoresistance in a large percentage of tumors that are refractory to chemotherapy. Of particular interest was the benefit of alkalization for patients undergoing metronomic regimens which are becoming more widely used in veterinary medicine. Overall, these results provide

  3. 36 CFR 242.15 - Rural determination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program Structure § 242.15 Rural determination...) Development and diversity of the economy; (iii) Community infrastructure; (iv) Transportation; and (v... years shall be required before the non-rural determination becomes effective. (c) Current determinations...

  4. Data processing has major impact on the outcome of quantitative label-free LC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawade, Aakash; Sandin, Marianne; Teleman, Johan; Malmström, Johan; Levander, Fredrik

    2015-02-06

    High-throughput multiplexed protein quantification using mass spectrometry is steadily increasing in popularity, with the two major techniques being data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and targeted acquisition using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). However, both techniques involve extensive data processing, which can be performed by a multitude of different software solutions. Analysis of quantitative LC-MS/MS data is mainly performed in three major steps: processing of raw data, normalization, and statistical analysis. To evaluate the impact of data processing steps, we developed two new benchmark data sets, one each for DDA and SRM, with samples consisting of a long-range dilution series of synthetic peptides spiked in a total cell protein digest. The generated data were processed by eight different software workflows and three postprocessing steps. The results show that the choice of the raw data processing software and the postprocessing steps play an important role in the final outcome. Also, the linear dynamic range of the DDA data could be extended by an order of magnitude through feature alignment and a charge state merging algorithm proposed here. Furthermore, the benchmark data sets are made publicly available for further benchmarking and software developments.

  5. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, Ulrike; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Geller, Beate; Nystrand, Mats; Härlin, Annika; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Keller, Walter; Niggemann, Bodo; Quirce, Santiago; Ebner, Christoph; Mari, Adriano; Pauli, Gabrielle; Herz, Udo; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne

    2009-06-01

    Milk is one of the first components introduced into human diet. It also represents one of the first allergen sources, which induces IgE-mediated allergies in childhood ranging from gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory manifestations to severe life-threatening manifestations, such as anaphylaxis. Here we isolated a cDNA coding for a major cow's milk allergen, alphaS1-casein, from a bovine mammary gland cDNA library with allergic patients' IgE Abs. Recombinant alphaS1-casein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized by circular dichroism as a folded protein. IgE epitopes of alphaS1-casein were determined with recombinant fragments and synthetic peptides spanning the alphaS1-casein sequence using microarrayed components and sera from 66 cow's milk-sensitized patients. The allergenic activity of ralphaS1-casein and the alphaS1-casein-derived peptides was determined using rat basophil leukemia cells transfected with human FcepsilonRI, which had been loaded with the patients' serum IgE. Our results demonstrate that ralphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides exhibit IgE reactivity, but mainly the intact ralphaS1-casein induced strong basophil degranulation. These results suggest that primarily intact alphaS1-casein or larger IgE-reactive portions thereof are responsible for IgE-mediated symptoms of food allergy. Recombinant alphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides may be used in clinical studies to further explore pathomechanisms of food allergy as well as for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for milk allergy.

  6. Depression is a major determinant of quality of life in patients with chronic systolic heart failure in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Schellberg, Dieter; Holzapfel, Nicole; Barth, Annika; Jünger, Jana; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Herzog, Wolfgang

    2007-12-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is severely restricted in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Patients frequently suffer from depressive comorbidity. It is not clear, to what extent sociodemographic variables, heart failure severity, somatic comorbidities and depression determine QoL of patients with CHF in primary care. In a cross-sectional analysis, 167 patients, 68.2 +/- 10.1 years old, 68.9% male, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-IV, Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < or = 40%, were recruited in their general practitioner's practices. Heart failure severity was assessed with echocardiography and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP); multimorbidity was assessed with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS-G). QoL was measured with the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and depression with the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant correlations with all SF-36 subscales were only found for the CIRS-G (r = -0.18 to -0.36; P < .05) and the PHQ-9 (r = -0.26 to -0.75; P < .01). In multivariate forward regression analyses, the PHQ-9 summary score explained the most part of QoL variance in all of the SF-36 subscales (r2 = 0.17-0.56). LVEF and NT-proBNP did not have significant influence on QoL. Depression is a major determinant of quality of life in patients with chronic systolic heart failure, whereas somatic measures of heart failure severity such as NT-proBNP and LVEF do not contribute to quality of life. Correct diagnosis and treatment of depressive comorbidity in heart failure patients is essential.

  7. IGF-1 and Insulin Resistance Are Major Determinants of Common Carotid Artery Thickness in Morbidly Obese Young Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Anca; Nicolae, Horia; Martin, Sorina; Barbu, Carmen; Copaescu, Catalin; Florea, Suzana; Panea, Cristina; Fica, Simona

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the relationship between insulin resistance, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and common carotid intima-media thickness (CC-IMT) in morbidly obese young patients. A total of 249 patients (aged 37.9 ± 9.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 45.6 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)) were evaluated (metabolic tests, serum IGF-1 measurements, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and ultrasonographically assessed CC-IMT) in a research program for bariatric surgery candidates. After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, systolic blood pressure, uric acid, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic class, both HOMA-IR and IGF-1 z-score were significantly associated with CC-IMT. These results were confirmed in logistic regression analysis, in which age (β = 1.11, P = .001), gender (β = 3.19, P = .001), HOMA-IR (β = 1.221, P = .005), and IGF-1 z-score (β = 1.734, P = .009) were the only independent determinants of abnormal CC-IMT, presumably modulating the effect of the other risk factors included in the regression. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.841 (confidence interval: 0.776-0.907; P IGF-1 z-score are significantly associated with CC-IMT, independent of other major cardiovascular risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Antigen sensitivity is a major determinant of CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality and HIV-suppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jorge R; Sauce, Delphine; Price, David A; Papagno, Laura; Shin, So Youn; Moris, Arnaud; Larsen, Martin; Pancino, Gianfranco; Douek, Daniel C; Autran, Brigitte; Sáez-Cirión, Asier; Appay, Victor

    2009-06-18

    CD8(+) T cells are major players in the immune response against HIV. However, recent failures in the development of T cell-based vaccines against HIV-1 have emphasized the need to reassess our basic knowledge of T cell-mediated efficacy. CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected patients with slow disease progression exhibit potent polyfunctionality and HIV-suppressive activity, yet the factors that unify these properties are incompletely understood. We performed a detailed study of the interplay between T-cell functional attributes using a bank of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones isolated in vitro; this approach enabled us to overcome inherent difficulties related to the in vivo heterogeneity of T-cell populations and address the underlying determinants that synthesize the qualities required for antiviral efficacy. Conclusions were supported by ex vivo analysis of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells from infected donors. We report that attributes of CD8(+) T-cell efficacy against HIV are linked at the level of antigen sensitivity. Highly sensitive CD8(+) T cells display polyfunctional profiles and potent HIV-suppressive activity. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying CD8(+) T-cell efficacy against HIV, and indicate that vaccine strategies should focus on the induction of HIV-specific T cells with high levels of antigen sensitivity to elicit potent antiviral efficacy.

  9. Relative Expression Levels Rather Than Specific Activity Plays the Major Role in Determining In Vivo AKT Isoform Substrate Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The AKT protooncogene mediates many cellular processes involved in normal development and disease states such as cancer. The three structurally similar isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 exhibit both functional redundancy and isoform-specific functions; however the basis for their differential signalling remains unclear. Here we show that in vitro, purified AKT3 is ∼47-fold more active than AKT1 at phosphorylating peptide and protein substrates. Despite these marked variations in specific activity between the individual isoforms, a comprehensive analysis of phosphorylation of validated AKT substrates indicated only subtle differences in signalling via individual isoforms in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesise, at least in this model system, that relative tissue/cellular abundance, rather than specific activity, plays the dominant role in determining AKT substrate specificity in situ.

  10. Extraction and determination of chondroitin sulfate from fish processing byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) refers to a group of sulfated glycosaminoglycan containing a chain of alternating N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid sugars. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix of cartilage and attached to proteins. CS is usually an over the counter dietary supplement...

  11. Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Addressing Major Health Inequality Trends for the Nation, 1935-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Daus, Gem P; Allender, Michelle; Ramey, Christine T; Martin, Elijah K; Perry, Chrisp; Reyes, Andrew A De Los; Vedamuthu, Ivy P

    2017-01-01

    This study describes key population health concepts and examines major empirical trends in US health and healthcare inequalities from 1935 to 2016 according to important social determinants such as race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, area deprivation, unemployment, housing, rural-urban residence, and geographic location. Long-term trend data from the National Vital Statistics System, National Health Interview Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, American Community Survey, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to examine racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, rural-urban, and geographic inequalities in health and health care. Life tables, age-adjusted rates, prevalence, and risk ratios were used to examine health differentials, which were tested for statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Life expectancy of Americans increased from 69.7 years in 1950 to 78.8 years in 2015. However, despite the overall improvement, substantial gender and racial/ethnic disparities remained. In 2015, life expectancy was highest for Asian/Pacific Islanders (87.7 years) and lowest for African-Americans (75.7 years). Life expectancy was lower in rural areas and varied from 74.5 years for men in rural areas to 82.4 years for women in large metro areas, with rural-urban disparities increasing during the 1990-2014 time period. Infant mortality rates declined dramatically during the past eight decades. However, racial disparities widened over time; in 2015, black infants had 2.3 times higher mortality than white infants (11.4 vs. 4.9 per 1,000 live births). Infant and child mortality was markedly higher in rural areas and poor communities. Black infants and children in poor, rural communities had nearly three times higher mortality rate compared to those in affluent, rural areas. Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities were particularly marked in mortality and/or morbidity from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, COPD, HIV/AIDS, homicide

  12. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  13. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  14. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  15. Fetal Environment Is a Major Determinant of the Neonatal Blood Thyroxine Level: Results of a Large Dutch Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Mesfum, Ertirea T; Wiedijk, Brenda; Oomen, Petra; Finken, Martijn J J; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul

    2015-06-01

    The interindividual variability in thyroid hormone function parameters is much larger than the intraindividual variability, suggesting an individual set point for these parameters. There is evidence to suggest that environmental factors are more important than genetic factors in the determination of this individual set point. This study aimed to quantify the effect of genetic factors and (fetal) environment on the early postnatal blood T4 concentration. This was a classical twin study comparing the resemblance of neonatal screening blood T4 concentrations in 1264 mono- and 2566 dizygotic twin pairs retrieved from the population-based Netherlands Twin Register. Maximum-likelihood estimates of variance explained by genetic and environmental influences were obtained by structural equation modeling in data from full-term and preterm twin pairs. In full-term infants, genetic factors explained 40%/31% of the variance in standardized T4 scores in boys/girls, and shared environment, 27%/22%. The remaining variance of 33%/47% was due to environmental factors not shared by twins. For preterm infants, genetic factors explained 34%/0% of the variance in boys/girls, shared environment 31%/57%, and unique environment 35%/43%. In very preterm twins, no significant contribution of genetic factors was observed. Environment explains a large proportion of the resemblance of the postnatal blood T4 concentration in twin pairs. Because we analyzed neonatal screening results, the fetal environment is the most likely candidate for these environmental influences. Genetic influences on the T4 set point diminished with declining gestational age, especially in girls. This may be due to major environmental influences such as immaturity and nonthyroidal illness in very preterm infants.

  16. Identification and determination of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Pill by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of twelve major compounds in Longdan Xiegan Pill. The chemical profile of the twelve compounds, including geniposidic acid (1, geniposide(2, gentiopicroside(3, liquiritin(4, crocin(5, baicalin(6, wogonoside(7, baicalein(8, glycyrrhizic acid (9, wogonin (10, oroxylin A (11 and aristolochic acid A (12, was acquired using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The analysis was performed on a Dikma Platisil ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm with a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile-0. 1% aqueous formic acid. The validation was carried out and the linearities (r > 0. 9996, repeatability (RSD<1. 8%, intra- and inter-day precision (RSD< 1. 3%, and recoveries (ranging from 96. 6% to 103. 4% were acceptable. The limits of detection (LOD of these compounds ranged from 0.29 to 4. 17 ng. Aristolochic acid A, which is the toxic ingredient, was not detected in all the batches of Longdan Xiegan Pill. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis was used to evaluate the variation of the herbal prescription. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for the quality control of this traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Keywords: Longdan Xiegan Pill, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled with an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, qualitative evaluation, aristolochic acid A, hierarchical cluster analysis

  17. Early Nutrition as a Major Determinant of 'Immune Health': Implications for Allergy, Obesity and Other Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function--including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the

  18. Thinking through cancer risk: characterizing smokers' process of risk determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Shuk, Elyse; Cruz, Gustavo; Ostroff, Jamie

    2005-10-01

    The perception of cancer risk motivates cancer risk reduction behaviors. However, common measurement strategies for cancer risk perceptions, which involve numerical likelihood estimates, do not adequately capture individuals' thoughts and feelings about cancer risk. To guide the development of novel measurement strategies, the authors used semistructured interviews to examine the thought processes used by smokers (N = 15) as they considered their cancer risk. They used grounded theory to guide systematic data coding and develop a heuristic model describing smokers' risk perception process that includes a cognitive, primarily rational process whereby salient personal risk factors for cancer are considered and combined, and an affective/attitudinal process, which shifts risk perceptions either up or down. The model provides a tentative explanation concerning how people hold cancer risk perceptions that diverge from rational assessment of their risks and will be useful in guiding the development of non-numerical measurements strategies for cancer risk perceptions.

  19. Nonlinear digital signal processing in mental health: characterization of major depression using instantaneous entropy measures of heartbeat dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Garcia, Ronald G; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo P; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear digital signal processing methods that address system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of pathologies. More specifically, nonlinear measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression (MD). In this study, we propose the use of instantaneous measures of entropy, namely the inhomogeneous point-process approximate entropy (ipApEn) and the inhomogeneous point-process sample entropy (ipSampEn), to describe a novel characterization of MD patients undergoing affective elicitation. Because these measures are built within a nonlinear point-process model, they allow for the assessment of complexity in cardiovascular dynamics at each moment in time. Heartbeat dynamics were characterized from 48 healthy controls and 48 patients with MD while emotionally elicited through either neutral or arousing audiovisual stimuli. Experimental results coming from the arousing tasks show that ipApEn measures are able to instantaneously track heartbeat complexity as well as discern between healthy subjects and MD patients. Conversely, standard heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed in both time and frequency domains did not show any statistical significance. We conclude that measures of entropy based on nonlinear point-process models might contribute to devising useful computational tools for care in mental health.

  20. Large Isoform of Mammalian Relative of DnaJ is a Major Determinant of Human Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Chiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection have been of interest for decades. We aimed to determine the contribution of large isoform of Mammalian DnaJ (MRJ-L, a HIV-1 Vpr-interacting cellular protein, to this natural variation. Expression of MRJ-L in monocyte-derived macrophages was significantly higher in HIV-infected individuals (n = 31 than their uninfected counterparts (n = 27 (p = 0.009. Fifty male homosexual subjects (20 of them are HIV-1 positive were further recruited to examine the association between MRJ-L levels and occurrence of HIV infection. Bayesian multiple logistic regression revealed that playing a receptive role and increased levels of MRJ-L in macrophages were two risk factors for HIV-1 infection. A 1% rise in MRJ-L expression was associated with a 1.13 fold (95% CrI 1.06–1.29 increase in odds of contracting HIV-1 infection. Ex vivo experiments revealed that MRJ-L facilitated Vpr-dependent nuclear localization of virus. Infection of macrophage-tropic strain is a critical step in HIV-1 transmission. MRJ-L is a critical factor in this process; hence, subjects with higher macrophage MRJ-L levels are more vulnerable to HIV-1 infection.

  1. Determination of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid in commercial tea and coffee samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić-Letić Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tea and coffee are one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world due to their beneficial health effects which are largely associated with their phenolic compounds composition, including chlorogenic acid. The main aim of this study was to determine 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid, in various commercial tea and coffee samples present at the Serbian market. Methods. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for determination of 5-CQA in plant extracts was applied to determine the content of this active compound in commercial tea and coffee samples. Mobile phase was aqueous 1.5% acetic acid - methanol (80:20, v/v with the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Run time was 15 min and column temperature 25°C. The detection was performed at 240 nm. Results. The HPLC method was modified and revalidated. The 5-CQA content varied depending on the type of tea (white, green, black tea and mate and the processing technology. Green tea had the highest 5-CQA content (16 mg/100 mL among the analyzed tea samples. The content of 5-CQA in coffee samples ranged 0-36.20 mg/g of coffee and 0-46.98 mg/100 mL of beverage, showing that the content varied depending on the type of coffee, coffee processing technology and the formulation. Conclusion. The modified and revalidated HPLC method showed a good accuracy, repeatability, selectivity and robustness. The highest amount of 5-CQA was determined in green tea in comparison to white, black and mate tea because the increased oxidation level decreases the amount of 5-CQA. The obtained results for commercial coffee samples indicated that the formulation was the most important factor determining the amount of 5-CQA. It can be concluded that plant material selection, processing conditions and formulation have great influence on the amount of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA in the final tea and coffee products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI

  2. Determination of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid in commercial tea and coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevena, Grujić-Letić; Branislava, Rakić; Emilia, Sefer; Dusica, Rakić; Ivan, Nedeljković; Nebojsa, Kladar; Biljana, Božin

    2015-11-01

    Tea and coffee are one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world due to their beneficial health effects which are largely associated with their phenolic compounds composition, including chlorogenic acid. The main aim of this study was to determine 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), as one of the major classes of chlorogenic acid, in various commercial tea and coffee samples present at the Serbian market. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of 5-CQA in plant extracts was applied to determine the content of this active compound in commercial tea and coffee samples. Mobile phase was aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (80:20, v/v) with the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Run time was 15 min and column temperature 25°C. The detection was performed at 240 nm. The HPLC method was modified and revalidated. The 5-CQA content varied depending on the type of tea (white, green, black tea and mate) and the processing technology. Green tea had the highest 5-CQA content (16 mg/100 mL) among the analyzed tea samples. The content of 5-CQA in coffee samples ranged 0-36.20 mg/g of coffee and 0-46.98 mg/100 mL of beverage, showing that the content varied depending on the type of coffee, coffee processing technology and the formulation. The modified and revalidated HPLC method showed a good accuracy, repeatability, selectivity and robustness. The highest amount of 5-CQA was determined in green tea in comparison to white, black and mate tea because the increased oxidation level decreases the amount of 5-CQA. The obtained results for commercial coffee samples indicated that the formulation was the most important factor determining the amount of 5-CQA. It can be concluded that plant material selection, processing conditions and formulation have great influence on the amount of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) in the final tea and coffee products.

  3. Lassa virus-like particles displaying all major immunological determinants as a vaccine candidate for Lassa hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashman Kathleen A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa fever is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. Treatment of acute Lassa fever infections has successfully utilized intravenous administration of ribavirin, a nucleotide analogue drug, but this is not an approved use; efficacy of oral administration has not been demonstrated. To date, several potential new vaccine platforms have been explored, but none have progressed toward clinical trials and commercialization. Therefore, the development of a robust vaccine platform that could be generated in sufficient quantities and at a low cost per dose could herald a subcontinent-wide vaccination program. This would move Lassa endemic areas toward the control and reduction of major outbreaks and endemic infections. To this end, we have employed efficient mammalian expression systems to generate a Lassa virus (LASV-like particle (VLP-based modular vaccine platform. Results A mammalian expression system that generated large quantities of LASV VLP in human cells at small scale settings was developed. These VLP contained the major immunological determinants of the virus: glycoprotein complex, nucleoprotein, and Z matrix protein, with known post-translational modifications. The viral proteins packaged into LASV VLP were characterized, including glycosylation profiles of glycoprotein subunits GP1 and GP2, and structural compartmentalization of each polypeptide. The host cell protein component of LASV VLP was also partially analyzed, namely glycoprotein incorporation, though the identity of these proteins remain unknown. All combinations of LASV Z, GPC, and NP proteins that generated VLP did not incorporate host cell ribosomes, a known component of native arenaviral particles, despite detection of small RNA species packaged into pseudoparticles. Although VLP did not contain the same host cell components as the native

  4. Determining the quark charges by one and two photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janah, A.

    1982-01-01

    Testable predictions are presented, which may be used to decide between the gauge theories of integer and fractionally charged quarks (icq and fcq). Two distinctive features of icq are exploited, namely (a) presence of color non-singlet components in weak and electromagnetic currents and (b) possible liberation of color non-singlet states above a threshold energy. Consequences are sought in lepton-hadron interaction processes, taking into account the known color-suppression effect. Single photon/weak-boson processes such as nuN → nuX distinguish between icq and fcq only above color-threshold. Experimental consequences of color-liberation in the above process are obtained. It is found that the gluon-parton contribution survives color-suppression to produce a significant rise in the structure functions when color-threshold is exceeded. Two-photon processes such as e + e - → e + e - + 2 jets distinguish between the two theories even below color threshold. To obtain the icq predictions for this process, one must take into account (a) the (momentum-dependent) color suppression and (b) the added contribution from pair production of charged gluons

  5. Initial experience with the NRC significance determination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, A.L. [Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has revamped its inspection, assessment, and enforcement programs for commercial nuclear power plants. The new oversight process uses more objective, timely, and safety-significant criteria in assessing performance, while seeking to more effectively and efficiently regulate the industry. The NRC tested the new process at thirteen reactors at nine sites across the country on a pilot basis in 1999 to identify what things worked well and what improvements were called for before beginning Initial Implementation at all US nuclear power plants on April 2, 2000. After a year of experience has been gained with the new oversight process at all US plants, the NRC anticipates making further improvements based on this wider experience. (author)

  6. Initial experience with the NRC significance determination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madison, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has revamped its inspection, assessment, and enforcement programs for commercial nuclear power plants. The new oversight process uses more objective, timely, and safety-significant criteria in assessing performance, while seeking to more effectively and efficiently regulate the industry. The NRC tested the new process at thirteen reactors at nine sites across the country on a pilot basis in 1999 to identify what things worked well and what improvements were called for before beginning Initial Implementation at all US nuclear power plants on April 2, 2000. After a year of experience has been gained with the new oversight process at all US plants, the NRC anticipates making further improvements based on this wider experience. (author)

  7. Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E [Kennewick, WA

    2011-01-25

    A torus multipass optical device and method are described that provide for trace level determination of gases and gas-phase analytes. The torus device includes an optical cavity defined by at least one ring mirror. The mirror delivers optical power in at least a radial and axial direction and propagates light in a multipass optical path of a predefined path length.

