WorldWideScience

Sample records for major primary uranium

  1. Gulf digs in to tap a major uranium orebody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The progress and future plans of Gulf Mineral Resources Co. for tapping and developing a major uranium orebody via two concrete-lined shafts in the Grants uranium mineral belt in New Mexico are discussed. The mineralogy of the Grants belt is discussed as it relates to the Gulf development project. Numerous pictures of the operation are included

  2. Primary uranium mineralization in paleochannels of the Um Bogma formation at Allouga Southwestern Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisher, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Um Bogama formation in the Allouga area is within a major Graben trending NNW-SSE. The formation is composed mainly of sandy dolostone. Lactomicin marl, siltstone and carbonaceous shale with a high content of organic matter. The black carbonaceous shale represents the redox-front (reduced facies) at which hexavalent uranium can reduce to the presence state, resulting in the redeposition of uranium mineral. The presence of uranium minerals are increased with an increasing amount of carbonaceous matter in the paleochannels of the Allouga area. Small-scale fault planes also show an increase in the uranium content. The present study reveals the presence of the primary uranium contents, uranium, pitch blends and coffinite, which are recorded for the first time in the area. (Author)

  3. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the contribution made by various energy sources in the production of electricity. Estimates are made of the future nuclear contribution, the future demand for uranium and future sales of Australian uranium. Nuclear power growth in the United States, Japan and Western Europe is discussed. The present status of the six major Australian uranium deposits (Ranger, Jabiluka, Nabarlek, Koongarra, Yeelerrie and Beverley) is given. Australian legislation relevant to the uranium mining industry is also outlined

  4. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  5. Lacustrine-humate model for primary uranium ore deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Two generations of uranium ore, primary and redistributed, occur in fluvial sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San Juan basin; the two stages of ore formation can be related to the hydrologic history of the basin. Primary ore formed soon after Morrison deposition, in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, and a model, the lacustrine-humate model, is offered that views primary mineralization as a diagenetic event related to early pore fluid evolution. The basic premise is that the humate, a pore-filling organic material closely associated with primary ore, originated as humic acids dissolved in pore waters of greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones deposited in the mud-flat facies of the Brushy Basin Member and similar K shale beds in the Westwater Canyon Member. During compaction associated with early burial, formation water expelled from lacustrine mudstone units carried these humic acids into adjacent sandstone beds where the organics precipitated, forming the humate deposits that concentrated uranium. During the Tertiary, much later in the hydrologic history of the basin, when Jurassic sediments were largely compacted, oxygenated ground water flowed basinward from uplifted basin margins. This invasion of Morrison sandstone beds by oxidizing ground