  8. Determination of rare earths in their extraction processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Jiannan; Zhang Yuqin

    1989-01-01

    A method for determination of rare earths in ores, ion-exchange resins and solution samples has been developed. The ore is molten with sodium peroxide and the molten sample is leached with triethenol amine and sodium citrate. In weak acid medium, the rare earths can be extracted by PMBP-phenol solution, and stripped with formic acid. In the acetic acidsodium acetate buffer medium of pH3, the spectrophotometric determination of rare earths with arsenazo M has been made. The rare earths in ion-exchange resins can be directly determined by spectrophotometry after being leached with hydrochloric acid and at heated condition. The rare earths with arsenazo M or a red complex. The maximum absorption of the complex is at 640 nm, and the molar absorption is 8.0 x 10 4 L centre dot mol -1 centre dot cm -1 . While the range of determination is 0.005%-0.5% and 0.001-1.0 g/L, the relative standard deviation is less than 5%, and recovery of rare earths is 98.5-105%. The method is rather simple and rapid

  9. 50 CFR 100.15 - Rural determination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL WILDLIFE MONUMENTS SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Program... fish and wildlife; (ii) Development and diversity of the economy; (iii) Community infrastructure; (iv... of 5 years shall be required before the non-rural determination becomes effective. (c) Current...

  10. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  11. SME Acceptability Determination For DWPF Process Control (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-12

    The statistical system described in this document is called the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). K. G. Brown and R. L. Postles were the originators and developers of this system as well as the authors of the first three versions of this technical basis document for PCCS. PCCS has guided acceptability decisions for the processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) since the start of radioactive operations in 1996. The author of this revision to the document gratefully acknowledges the firm technical foundation that Brown and Postles established to support the ongoing successful operation at the DWPF. Their integration of the glass propertycomposition models, developed under the direction of C. M. Jantzen, into a coherent and robust control system, has served the DWPF well over the last 20+ years, even as new challenges, such as the introduction into the DWPF flowsheet of auxiliary streams from the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and other processes, were met. The purpose of this revision is to provide a technical basis for modifications to PCCS required to support the introduction of waste streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) into the DWPF flowsheet. An expanded glass composition region is anticipated by the introduction of waste streams from SWPF, and property-composition studies of that glass region have been conducted. Jantzen, once again, directed the development of glass property-composition models applicable for this expanded composition region. The author gratefully acknowledges the technical contributions of C.M. Jantzen leading to the development of these glass property-composition models. The integration of these models into the PCCS constraints necessary to administer future acceptability decisions for the processing at DWPF is provided by this sixth revision of this document.

  12. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C.; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-07-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  13. Determination of TBP in nitric solutions of process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C. de; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  14. Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkmenistan)

    2012-11-15

    We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L{sup 27} orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R{sup 2Ra}=and 2 92.73) R{sup 2Vb}=that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process.

  15. Determining the optimum process parameter for grinding operations using robust process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neseli, Suley Man; Asilturk, Ilhan; Celik, Levent

    2012-01-01

    We applied combined response surface methodology (RSM) and Taguchi methodology (TM) to determine optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness (Ra) and vibration (Vb) in external cylindrical grinding. First, an experiment was conducted in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The TM using L 27 orthogonal array was applied to the design of the experiment. The three input parameters were workpiece revolution, feed rate and depth of cut; the outputs were vibrations and surface roughness. Second, to minimize wheel vibration and surface roughness, two optimized models were developed using computer aided single objective optimization. The experimental and statistical results revealed that the most significant grinding parameter for surface roughness and vibration is workpiece revolution followed by the depth of cut. The predicted values and measured values were fairly close, which indicates 2 ( 94.99 R 2Ra =and 2 92.73) R 2Vb =that the developed models can be effectively used to predict surface roughness and vibration in the grinding. The established model for determination of optimal operating conditions shows that a hybrid approach can lead to success of a robust process

  16. Determinants of Use of Indigenous Fish Processing Practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the socio- economic features of the fish processors while the logit model was used to capture the socio-economic factors ... education (β=1.90), household size (β=2.48), FAI (β=2.80), consumers preference (β=3.37), processing tradition (β=3.74), VFP (β=0.02) and cosmopoliteness ...

  17. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  18. Heat processing of peanut seed enhances the sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Blanche; Bernard, Hervé; Drumare, Marie-Françoise; Hazebrouck, Stéphane; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2016-12-01

    Processing of food has been shown to impact IgE binding and functionality of food allergens. In the present study, we investigated the impact of heat processing on the sensitization capacity of Ara h 6, a major peanut allergen and one of the most potent elicitors of the allergic reaction. Peanut extracts obtained from raw or heat-processed peanut and some fractions thereof were biochemically and immunochemically characterized. These extracts/fractions, purified Ara h 6, or recombinant Ara h 6 including Ara h 6 mutants lacking disulfide bridges were used in in vitro digestion tests and mouse models of experimental sensitization. Peanut roasting led to the formation of complexes of high molecular weight, notably between Ara h 6 and Ara h 1, which supported the induction of IgE specific to native Ara h 6. On the contrary, a fraction containing free monomeric 2S albumins or purified native Ara h 6 displayed no intrinsic allergenicity. In addition to complex formation, heat denaturation and/or partial destabilization enhanced Ara h 6 immunogenicity and increased its sensitivity to digestion. These results suggest that sensitization potency and IgE binding capacity can be supported by different structures, modified and/or produced during food processing in interaction with other food constituents. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann

    2010-01-01

    with methanol-water (80 + 20, v/v) by shaking for 10 or 30 min. An immunoaffinity column was used for cleanup. HPLC with postcolumn derivatization, for enhancement of aflatoxin fluorescence, and fluorescence determination were used for quantitation of the toxin concentration. The method was validated...... was obtained when 1 g salt was used and the shaking time was 10 min. The good linearity and precision of the method allowed baseline separation from interferences, e.g., coumarins....

  20. Processes determining the marine alkalinity and carbonate saturation distributions

    OpenAIRE

    B. R. Carter; J. R. Toggweiler; R. M. Key; J. L. Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a composite tracer, Alk*, that has a global distribution primarily determined by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Alk* also highlights riverine alkalinity plumes that are due to dissolved calcium carbonate from land. We estimate the Arctic receives approximately twice the riverine alkalinity per unit area as the Atlantic, and 8 times that of the other oceans. Riverine inputs broadly elevate Alk* in the Arctic surface and particularly near ri...

  1. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of fish protein in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Yusuke; Uesaka, Yoshihiko; Wang, Jun; Yamada, Shoichi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2013-01-15

    Fish is one of the most common causes of food allergy and its major allergen is parvalbumin, a 12 kDa muscular protein. In this study, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of fish protein in processed foods was developed using a polyclonal antibody raised against Pacific mackerel parvalbumin. The developed sandwich ELISA showed 22.6-99.0% reactivity (based on the reactivity to Pacific mackerel parvalbumin) to parvalbumins from various species of fish. The limits of detection and quantitation were estimated to be 0.23 and 0.70 μg protein per g of food, respectively. When the sandwich ELISA was subjected to inter-laboratory validation, spiked fish protein was recovered from five model processed foods in the range of 69.4-84.8% and the repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were satisfactorily low (≤ 10.5%). Thus, the sandwich ELISA was judged to be a useful tool to determine fish protein in processed foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Age and gender modulate the neural circuitry supporting facial emotion processing in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Emily M; Rapport, Lisa J; Kassel, Michelle T; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Weisenbach, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A

    2015-03-01

    Emotion processing, supported by frontolimbic circuitry known to be sensitive to the effects of aging, is a relatively understudied cognitive-emotional domain in geriatric depression. Some evidence suggests that the neurophysiological disruption observed in emotion processing among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by both gender and age. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of gender and age on the neural circuitry supporting emotion processing in MDD. Cross-sectional comparison of fMRI signal during performance of an emotion processing task. Outpatient university setting. One hundred adults recruited by MDD status, gender, and age. Participants underwent fMRI while completing the Facial Emotion Perception Test. They viewed photographs of faces and categorized the emotion perceived. Contrast for fMRI was of face perception minus animal identification blocks. Effects of depression were observed in precuneus and effects of age in a number of frontolimbic regions. Three-way interactions were present between MDD status, gender, and age in regions pertinent to emotion processing, including frontal, limbic, and basal ganglia. Young women with MDD and older men with MDD exhibited hyperactivation in these regions compared with their respective same-gender healthy comparison (HC) counterparts. In contrast, older women and younger men with MDD exhibited hypoactivation compared to their respective same-gender HC counterparts. This the first study to report gender- and age-specific differences in emotion processing circuitry in MDD. Gender-differential mechanisms may underlie cognitive-emotional disruption in older adults with MDD. The present findings have implications for improved probes into the heterogeneity of the MDD syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of temperature and pressure in the calcium reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arceri, Mariana E.

    1997-01-01

    The calcium reduction process consists in the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) with calcium in a refractory material crucible, in order to obtain metallic uranium. The crucible is in turn contained in a steel reactor, heated by means of an induction coil to bring the reagents from the environmental temperature to the temperature necessary for the reaction starting. For the design of the reactor, mathematical expressions that allow to estimate the temperature and pressure of the system have been developed

  4. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    G?mez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are ...

  5. DETERMINANTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Borkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the problem of risk assessment in critical energy infrastructure. Firstly the critical infrastructure in energy sector is discussed than risk identification methodology for application to critical infrastructure is proposed. Specific conditions resulting from features of critical infrastructure are addressed in the context of risk assessment procedure. The limits of such a procedure are outlined and critical factors influencing different stages of risk assessment process are researched in view of specificity of the sector.

  6. Relative speed of processing determines color-word contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2017-10-01

    In three experiments, we tested a relative-speed-of-processing account of color-word contingency learning, a phenomenon in which color identification responses to high-contingency stimuli (words that appear most often in particular colors) are faster than those to low-contingency stimuli. Experiment 1 showed equally large contingency-learning effects whether responding was to the colors or to the words, likely due to slow responding to both dimensions because of the unfamiliar mapping required by the key press responses. For Experiment 2, participants switched to vocal responding, in which reading words is considerably faster than naming colors, and we obtained a contingency-learning effect only for color naming, the slower dimension. In Experiment 3, previewing the color information resulted in a reduced contingency-learning effect for color naming, but it enhanced the contingency-learning effect for word reading. These results are all consistent with contingency learning influencing performance only when the nominally irrelevant feature is faster to process than the relevant feature, and therefore are entirely in accord with a relative-speed-of-processing explanation.

  7. Personality determinants of manipulative behavior in the negotiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila V. Matveeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiations are an inalienable component of human society in the modernworld, so studying those personal characteristics of negotiators that infl uencetheir choice of negotiating strategy, tactics, and style is relevant and signifi cant.Knowledge of the patterns of a partner’s choice of one strategy of behavior or anotherinfl uences on successful negotiation process and assists in achieving goals.We did research on the connections among level of anxiety, motivation to succeedand to avoid failure, and self-esteem to the level of Machiavellianism. This articlediscusses the personal characteristics that infl uence the choice of manipulativetactics of behavior in negotiations.

  8. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of water column dynamics on sulfide oxidation and other major biogeochemical processes in the chemocline of Mariager Fjord (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zopfi, J.; Ferdelman, TG; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    Major electron donors (H2S, NH4+, Mn2+, Fe2+) and accepters (O-2, NO3-, Mn(IV), Fe(III)), process rates ((SO42-)-S-35 reduction, dark (CO2)-C-14 fixation) and vertical fluxes were investigated to quantify the dominant biogeochemical processes at the chemocline of a shallow brackish fjord. Under...... steady-stare conditions, the upward fluxes of reductants and downward fluxes of oxidants in the water column were balanced. However, changes in the hydrographical conditions caused a transient nonsteady-state at the chemocline and had a great impact on process rates and the distribution of chemical...... species. Maxima of S-0 (17.8 mu mol l(-1)), thiosulfate (5.2 mu mol l(-1)) and sulfite (1.1 mu mol l(-1)) occurred at the chemocline, but were hardly detectable in the sulfidic deep water. The distribution of S-0 suggested that the high concentration of S-0 was (a) more likely due to a low turnover than...

  10. Determination of process parameters for curcumin - dextrose cocrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine; Nugroho, Denny; Sugih, Asaf K.

    2018-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol that could act as anti-oxidant and anti - inflammation agent. It is usually isolated from rhizome plants such as turmeric and temulawak. Despite its many favorable properties, curcumin is practically insoluble in water, thus limiting its application. In the present investigation, variables affecting preparation of curcumin-dextrose cocrystal were examined with the aim to increase the solubility of curcumin. The effect of different processing conditions, such as water to dextrose ratio, final heating temperature and water bath temperature to the formation of cocrystal, were studied and the yield and solubility of curcumin - dextrose cocrystal products were analyzed. The morphology of the cocrystals were also analyzed using SEM and fluorescence microscopy.. Curcumin - dextrose cocrystals showed a significant increase in solubility up to 25 mg curcumin per mL water compared to pure curcumin.

  11. Determining the thermal and physicals properties of oil processing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria I. Kryvda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades both technological process’ improvement and primary energy resources saving are the main tasks of oil refineries. Using various oil products does impose an accurate knowledge of their properties. The dispersion analysis applied makes possible to construct a model simulating the primary oil refining products’ and raw materials’ thermal physical properties. As a result of data approximation there were obtained polynomials with coefficients differing from attributable to the studied oil products fractions. The research represents graphic dependences of thermal physical properties on temperature values for diesel oil fraction. The linear character of density and calorific capacity dependencies from temperature is represented with a proportional error in calculations. The relative minimum error is below 2% that confirms the implemented calculations’ adequacy. The resulting model can be used in calculations for further technological process improvements.

  12. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to surpass these challenges after the teaching intervention. This study shows that POGIL is an effective technique at eliciting students' misconceptions, and addressing these misconceptions, leading to an increase in student understanding of biological classification.

  13. Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Amygdala Neurofeedback Changes Positive Information Processing in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Misaki, Masaya; Harmer, Catherine J; Victor, Teresa; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Siegle, Greg J; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2017-10-15

    In participants with major depressive disorder who are trained to upregulate their amygdalar hemodynamic responses during positive autobiographical memory recall with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training, depressive symptoms diminish. This study tested whether amygdalar rtfMRI-nf also changes emotional processing of positive and negative stimuli in a variety of behavioral and imaging tasks. Patients with major depressive disorder completed two rtfMRI-nf sessions (18 received amygdalar rtfMRI-nf, 16 received control parietal rtfMRI-nf). One week before and following rtfMRI-nf training, participants performed tasks measuring responses to emotionally valenced stimuli including a backward-masking task, which measures the amygdalar hemodynamic response to emotional faces presented for traditionally subliminal duration and followed by a mask, and the Emotional Test Battery in which reaction times and performance accuracy are measured during tasks involving emotional faces and words. During the backward-masking task, amygdalar responses increased while viewing masked happy faces but decreased to masked sad faces in the experimental versus control group following rtfMRI-nf. During the Emotional Test Battery, reaction times decreased to identification of positive faces and during self-identification with positive words and vigilance scores increased to positive faces and decreased to negative faces during the faces dot-probe task in the experimental versus control group following rtfMRI-nf. rtfMRI-nf training to increase the amygdalar hemodynamic response to positive memories was associated with changes in amygdalar responses to happy and sad faces and improved processing of positive stimuli during performance of the Emotional Test Battery. These results may suggest that amygdalar rtfMRI-nf training alters responses to emotional stimuli in a manner similar to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Society of

  14. Development of a validated HPLC method for the determination of sennoside A and B, two major constituents of Cassia obovata Coll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemi-Dehkordi Nasrollah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cassia obovata Coll is the only Senna species which grows wild in Iran. In the present study, an optimised reverse High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC validated method was established for quantification of sennosides A and B, the major constituents of C. obovata with a simple and accurate method. Methods: HPLC analysis was done using Waters 515 pump on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 × 150 mm. Millennium software was used for the determination of the sennoside A and B in Cassia species and processing the information. The method was validated according to USP 32 requirements. Results: The solvent impact on the selectivity factor and partition coefficient parameters evaluated. Using a conventional RP-18 L1 column, 3.9 × 150 mm, the mobile phase was selected after several trials with different mixtures of water and acetonitrile. Sennosides A and B were determined using the external standard calibration method. Using USP 35-NF 30, the LOD and LOQ were calculated. The reliability of the HPLC-method for analysis of sennoside A + B was validated through its linearity, reproducibility, repeatability, and recovery. Fina1ly ethanol:water (1:1 extracts of Cassia obovata and Cassia angustifolia were standardized by assay of sennoside A and B through above HPLC validated method. Conclusion: Through the above method, determination of sennosides in Cassia species are completely possible. Moreover, through comparing the results, even though sennosides are rich in Cassia angustifolia but, the results shows that C. obovata could be considered as an alternative source for sennosides A and B.

  15. Prdm9, a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, is not functional in dogs and their wild relatives, wolves and coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process needed for the correct segregation of chromosomes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. In humans, 80% of crossovers are estimated to occur at specific areas of the genome called recombination hotspots. Recently, a protein called PRDM9 was identified as a major player in determining the location of genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice. The origin of this protein seems to be ancient in evolutionary time, as reflected by its fairly conserved structure in lineages that diverged over 700 million years ago. Despite its important role, there are many animal groups in which Prdm9 is absent (e.g. birds, reptiles, amphibians, diptera and it has been suggested to have disruptive mutations and thus to be a pseudogene in dogs. Because of the dog's history through domestication and artificial selection, we wanted to confirm the presence of a disrupted Prdm9 gene in dogs and determine whether this was exclusive of this species or whether it also occurred in its wild ancestor, the wolf, and in a close relative, the coyote. We sequenced the region in the dog genome that aligned to the last exon of the human Prdm9, containing the entire zinc finger domain, in 4 dogs, 17 wolves and 2 coyotes. Our results show that the three canid species possess mutations that likely make this gene non functional. Because these mutations are shared across the three species, they must have appeared prior to the split of the wolf and the coyote, millions of years ago, and are not related to domestication. In addition, our results suggest that in these three canid species recombination does not occur at hotspots or hotspot location is controlled through a mechanism yet to be determined.

  16. Determination of Bruising Damages of Tomato during Road Transportation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mansouri Alam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The most important post-harvest mechanical damage is bruising. Bruising occurs during the stages of handling, transporting and packaging due to quasi-static and dynamic loads. Vibrations of tomato fruits during transportation by truck will decrease their quality. More than 2.5 million tons damages have been reported during tomato transportation in Iran. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize different parameters of damages during road transportation in order to detect and prevent bruising injury. Materials and Methods In this study, healthy Super Queen verity of tomatoes devoid of any corrosion and mechanical damage multipliers were used. Aaverage of 7 and 5 pieces of fruit in each length and width, respectively in 13*25*37 cm boxes with a capacity of 8 kg were arranged. The boxes were divided into 2 types of truck suspension (model M2631 AIMCO, manufactured in 2010 with air suspension and Nissan trucks 2400, manufactured in 2010 with suspension spring. Boxes were established in three different heights truck, floor truck, height of middle and top of truck, in addition to two different situation boxes on the front axle (S1 and rear axle (S2. In each situation, three levels of height (H1, floor truck, the truck (H2 and the truck (H3 there. The location of each sample inside the fruit boxes bottom row (Loc1 and top (Loc2 boxes marked with marker. In this study, two types of road, highway asphalt and asphalt secondary road was used for transportation. Trucks and vans had the same distance route about 400 km. Fruits were transferred to Hamadan agricultural college. Rheology lab test was a hit with the pendulum. In this study, the amount of energy absorbed from the index (as a parameter to determine the sensitivity and the fruits bruises were used. Hit test was done after transportation of fruits and transferring those to the laboratory in less than 2 hours. Impact energy products were considered higher than the dynamic submission

  17. Methodology for and the determination of the major constituents and metabolites of the Amazonian botanical medicine ayahuasca in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2011-09-01

    Ayahuasca, also known as caapi or yage among various South American groups, holds a highly esteemed and millennia-old position in these cultures' medical and religious pharmacopeia. There is now an increasing interest in the potential for modern medical applications of ayahuasca, as well as concerns regarding its increasing potential for abuse. Toxicological and clinical research to address these issues will require information regarding its metabolism and clearance. Thus, a rapid, sensitive and specific method for characterization and quantitation of the major constituents and of the metabolites of ayahuasca in urine is needed. The present research provides a protocol for conducting such analyses. The characteristics of the method, conducted by sample dilution and using HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-tandem mass spectrometry, are presented. The application of the analytical protocol to urine samples collected from three individuals that were administered ayahuasca has also been demonstrated. The data show that the major metabolite of the hallucinogenic component of ayahuasca, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is the corresponding N-oxide, the first time this metabolite has been described in in vivo studies in humans. Further, very little DMT was detected in urine, despite the inhibition of monoamine oxidase afforded by the presence of the harmala alkaloids in ayahuasca. The major harmala alkaloid excreted was tetrahydroharmine. Other excretion products and metabolites were also identified and quantified. The method described would be suitable for use in further toxicological and clinical research on ayahuasca. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Organophilic clays as a tracer to determine Erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, A.; Strauss, P.; Schomakers, J.; Hann, S.; Köllensberger, G.; Ottner, F.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the use of new tracing techniques to measure soil erosion has gained attention. Beside long time existing isotopic methods the use of rare earth elements has been reported. We wanted to contribute to the efforts of obtaining better methods for determination surface soil movement and tested a novel method using organophilic clays as a tracer for erosion related studies. At present tests to extract organophilic clays from soil have been performed successfully using an Industrial produced organophilic bentonite (Tixogel TVZ, Süd-Chemie) treated with quaternary ammonium surfactants. A liquid extraction method with barium ions (Ba2+) and methanol was used to extract the n-alkyl ammonium compounds from the inter crystal layers of the modified Bentonite. To increase extraction efficiency, an ultrasound device was used (UW 2200 Bandelin, 10.000 cycles per second, vibration amplitude 54 µm, sonification time of one minute). This procedure lead to a recovery rate of about 85% for the organophilic bentonite. This was clearly superior to alternative extraction methods such as acetonitrile in different mixing ratios. Quantification of the extracted surfactants was performed via high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS, Agilent 1200 SL HPLC and 6220 time-of-flight MS). The mass spectra of this industrial produced organophilic clay mineral showed four different molecular masses (M+H+ of 304.30, 332.33, 360.36 and 388.39. The four substances could be separated by HPLC (20 x 2 mm Zorbax C18 reversed phase column, 0.5 mL/min isocratic flow with 90% acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water, run time of 7 minutes). The linear working range of the method was 5 to 1000 µg/L, with a limit of quantification of 1 µg/L n-alkyl ammonium compound. All four compounds of the Tixogel were extracted with identical extraction efficiencies and are hence suitable for accurate quantification procedures. Next steps of the methodology to develop are the

  19. Genomic polymorphism, recombination, and linkage disequilibrium in human major histocompatibility complex-encoded antigen-processing genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Endert, P M; Lopez, M T; Patel, S D; Monaco, J J; McDevitt, H O

    1992-01-01

    Recently, two subunits of a large cytosolic protease and two putative peptide transporter proteins were found to be encoded by genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These genes have been suggested to be involved in the processing of antigenic proteins for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Because of the high degree of polymorphism in MHC genes, and previous evidence for both functional and polypeptide sequence polymorphism in the proteins encoded by the antigen-processing genes, we tested DNA from 27 consanguineous human cell lines for genomic polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. These studies demonstrate a strong linkage disequilibrium between TAP1 and LMP2 RFLPs. Moreover, RFLPs, as well as a polymorphic stop codon in the telomeric TAP2 gene, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR alleles and RFLPs in the HLA-DO gene. A high rate of recombination, however, seems to occur in the center of the complex, between the TAP1 and TAP2 genes. Images PMID:1360671

  20. The water kefir grain inoculum determines the characteristics of the resulting water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, D; De Vuyst, L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of the water kefir grain inoculum on the characteristics of the water kefir fermentation process. Three water kefir fermentation processes were started with different water kefir grain inocula and followed as a function of time regarding microbial species diversity, community dynamics, substrate consumption profile and metabolite production course. The inoculum determined the water kefir grain growth, the viable counts on the grains, the time until total carbohydrate exhaustion, the final metabolite concentrations and the microbial species diversity. There were always 2-10 lactic acid bacterial cells for every yeast cell and the majority of these micro-organisms was always present on the grains. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were always present and may be the key micro-organisms during water kefir fermentation. Low water kefir grain growth was associated with small grains with high viable counts of micro-organisms, fast fermentation and low pH values, and was not caused by the absence of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria. The water kefir grain inoculum influences the microbial species diversity and characteristics of the fermentation process. A select group of key micro-organisms was always present during fermentation. This study allows a rational selection of a water kefir grain inoculum. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. MRI for the determination of pituitary iron overload in children and young adults with β-thalassaemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Haritandi, Afroditi; Perifanis, Vassilios; Tsatra, Ioanna; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda; Dimitriadis, Athanasios S.

    2007-01-01

    Hypogonadism, resulting from iron-induced pituitary dysfunction, is the most frequently reported complication in patients with β-thalassaemia major. The aim of this study was to evaluate pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal intensity reduction, on T2*-weighted images, as a marker of pituitary iron overload. Thirty patients (13 females and 17 males, mean age: 16.6 ± 4.1) with β-thalassaemia major on conventional treatment and 13 healthy volunteers (7 females and 6 males, mean age: 11 ± 4.51 years) were studied with T2*-weighted images of the anterior pituitary using a 1.5 T unit. Four thalassaemic patients (2 females and 2 males) had clinical hypogonadism and required hormonal replacement treatment. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction of pituitary signal intensity in the thalassaemia group compared to controls (p 2 = 0.443, p = 0.001), whereas ferritin levels and pituitary MRI values were moderately correlated (r = -0.56, r 2 = 0.32, p = 0.08) in adult thalassaemic patients. In conclusion, pituitary MRI indices as measured on T2*-weighted images seem to reflect pituitary iron overload and could, therefore, be used for a preclinical detection of patients who are in greater danger of developing hypogonadism

  2. miRNA-target chimeras reveal miRNA 3'-end pairing as a major determinant of Argonaute target specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Michael J; Scheel, Troels K H; Luna, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) act as sequence-specific guides for Argonaute (AGO) proteins, which mediate posttranscriptional silencing of target messenger RNAs. Despite their importance in many biological processes, rules governing AGO-miRNA targeting are only partially understood. Here we report a modifie...

  3. Determination of dominant biogeochemical processes in a contaminated aquifer-wetland system using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez-Cazull, S. E.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the processes governing aqueous biogeochemistry in a wetland hydrologically linked to an underlying contaminated aquifer is challenging due to the complex exchange between the systems and their distinct responses to changes in precipitation, recharge, and biological activities. To evaluate temporal and spatial processes in the wetland-aquifer system, water samples were collected using cm-scale multichambered passive diffusion samplers (peepers) to span the wetland-aquifer interface over a period of 3 yr. Samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, methane, and a suite of organic acids resulting in a large dataset of over 8000 points, which was evaluated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was chosen with the purpose of exploring the sources of variation in the dataset to expose related variables and provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that control the water chemistry of the system. Factor scores computed from PCA were mapped by date and depth. Patterns observed suggest that (i) fermentation is the process controlling the greatest variability in the dataset and it peaks in May; (ii) iron and sulfate reduction were the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes in the system and were associated with fermentation but had more complex seasonal variability than fermentation; (iii) methanogenesis was also important and associated with bacterial utilization of minerals as a source of electron acceptors (e.g., barite BaSO4); and (iv) seasonal hydrological patterns (wet and dry periods) control the availability of electron acceptors through the reoxidation of reduced iron-sulfur species enhancing iron and sulfate reduction. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. On the application of semi-Markovian processes to the unavailability analysis of majority voting protective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutuoso e Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira

    1992-01-01

    In this work the application of semi-Markovian processes to the unavailability analysis of majority voting protective systems is discussed aiming at: modeling two problems that, possess practical relevance: explicit consideration of test intervals and possibility of including nonexponential repair times. Initially, protective systems up to 5 channels are modeled considering intervals between tests by means of a Markovian model in or.der to take into account the possibility of high demand rates. This model is a new extension of previous ones already published in the literature. The above mentioned Markovian model allows for considering either that the failure of a single channel is re by a real system demand or, alternatively, the failure is revealed only when k channels are found failed. Practical implications of this policies are important as they allow for different system actuation policies to be discussed and evaluated. A computer co de named RAMPSMM has been written in order to perform the aforementioned analysis. Results for different system configurations are shown and compared to published results concerning one and two channels. Those results agree adequately and the effect of higher demand rates on the systems is acknowledged. Next, a new semi-Markovian model for the the intervals between tests is discussed. The reason for employing it is that it describes a time interval that is constant, so that its describing process is not Markovian anymore. The model takes into account the influence of different parameters and repair policies as, for example, demand rate (considering the possibility of test overrides), staggered and sequential test policies and so on. l' Another consideration is made concerning the possibility of nonexponential ,- repair times. These kind of repair times are modeled by means of negative binomial distributions which correspond to discretized gamma densities assumed for the repair times. A second computer code named RAMPSSM has been

  5. Process of quantity determination of uranium by chromatography in liquid zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.P.; Cojean, J.; Daubizit, M.

    1993-01-01

    The invention concerns a process of quantity determination of uranium by chromatography in liquid zone, usable to determine the quantity of uranium traces. Solutions to be treated can be aqueous or organic

  6. The determination of major and some minor constituents in lead zirconate-titanate compositions by x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Willigen, J.H.H.G.; Kruidhof, H.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1972-01-01

    An accurate X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of lead, zirconium and titanium in lead zirconate-titanate ceramics. Careful matching of samples and standards by a borax fusion method resulted in a relative standard deviation of about 0.2% for the major

  7. RhoA/ROCK pathway is the major molecular determinant of basal tone in intact human internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of molecular control mechanisms underlying the basal tone in the intact human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is critical for the pathophysiology and rational therapy for a number of debilitating rectoanal motility disorders. We determined the role of RhoA/ROCK and PKC pathways by comparing the effects of ROCK- and PKC-selective inhibitors Y 27632 and Gö 6850 (10(-8) to 10(-4) M), respectively, on the basal tone in the IAS vs. the rectal smooth muscle (RSM). Western blot studies were performed to determine the levels of RhoA/ROCK II, PKC-α, MYPT1, CPI-17, and MLC(20) in the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms, in the IAS vs. RSM. Confocal microscopic studies validated the membrane distribution of ROCK II. Finally, to confirm a direct relationship, we examined the enzymatic activities and changes in the basal IAS tone and p-MYPT1, p-CPI-17, and p-MLC(20), before and after Y 27632 and Gö 6850. Data show higher levels of RhoA/ROCK II and related downstream signal transduction proteins in the IAS vs. RSM. In addition, data show a significant correlation between the active RhoA/ROCK levels, ROCK enzymatic activity, downstream proteins, and basal IAS tone, before and after ROCK inhibitor. From these data we conclude 1) RhoA/ROCK and downstream signaling are constitutively active in the IAS, and this pathway (in contrast with PKC) is the critical determinant of the basal tone in intact human IAS; and 2) RhoA and ROCK are potential therapeutic targets for a number of rectoanal motility disorders for which currently there is no satisfactory treatment.

  8. Palaeo-precipitation is a major determinant of palm species richness patterns across Madagascar: a tropical biodiversity hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Baker, William J.; Dransfield, John; Moat, Justin; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of rainforest in many regions across the Earth was strongly affected by Pleistocene ice ages. However, the extent to which these dynamics are still important for modern-day biodiversity patterns within tropical biodiversity hotspots has not been assessed. We employ a comprehensive dataset of Madagascan palms (Arecaceae) and climate reconstructions from the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) to assess the relative role of modern environment and LGM climate in explaining geographical species richness patterns in this major tropical biodiversity hotspot. We found that palaeoclimate exerted a strong influence on palm species richness patterns, with richness peaking in areas with higher LGM precipitation relative to present-day even after controlling for modern environment, in particular in northeastern Madagascar, consistent with the persistence of tropical rainforest during the LGM primarily in this region. Our results provide evidence that diversity patterns in the World's most biodiverse regions may be shaped by long-term climate history as well as contemporary environment. PMID:23427173

  9. The major clinical determinants of maternal death among obstetric near-miss patients: a tertiary centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Y.; Yilmaz, E.; Celik, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of obstetric near-miss patients to clarify the major risk factors of maternal mortality. Methods: From among the patients referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Inonu University of Medical Sciences, Turkey, between August 1, 2010 and March 1, 2012, electronic records of obstetric near-miss cases were retrospectively analysed. The obstetric and demographic characteristics of cases that were successfully treated (Group 1) as well as cases with maternal death (Group 2) were analysed and compared. SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 2687 cases handled during the study period, 95 (3.53%) were of the near-miss nature. The most frequently encountered underlying aetiology was severe preeclampsia (n=55; 57.89%) and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count syndrome (n=20; 21.1%). These were followed by cases of postpartum bleeding (n=18; 18.9%). Maternal mortality occurred in 10 (10.5%) patients, representing Group 2. The amount of haemorrhage and blood transfused were significantly higher in the group. Maternal mortality cases had also significantly longer duration of intensive care unit admission. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and immediate management of the complications noted by the study can be the most important measures to prevent the occurrence of mortality. (author)

  10. The fusion protein of wild-type canine distemper virus is a major determinant of persistent infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattet, Philippe; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Zuber, BenoIt; Brunner, Jean-Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Wittek, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    The wild-type A75/17 canine distemper virus (CDV) strain induces a persistent infection in the central nervous system but infects cell lines very inefficiently. In contrast, the genetically more distant Onderstepoort CDV vaccine strain (OP-CDV) induces extensive syncytia formation. Here, we investigated the roles of wild-type fusion (F WT ) and attachment (H WT ) proteins in Vero cells expressing, or not, the canine SLAM receptor by transfection experiments and by studying recombinants viruses expressing different combinations of wild-type and OP-CDV glycoproteins. We show that low fusogenicity is not due to a defect of the envelope proteins to reach the cell surface and that H WT determines persistent infection in a receptor-dependent manner, emphasizing the role of SLAM as a potent enhancer of fusogenicity. However, importantly, F WT reduced cell-to-cell fusion independently of the cell surface receptor, thus demonstrating that the fusion protein of the neurovirulent A75/17-CDV strain plays a key role in determining persistent infection

  11. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides and their major degradation product residues in food samples by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Lu, Ying; Mmereki, Daniel; Zhong, Zhihui

    2016-10-01

    A simple method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) was developed for the extraction of chlorpyrifos (CP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), and their main degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in tomato and cucumber samples. The determination was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). In the DSPE-DLLME-SFO, the analytes were first extracted with acetone. The clean-up of the extract by DSPE was carried out by directly adding activated carbon sorbent into the extract solution, followed by shaking and filtration. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method was sensitive and showed a good linearity within a range of 2-500 ng/g, with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9991 to 0.9996. The enrichment factors ranged from 127 to 138. The limit of detections (LODs) were in the range of 0.12-0.68 ng/g, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 50 ng/g of each analytes in tomato samples were in the range of 3.25-6.26 % (n = 5). The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the mentioned analytes residues in tomato and cucumber samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  12. Major differences in prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany: determinants and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper-Nybelen, J; Lamerz, A; Bruning, N; Hebebrand, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Brenner, H

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany, and to establish the determinants responsible for differences in body mass index. The study was performed within the context of the 2001/2002 obligatory health examination before school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany. Of 2020 eligible children 1979 children were recruited (participation rate: 98%). Children's height and weight were measured using a standardised protocol. The parents completed a standardised questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and possible determinants of nutritional status. Being overweight was defined according to age and sex specific reference values for German children as well as according to international reference values. The study population included 452 (22.9%) children with other than German nationality. Among these children the prevalence of overweight was twice as high than among German children (14.8% v 7.2%). Prevalence of most known risk factors for overweight, such as low physical activity, high consumption of soft drinks, and frequent visits to fast-food restaurants was higher in the children with other nationalities than in the German children. Multivariate analyses revealed that most of the difference in prevalence of obesity by nationality is explained by known risk factors of overweight, especially education of mother and watching TV. The apparent ethnic differences could be explained by two non-ethnic but socioeconomic factors. In preventing overweight in children, there is the need to identify and deal with high risk environments rather than high risk ethnic groups.

  13. Risk-based Strategy to Determine Testing Requirement for the Removal of Residual Process Reagents as Process-related Impurities in Bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Li, Kim; Miller, Karen; Raghani, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to recommend a risk-based strategy for determining clearance testing requirements of the process reagents used in manufacturing biopharmaceutical products. The strategy takes account of four risk factors. Firstly, the process reagents are classified into two categories according to their safety profile and history of use: generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and potential safety concern (PSC) reagents. The clearance testing of GRAS reagents can be eliminated because of their safe use historically and process capability to remove these reagents. An estimated safety margin (Se) value, a ratio of the exposure limit to the estimated maximum reagent amount, is then used to evaluate the necessity for testing the PSC reagents at an early development stage. The Se value is calculated from two risk factors, the starting PSC reagent amount per maximum product dose (Me), and the exposure limit (Le). A worst-case scenario is assumed to estimate the Me value, that is common. The PSC reagent of interest is co-purified with the product and no clearance occurs throughout the entire purification process. No clearance testing is required for this PSC reagent if its Se value is ≥1; otherwise clearance testing is needed. Finally, the point of the process reagent introduction to the process is also considered in determining the necessity of the clearance testing for process reagents. How to use the measured safety margin as a criterion for determining PSC reagent testing at process characterization, process validation, and commercial production stages are also described. A large number of process reagents are used in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing to control the process performance. Clearance testing for all of the process reagents will be an enormous analytical task. In this article, a risk-based strategy is described to eliminate unnecessary clearance testing for majority of the process reagents using four risk factors. The risk factors included

  14. Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2012-07-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major α-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, α-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified α-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the α-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the α-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major α-DC with concentrations up to 730 μg/mL HFCS. The total α-DC content ranged from 293 μg/mL to 1,130 μg/mL HFCS. Significantly different α-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the

  15. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Cognitive and emotional processing of pleasant and unpleasant experiences in major depression: A matter of vantage point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaltz, Monique C; Wu, Gwyneth W Y; Liu, Guanyu; Tankersley, Amelia P; Stilley, Ashley M; Plichta, Michael M; McNally, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    In nonclinical populations, adopting a third-person perspective as opposed to a first-person perspective while analyzing negative emotional experiences fosters understanding of these experiences and reduces negative emotional reactivity. We assessed whether this generalizes to people with major depression (MD). Additionally, we assessed whether the emotion-reducing effects of adopting a third-person perspective also occur when subjects with MD and HC subjects analyze positive experiences. Seventy-two MD subjects and 82 HC subjects analyzed a happy and a negative experience from either a first-person or a third-person perspective. Unexpectedly, we found no emotion-reducing effects of third-person perspective in either group thinking about negative events. However, across groups, third-person perspective was associated with less recounting of negative experiences and with a clearer, more coherent understanding of them. Negative affect decreased and positive affect increased in both groups analyzing happy experiences. In MD subjects, decreases in depressive affect were stronger for the third-person perspective. In both groups, positive affect increased and negative affect decreased more strongly for the third-person perspective. While reflecting on their positive memory, MD subjects adopted their assigned perspective for a shorter amount of time (70%) than HC subjects (78%). However, percentage of time participants adopted their assigned perspective was unrelated to the significant effects we found. Both people suffering from MD and healthy individuals may benefit from processing pleasant experiences, especially when adopting a self-distant perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and 125 I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000

  18. Selective Constraints on Coding Sequences of Nervous System Genes Are a Major Determinant of Duplicate Gene Retention in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Julien; Liu, Jialin; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2017-11-01

    The evolutionary history of vertebrates is marked by three ancient whole-genome duplications: two successive rounds in the ancestor of vertebrates, and a third one specific to teleost fishes. Biased loss of most duplicates enriched the genome for specific genes, such as slow evolving genes, but this selective retention process is not well understood. To understand what drives the long-term preservation of duplicate genes, we characterized duplicated genes in terms of their expression patterns. We used a new method of expression enrichment analysis, TopAnat, applied to in situ hybridization data from thousands of genes from zebrafish and mouse. We showed that the presence of expression in the nervous system is a good predictor of a higher rate of retention of duplicate genes after whole-genome duplication. Further analyses suggest that purifying selection against the toxic effects of misfolded or misinteracting proteins, which is particularly strong in nonrenewing neural tissues, likely constrains the evolution of coding sequences of nervous system genes, leading indirectly to the preservation of duplicate genes after whole-genome duplication. Whole-genome duplications thus greatly contributed to the expansion of the toolkit of genes available for the evolution of profound novelties of the nervous system at the base of the vertebrate radiation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. [Rapid determination of major and trace elements in the salt lake clay minerals by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Meng, Qing-Fen; Dong, Ya-Ping; Chen, Mei-Da; Li, Wu

    2010-03-01

    A rapid multi-element analysis method for clay mineral samples was described. This method utilized a polarized wave-length dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer--Axios PW4400, which had a maximum tube power of 4 000 watts. The method was developed for the determination of As, Mn, Co, Cu, Cr, Dy, Ga, Mo, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ni, ,Cs, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr, MgO, K2O, Na2O, CaO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2 and so on. Thirty elements in clay mineral species were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with pressed powder pellets. Spectral interferences, in particular the indirect interferences of each element, were studied. A method to distinguish the interference between each other periodic elements in element periodic table was put forward. The measuring conditions and existence were mainly investigated, and the selected background position as well as corrected spectral overlap for the trace elements were also discussed. It was found that the indirect spectral overlap line was the same important as direct spectral overlap line. Due to inducing the effect of indirect spectral overlap, some elements jlike Bi, Sn, W which do not need analysis were also added to the elements channel. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was in the range of 0.01% to 5.45% except three elements Mo, Cs and Ta. The detection limits, precisions and accuracies for most elements using this method can meet the requirements of sample analysis in clay mineral species.

  20. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in deep-seawater salts by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Itoh, Akihide; Ji, Shan; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2002-01-01

    Major-to-ultratrace elements in deep-seawater salts were determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, after they were separated into the water-soluble, acid-soluble, and insoluble particle components. Deep-seawater salts were prepared from seawater collected at 344 m deep near the off-shore of Cape Muroto in Kochi Prefecture. The major and minor elements in salts were determined by ICP-AES after appropriate dilution with pure water. Trace and ultratrace elements in the water-soluble and acid-soluble components were preconcentrated by a chelating resin preconcentration method. In addition, the major to-ultratrace elements in the insoluble particle component were determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, after acid-digestion using HNO 3 /HF/HClO 4 . As a result, 21-35 elements in deep-seawater salts could be determined over the wide concentration range. It was found that the elements, such as Al, V, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements, were more abundant in the acid-soluble component of deep-seawater salts, which may play some essential roles in physiological effectiveness for intake of salt. (author)

  1. Intelligent methods for the process parameter determination of plastic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huang; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Xundao; Li, Dequn

    2018-03-01

    Injection molding is one of the most widely used material processing methods in producing plastic products with complex geometries and high precision. The determination of process parameters is important in obtaining qualified products and maintaining product quality. This article reviews the recent studies and developments of the intelligent methods applied in the process parameter determination of injection molding. These intelligent methods are classified into three categories: Case-based reasoning methods, expert system- based methods, and data fitting and optimization methods. A framework of process parameter determination is proposed after comprehensive discussions. Finally, the conclusions and future research topics are discussed.

  2. Spatial Factors Play a Major Role as Determinants of Endemic Ground Beetle Beta Diversity of Madeira Island Laurisilva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José C.; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A. S.; Rego, Carla; de Faria e Silva, Israel; Amorim, Isabel R.; Pereira, Fernando; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Serrano, Artur R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The development in recent years of new beta diversity analytical approaches highlighted valuable information on the different processes structuring ecological communities. A crucial development for the understanding of beta diversity patterns was also its differentiation in two components: species turnover and richness differences. In this study, we evaluate beta diversity patterns of ground beetles from 26 sites in Madeira Island distributed throughout Laurisilva – a relict forest restricted to the Macaronesian archipelagos. We assess how the two components of ground beetle beta diversity (βrepl – species turnover and βrich - species richness differences) relate with differences in climate, geography, landscape composition matrix, woody plant species richness and soil characteristics and the relative importance of the effects of these variables at different spatial scales. We sampled 1025 specimens from 31 species, most of which are endemic to Madeira Island. A spatially explicit analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of pure environmental, pure spatial and environmental spatially structured effects on variation in ground beetle species richness and composition. Variation partitioning showed that 31.9% of species turnover (βrepl) and 40.7% of species richness variation (βrich) could be explained by the environmental and spatial variables. However, different environmental variables controlled the two types of beta diversity: βrepl was influenced by climate, disturbance and soil organic matter content whilst βrich was controlled by altitude and slope. Furthermore, spatial variables, represented through Moran’s eigenvector maps, played a significant role in explaining both βrepl and βrich, suggesting that both dispersal ability and Madeira Island complex orography are crucial for the understanding of beta diversity patterns in this group of beetles. PMID:23724065

  3. The dominant erosion processes supplying fine sediment to three major rivers in tropical Australia, the Daly (NT), Mitchell (Qld) and Flinders (Qld) Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caitcheon, Gary G.; Olley, Jon M.; Pantus, Francis; Hancock, Gary; Leslie, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    The tropics of northern Australia have received relatively little attention with regard to the impact of soil erosion on the many large river systems that are an important part of Australia's water resource, especially given the high potential for erosion when long dry seasons are followed by intense wet season rain. Here we use 137Cs concentrations to determine the erosion processes supplying sediment to two major northern Australian Rivers; the Daly River (Northern Territory), and the Mitchell River (Queensland). We also present data from five sediment samples collected from a 100 km reach of the Cloncurry River, a major tributary of the Flinders River (Queensland). Concentrations of 137Cs in the surface soil and subsurface (channel banks and gully) samples were used to derive 'best fit' probability density functions describing their distributions. These modelled distributions are then used to estimate the relative contribution of these two components to the river sediments. Our results are consistent with channel and gully erosion being the dominant source of sediment, with more than 90% of sediment transported along the main stem of these rivers originating from subsoil. We summarize the findings of similar studies on tropical Australian rivers and conclude that the primary source of sediment delivered to these systems is gully and channel bank erosion. Previously, as a result of catchment scale modelling, sheet-wash and rill erosion was considered to be the major sediment source in these rivers. Identifying the relative importance of sediment sources, as shown in this paper, will provide valuable information for land management planning in the region. This study also reinforces the importance of testing model predictions before they are used to target investment in remedial action.

  4. Symptom-specific course trajectories and their determinants in primary care patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Evidence for two etiologically distinct prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, K J; Monden, R; Conradi, H J; de Jonge, P

    2015-07-01

    The course-heterogeneity of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) hampers development of better prognostic models. Although latent class growth analyses (LCGA) have been used to explain course-heterogeneity, such analyses have failed to also account for symptom-heterogeneity of depressive symptoms. Therefore, the aim was to identify more specific data-driven subgroups based on patterns of course-trajectories on different depressive symptom domains. In primary care MDD patients (n=205), the presence of the MDD criterion symptoms was determined for each week during a year. Weekly 'mood/cognition' (MC) and 'somatic' (SOM) scores were computed and parallel processes-LCGA (PP-LCGA) was used to identify subgroups based on the course on these domains. The classes׳ associations with baseline predictors and 2-/3-year outcomes were investigated. PP-LCGA identified four classes: quick recovery, persisting SOM, persisting MC, and persisting SOM+MC (chronic). Persisting SOM was specifically predicted by higher baseline somatic symptomatology and somatization, and was associated with more somatic depressive symptomatology at long-term follow-up. Persisting MC was specifically predicted by higher depressive severity, thinking insufficiencies, neuroticism, loneliness and lower self-esteem, and was associated with lower mental health related quality of life and more mood/cognitive depressive symptomatology at follow-up. The sample was small and contained only primary care MDD patients. The weekly depression assessments were collected retrospectively at 3-month intervals. The results indicate that there are two specific prototypes of depression, characterized by either persisting MC or persisting SOM, which have different sets of associated prognostic factors and long-term outcomes, and could have different etiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of multivariate calibration for simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in U3Si2 by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Silva, Clayton P.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish and validate a methodology for a nondestructive quantitative chemical analysis method for simultaneous determination of the major constituents (U total and Si) and impurities (B, Mg, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd,etc.) present in U 3 Si 2 . The method must also meet the needs of nuclear reactors for the nuclear fuel qualification type,MTR, with low cost and analysis time, while also minimizing waste generation. For this purpose, an X-ray fluorescence technique will be applied. The technique is nondestructive,aside from sample preparation procedures that do not require previous chemical treatments (dissolving, digesting), and allows for fast chemical analysis. The fundamental parameters (FP) method was applied to corrections for spectral and matrix effects. The calibration model was obtained via principal component analysis using orthogonal decomposition by the singular value decomposition method (SVD) in U 3 O 8 and U 3 Si 2 samples. The results were compared by means of statistical tests in accordance with ISO 17025 on CRMs of U 3 O 8 from New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) and 16 U 3 Si 2 samples provided by CCN of IPEN/CNEN-SP. Multivariate calibration is a promising method for determination of major and minor constituents inU 3 Si 2 and U 3 O 8 nuclear fuel, because the precision and accuracy are statistically equivalent to volumetric analysis (U total determination), gravimetric analysis (Si determination), and ICP-OES methods (impurities determination). (author)

  6. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Oguri, Sachiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spinach samples (0.5 g) were digested with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The decomposed samples were dissolved in a 1 M ( = mol dm -3 ) HNO 3 solution containing internal standard elements (Ge, In, and Re, 10 ppb each), and were subjected to multielement analyses by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. As a result, about 40 elements were successfully determined over a wide concentration range from % to ppb level. Spinach samples grown in different production areas were also analyzed in order to understand the influences of the environmental conditions on growth. Among the major and minor elements, the values of the coefficient of variance (CV) for B, Mg, P, and K were < 20%, and those for Ca, Na, Al, and Mn were higher than 50%. On the other hand, the values of CV for trace and ultratrace elements were significantly high. Furthermore, the present analytical method was also applied to the determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in various vegetable samples (23 species in 11 families); the similarities and differences of the elemental distributions in vegetables were found in the experimental results. (author)

  7. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokura, Akiko; Oguri, Sachiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spinach samples (0.5 g) were digested with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The decomposed samples were dissolved in a 1 M ( = mol dm{sup -3}) HNO{sub 3} solution containing internal standard elements (Ge, In, and Re, 10 ppb each), and were subjected to multielement analyses by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. As a result, about 40 elements were successfully determined over a wide concentration range from % to ppb level. Spinach samples grown in different production areas were also analyzed in order to understand the influences of the environmental conditions on growth. Among the major and minor elements, the values of the coefficient of variance (CV) for B, Mg, P, and K were < 20%, and those for Ca, Na, Al, and Mn were higher than 50%. On the other hand, the values of CV for trace and ultratrace elements were significantly high. Furthermore, the present analytical method was also applied to the determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in various vegetable samples (23 species in 11 families); the similarities and differences of the elemental distributions in vegetables were found in the experimental results. (author)

  8. Multiclass pesticide determination in olives and their processing factors in olive oil: comparison of different olive oil extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrazi, Elpiniki G; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2008-07-23

    The processing factors (pesticide concentration found in olive oil/pesticide concentration found in olives) of azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, dimethoate, endosulfan, and fenthion were determined in olive oil production process in various laboratory-scale olive oil extractions based on three- or two-phase centrifugation systems in comparison with samples collected during olive oil extractions in conventional olive mills located at different olive oil production areas in Greece. Pesticide analyses were performed using a multiresidue method developed in our laboratory for the determination of different insecticides and herbicides in olive oil by solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to gas chromatography detection (electron capture detection and nitrogen phosphorus detection), optimized, and validated for olive fruits sample preparation. Processing factors were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. Water addition in the oil extraction procedure (as in a three-phase centrifugation system) was found to decrease the processing factors of dimethoate, alpha-endosulfan, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, whereas those of fenthion, azinphos methyl, beta-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin residues were not affected. The water content of olives processed was found to proportionally affect pesticide processing factors. Fenthion sulfoxide and endosulfan sulfate were the major metabolites of fenthion and endosulfan, respectively, that were detected in laboratory-produced olive oils, but only the concentration of fenthion sulfoxide was found to increase with the increase of water addition in the olive oil extraction process.

  9. 40 CFR 63.115 - Process vent provisions-methods and procedures for process vent group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section. (2) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40... accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters, or physical or chemical laws or...)(3) of this section. (i) The vent stream volumetric flow rate (Qs), in standard cubic meters per...

  10. Historical evolution of process safety and major-accident hazards prevention in Spain. Contribution of the pioneer Joaquim Casal.

    OpenAIRE

    Planas Cuchi, Eulàlia; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Muñoz Messineo, Miguel Ángel; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting the evolution of process safety in Spain from various points of view. In first place, a study of the accidents occurred in this country in the process industry and in the transportation of chemical substances is presented. After this, the starting point of the process safety research in Spain and its evolution during the years are explained. The importance of this topic has also been reflected in the chemical engineering studies in some Spanish universities. Ther...

  11. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  12. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  13. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  14. Development and application of radioimmunological methods to determine an anabolic compound (trenboloneacetate sup(R)) and its major metabolite (trenbolone) in various tissues and in bovine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettel, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    For quantitation of the anabolic compound trenboloneacetate sup(R)(TBA) and its major metabolite trenbolone (TBOH) a radioimmunoassay (RIA) was established after raising antibodies in rabbits immunized with TBA-3-(o-carboxi-methyl)-oxime-BSA and TBOH-17β-hemisuccinate-BSA. In order to apply this assay for residue determinations in muscle, liver kidney and fat as well as in plasma of treated animals specific extraction procedures were developed. Specifity, sensitivity, accuracy and reproductibility were tested and the developed methods were shown to be highly reliable. Besides free also conjugated TBOH could be determined after enzyme hydrolysis. The lower limit of sensitivity was around 45 pg; at present 100 tissue samples can be analyzed by one person during one week. With the methods described tissue and plasma samples of 41 heifer calves, 10 bull calves and two steers were analyzed for residues of TBA and TBOH. The animals were treated with various dosages of TBA, alone or in combination with oestradiol-17β. In treated animals the highest residue levels were found in liver, with conjugated TBOH being the major residue fraction (76,4%). Second ranking after liver were fat and kidney tissue with similarly high total residue concentrations, however, free TBOH being the major residue fraction (84,1%) in fat, while each, free and conjugated TBOH, accounted for about 50% in kidney. Lowest residue concentrations with free TBOH being the major residue fraction (91,5%) were found in general in muscular tissue. TBA could only be quantitated in fat (14.2% of total residues). (orig.) [de

  15. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Marietta, GA; Chai, Xin Sheng [Atlanta, GA; Zhu, Junyoung [Marietta, GA

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  16. Basic processes and factors determining the evolution of collapse sinkholes: a sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Douchko; Kaufmann, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Collapse sinkholes appear as closed depressions at the surface. The origin of these karst features is related to the continuous dissolution of the soluble rock caused by a focussed sub-surface flow. Water flowing along a preferential pathway through fissures and fractures within the phreatic part of a karst aquifer is able to dissolve the rock (limestone, gypsum, anhydrite). With time, the dissolved void volume increases and part of the ceiling above the stream can become unstable, collapses, and accumulates as debris in the flow path. The debris partially blocks the flow and thus activates new pathways. Because of the low compaction of the debris (high hydraulic conductivity), the flow and the dissolution rates within this crushed zone remain high. This allows a relatively fast dissolutional and erosional removal of the crushed material and the development of new empty voids. The void volume expands upwards towards the surface until a collapse sinkhole is formed. The collapse sinkholes exhibit a large variety of shapes (cylindrical, cone-, bowl-shaped), depths (from few to few hundred meters) and diameters (meters up to hundreds of meters). Two major processes are responsible for this diversity: a) the karst evolution of the aquifer - responsible for the dissolutional and erosional removal of material; b) the mechanical evolution of the host rock and the existence of structural features, faults for example, which determine the stability and the magnitude of the subsequent collapses. In this work we demonstrate the influence of the host rock type, the hydrological and geological boundary conditions, the chemical composition of the flowing water, and the geometry and the scale of the crushed zone, on the location and the evolution of the growing sinkhole. We demonstrate the ability of the karst evolution models to explain, at least qualitatively, the growth and the morphology of the collapse sinkholes and to roughly predict their shape and location. Implementing

  17. Indirect Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Major Rivers in the World: Integration of a Process-based Model with Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Yao, Y.; Xu, R.; Yang, J.; WANG, Z.; Pan, S.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of major greenhouse gases, has increased over 121% compared with the preindustrial level, and most of the increase arises from anthropogenic activities. Previous studies suggested that indirect emissions from global rivers remains a large source of uncertainty among all the N2O sources and restricted the assessment of N2O budget at both regional and global scales. Here, we have integrated a coupled biogeochemical model (DLEM) with observational data to quantify the magnitude and spatio-temporal variation of riverine N2O emission and attribute the environmental controls of indirect N2O emission from major rivers in the world. Our preliminary results indicate that the magnitude of indirect N2O emission from rivers is closely associated with the stream orders. To include N2O emissions from headwater streams is essential for reducing uncertainty in the estimation of indirect N2O emission. By implementing a set of factorial simulations, we have further quantified the relative contributions of climate, nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fertilizer use, and manure application to riverine N2O emission. Finally, this study has identified major knowledge gaps and uncertainties associated with model structure, parameters and input data that need to be improved in future research.

  18. Determinants of Successful Acquisition Management: A Process Perspective in the Lodging Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung-Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to uncover the critical success factors that have significant value-added impacts on corporate acquisitions in the lodging industry. Specifically, this study attempted to systematically discover evidence about the determinants of a successful pre-acquisition management process, and the determinants of successful post-acquisition integration, as well as to identify an appropriate evaluation criteria for determining the post-acquisition performance of an acquisit...

  19. 15 CFR 971.210 - Determination whether application is complete for further processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... complete for further processing. 971.210 Section 971.210 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR... for further processing. Upon receipt of an application, the Administrator will review it to determine...

  20. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X Ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA09: Determination of Major, Minor and Trace Elements in a River Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test PTXRFIAEA09 on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in river clay. Methodologies, a data evaluation approach, a summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out within the IAEA project Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance the capability of interest Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health and agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluating environmental pollution

  1. Development of a validated HPLC method for the determination of sennoside A and B, two major constituents of Cassia obovata Coll.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassemi-Dehkordi Nasrollah; Ghanadian Mustafa; Arabha Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cassia obovata Coll is the only Senna species which grows wild in Iran. In the present study, an optimised reverse High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) validated method was established for quantification of sennosides A and B, the major constituents of C. obovata with a simple and accurate method. Methods: HPLC analysis was done using Waters 515 pump on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 × 150 mm). Millennium software was used for the determination of the sennoside A and B in Cassia s...

  2. Benefit-risk trade-offs in retrospect: how major stakeholders perceive the decision-making process in the Barents Sea oil field development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renn, Ortwin; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Øien, Knut

    2013-01-01

    review of the decision-making process seen through the lenses of the major stakeholders involved in this process. The research design used qualitative methods of empirical research including stakeholder interviews during a five-day period in 2011 in Northern Norway. Results showed that the siting process...... additional benefits to the communities which would then be fairly distributed among the beneficiaries have been disappointed. We review the reasons behind these results as well as formulate recommendations regarding potential improvements to the risk-benefit communication process in addition to future siting...

  3. Determination of properties of clean coal technology post-process residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities of using modern measuring devices to determine the properties of process residues (Polish acronym: UPP. UPP was taken from the combustion process from a power plant in Silesia. Determining the properties of UPP is the basis for making decisions about its practical application, for example, as a raw material to obtain useful products such as: pozzolan, cenosphere or zeolite, for which there is demand. The development of advanced technology and science has given rise to modern and precise research tools that contribute to the development of appropriate methods to assess the properties of post-process residue. For this study the following were used: scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis and an analyzer for particle size-, shape- and number- analysis. The study conducted confirms the effectiveness of SEM analysis to determine the properties of post-process residue from Clean Coal Technologies (CCT. The results obtained are an introduction to further research on the determination of properties of CCT post-process residue. Research to determine the properties of CCT post-process residue only began relatively recently.

  4. Measuring and improving the quality of postoperative epidural analgesia for major abdominal surgery using statistical process control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Fiona; Haigh, Carol

    2013-10-01

    To explore and improve the quality of continuous epidural analgesia for pain relief using Statistical Process Control tools. Measuring the quality of pain management interventions is complex. Intermittent audits do not accurately capture the results of quality improvement initiatives. The failure rate for one intervention, epidural analgesia, is approximately 30% in everyday practice, so it is an important area for improvement. Continuous measurement and analysis are required to understand the multiple factors involved in providing effective pain relief. Process control and quality improvement Routine prospectively acquired data collection started in 2006. Patients were asked about their pain and side effects of treatment. Statistical Process Control methods were applied for continuous data analysis. A multidisciplinary group worked together to identify reasons for variation in the data and instigated ideas for improvement. The key measure for improvement was a reduction in the percentage of patients with an epidural in severe pain. The baseline control charts illustrated the recorded variation in the rate of several processes and outcomes for 293 surgical patients. The mean visual analogue pain score (VNRS) was four. There was no special cause variation when data were stratified by surgeons, clinical area or patients who had experienced pain before surgery. Fifty-seven per cent of patients were hypotensive on the first day after surgery. We were able to demonstrate a significant improvement in the failure rate of epidurals as the project continued with quality improvement interventions. Statistical Process Control is a useful tool for measuring and improving the quality of pain management. The applications of Statistical Process Control methods offer the potential to learn more about the process of change and outcomes in an Acute Pain Service both locally and nationally. We have been able to develop measures for improvement and benchmarking in routine care that

  5. Solar Ion Processing of Major Element Surface Compositions of Mature Mare Soils: Insights from Combined XPS and Analytical TEM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Keller, L. P.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind ions are capable of altering the sur-face chemistry of the lunar regolith by a number of mechanisms including preferential sputtering, radiation-enhanced diffusion and sputter erosion of space weathered surfaces containing pre-existing compositional profiles. We have previously reported in-situ ion irradiation experiments supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytical TEM that show how solar ions potentially drive Fe and Ti reduction at the monolayer scale as well as the 10-100 nm depth scale in lunar soils [1]. Here we report experimental data on the effect of ion irradiation on the major element surface composition in a mature mare soil.

  6. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  7. Resource use efficiency and environmental performance of nine major biofuel crops, processed by first-generation conversion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, Sander C.; van de Ven, Gerrie W.J.; van Ittersum, Martin K.; Giller, Ken E. [Plant Production Systems Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    We compared the production-ecological sustainability of biofuel production from several major crops that are also commonly used for production of food or feed, based on current production practices in major production areas. The set of nine sustainability indicators focused on resource use efficiency, soil quality, net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions, disregarding socio-economic or biodiversity aspects and land use change. Based on these nine production-ecological indicators and attributing equal importance to each indicator, biofuel produced from oil palm (South East Asia), sugarcane (Brazil) and sweet sorghum (China) appeared most sustainable: these crops make the most efficient use of land, water, nitrogen and energy resources, while pesticide applications are relatively low in relation to the net energy produced. Provided there is no land use change, greenhouse gas emissions of these three biofuels are substantially reduced compared with fossil fuels. Oil palm was most sustainable with respect to the maintenance of soil quality. Maize (USA) and wheat (Northwest Europe) as feedstock for ethanol perform poorly for nearly all indicators. Sugar beet (Northwest Europe), cassava (Thailand), rapeseed (Northwest Europe) and soybean (USA) take an intermediate position. (author)

  8. Experimentally Determining β-Decay Intensities for 103,104Nb to Improve R-process Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombas, J.; Deyoung, P. D.; Spyrou, A.; Dombos, A. C.; Lyons, S.; SuN Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is responsible for the formation of nuclei heavier than iron. This process is theorized to occur in supernovas and/or neutron star mergers. R-process calculations require the accurate knowledge of a significant amount of nuclear properties, the majority of which are not known experimentally. Nuclear masses, β-decay properties and neutron-capture reactions are all input ingredients into r-process models. This present study focuses on the β decay of 103Nb and 104Nb. The β decay of 103Nb and 104Nb, two nuclei found in the r-process, were observed at the NSCL using the Summing NaI (SuN) detector. An unstable beam implanted inside SuN. The γ rays were measured in coincidence with the emitted electrons. The β-decay intensity function was then extracted. The experimentally determined functions for 103Nb and 104Nb will be compared to predictions made by the Quasi Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) model. These theoretical calculations are used in astrophysical models of the r-process. This comparison will lead to a better understanding of the nuclear structure for 103Nb and 104Nb. A more dependable prediction of the formation of heavier nuclei birthed from supernovas or neutron star mergers can then be made. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1613188 and PHY-1306074, and by the Hope College Department of Physics Guess Research Fund.

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFICACY OF BEST ACTION, FURADAN, AND NEEM EMULSION IN THE CONTROL OF MAJOR INSECT PESTS OF COWPEA [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments to determine the efficacy of Best Action (30g/litre cypermethrine plus 250g/litre dimethoate as water emulsifiable concentrates, Furadan 10G (carbofuran, Neem emulsion (Azadiracta indica as insecticide treatments in the control of major insect pests of cowpea were conducted in two agro-environments simultaneously in Enugu Area, South Eastern Nigeria in 2014 cropping season using two cowpea varieties (Ife brown, and Potiskum as test crops. The experimental design was a split plot in a randomized compete block (RCB replicated three times. Best Action was more effective in controlling cowpea insect pests, followed by Furandan 10G, and Neem emulsion respectively and their effectiveness was not affected by climatic factors variations in the two agro-environments (Nsukka and Agbani. Ife brown and Potiskum did not significantly resist the attack of major insect pests of cowpea. Insecticides and cowpea varieties did not have a significant interaction effect on the control of major insect pests of cowpea.

  10. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi-elemental composition of green tea leaves as well as chemical species in tea infusions, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for elemental analysis and elemental speciation with the aid of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). As a result, the multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves and green tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements in these tea samples could be determined in a wide concentration range of over 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusion to that in tea leaves. It was found from the experimental results that the elements in tea leaves could be classified into three characteristic groups, depending on their extraction efficiencies. Furthermore, tea infusions were analyzed by a combined system of SEC, UV absorption detector, and ICP-AES (or ICP-MS) for the speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements. Most of the elements in tea infusions were found to be present as associated complexes with large organic molecules. (author)

  11. Factors that influence the way local communities respond to consultation processes about major service change: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A; Raine, Rosalind; Fulop, Naomi J

    2015-09-01

    In England, proposed service changes such as Emergency Department closures typically face local opposition. Consequently, public consultation exercises often involve protracted, hostile debates. This study examined a process aimed at engaging a community in decision-making about service reconfiguration, and the public response to this process. A documentary analysis was conducted to map consultation methods used in an urban area of England where plans to consolidate hospital services on fewer sites were under discussion. In-depth interviews (n=20) were conducted with parents, older people, and patient representatives. The analysis combined inductive and deductive approaches, informed by risk communication theories. The commissioners provided a large volume of information about the changes, alongside a programme of public events. However, the complexity of the process, together with what members of the public perceived to be the commissioners' dismissal of their concerns, led the community to question their motivation. This was compounded by a widespread perception that the proposals were financially driven. Government policy emphasises the importance of clinical leadership and 'evidence' in public consultation. However, an engagement process based on this approach fuelled hostility to the proposals. Policymakers should not assume communities can be persuaded to accommodate service change which may result in reduced access to care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  13. [Research on the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-xin; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Si, Fu-qi; Dou, Ke; Wang, Feng-ping; Huang, Shu-hua; Fang, Wu; Wang, Wei-qiang; Huang, Yong-feng

    2012-05-01

    A method of copper converting process determination based on PbO/PbS emission spectrum analysis was described. According to the known emission spectrum of gas molecules, the existence of PbO and PbS was confirmed in the measured spectrum. Through the field experiment it was determined that the main emission spectrum of the slag stage was from PbS, and the main emission spectrum of the copper stage was from PbO. The relative changes in PbO/PbS emission spectrum provide the method of copper converting process determination. Through using the relative intensity in PbO/PbS emission spectrum the copper smelting process can be divided into two different stages, i.e., the slag stage (S phase) and the copper stage (B phase). In a complete copper smelting cycle, a receiving telescope of appropriate view angle aiming at the converter flame, after noise filtering on the PbO/PbS emission spectrum, the process determination agrees with the actual production. Both the theory and experiment prove that the method of copper converting process determination based on emission spectrum analysis is feasible.

  14. Determining the effective indices on export development of Iran’s office furniture thereby analytical hierarchy process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry is one of the most important employment and wealth productive industries, and also one major category in developing countries. This study aimed on determining the effective indices on export development of office furniture throughout the analytical hierarchy process (AHP and also by group decision. For this, imports and exports of office furniture were determined through visiting the custom office of Islamic Republic of Iran. By then, after initial studies, furniture industry and relevant experts were interviewed to recognize the effective indices on export development, and specified indices were categorized on six main groups and forty-eight sub-index. After receiving the comments of experts, degree of importance of indices and sub-indices determined thereby Expert Choice software. Results showed that raw material and product has been chosen among the major indices. Among the 48 influential sub-indices also product designing, guaranty and costumer services, quality control, custom tariffs, and strategic marketing had highest value-weighted priorities in export development of office furniture, respectively. Regarding to government’s policies and decisions in wood raw materials extent, monetary and banking system and marketing infrastructures, to maintain the productivity competitiveness of Iran’s furniture industry in first step, and to achieve to the export markets in second step, full cooperation of government with furniture industry is necessary provision for participating of this industry in global markets.

  15. Methodology for Determining Increases in Radionuclide Inventories for the Effluent Treatment Facility Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    A study is currently underway to determine if the Effluent Treatment Facility can be downgraded from a Hazard Category 3 facility to a Radiological Facility per DOE STD-1027-92. This technical report provides a methodology to determine and monitor increases in the radionuclide inventories of the ETF process columns. It also provides guidelines to ensure that other potential increases to the ETF radionuclide inventory are evaluated as required to ensure that the ETF remains a Radiological Facility

  16. Rapid determination of fluoride in uranyl nitrate solution obtained in conversion process of uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.; Feldman, R.; Sahar, E.

    1976-01-01

    In uranium production the conversion of impure uranium tetrafluoride by sodium hydroxide was chosen as a current process. A rapid method for determination of fluoride in uranyl-nitrate solution was developed. The method includes precipitation of uranium as diuranate, separation by centrifugation, and subsequent determination of fluoride in supernate by titration with thorium nitrate. Fluoride can be measured over the range 0.15-2.5 gr/gr U, with accuracy of +-5%, within 15 minutes. (author)

  17. Determination of optimum thermal debinding and sintering process parameters using Taguchi Method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seerane, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available powder and a wax-based binder. The binder’s backbone component is a low density polyethylene (LDPE). Careful selection of thermal debinding parameters was guided by thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA) results. The Taguchi method was used to determine... International Light Metals Technology Conference (LMT 2015), Port Elizabeth, South Africa, July 27-29 Determination of Optimum Process for Thermal Debinding and Sintering using Taguchi Method SEERANE Mandya,*, CHIKWANDA Hildab, MACHAKA Ronaldc CSIR...

  18. Determinants of Profit as the Criterion for the Evaluation of the Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Fairlie-Clarke

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three main elements of the product development process that are suitable for evaluation: the means employed, the activities and the outcomes. Most available methods provide an evaluation of the outcomes, but this can only provide retrospective information. There is a need to be able to evaluate an existing or proposed process to determine whether it will successfully meet the objectives of a particular project. This can be done by evaluating the planned activities of the process for their effectiveness in addressing the important issues in the project. These issues are called the “determinants of profit”, and a survey and trials in industry show that they provide an effective criterion against which companies can evaluate the activities of their product development process. The determinants of profit can be divided into enabling determinants, which must be addressed above a threshold value of effectiveness in order to produce a viable product, and differentiating determinants, which provide scope for competitive advantage.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN STIMULATING PRODUCT AND PROCESS INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research highlights Quality Management System (QMS has now become a recognizable guarantee of trust in certified business systems. A critical review of the literature reveals that empirical studies conducted to date have yielded conflicting findings on the relationship between quality management practices and innovation. This study empirically investigates how quality management principles may act as determinants of product and process innovations. The results show that customer focus and leadership explain a significant amount of product innovation, but not process innovation. Empirical support also finds that people management explains a significant amount of variance in both product innovation and process innovation. The findings highlight the importance of developing formal organisational mechanisms to measure levels of such quality determinants as they are easily overlooked or taken for granted. Moreover, firms need to recognise that innovation is a multi-faceted concept that can be controlled from a process or a product perspective, a distinction which is sometimes blurred.

  20. Determination of uranium and plutonium in metal conversion products from electrolytic reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Heon; Suh, Moo Yul; Joe, Kih Soo; Sohn, Se Chul; Jee, Kwang Young; Kim, Won Ho

    2005-01-01

    Chemical characterization of process materials is required for the optimization of an electrolytic reduction process in which uranium dioxide, a matrix of spent PWR fuels, is electrolytically reduced to uranium metal in a medium of LiCl-Li 2 O molten at 650 .deg. C. A study on the determination of fissile materials in the uranium metal products containing corrosion products, fission products and residual process materials has been performed by controlled-potential coulometric titration which is well known in the field of nuclear science and technology. Interference of Fe, Ni, Cr and Mg (corrosion products), Nd (fission product) and LiCl molten salt (residual process material) on the determination of uranium and plutonium, and the necessity of plutonium separation prior to the titration are discussed in detail. Under the analytical condition established already, their recovery yields are evaluated along with analytical reliability

  1. Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of thin films for a CMOS MEMS process using test cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao-Lin; Fang, Weileun; Tsai, Ming-Han

    2015-01-01

    Many standard CMOS processes, provided by existing foundries, are available. These standard CMOS processes, with stacking of various metal and dielectric layers, have been extensively applied in integrated circuits as well as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). It is of importance to determine the material properties of the metal and dielectric films to predict the performance and reliability of micro devices. This study employs an existing approach to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of metal and dielectric films for standard CMOS processes. Test cantilevers with different stacking of metal and dielectric layers for standard CMOS processes have been designed and implemented. The CTEs of standard CMOS films can be determined from measurements of the out-of-plane thermal deformations of the test cantilevers. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present approach, thin films prepared by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process are characterized. Eight test cantilevers with different stacking of CMOS layers and an auxiliary Si cantilever on a SOI wafer are fabricated. The equivalent elastic moduli and CTEs of the CMOS thin films including the metal and dielectric layers are determined, respectively, from the resonant frequency and static thermal deformation of the test cantilevers. Moreover, thermal deformations of cantilevers with stacked layers different to those of the test beams have been employed to verify the measured CTEs and elastic moduli. (paper)

  2. Giant panda genomic data provide insight into the birth-and-death process of mammalian major histocompatibility complex class II genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Hong Wan

    Full Text Available To gain an understanding of the genomic structure and evolutionary history of the giant panda major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, we determined a 636,503-bp nucleotide sequence spanning the MHC class II region. Analysis revealed that the MHC class II region from this rare species contained 26 loci (17 predicted to be expressed, of which 10 are classical class II genes (1 DRA, 2 DRB, 2 DQA, 3 DQB, 1 DYB, 1 DPA, and 2 DPB and 4 are non-classical class II genes (1 DOA, 1 DOB, 1 DMA, and 1 DMB. The presence of DYB, a gene specific to ruminants, prompted a comparison of the giant panda class II sequence with those of humans, cats, dogs, cattle, pigs, and mice. The results indicated that birth and death events within the DQ and DRB-DY regions led to major lineage differences, with absence of these regions in the cat and in humans and mice respectively. The phylogenetic trees constructed using all expressed alpha and beta genes from marsupials and placental mammals showed that: (1 because marsupials carry loci corresponding to DR, DP, DO and DM genes, those subregions most likely developed before the divergence of marsupials and placental mammals, approximately 150 million years ago (MYA; (2 conversely, the DQ and DY regions must have evolved later, but before the radiation of placental mammals (100 MYA. As a result, the typical genomic structure of MHC class II genes for the giant panda is similar to that of the other placental mammals and corresponds to BTNL2 approximately DR1 approximately DQ approximately DR2 approximately DY approximately DO_box approximately DP approximately COL11A2. Over the past 100 million years, there has been birth and death of mammalian DR, DQ, DY, and DP genes, an evolutionary process that has brought about the current species-specific genomic structure of the MHC class II region. Furthermore, facing certain similar pathogens, mammals have adopted intra-subregion (DR and DQ and inter-subregion (between DQ and DP

  3. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  4. Innovative application of the moisture analyzer for determination of dry mass content of processed cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Janas, Sławomir; Woźniak, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was the presentation of an alternative method of determination of the total dry mass content in processed cheese. The authors claim that the presented method can be used in industry's quality control laboratories for routine testing and for quick in-process control. For the test purposes both reference method of determination of dry mass in processed cheese and moisture analyzer method were used. The tests were carried out for three different kinds of processed cheese. In accordance with the reference method, the sample was placed on a layer of silica sand and dried at the temperature of 102 °C for about 4 h. The moisture analyzer test required method validation, with regard to drying temperature range and mass of the analyzed sample. Optimum drying temperature of 110 °C was determined experimentally. For Hochland cream processed cheese sample, the total dry mass content, obtained using the reference method, was 38.92%, whereas using the moisture analyzer method, it was 38.74%. An average analysis time in case of the moisture analyzer method was 9 min. For the sample of processed cheese with tomatoes, the reference method result was 40.37%, and the alternative method result was 40.67%. For the sample of cream processed cheese with garlic the reference method gave value of 36.88%, and the alternative method, of 37.02%. An average time of those determinations was 16 min. Obtained results confirmed that use of moisture analyzer is effective. Compliant values of dry mass content were obtained for both of the used methods. According to the authors, the fact that the measurement took incomparably less time for moisture analyzer method, is a key criterion of in-process control and final quality control method selection.

  5. CO 2 laser cutting of MDF . 1. Determination of process parameter settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, K. C. P.; Ng, S. L.; Black, I.

    2000-02-01

    This paper details an investigation into the laser processing of medium-density fibreboard (MDF). Part 1 reports on the determination of process parameter settings for the effective cutting of MDF by CO 2 laser, using an established experimental methodology developed to study the interrelationship between and effects of varying laser set-up parameters. Results are presented for both continuous wave (CW) and pulse mode (PM) cutting, and the associated cut quality effects have been commented on.

  6. Discovering naturally processed antigenic determinants that confer protective T cell immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchuk, Pavlo; Spencer, Charles T; Conant, Stephanie B

    2013-01-01

    and elicited protective TCD8 immunity against lethal intranasal VACV infection. Notably, efficient processing and stable presentation of immune determinants as well as the availability of naive TCD8 precursors were sufficient to drive a multifunctional, protective TCD8 response. Our approach uses fundamental...

  7. 78 FR 66885 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., Federal Subsistence Board, c/o U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Attention: Gene Peltola, Office of... harvest seasons and limits. In administering the program, the Secretaries divided Alaska into 10... public on the rural determination process and regulations, and ways to improve them for the benefit of...

  8. 77 FR 77005 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...-R7-SM-2012-N248;FXFR13350700640-134-FF07J00000] Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and Wildlife Service... the Interior initiated a review of the Federal Subsistence Management Program. An ensuing directive...

  9. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  10. Development of a process for continuous determination of aluminium in bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, A.M.R. de; Dantas, C.C.; Narain, R.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of a process to determine aluminium in Bauxite is done, when a relatively small (5 Ci) Am-Be neutron source with 10 7 n/sec giving neutron flux approximatelly 10 4 n/cm 2 .s. is used. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Determining e-Portfolio Elements in Learning Process Using Fuzzy Delphi Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Syamsul Nor Azlan; Embi, Mohamad Amin; Nordin, Norazah

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Fuzzy Delphi method results obtained in the study on determining e-Portfolio elements in learning process for art and design context. This method bases on qualified experts that assure the validity of the collected information. In particular, the confirmation of elements is based on experts' opinion and…

  12. Angiographic determination of the left-ventricular myocardial volume with the help of digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, digital image processing could for the first time be introduced as a new method to screen the myocardium in the left-ventricular angiocardiography. The method makes a reliable quantitative determination of the muscle mass of the left ventricle possible. (orig./MG) [de

  13. A dimensional approach to determine common and specific neurofunctional markers for depression and social anxiety during emotional face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lizhu; Becker, Benjamin; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Zhiying; Xu, Xiaolei; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jiaojian; Kou, Juan; Dai, Jing; Kendrick, Keith M

    2018-02-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder are both prevalent and debilitating. High rates of comorbidity between MDD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest common pathological pathways, including aberrant neural processing of interpersonal signals. In patient populations, the determination of common and distinct neurofunctional markers of MDD and SAD is often hampered by confounding factors, such as generally elevated anxiety levels and disorder-specific brain structural alterations. This study employed a dimensional disorder approach to map neurofunctional markers associated with levels of depression and social anxiety symptoms in a cohort of 91 healthy subjects using an emotional face processing paradigm. Examining linear associations between levels of depression and social anxiety, while controlling for trait anxiety revealed that both were associated with exaggerated dorsal striatal reactivity to fearful and sad expression faces respectively. Exploratory analysis revealed that depression scores were positively correlated with dorsal striatal functional connectivity during processing of fearful faces, whereas those of social anxiety showed a negative association during processing of sad faces. No linear relationships between levels of depression and social anxiety were observed during a facial-identity matching task or with brain structure. Together, the present findings indicate that dorsal striatal neurofunctional alterations might underlie aberrant interpersonal processing associated with both increased levels of depression and social anxiety. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The share of ultra-processed foods determines the overall nutritional quality of diets in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Ricardo, Camila Zancheta; Steele, Euridice Martinez; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and to determine its association with the overall nutritional quality of diets in Brazil. Cross-sectional. Brazil. A representative sample of 32 898 Brazilians aged ≥10 years was studied. Food intake data were collected. We calculated the average dietary content of individual nutrients and compared them across quintiles of energy share of ultra-processed foods. Then we identified nutrient-based dietary patterns, and evaluated the association between quintiles of dietary share of ultra-processed foods and the patterns' scores. The mean per capita daily dietary energy intake was 7933 kJ (1896 kcal), with 58·1 % from unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 10·9 % from processed culinary ingredients, 10·6 % from processed foods and 20·4 % from ultra-processed foods. Consumption of ultra-processed foods was directly associated with high consumption of free sugars and total, saturated and trans fats, and with low consumption of protein, dietary fibre, and most of the assessed vitamins and minerals. Four nutrient-based dietary patterns were identified. 'Healthy pattern 1' carried more protein and micronutrients, and less free sugars. 'Healthy pattern 2' carried more vitamins. 'Healthy pattern 3' carried more dietary fibre and minerals and less free sugars. 'Unhealthy pattern' carried more total, saturated and trans fats, and less dietary fibre. The dietary share of ultra-processed foods was inversely associated with 'healthy pattern 1' (-0·16; 95 % CI -0·17, -0·15) and 'healthy pattern 3' (-0·18; 95 % CI -0·19, -0·17), and directly associated with 'unhealthy pattern' (0·17; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·18). Dietary share of ultra-processed foods determines the overall nutritional quality of diets in Brazil.

  15. Determination of some process parameters in a tyre-cord plant using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirti; Madhavankutti, C.K.; Eapen, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    In the process industry, it is often necessary to study the process parameters such as the residence time, flow rate, etc., under different operating conditions and equipment. The tracer technique represents in this respect an outstanding and even sometimes singular means of determining some of the above parameters. A method consisting of the introduction of a radioactive tracer at the input of a flow system under study and subsequently determining the distribution of activity with time at the output end is described. The form of the activity time curve depends on the parameters of the installation and the mode of operation. A study conducted at a multi-stage viscose rayon processing plant is described in detail. (auth.)

  16. Methods for determining and processing 3D errors and uncertainties for AFM data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, P.; Nečas, D.; Campbellová, A.; Yacoot, A.; Koenders, L.

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the processing of three-dimensional (3D) scanning probe microscopy (SPM) data. It is shown that 3D volumetric calibration error and uncertainty data can be acquired for both metrological atomic force microscope systems and commercial SPMs. These data can be used within nearly all the standard SPM data processing algorithms to determine local values of uncertainty of the scanning system. If the error function of the scanning system is determined for the whole measurement volume of an SPM, it can be converted to yield local dimensional uncertainty values that can in turn be used for evaluation of uncertainties related to the acquired data and for further data processing applications (e.g. area, ACF, roughness) within direct or statistical measurements. These have been implemented in the software package Gwyddion.

  17. Methods for determining and processing 3D errors and uncertainties for AFM data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, P; Campbellová, A; Nečas, D; Yacoot, A; Koenders, L

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the processing of three-dimensional (3D) scanning probe microscopy (SPM) data. It is shown that 3D volumetric calibration error and uncertainty data can be acquired for both metrological atomic force microscope systems and commercial SPMs. These data can be used within nearly all the standard SPM data processing algorithms to determine local values of uncertainty of the scanning system. If the error function of the scanning system is determined for the whole measurement volume of an SPM, it can be converted to yield local dimensional uncertainty values that can in turn be used for evaluation of uncertainties related to the acquired data and for further data processing applications (e.g. area, ACF, roughness) within direct or statistical measurements. These have been implemented in the software package Gwyddion

  18. Fast sequential multi-element determination of major and minor elements in environmental samples and drinking waters by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Ma Jesús; Sevilla, Ma Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R

    2015-01-07

    The fast sequential multi-element determination of 11 elements present at different concentration levels in environmental samples and drinking waters has been investigated using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The main lines for Cu (324.754 nm), Zn (213.857 nm), Cd (228.802 nm), Ni (232.003 nm) and Pb (217.001 nm), main and secondary absorption lines for Mn (279.482 and 279.827 nm), Fe (248.327, 248.514 and 302.064 nm) and Ca (422.673 and 239.856 nm), secondary lines with different sensitivities for Na (589.592 and 330.237 nm) and K (769.897 and 404.414 nm) and a secondary line for Mg (202.582 nm) have been chosen to perform the analysis. A flow injection system has been used for sample introduction so sample consumption has been reduced up to less than 1 mL per element, measured in triplicate. Furthermore, the use of multiplets for Fe and the side pixel registration approach for Mg have been studied in order to reduce sensitivity and extend the linear working range. The figures of merit have been calculated and the proposed method was applied to determine these elements in a pine needles reference material (SRM 1575a), drinking and natural waters and soil extracts. Recoveries of analytes added at different concentration levels to water samples and extracts of soils were within 88-115% interval. In this way, the fast sequential multi-element determination of major and minor elements can be carried out, in triplicate, with successful results without requiring additional dilutions of samples or several different strategies for sample preparation using about 8-9 mL of sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of uti possidetis juris principle in the process of determination of international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uti possidetis juris principle was basic rule in determining international borders in the period of decolonization. It was applied in Latin America and Africa, but also at the end of 20th century in the processes of dissolution of USSR, SFRY and Czechoslovakia. Uti possidetis juris principle is based on the presumption that former colonial administrative borders kept stability and territorial integrity. It was undoubtedly connected with the right of self-determination. It keeps the existing borders by preventing secession, but in that way it does not solve the problem of badly determined and disputed borders. The unclear foundations on which the borders were determined can be a source of chaos and indisputes, which was shown n some cases before the International Court of Justice. The dominant theory is that uti possidetis juris principle should be applied with certain limitations, in the period after decolonization as a basis for preserving the territorial integrity of postcolonial states.

  20. Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Altermann, Susanne; Divakar, Pradeep K; Alors, David; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date. We analysed a total of 2356 algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences collected from lichens representing ten mycobiont genera in Parmeliaceae, two genera in Lecanoraceae and 26 cultured Trebouxia strains. Algal ITS sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs); we attempted to validate the evolutionary independence of a subset of the inferred OTUs using chloroplast and mitochondrial loci. We explored the patterns of symbiont interactions in these lichens based on ecogeographic distributions and mycobiont taxonomy. We found high levels of undescribed diversity in Trebouxia, broad distributions across distinct ecoregions for many photobiont OTUs and varying levels of mycobiont selectivity and specificity towards the photobiont. Based on these results, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal partners play a major role in determining lichen partnerships, potentially superseding ecology, at least at the ecogeographic scale investigated here. To facilitate effective communication and consistency across future studies, we propose a provisional naming system for Trebouxia photobionts and provide representative sequences for each OTU circumscribed in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Application of quality by design principles to the development and technology transfer of a major process improvement for the manufacture of a recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Mairead; Ibarra, Neysi; Pierce, James J; Buckley, Kevin; O'Donovan, Eimear; Heenan, Mary; Moran, Enda; Farid, Suzanne S; Baganz, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of quality by design (QbD) principles to the development and implementation of a major manufacturing process improvement for a commercially distributed therapeutic protein produced in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture. The intent of this article is to focus on QbD concepts, and provide guidance and understanding on how the various components combine together to deliver a robust process in keeping with the principles of QbD. A fed-batch production culture and a virus inactivation step are described as representative examples of upstream and downstream unit operations that were characterized. A systematic approach incorporating QbD principles was applied to both unit operations, involving risk assessment of potential process failure points, small-scale model qualification, design and execution of experiments, definition of operating parameter ranges and process validation acceptance criteria followed by manufacturing-scale implementation and process validation. Statistical experimental designs were applied to the execution of process characterization studies evaluating the impact of operating parameters on product quality attributes and process performance parameters. Data from process characterization experiments were used to define the proven acceptable range and classification of operating parameters for each unit operation. Analysis of variance and Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to assess the appropriateness of process design spaces. Successful implementation and validation of the process in the manufacturing facility and the subsequent manufacture of hundreds of batches of this therapeutic protein verifies the approaches taken as a suitable model for the development, scale-up and operation of any biopharmaceutical manufacturing process. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  2. Risk Quantitative Determination of Fire and Explosion in a Process Unit By Dow’s Fire and Explosion Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Varmazyar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Fire and explosion hazards are the first and second of major hazards in process industries, respectively. This study has been done to determine fire and explosion risk severity,radius of exposure and estimating of most probable loss.   Methods   In this quantitative study process unit has been selected with affecting parameters on  fire and explosion risk. Then, it was analyzed by DOW's fire and explosion index (F&EI. Technical data were obtained from process documents and reports, fire and explosion guideline.After calculating of DOW's index, radius of exposure determined and finally most  probable loss was estimated.   Results   The results showed an F&EI value of 226 for this process unit.The F&EI was extremely  high and unacceptable.Risk severity was categorized in sever class.Radius of exposure and damage factor were calculated 57 meters and 83%,respectively. As well as most probable loss was  estimated about 6.7 million dollars.   Conclusion   F&EI is a proper technique for risk assessment and loss estimation of fire and  explosion in process industries.Also,It is an important index for detecting high risk and low risk   areas in an industry. At this technique, all of factors affecting on fire and explosion risk was  showed as index that is a base for judgement risk class. Finally, estimated losses could be used as  a base of fire and explosion insurance.

  3. Globalization and regionalisation: Determinants of the transformation and the process of the integration of the geo-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Marina J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The two processes that, basically since the emergence of the classic civilizations, determine major changes in the basic spatial structures in the world are, de facto, of antipode basic characteristics (globalization and regionalisation, but it is often the case that there are elements with traits of complementarily. They have crucial effect on development and integration of geo-spaces and many research results indicate that, depending of the stage of the development, both processes were present in the geo-space in various forms in almost all the phases of its development and that they have contributed to establishment of all the new spatial-structural relations. The subject of this analyses is, among other issues, a brief genesis of these two processes, including identification of their main starters and effects. Besides from that, there is a special attention paid to the role of the traffic as their basic element and one of the important initiators and its role in those parts of the European continent that are not yet included by these processes of crucial changes of the geo-space as the whole.

  4. Determination of natural radionuclides from 238U and 232Th series, trace and major elements in sediment cores from baixada Santista and evaluation of impacted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Sandra Regina

    2010-01-01

    Baixada Santista is the region of higher population of the coast of Sao Paulo State, where it is located the largest port in Latin America, in the city of Santos, and the most important industrial complex of Latin America, in the city of Cubatao. This region has received in recent years a considerable load of industrial and domestic effluents in its water bodies, as a direct result of the industrial and port activities and the large population growth in recent decades, and is considered nowadays highly impacted. In the present study sediment cores were collected in the estuary of Santos-Cubatao, in the estuary of Sao Vicente, in the channel of Bertioga and Santos Bay, in order to determine the concentration of trace and major elements and natural radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series. The techniques used were neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and gamma spectrometry, respectively. The obtained values for the elements Cr, Sb, Ta and Zn in some cores, are higher than data from literature, and can indicate a possible anthropic contribution. Comparing the obtained values of Cr and Zn elements determined in the sediment cores with the values of TEL and PEL index for sediment quality, it was verified that the studied region presents Cr levels higher than TEL in Santos-Cubatao estuary and Bertioga channel and Zn element presented values higher than TEL for some core slices of Santos-Cubatao estuary, for one core of Sao Vicente estuary, one core in Bertioga channel and Santos Bay. For the other elements, the values obtained in this study can be considered as reference values for the region. Although the element As presented higher values than the TEL in all the studied environments, the concentrations obtained are of the same order of magnitude as literature data and, therefore, can be considered also as reference values for the region. No enrichment was found for the major elements in all the ecosystems studied, with the exception for the element P

  5. Determination of the lateral size and thickness of solution-processed graphene flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Shang; Bin-Tay, Wei; Aslam, Zabeada; Westwood, A. V. K.; Brydson, R.

    2017-09-01

    We present a method to determine the lateral size distribution of solution…processed graphene via direct image analysis techniques. Initially transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were correlated and used to provide a reliable benchmark. A rapid, automated OM method was then developed to obtain the distribution from thousands of flakes, avoiding statistical uncertainties and providing high accuracy. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was further employed to develop an in-situ method to derive the number particle size distribution (PSD) for a dispersion, with a deviation lower than 22% in the sub-micron regime. Methods for determining flake thickness are also discussed.

  6. Unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescent girls: a process model based on self-determination theory

    OpenAIRE

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of sa...

  7. Thorium determination by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry in simulated thorex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, M.; Matsuda, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence method for thorium determination in aqueous and organic (TBP-n-dodecane) solutions is described. The thin film-technique for sample preparation and a suitable internal standard have been used. Some parameters as analytical line, internal standard, filter paper, paper geometry, sample volume and measurement conditions were studied. Uranium, fission products, corrosion products and thorex reagent components were studied as interfering elements in the thorium analysis, as well as the matrix effect by using the thorex process simulated solutions the method to thorium determination in irradiated thorium solutions was applied. (M.J.C.) [pt

  8. Optimization of digital image processing to determine quantum dots' height and density from atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J E; Paciornik, S; Pinto, L D; Ptak, F; Pires, M P; Souza, P L

    2018-01-01

    An optimized method of digital image processing to interpret quantum dots' height measurements obtained by atomic force microscopy is presented. The method was developed by combining well-known digital image processing techniques and particle recognition algorithms. The properties of quantum dot structures strongly depend on dots' height, among other features. Determination of their height is sensitive to small variations in their digital image processing parameters, which can generate misleading results. Comparing the results obtained with two image processing techniques - a conventional method and the new method proposed herein - with the data obtained by determining the height of quantum dots one by one within a fixed area, showed that the optimized method leads to more accurate results. Moreover, the log-normal distribution, which is often used to represent natural processes, shows a better fit to the quantum dots' height histogram obtained with the proposed method. Finally, the quantum dots' height obtained were used to calculate the predicted photoluminescence peak energies which were compared with the experimental data. Again, a better match was observed when using the proposed method to evaluate the quantum dots' height. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Burden and Determinants of Smoking among Prisoners with Respiratory Tract Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nine Major Prison Setups in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Semaw Ferede; Adane, Kelemework

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and a wide range of associated risk factors are disproportionately clustered among prisoners compared to the general population. Smoking is one of the risk factors for the increased burden of unfavorable health outcomes particularly among prisoners. However, little is known about the level and determinants of smoking among the incarcerated population in Ethiopia. We collected data from 738 prisoners in nine major prison setups in Tigray region by nurses and clinical officers. Data were entered in to Epi Data 3.1 and exported to stata 13.0 for cleaning and further analysis. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify determinants of smoking at p value of less than 5%. The prevalence of smoking was 21 per cent (95%CI = 18.2%, 24.1). Urban residence (AOR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.20, 3.84), previous history of incarceration (AOR = 1.91; 95%CI = 1.08, 3.40) and alcohol use before incarcerated (AOR = 4.20; 95%CI = 2.57, 6.87) were significantly associated with risk of smoking. In contrast, risk of smoking was significantly lower for farmers (AOR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.08, 0.49), prisoners with family support (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.87) and for those who were jailed in Shire prison site (AOR = 0.43; 95%CI = 0.20, 0.95). Our work clearly indicates that the observed smoking prevalence calls for the need of comprehensive and interdisciplinary interventions targeting prisoners.

  10. Burden and Determinants of Smoking among Prisoners with Respiratory Tract Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nine Major Prison Setups in Northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semaw Ferede Abera

    Full Text Available Morbidity, mortality and a wide range of associated risk factors are disproportionately clustered among prisoners compared to the general population. Smoking is one of the risk factors for the increased burden of unfavorable health outcomes particularly among prisoners. However, little is known about the level and determinants of smoking among the incarcerated population in Ethiopia.We collected data from 738 prisoners in nine major prison setups in Tigray region by nurses and clinical officers. Data were entered in to Epi Data 3.1 and exported to stata 13.0 for cleaning and further analysis. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify determinants of smoking at p value of less than 5%.The prevalence of smoking was 21 per cent (95%CI = 18.2%, 24.1. Urban residence (AOR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.20, 3.84, previous history of incarceration (AOR = 1.91; 95%CI = 1.08, 3.40 and alcohol use before incarcerated (AOR = 4.20; 95%CI = 2.57, 6.87 were significantly associated with risk of smoking. In contrast, risk of smoking was significantly lower for farmers (AOR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.08, 0.49, prisoners with family support (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.87 and for those who were jailed in Shire prison site (AOR = 0.43; 95%CI = 0.20, 0.95.Our work clearly indicates that the observed smoking prevalence calls for the need of comprehensive and interdisciplinary interventions targeting prisoners.

  11. Determination of Arsenic Species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis from Major Habitats in China by HPLC-ICP-MS and the Edible Hazard Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Zhang, Gui-Wei; Wang, Jia-Ting; Zhong, Yue-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-26

    This study sought to determine the concentration and distribution of arsenic (As) species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis ( O. sinensis ), and to assess its edible hazard for long term consumption. The total arsenic concentrations, measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ranged from 4.00 mg/kg to 5.25 mg/kg. As determined by HPLC-ICP-MS, the most concerning arsenic species—AsB, MMA V , DMA V , As V , and As Ш —were either not detected (MMA V and DMA V ) or were detected as minor As species (AsB: 1.4⁻2.9%; As V : 1.3⁻3.2%, and As Ш : 4.1⁻6.0%). The major components were a cluster of unknown organic As (uAs) compounds with As Ш , which accounted for 91.7⁻94.0% of the As content. Based on the H₂O₂ test and the chromatography behavior, it can be inferred that, the uAs might not be toxic organic As. Estimated daily intake ( EDI) , hazard quotient ( HQ ), and cancer risk ( CR ) caused by the total As content; the sum of inorganic As (iAs) and uAs, namely i+uAs; and iAs exposure from long term O. sinensis consumption were calculated and evaluated through equations from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the uncertainties were analyzed by Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS). EDI total As and EDI i+uAs are approximately ten times more than EDI iAs ; HQ total As and HQ i+u As > 1 while HQ i As 1 × 10 −4 while CR iAs iAs is very low.

  12. Initial Awareness as Perceived by a Group of Senior Students Majoring in High School Teaching in regards to their Own Teaching Process Focused on Assessment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Developed in a regional campus of a university located 200 miles south of Santiago de Chile, the research showed the initial awareness of 50 senior students majoring in three High School Teaching Training Programs: Spanish Language; History; and Math, in regards to their own teaching process The qualitative approach used in this research is supported by the grounded theory. The critical incident technique was used to obtain the information about the individuals mentioned above, after their first period as in-practice High School teachers. Results show that the assessment teaching functions are mostly mentioned as essential to improve their teaching activities focused on the learning process of high school students. However, Teacher Training Programs should also emphasize real challenges and the abilities that a teacher must successfully develop during the process, instead of mainly focusing on measurement instruments and theoretical outlines

  13. Decision Support System for Determining Scholarship Selection using an Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, T. D.; Sari, E. O.; Destarianto, P.; Riskiawan, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Decision Support System is a computer program application that analyzes data and presents it so that users can make decision more easily. Determining Scholarship Selection study case in Senior High School in east Java wasn’t easy. It needed application to solve the problem, to improve the accuracy of targets for prospective beneficiaries of poor students and to speed up the screening process. This research will build system uses the method of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a method that solves a complex and unstructured problem into its group, organizes the groups into a hierarchical order, inputs numerical values instead of human perception in comparing relative and ultimately with a synthesis determined elements that have the highest priority. The accuracy system for this research is 90%.

  14. Innovations in major system reconfiguration in England: a study of the effectiveness, acceptability and processes of implementation of two models of stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Naomi; Boaden, Ruth; Hunter, Rachael; McKevitt, Christopher; Morris, Steve; Pursani, Nanik; Ramsay, Angus Ig; Rudd, Anthony G; Tyrrell, Pippa J; DA Wolfe, Charles

    2013-01-05

    Significant changes in provision of clinical care within the English National Health Service (NHS) have been discussed in recent years, with proposals to concentrate specialist services in fewer centres. Stroke is a major public health issue, accounting for over 10% of deaths in England and Wales, and much disability among survivors. Variations have been highlighted in stroke care, with many patients not receiving evidence-based care. To address these concerns, stroke services in London and Greater Manchester were reorganised, although different models were implemented. This study will analyse processes involved in making significant changes to stroke care services over a short time period, and the factors influencing these processes. We will examine whether the changes have delivered improvements in quality of care and patient outcomes; and, in light of this, whether the significant extra financial investment represented good value for money. This study brings together quantitative data on 'what works and at what cost?' with qualitative data on 'understanding implementation and sustainability' to understand major system change in two large conurbations in England. Data on processes of care and their outcomes (e.g. morbidity, mortality, and cost) will be analysed to evidence services' performance before and after reconfiguration. The evaluation draws on theories related to the dissemination and sustainability of innovations and the 'social matrix' underlying processes of innovation. We will conduct a series of case studies based on stakeholder interviews and documentary analysis. These will identify drivers for change, how the reconfigurations were governed, developed, and implemented, and how they influenced service quality. The research faces challenges due to: the different timings of the reconfigurations; the retrospective nature of the evaluation; and the current organisational turbulence in the English NHS. However, these issues reflect the realities of major

  15. The conventional ammunition requirements determination process of the U.S. Navy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, John III

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The objective of this thesis is to analyze the Requirements Determination procedures in the Navy's Conventional Gun Ammunition System in an attempt to identify areas for potential improvement. The Conventional Gun Ammunition System involves a logical progression of steps initiated on an annual basis. The Secretary of Defense begins the process by issuing broad guidance for the development of documentation to support b...

  16. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  17. Determination of the major compounds in the extract of the subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen digestive tract by GC-MS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Subekti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of woody components by termites is associated with symbionts inside their digestive tract. In this study, the major compounds were determined in the extract of the termite guts by GC-MS method. Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (worker caste termites were collected and their dissected guts underwent methanol extraction. It was found that the gut of the termites has an alkaline environment (pH 8.83 ± 0.31 that supports the digestion of lignocellulose biomass and also helps to solubilize phenolic and recalcitrant compounds resul­ting from the depolymerization of woody components. The GC-MS analysis showed that termite guts contained hydrophobic organosilicon components including dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane, tetradecamethylcyclohexa­siloxane, hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane, and octasiloxane, 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11,13,13,15,15-hexa­decamethyl. The guts also contained a phytosterol, which was identified as β-sitosterol. Further analysis of these water-insoluble compounds is needed to reveal their importance in termite digestion.

  18. Determination of rhenium content in molybdenite by ICP-MS after separation of the major matrix by solvent extraction with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhong, Li-feng; Tu, Xiang-lin; Liang, Xi-rong; Xu, Ji-feng

    2010-05-15

    A simple and rapid analytical method for determining the concentration of rhenium in molybdenite for Re-Os dating was developed. The method used isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) after the removal of major matrix elements (e.g., Mo, Fe, and W) from Re by solvent extraction with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) in chloroform solution. The effect on extraction efficiency of parameters such as pH (HCl concentration), BPHA concentration, and extraction time were also assessed. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the validity of the separation method was accessed by measuring (187)Re/(185)Re values for a molybdenite reference material (JDC). The obtained values were in good agreement with previously measured values of the Re standard. The proposed method was applied to replicate Re-Os dating of JDC and seven samples of molybdenite from the Yuanzhuding large Cu-Mo porphyry deposit. The results demonstrate good precision and accuracy for the proposed method. The advantages of the method (i.e., simplicity, efficiency, short analysis time, and low cost) make it suitable for routine analysis.

  19. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in plant reference materials by ICP-AES/ICP-MS and evaluation of their enrichment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Katsuki, Fumie; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    The multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in plant reference materials (SRM Pine Needles, SRM Tomato Leaves, and NIES Tea Leaves) was carried out by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The plant sample was decomposed with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The digest was dissolved in 1 M HNO 3 solution, and then subjected to elemental analyses. As a consequence, the analytical data for about 40 elements including rare earth elements (REEs) were obtained over a wide concentration range, for example, from 49600 μg g -1 of Ca to 6.2 ng g -1 of Lu in Tomato Leaves. The enrichment factors, which were estimated by normalizing the observed concentrations of analyte elements in plant reference materials to their soil abundances, were evaluated in order to discuss the relative abundances of various elements between plants and soil. It was found that most of the elements, except for REEs in Pine Needles and Tea Leaves, were significantly accumulated in the plant reference materials. In particular, the essential elements (K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, B and P) for plant growth provided large enrichment factors. (author)

  20. Determination of solvent concentration-dependent dispersion in the vapor extraction (VAPEX) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abukhalifeh, H.; Lohi, A.; Upreti, S. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a computational algorithm that revealed the optimal conditions required for vapor extraction (VAPEX) for a solvent gas-heavy oil system. VAPEX is a promising recovery process because it requires low energy use and emits fewer greenhouse gases to the atmosphere compared to other enhanced oil recovery methods. The process is governed by the dispersion of solvent gases into heavy oil and bitumen. As such, it is essential to accurately determine solvent dispersion in VAPEX in order to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery, and to optimize field operations. VAPEX experiments were conducted in this study to determined the dispersion coefficient of a solvent as a function of its concentration in heavy oil and bitumen. The principles of variational calculus were used together with a mass transfer model of the experimental process. It was concluded that the oil production determined by the model should agree with its experimental counterpart, given the optimal gas dispersion versus concentration function.

  1. Advanced gamma spectrum processing technique applied to the analysis of scattering spectra for determining material thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Duc Tam; VNUHCM-University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City; Huynh Dinh Chuong; Tran Thien Thanh; Vo Hoang Nguyen; Hoang Thi Kieu Trang; Chau Van Tao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an advanced gamma spectrum processing technique is applied to analyze experimental scattering spectra for determining the thickness of C45 heat-resistant steel plates. The single scattering peak of scattering spectra is taken as an advantage to measure the intensity of single scattering photons. Based on these results, the thickness of steel plates is determined with a maximum deviation of real thickness and measured thickness of about 4 %. Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP5 code is also performed to cross check the results, which yields a maximum deviation of 2 %. These results strongly confirm the capability of this technique in analyzing gamma scattering spectra, which is a simple, effective and convenient method for determining material thickness. (author)

  2. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Rennio F. de; Tambosi, Jose L.; Floriani, Silvia L.; Virmond, Elaine; Schroeder, Horst Fr.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J.

    2009-01-01

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  3. Determination of material distribution in heading process of small bimetallic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presz, Wojciech; Cacko, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The electrical connectors mostly have silver contacts joined by riveting. In order to reduce costs, the core of the contact rivet can be replaced with cheaper material, e.g. copper. There is a wide range of commercially available bimetallic (silver-copper) rivets on the market for the production of contacts. Following that, new conditions in the riveting process are created because the bi-metal object is riveted. In the analyzed example, it is a small size object, which can be placed on the border of microforming. Based on the FEM modeling of the load process of bimetallic rivets with different material distributions, the desired distribution was chosen and the choice was justified. Possible material distributions were parameterized with two parameters referring to desirable distribution characteristics. The parameter: Coefficient of Mutual Interactions of Plastic Deformations and the method of its determination have been proposed. The parameter is determined based of two-parameter stress-strain curves and is a function of these parameters and the range of equivalent strains occurring in the analyzed process. The proposed method was used for the upsetting process of the bimetallic head of the electrical contact. A nomogram was established to predict the distribution of materials in the head of the rivet and the appropriate selection of a pair of materials to achieve the desired distribution.

  4. Determination of the radionuclide release factor for an evaporator process using nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is the primary waste evaporator for the Hanford Site radioactive liquid waste stored in underground double-shell tanks. Low pressure evaporation is used to remove water from the waste, thus reducing the amount of tank space required for storage. The process produces a concentrated slurry, a process condensate, and an offgas. The offgas exhausts through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being discharged to the atmosphere 40 CFR 61 Subpart H requires assessment of the unfiltered exhaust to determine if continuous compliant sampling is required. Because potential (unfiltered) emissions are not measured, methods have been developed to estimate these emissions. One of the methods accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency is the measurement of the accumulation of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. Nondestructive assay (NDA) was selected for determining the accumulation on the HEPA filters. NDA was performed on the HEPA filters before and after a campaign in 1997. NDA results indicate that 2.1 E+4 becquerels of cesium-137 were accumulated on the primary HEPA 1700 filter during the campaign. The feed material processed in the campaign contained a total of 1.4 E+l6 Bq of cesium-137. The release factor for the evaporator process is 1.5 E-12. Based on this release factor, continuous compliant sampling is not required

  5. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  6. CULTURAL PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY – DETERMINANTS OF CULTURAL POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA MIHAELA NITA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural phenomena and processes in the contemporary society, influenced by the social development models and by the fact that the constitutive elements of the culture have become the decisive factors of social change, are the determinants of the cultural policies. They are centered on the active process of cultural globalization that emphasizes besides the assimilation of the European principles, also the preservation of the cultural dialog without identity loss. Contemporary culture cannot be appreciated unless we know the main processes and phenomena that lately have generated impressive changes in the area of technology and means of communication. Due to these transformations we witness a change of the cultural paradigms, a mutation of values.

  7. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  8. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  9. Process development for elemental recovery from PGM tailings by thermochemical treatment: Preliminary major element extraction studies using ammonium sulphate as extracting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sameera; van der Merwe, Elizabet M; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Doucet, Frédéric J

    2016-04-01

    Mine tailings can represent untapped secondary resources of non-ferrous, ferrous, precious, rare and trace metals. Continuous research is conducted to identify opportunities for the utilisation of these materials. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of extracting major elements from South African tailings associated with the mining of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) at the Two Rivers mine operations. These PGM tailings typically contain four major elements (11% Al2O3; 12% MgO; 22% Fe2O3; 34% Cr2O3), with lesser amounts of SiO2 (18%) and CaO (2%). Extraction was achieved via thermochemical treatment followed by aqueous dissolution, as an alternative to conventional hydrometallurgical processes. The thermochemical treatment step used ammonium sulphate, a widely available, low-cost, recyclable chemical agent. Quantification of the efficiency of the thermochemical process required the development and optimisation of the dissolution technique. Dissolution in water promoted the formation of secondary iron precipitates, which could be prevented by leaching thermochemically-treated tailings in 0.6M HNO3 solution. The best extraction efficiencies were achieved for aluminium (ca. 60%) and calcium (ca. 80%). 35% iron and 32% silicon were also extracted, alongside chromium (27%) and magnesium (25%). Thermochemical treatment using ammonium sulphate may therefore represent a promising technology for extracting valuable elements from PGM tailings, which could be subsequently converted to value-added products. However, it is not element-selective, and major elements were found to compete with the reagent to form water-soluble sulphate-metal species. Further development of this integrated process, which aims at achieving the full potential of utilisation of PGM tailings, is currently underway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  11. The determination of cyanide in hydrometallurgical process solutions and effluents by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods are described for the determination of cyanide species in hydrometallurgical process solutions and in effluents. The determination of excess cyanide in the presence of weak metal cyanide complexes was achieved by the use of a flow-injection system with 0,05mM sodium chloride as the carrier stream. The procedure was found to be fast, precise (S(sub r)0,0142), and reasonably accurate. Free cyanide and cyanide derived from weak metal cyanide complexes were determined by ion chromatography. This method is free from interferences and precise (s(sub r)0,0112), and has a limit of determination of 10μg0l. The 'total' cyanide content of solutions was determined by ion chromatography after the strong metal cyanide complexes had been dissociated in hypophosphorous acid by ultraviolet irradiation. The procedure (of 10 minutes duration) is faster than conventional distillation methods, and is accurate and precise (S(sub r)0,027)

  12. Phenol-Explorer 3.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database to incorporate data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Joseph A.; Perez-Jimenez, Jara; Neveu, Vanessa; Medina-Remón, Alexander; M'Hiri, Nouha; García-Lobato, Paula; Manach, Claudine; Knox, Craig; Eisner, Roman; Wishart, David S.; Scalbert, Augustin

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are a major class of bioactive phytochemicals whose consumption may play a role in the prevention of a number of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and cancers. Phenol-Explorer, launched in 2009, is the only freely available web-based database on the content of polyphenols in food and their in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Here we report the third release of the database (Phenol-Explorer 3.0), which adds data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol contents in foods. Data on >100 foods, covering 161 polyphenols or groups of polyphenols before and after processing, were collected from 129 peer-reviewed publications and entered into new tables linked to the existing relational design. The effect of processing on polyphenol content is expressed in the form of retention factor coefficients, or the proportion of a given polyphenol retained after processing, adjusted for change in water content. The result is the first database on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content and, following the model initially defined for Phenol-Explorer, all data may be traced back to original sources. The new update will allow polyphenol scientists to more accurately estimate polyphenol exposure from dietary surveys. Database URL: http://www.phenol-explorer.eu PMID:24103452

  13. Phenol-Explorer 3.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database to incorporate data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Joseph A; Perez-Jimenez, Jara; Neveu, Vanessa; Medina-Remón, Alexander; M'hiri, Nouha; García-Lobato, Paula; Manach, Claudine; Knox, Craig; Eisner, Roman; Wishart, David S; Scalbert, Augustin

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are a major class of bioactive phytochemicals whose consumption may play a role in the prevention of a number of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and cancers. Phenol-Explorer, launched in 2009, is the only freely available web-based database on the content of polyphenols in food and their in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Here we report the third release of the database (Phenol-Explorer 3.0), which adds data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol contents in foods. Data on >100 foods, covering 161 polyphenols or groups of polyphenols before and after processing, were collected from 129 peer-reviewed publications and entered into new tables linked to the existing relational design. The effect of processing on polyphenol content is expressed in the form of retention factor coefficients, or the proportion of a given polyphenol retained after processing, adjusted for change in water content. The result is the first database on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content and, following the model initially defined for Phenol-Explorer, all data may be traced back to original sources. The new update will allow polyphenol scientists to more accurately estimate polyphenol exposure from dietary surveys.

  14. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-06 proficiency test on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in ancient Chinese ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Toervenyi, A.; Zeiller, E.; Benesch, T.; Sansone, U.

    2006-10-01

    The report summarises the results of a proficiency test conducted under the IAEA co-ordinated research project (CRP) F.2.30.23, ''Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to investigate the authenticity of art objects''. The proficiency test was organized and conducted by the Reference Materials Group of the Chemistry Unit (Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory) of the IAEA's analytical laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria). The objective of the CRP is to explore new fields of application for nuclear analytical techniques in art and archaeology. It will help to foster collaboration between museum conservators and analytical researchers. The dissemination of information on applications of advanced analytical techniques to art objects will stimulate the use of these techniques in developing Member States and help in conservation and recovery of national heritage. Historical artefacts and art objects are traded world wide and represent a potential source for forgery and false labelling. The market is huge and a large part of the trade is going from developing countries to the developed world where strict regulations can only be applied if convenient methods for checking the authenticity were available. Portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) instruments for rapid screening analysis and PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) portable systems based on neutron sources for field work, as well as laboratory based techniques such as PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) have been applied non-destructively to investigate the provenience of archaeological objects and to determine different layers of precious paintings. The results of the CRP will be provided to member states for preservation of national heritage and secure legal enforcement. In the frame of the co-ordinated research project it was foreseen to conduct a proficiency test on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in an

  15. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  16. Determination of Arsenic Species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis from Major Habitats in China by HPLC-ICP-MS and the Edible Hazard Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Xian Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the concentration and distribution of arsenic (As species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis, and to assess its edible hazard for long term consumption. The total arsenic concentrations, measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, ranged from 4.00 mg/kg to 5.25 mg/kg. As determined by HPLC-ICP-MS, the most concerning arsenic species—AsB, MMAV, DMAV, AsV, and AsШ—were either not detected (MMAV and DMAV or were detected as minor As species (AsB: 1.4–2.9%; AsV: 1.3–3.2%, and AsШ: 4.1–6.0%. The major components were a cluster of unknown organic As (uAs compounds with AsШ, which accounted for 91.7–94.0% of the As content. Based on the H2O2 test and the chromatography behavior, it can be inferred that, the uAs might not be toxic organic As. Estimated daily intake (EDI, hazard quotient (HQ, and cancer risk (CR caused by the total As content; the sum of inorganic As (iAs and uAs, namely i+uAs; and iAs exposure from long term O. sinensis consumption were calculated and evaluated through equations from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the uncertainties were analyzed by Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS. EDItotal As and EDIi+uAs are approximately ten times more than EDIiAs; HQtotal As and HQi+uAs > 1 while HQiAs < 1; and CRtotal As and CRi+uAs > 1 × 10−4 while CRiAs < 1 × 10−4. Thus, if the uAs is non-toxic, there is no particular risk to local consumers and the carcinogenic risk is acceptable for consumption of O. sinensis because the concentration of toxic iAs is very low.

  17. Determination of oxycodone and its major metabolites noroxycodone and oxymorphone by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in plasma and urine: application to real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, Flaminia; Brauneis, Stefano; Forneris, Alexandre; Pacifici, Roberta; Marinelli, Enrico; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pichini, Simona; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2017-08-28

    Oxycodone is a narcotic drug widely used to alleviate moderate and severe acute and chronic pain. Variability in analgesic efficacy could be explained by inter-subject variations in plasma concentrations of parent drug and its active metabolite, oxymorphone. To evaluate patient compliance and to set up therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the parent drug and its major metabolites noroxycodone and oxymorphone. Extraction of analytes from plasma and urine samples was obtained by simple liquid-liquid extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a reversed phase column using a linear gradient elution with two solvents: acetic acid 1% in water and methanol. The separated analytes were detected with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Separation of analytes was obtained in less than 5 min. Linear calibration curves for all the analytes under investigation in urine and plasma samples showed determination coefficients (r2) equal or higher than 0.990. Mean absolute analytical recoveries were always above 86%. Intra- and inter-assay precision (measured as coefficient of variation, CV%) and accuracy (measured as % error) values were always better than 13%. Limit of detection at 0.06 and 0.15 ng/mL and limit of quantification at 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL for plasma and urine samples, respectively, were adequate for the purpose of the present study. Rapid extraction, identification and quantification of oxycodone and its metabolites both in urine and plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS assay was tested for its feasibility in clinical samples and provided excellent results for rapid and effective drug testing in patients under oxycodone treatment.

  18. Process and device for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This invention describes a process for determining the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance consisting in determining the positions and energy losses associated to the interactions of the Compton effect and the photoelectric interactions that occur owing to the emission of gamma photons by the radioactive material and in deducing an information on the spatial distribution of the radioactive substance, depending on the positions and energy losses associated to the interactions of the Compton effect of these gamma photons and the positions and energy losses associated to the subsequent photoelectric interactions of these same photons. The invention also concerns a processing system for identifying, among the signals representing the positions and energy losses of the interactions of the Compton effect and the photoelectric interactions of the gamma photons emitted by a radioactive source, those signals that are in keeping with the gamma photons that have been subjected to an initial interaction of the Compton effect and a second and last photoelectric interaction. It further concerns a system for determining, among the identified signals, the positions of the sources of several gamma photons. This detector of Compton interaction can be used with conventional Auger-type imaging system (gamma camera) for detecting photoelectric interactions [fr

  19. Determination of technological parameters in strip mining by time-of-flight and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elandaloussi, Frank; Mueller, B.; Osten, Wolfgang

    1999-09-01

    The conveying and dumping of earth masses lying over the coal seam in lignite surface mining is done usually by overburden conveyor bridges. The overburden, obtained from connected excavators, is transported over the bridge construction using a conveyor belt system and poured into one front dump and three surface dumps. The shaping of the dump growth is of great importance both to guaranty the stability of the masses dumped to earth stocks as well as the whole construction and to prepare the area for re-cultivation. This article describes three measurement systems: one to determine the impact point of the dumped earth masses, one to determine the shape of the entire mining process and the other a sensor for the loading of the conveyor belt. For the first measurement system, a real-time video system has been designed, set-up and installed that is capable to determine the impact point of all three dumps simultaneously. The second measurement system is a connection of 5 special designed laser distance measuring instruments, that are able to measure the shape of the mining process under unfavorable environmental conditions like dust, high temperature changes, heavy shocks etc. The third sensor is designed for monitoring the transportation of the masses via the conveyor belt system.

  20. Comparison of experimental methods for determination of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobajas, M.; Garcia-Calvo, E. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Alcala, Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Mass transfer in bioreactors has been examined. In the present work, dynamic methods are used for the determination of K{sub L}a values for water, model media and a fermentation broth (Candida utilis) in an airlift reactor. The conventional dynamic method is applied at the end of the microbial process in order to avoid an alteration in the metabolism of the microorganisms. New dynamic methods are used to determine K{sub L}a in an airlift reactor during the microbial growth of Candida utilis on glucose. One of the methods is based on the continuous measurement of carbon dioxide production while the other method is based on the relationship between the oxygen transfer and biomass growth rates. These methods of determining K{sub L}a does not interfere with the microorganisms action. A theoretical mass transfer model has been used for K{sub L}a estimation for the systems described above. Some differences between calculated and measured values are found for fermentation processes due to the model is developed for two-phase air-water systems. Nevertheless, the average deviation between the predicted values and those obtained from the relationship between oxygen transfer and biomass production rates are lower than 25% in any case. (orig.)

  1. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  2. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  3. Unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescent girls: a process model based on self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2010-06-01

    This study used self-determination theory (Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.) to examine predictors of body image concerns and unhealthy weight control behaviours in a sample of 350 Greek adolescent girls. A process model was tested which proposed that perceptions of parental autonomy support and two life goals (health and image) would predict adolescents' degree of satisfaction of their basic psychological needs. In turn, psychological need satisfaction was hypothesised to negatively predict body image concerns (i.e. drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) and, indirectly, unhealthy weight control behaviours. The predictions of the model were largely supported indicating that parental autonomy support and adaptive life goals can indirectly impact upon the extent to which female adolescents engage in unhealthy weight control behaviours via facilitating the latter's psychological need satisfaction.

  4. Hydrogen determination using secondary processes of recoil proton interaction with sample material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, V.A.; Khajdarov, R.A.; Navalikhin, L.V.; Pardaev, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Possibilities of hydrogen content determination in different materials according to secondary processes of interaction of recoil protons(irradiation in the field of fast neutrons) with sample material resulting in the appearance of characteristic X-ray irradiation are studied. Excitated irradiation is recorded with a detector placed in the protective screen and located at a certain distance from the object analyzed and neutron source. The method is tested taking as an example analysis of bromine-containing samples (30% Br, 0.5% H) and tungsten dioxide. The determination limit of hydrogen content constitutes 0.05% at confidence coefficient of 0.9. Neutron flux constituted 10 3 neutrons/cm 2 xs, the time of measurement being 15-20 minutes, the distance from the sample to the detector being 12-15 cm [ru

  5. Potentiometric determination of uranium in simulated Purex Process solutions by acidiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, V.H.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de

    1983-01-01

    A potentiometric methods for sequential free acidity and uranium determination in simulated Purex Process solutions is described. An oxalate solution or a mixture of fluoride-oxalate pellets were used as complexing agent for free titration. Following this first equivalent point, uranium is determined-by indirect titration of H + liberated in the peruanate reaction. Some elements present in the standard fuel elements with a burn-up of 33.000 Mwd/t, neutron flux of 3,2 x 10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 and cooling time of two years were considered as interfering elements in uranium analyses. As a substitute of Pu-IV, Th(NO 3 ) 4 solution was used. The method can be applied to aqueous and organic (TBP/diluent) solutions with 2% precision and 2% accuracy. (Autor) [pt

  6. Automated processing of first-pass radioisotope ventriculography data to determine essential central circulation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, Aleksei; Pankin, Victor

    2017-09-01

    The assessment of central circulation (including heart function) parameters is vital in the preventive diagnostics of inherent and acquired heart failures and during polychemotherapy. The protocols currently applied in Russia do not fully utilize the first-pass assessment (FPRNA) and that results in poor data formalization, while the FPRNA is the one of the fastest, affordable and compact methods among other radioisotope diagnostics protocols. A non-imaging algorithm basing on existing protocols has been designed to use the readings of an additional detector above vena subclavia to determine the total blood volume (TBV), not requiring blood sampling in contrast to current protocols. An automated processing of precordial detector readings is presented, in order to determine the heart strike volume (SV). Two techniques to estimate the ejection fraction (EF) of the heart are discussed.

  7. Potentiometric determination of uranium in simulated Purex Process solutions by acidiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, V H; Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de

    1984-01-01

    A potentiometric methods for sequential free acidity and uranium determination in simulated Purex Process solutions is described. An oxalate solution or a mixture of fluoride-oxalate pellets were used as complexing agent for free titration. Following this first equivalent point, uranium is determined-by indirect titration of H/sup +/ liberated in the peruanate reaction. Some elements present in the standard fuel elements with a burn-up of 33.000 Mwd/t, neutron flux of 3,2 x 10/sup 13/n.cm/sup -2/.s/sup -1/ and cooling time of two years were considered as interfering elements in uranium analyses. As a substitute of Pu-IV, Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/ solution was used. The method can be applied to aqueous and organic (TBP/diluent) solutions with 2% precision and 2% accuracy. (Autor).

  8. Priority Determination of Underwater Tourism Site Development in Gorontalo Province using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohandi, M.; Tuloli, M. Y.; Jassin, R. T.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to determine the development of priority of underwater tourism in Gorontalo province using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method which is one of DSS methods applying Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM). This method used 5 criteria and 28 alternatives to determine the best priority of underwater tourism site development in Gorontalo province. Based on the AHP calculation it appeared that the best priority development of underwater tourism site is Pulau Cinta whose total AHP score is 0.489 or 48.9%. This DSS produced a reliable result, faster solution, time-saving, and low cost for the decision makers to obtain the best underwater tourism site to be developed.

  9. Determination of Some Mechanical Properties of Almond Seed Related to Design of Food Processing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Sunmonu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some selected mechanical properties of red and white varieties of Almond seeds grown in Nigeria were determined using Testometric M500 – 100AT machine. The fracture force, compressive strength, deformation at yield for red varieties were 2679.40 ± 580.29 N, 408.70 ± 41.90 N/mm2 and 7.03 ± 0.65 mm respectively. The values obtained for the white varieties were 2843.90 ± 330.22 N, 396.20 ± 49.40 N/mm2, and 7.27 ± 0.46 mm. The determined engineering properties are vital for the design of postharvest handling and processing systems for Almond seeds as statistical test showed that there are significant differences (at 5% level between the engineering properties of the two seeds studied.

  10. Gate-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment for Determining Carbon Footprint of Catalytic Converter Assembly Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Mustfizul Karim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the pursuit of embracing the circular economy, having upward trend in vehicle sales and environmental concern, sustainability has become an imperative part of the global automotive manufacturing strategies. One of the tactics to achieve this sustainable goal is to conserve and enhance the resource base by salvaging the embedded values from end-of-life product and for which, the remanufacturing can be considered as one of the most prominent epitome. Even though many of the auto parts like engine, transmissions, starters, alternators and etc. have been assessed for remanufacturability since last few decades, being a major component of a car body the Catalytic Converter (CC still remains unfocused in literature. However, to examine the remanufacturability of CC, a comprehensive study for assessing its economic, social, and environmental impact is inevitable. Therefore, with an underlying aim of designing the remanufacturable CC, in this endeavour an attempt has made to evaluate the environmental impact of its welding operations by means of energy consumption through gate-to-gate life cycle assessment. Real life data are collected from a Local Malaysian CC manufacturer. The obtained results show that the welding section has a carbon footprint of 0.203 kgCO2e/unit with major emission coming from the plasma arc welding. In addition to that, it is also observed that the value of carbon footprint is not only sensitive to the emission factor and processing time, but also it is responsive to the nature of the processing operations. Certainly, this observation will motivate to change the product design from the prospect of remanufacturing.

  11. DETERMINATION OF PROCESSES OF USE, PRESERVING AND REPRODUCTION IN THE SYSTEM OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Gazuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop factor model of renewable natural resources management, specifying the assessment of the amount of resource, including the natural factor, consumption level and intensity of reproduction. Methodology. The survey is based on highlighting factors influencing the reproductive capacity of natural environment. It allows, on the base of taking into consideration reproductive abilities of resources and intensity of consumption, to substantiate three models for their use, including: heavy exploitation of renewable natural resources as the most commonly used model at the current level of development of society; model of reproductive use of natural resources, stipulating for the interference from the side of authorities and management, and the model of simple reproduction of renewable natural resources, at which the resource itself and the amount of its reproduction for the next period remain constant. Practical implications. The need is substantiated in implementation of the new model for determination of the processes of managing balanced use of natural resources, which will stipulate processes of reproduction in the sphere of natural management, form new approaches to environmental protection and promote the optimal ratio between the consumption and reproduction of natural resources. At this, the processes of natural reproduction are influenced by the amount of resource itself, intensity of its reproduction and level of consumption. The main objective of the managing bodies in the sphere of the use of renewable natural resources should be securing optimal ratio between consumption and reproduction of such natural resources. The efficiency of the implementation process and reproduction of natural resources presupposes providing their simple and extended reproduction, economic effectiveness and sustainability in allocation and use of such resources. This will have positive effect on ecological and economic security

  12. Determination of the carbon market incremental payoff considering a stochastic jump-diffusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rodrigo Siqueira Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to verify the robustness of the Least Square Monte Carlo and Grant, Vora & Weeks methods when used to determine the incremental payoff of the carbon market for renewable electricity generation projects, considering that the behavior of the price of Certified Emission Reductions, otherwise known as Carbon Credits, may be modeled using a jump-diffusion process. In addition, this paper analyses particular characteristics, such as absence of monotonicity, found in trigger curves obtained through use of the Grant, Vora & Weeks method to valuate these types of project.

  13. Study on determination of durability analysis process and fatigue damage parameter for rubber component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong In; Cho, Il Je; Woo, Chang Su; Kim, Wan Doo

    2011-01-01

    Rubber components, which have been widely used in the automotive industry as anti-vibration components for many years, are subjected to fluctuating loads, often failing due to the nucleation and growth of defects or cracks. To prevent such failures, it is necessary to understand the fatigue failure mechanism for rubber materials and to evaluate the fatigue life for rubber components. The objective of this study is to develop a durability analysis process for vulcanized rubber components, that can predict fatigue life at the initial product design step. The determination method of nonlinear material constants for FE analysis was proposed. Also, to investigate the applicability of the commonly used damage parameters, fatigue tests and corresponding finite element analyses were carried out and normal and shear strain was proposed as the fatigue damage parameter for rubber components. Fatigue analysis for automotive rubber components was performed and the durability analysis process was reviewed

  14. Innovations in major system reconfiguration in England: a study of the effectiveness, acceptability and processes of implementation of two models of stroke care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulop Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant changes in provision of clinical care within the English National Health Service (NHS have been discussed in recent years, with proposals to concentrate specialist services in fewer centres. Stroke is a major public health issue, accounting for over 10% of deaths in England and Wales, and much disability among survivors. Variations have been highlighted in stroke care, with many patients not receiving evidence-based care. To address these concerns, stroke services in London and Greater Manchester were reorganised, although different models were implemented. This study will analyse processes involved in making significant changes to stroke care services over a short time period, and the factors influencing these processes. We will examine whether the changes have delivered improvements in quality of care and patient outcomes; and, in light of this, whether the significant extra financial investment represented good value for money. Methods/design This study brings together quantitative data on ‘what works and at what cost?’ with qualitative data on ‘understanding implementation and sustainability’ to understand major system change in two large conurbations in England. Data on processes of care and their outcomes (e.g. morbidity, mortality, and cost will be analysed to evidence services’ performance before and after reconfiguration. The evaluation draws on theories related to the dissemination and sustainability of innovations and the ‘social matrix’ underlying processes of innovation. We will conduct a series of case studies based on stakeholder interviews and documentary analysis. These will identify drivers for change, how the reconfigurations were governed, developed, and implemented, and how they influenced service quality. Discussion The research faces challenges due to: the different timings of the reconfigurations; the retrospective nature of the evaluation; and the current organisational

  15. The role of individualist and collectivist orientations on self-determined motivation: integrating self-determination theory and group processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rentzelas, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to examine the role of individualism and collectivism as situational group norms on intrinsic motivation. A further aim was to examine the effect of individual differences in individualist and collectivist orientations on the effect of autonomous motivation on intention and behaviour. This research integrated the concept of self-determined and intrinsic motivation as postulated in Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985a, 2000,2002), individualism and coll...

  16. Impaired Processing of Serial Order Determines Working Memory Impairments in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Belder, Maya; Santens, Patrick; Sieben, Anne; Fias, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD. A group of AD patients (n = 32) and their partners (n = 25), assigned to the control group, were submitted to an extensive battery of neuropsychological and experimental tasks, assessing general cognitive state and functioning of several aspects related to serial order WM. The results revealed an impaired ability to bind item information to serial position within WM in AD patients compared to controls. It was additionally observed that AD patients experienced specific difficulties with directing spatial attention when searching for item information stored in WM. The processing of serial order and the allocation of attentional resources are both disrupted, explaining the generally reduced WM functioning in AD patients. Further studies should now clarify whether this observation could explain disease-related problems for other cognitive functions such as verbal expression, auditory comprehension, or planning.

  17. The potential of mid- and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for determining major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from a geochemical survey of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, soils were collected at 220 sites along two transects across the USA and Canada as a pilot study for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). The objective of the current study was to examine the potential of diffuse reflectance (DR) Fourier Transform (FT) mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near-infrared (NIRS) spectroscopy to reduce the need for conventional analysis for the determination of major and trace elements in such continental-scale surveys. Soil samples (n = 720) were collected from two transects (east-west across the USA, and north-south from Manitoba, Canada to El Paso, Texas (USA), n = 453 and 267, respectively). The samples came from 19 USA states and the province of Manitoba in Canada. They represented 31 types of land use (e.g., national forest, rangeland, etc.), and 123 different land covers (e.g., soybeans, oak forest, etc.). The samples represented a combination of depth-based sampling (0-5 cm) and horizon-based sampling (O, A and C horizons) with 123 different depths identified. The set was very diverse with few samples similar in land use, land cover, etc. All samples were analyzed by conventional means for the near-total concentration of 49 analytes (Ctotal, Ccarbonate and Corganic, and 46 major and trace elements). Spectra were obtained using dried, ground samples using a Digilab FTS-7000 FT spectrometer in the mid- (4000-400 cm-1) and near-infrared (10,000-4000 cm-1) at 4 cm-1 resolution (64 co-added scans per spectrum) using a Pike AutoDIFF DR autosampler. Partial least squares calibrations were develop using: (1) all samples as a calibration set; (2) samples evenly divided into calibration and validation sets based on spectral diversity; and (3) samples divided to have matching analyte concentrations in calibration and validation sets. In general, results supported the conclusion that neither mid-IR nor NIRS would be particularly useful in reducing the need for conventional

  18. 40 CFR 63.496 - Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using control or recovery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... boiler or process heater. (iii) The control efficiency of the boiler or process heater shall be calculated using Equation 29. ER05SE96.027 where: R=Control efficiency of boiler or process heater, percent..., the control efficiency of the boiler or process heater shall be determined using the procedures in...

  19. Systemic determinants of modern gravitational processes in the geo-economic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoryana Lutsyshyn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the compositional point of view, research on this topic has revealed two main directions: (1 an analysis of global development asymmetry that has activated gravitational processes in geo-economic space; and (2 a direction that focuses on the profound study of the causes for heterogeneity in geo-economic space and divergence in global development under the influence of gravitational factors of nature on the endogenousexogenous axis. Systemic determinants of gravitational processes are revealed in geo- economic space and the asymmetry of global activate ravitional processes in geo-economic space are observed, and methodological interconnectedness coinfluence of two complementary determinants of global development – convergence and divergence and the contradiction between them are examined, which at the same time underlie the inevitable internal contradictions of the process, creating conditions for further configuration of the «new globalization community», which is built on the principles of nonlinear dynamics and logic gravitational processes in geo-economic space.Taking into account the relevant uncertainties, the attention is focused on the isolation of several myths around which the debate that has important methodological significance in the context of the current global inter-system transformations is held. Geostrategic matrix divergence of global development is produced,which is based on techniques which incorporated cluster analysisthat are built on linguistic variables and integrated analysis of the key trends of country and global development geostrategic position of Ukraine in geo-economic space in the projection on the issues of global inter-system transformations isoutlined .It is proved that the level of gravity load increases in the deepening of the global asymmetries , and that the current global transformation is not yet complete, and polycentric new architecture geospace is not formed. In the near future we should

  20. HCO3(-)-coupled Na+ influx is a major determinant of Na+ turnover and Na+/K+ pump activity in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, J.G.; Lidofsky, S.D.; Weisiger, R.A.; Xie, M.H.; Cochran, M.; Grotmol, T.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies in hepatocytes indicate that Na(+)-coupled HCO3- transport contributes importantly to regulation of intracellular pH and membrane HCO3- transport. However, the direction of net coupled Na+ and HCO3- movement and the effect of HCO3- on Na+ turnover and Na+/K+ pump activity are not known. In these studies, the effect of HCO3- on Na+ influx and turnover were measured in primary rat hepatocyte cultures with 22Na+, and [Na+]i was measured in single hepatocytes using the Na(+)-sensitive fluorochrome SBFI. Na+/K+ pump activity was measured in intact perfused rat liver and hepatocyte monolayers as Na(+)-dependent or ouabain-suppressible 86Rb uptake, and was measured in single hepatocytes as the effect of transient pump inhibition by removal of extracellular K+ on membrane potential difference (PD) and [Na+]i. In hepatocyte monolayers, HCO3- increased 22Na+ entry and turnover rates by 50-65%, without measurably altering 22Na+ pool size or cell volume, and HCO3- also increased Na+/K+ pump activity by 70%. In single cells, exposure to HCO3- produced an abrupt and sustained rise in [Na+]i from approximately 8 to 12 mM. Na+/K+ pump activity assessed in single cells by PD excursions during transient K+ removal increased congruent to 2.5-fold in the presence of HCO3-, and the rise in [Na+]i produced by inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump was similarly increased congruent to 2.5-fold in the presence of HCO3-. In intact perfused rat liver, HCO3- increased both Na+/K+ pump activity and O2 consumption. These findings indicate that, in hepatocytes, net coupled Na+ and HCO3- movement is inward and represents a major determinant of Na+ influx and Na+/K+ pump activity. About half of hepatic Na+/K+ pump activity appears dedicated to recycling Na+ entering in conjunction with HCO3- to maintain [Na+]i within the physiologic range

  1. Process monitored spectrophotometric titration coupled with chemometrics for simultaneous determination of mixtures of weak acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lifu; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jintao

    2007-05-15

    A new spectrophotometric titration method coupled with chemometrics for the simultaneous determination of mixtures of weak acids has been developed. In this method, the titrant is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and an acid-base indicator, and the indicator is used to monitor the titration process. In a process of titration, both the added volume of titrant and the solution acidity at each titration point can be obtained simultaneously from an absorption spectrum by least square algorithm, and then the concentration of each component in the mixture can be obtained from the titration curves by principal component regression. The method only needs the information of absorbance spectra to obtain the analytical results, and is free of volumetric measurements. The analyses are independent of titration end point and do not need the accurate values of dissociation constants of the indicator and the acids. The method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of benzoic acid and salicylic acid, and the mixtures of phenol, o-chlorophenol and p-chlorophenol with satisfactory results.

  2. Method of the Aquatic Environment Image Processing for Determining the Mineral Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Antonenkov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article features the developed method to determine the mineral suspension characteristics by obtaining and following processing of the aquatic environment images. This method is capable of maintaining its performance under the conditions of considerable dynamic activity of the water masses. The method feature consists in application of the developed computing algorithm, simultaneous use of morphological filters and histogram methods for image processing, and in a special calibration technique. As a whole it provides a possibility to calculate size and concentration of the particles on the images obtained. The developed technical means permitting to get the environment images of the required quality are briefly described. The algorithm of the developed software operation is represented. The examples of numerical and weight distribution of the particles according to their sizes, and the totals of comparing the results obtained by the standard and developed methods are represented. The developed method makes it possible to obtain the particle size data in the range of 50–1000 μm and also to determine the suspension concentration with ~12 % error. This method can be technically implemented for the instruments intended for in situ measurements using the gauges, allowing obtaining exposure time short values, such as applying the electron-optical converter, which acts as the image intensifier, and the high-speed electronic shutter. The completed method testing in the laboratory makes possible to obtain the results similar in accuracy with the results of the in situ measurements.

  3. Hydrothermal decomposition of industrial jarosite in alkaline media: The rate determining step of the process kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Ibarra A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of NaOH and Ca(OH2 on the hydrothermal decomposition of industrial jarosite deposited by a Mexican company in a tailings dam. The industrial jarosite is mainly composed by natrojarosite and contains 150 g Ag/t, showing a narrow particle size distribution, as revealed by XRD, fire assay, SEM-EDS and laser-diffraction analysis. The effect of the pH, when using NaOH or Ca(OH2 as alkalinizing agent was studied by carrying out decomposition experiments at different pH values and 60°C in a homogeneous size particle system (pH = 8, 9, 10 and 11 and in a heterogeneous size particle system (pH = 11. Also, the kinetic study of the process and the controlling step of the decomposition reaction when NaOH and Ca(OH2 are used was determined by fitting the data obtained to the shrinking core model for spherical particles of constant size. These results, supported by chemical (EDS, morphological (SEM and mapping of elements (EDS analysis of a partially reacted jarosite particle allowed to conclude that when NaOH is used, the process kinetics is controlled by the chemical reaction and when Ca(OH2 is used, the rate determining step is changed to a diffusion control through a layer of solid products.

  4. Brucella abortus Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Processing through Interleukin-6 Secretion via Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Samartino, Clara García; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection. PMID:17984211

  5. The Wage Determination Process in Turkey: An Empirical Analysis in Kaleckian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Gül AKTAKAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox economists generally think about labor market that the price stability and low unemployment cannot be achieved at the same time. In this sense, the Orthodox argument discusses that a decline in the aggregate demand will decrease the money wages and real wages proportionally, and increase the volume of employment. Michal Kalecki denies such a wage policy which is consistently determined by this idea. Wages reflect the price-money wage relation in real terms. Prices set in regard to the degree of monopoly. In this context, it is assumed real wages is determined depending upon the degree of monopoly, labor productivity and price of import goods. According to Kalecki, Orthodoxian view which relates a decrease in real wages with an increase in production based on increasing marginal cost assumption and Kalecki does not accept this perspective. Kaleckian PostKeynesian labor market will be theoretically discussed and the determination process of the real wage will be empirically analyzed for Turkish economy over the period 1989:1 to 2012:4.

  6. Thorium determination by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in simulated thorex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, M.; Matsuda, H.T.

    1991-11-01

    The X-ray fluorescence method for thorium determination in aqueous and organic (TBP/n-dodecane) solutions is described. The thin film technique for sample preparation and a suitable internal standard had been used. The best conditions for Thorium determination had been established studying some parameters as analytical line, internal standard, filter paper, paper geometry, sample volume and measurement conditions. With the established conditions, thorium was concentration range of to 200 g Th/L and in organic solutions (2-63g Th/L) with 1,5% of precision. The accuracy of the proposed method was 3% in aqueous and organic phases. The detection limit was 1,2μg thorium for aqueous solutions and 1,4μg for organic solutions. Uranium, fission products, corrosion products and Thorex reagent components were studied as interfering elements in the thorium analysis. The matrix effect was also studied using the Thorex process simulated solutions. Finally, the method was applied to thorium determination in irradiated thorium solutions with satisfactory results. (author)

  7. DETERMINATION OF DIETARY FIBRE – THE INFLUENCE OF MILLING FRACTION AND MIXING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž FERJANČIČ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibre is an important constituent of a healthy diet, composed of non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin. Over the last decades dietary fibre has gained importance for human nutrition, due to its beneficial effects on health. In addition to classical enzyme-gravimetric methods, new methods for the determination of total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibres in foods have recently been developed, but have not yet been fully implemented for use. For the purpose of creating food composition databases and for food labelling, the classical AOAC 985.29 and 991.43 methods are still widely used. The methods are enzyme-gravimetric and therefore sensitive to enzyme kinetics. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of milling fraction and mixing of the sample on dietary fibre content determined with the AOAC method 991.43. The results showed that milling fraction significantly influences the content of dietary fibre, especially in unprocessed or slightly processed cereals, the mixing acts synergistically with milling. According to the results it is proposed to mill the sample between 200 and 500 μm. For accurate determination of dietary fibre content, it is necessary to prepare the sample correctly, since the AOAC 991.43 method is, despite its robustness, sensitive during the sample preparation step.

  8. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar eAyal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  9. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Babies Are Determined by Their Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Rinah; Ariely, Dan; Chi, Won; Langleben, Daniel D.; Elman, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Background This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults. Methodology and Principal Findings Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a) key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome) and b) attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men. Conclusions These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation) motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring. PMID:19554100

  10. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  11. Gender differences in the motivational processing of babies are determined by their facial attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinah Yamamoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults.Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome and b attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men.These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring.

  12. Determining the potential volume of industrial process steam to be generated in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobsky, T.

    1990-01-01

    The present study serves to determine the market potential of nuclear energy for industrial process steam supply according to branches and sites in the Federal Republic of Germany (excluding the new East German Laender). On the nuclear plant side two HTR reference plants with different unit powers of 200 MWth (HTR-Modul) and 100 MWth are investigated. An essential result in analysing the nuclear market potential is the finding that the number of potential users and sites will triple if smaller unit sizes were introduced. This corresponds to an increase in nuclear plant potential from 28 units of 200 MWth each to 91 units of 100 MWth on the assumptions made in this study. A comparison of economic efficiency between fossil-fired power production plants and the HTR-Modul shows the competitiveness of nuclear process steam and electricity production in the base load range. A single-site evaluation for the centres of energy demand competes conceptually with a combined heat supply by nuclear long-distance energy. This integrated supply concept makes it possible to supply considerably more industrial companies with process steam while reducing the number of sites, since the heat requirements of smaller sites can also be covered by the integrated system. (orig.) [de

  13. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  14. Development of and verification test integral reactor major components - Development of manufacturing process and fabrication of prototype for SG and CEDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Hwa Kyu; Kim, Yong Kyu; Choi, Yong Soon; Kang, Ki Su; Hyun, Young Min [Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co., LTD., Changwon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Integral SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) type reactor is under conceptual design. Because major components is integrated within in a single pressure vessel, compact design using advanced technology is essential. It means that manufacturing process for these components is more complex and difficult. The objective of this study is to confirm the possibility of manufacture of Steam Generator, Control Element Drive Mechanism(CEDM) and Reactor Assembly which includes Reactor Pressure Vessel, it is important to understand the design requirement and function of the major components. After understanding the design requirement and function, it is concluded that the helical bending and weld qualification of titanium tube for Steam Generator and the applicability of electron beam weld for CEDM step motor parts is the critical to fabricate the components. Therefore, bending mock-up and weld qualification of titanium tube was performed and the results are quite satisfactory. Also, it is concluded that electron beam welding technique can be applicable to the CEDM step motor part. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 46 tabs.

  15. 40 CFR 63.495 - Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology. 63.495 Section 63.495 Protection of Environment...: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.495 Back-end process provisions—procedures to determine compliance...

  16. Determining the disease management process for epileptic patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nazafarin; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Zare, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy exposes patients to many physical, social, and emotional challenges. Thus, it seems to portray a complex picture and needs holistic care. Medical treatment and psychosocial part of epilepsy remain central to managing and improving the patient's qualify of life through team efforts. Some studies have shown the dimensions of self-management, but its management process of epilepsy patients, especially in Iran, is not clear. This study aimed to determine the disease management process in patients with epilepsy in Iran. This qualitative approach and grounded theory study was conducted from January 2009 to February 2012 in Isfahan city (Iran). Thirty-two participants were recruited by the goal-oriented, and snowball sample selection and theoretical sampling methods. After conducting a total of 43 in-depth interviews with the participants, the researchers reached data saturation. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin method. With a focus on disease management process, researchers found three main themes and seven sub-themes as a psychosocial process (PSP). The main themes were: perception of threat to self-identity, effort to preserve self-identity, and burn out. The psychosocial aspect of the disease generated one main variable "the perception of identity loss" and one central variable "searching for self-identity." Participants attributed threat to self-identity and burn out to the way their disease was managed requiring efforts to preserve their identity. Recommendations consist of support programs and strategies to improve the public perception of epilepsy in Iran, help patients accept their condition and preserve self-identity, and most importantly, enhance medical management of epilepsy.

  17. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 3: Clinical Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preskorn, Sheldon H; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. This column reviews clinical trial data to assess whether those data support the conclusion that aripiprazole has a low to absent risk of causing TD when used as an augmentation strategy to treat MDD. To date, no randomized, placebo-controlled trials have established a definitive link between exposure to aripiprazole and TD in patients with MDD. One long-term, open-label, safety trial examined aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy in individuals with MDD and found a rare occurrence (4/987, 0.4%, the confidence interval of which overlaps with zero) of an adverse event termed TD. In all 4 cases, the observed movements resolved within weeks of aripiprazole discontinuation, suggesting that they were either amenable to treatment or represented an acute syndrome rather than TD. No cases of TD were reported in the registration trials for the MDD indication for aripiprazole. These data were presented in a pooled analysis of

  18. The Adverse Drug Reactions from Patient Reports in Social Media Project: Five Major Challenges to Overcome to Operationalize Analysis and Efficiently Support Pharmacovigilance Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Cedric; Dahamna, Badisse; Guillemin-Lanne, Sylvie; Darmoni, Stefan J; Faviez, Carole; Huot, Charles; Katsahian, Sandrine; Leroux, Vincent; Pereira, Suzanne; Richard, Christophe; Schück, Stéphane; Souvignet, Julien; Lillo-Le Louët, Agnès; Texier, Nathalie

    2017-09-21

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Classical Pharmacovigilance process is limited by underreporting which justifies the current interest in new knowledge sources such as social media. The Adverse Drug Reactions from Patient Reports in Social Media (ADR-PRISM) project aims to extract ADRs reported by patients in these media. We identified 5 major challenges to overcome to operationalize the analysis of patient posts: (1) variable quality of information on social media, (2) guarantee of data privacy, (3) response to pharmacovigilance expert expectations, (4) identification of relevant information within Web pages, and (5) robust and evolutive architecture. This article aims to describe the current state of advancement of the ADR-PRISM project by focusing on the solutions we have chosen to address these 5 major challenges. In this article, we propose methods and describe the advancement of this project on several aspects: (1) a quality driven approach for selecting relevant social media for the extraction of knowledge on potential ADRs, (2) an assessment of ethical issues and French regulation for the analysis of data on social media, (3) an analysis of pharmacovigilance expert requirements when reviewing patient posts on the Internet, (4) an extraction method based on natural language processing, pattern based matching, and selection of relevant medical concepts in reference terminologies, and (5) specifications of a component-based architecture for the monitoring system. Considering the 5 major challenges, we (1) selected a set of 21 validated criteria for selecting social media to support the extraction of potential ADRs, (2) proposed solutions to guarantee data privacy of patients posting on Internet, (3) took into account pharmacovigilance expert requirements with use case diagrams and scenarios, (4) built domain-specific knowledge resources embeding a lexicon, morphological rules, context rules, semantic rules

  19. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Tan Dzung; Trinh Van Dzung; Tran Duc Ba

    2012-01-01

    The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19) to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (ω = 1 or 100%), the optimal fre...

  20. Combined theoretical and experimental analysis of processes determining cathode performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklja, M M; Kotomin, E A; Merkle, R; Mastrikov, Yu A; Maier, J

    2013-04-21

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980's as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnot's cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.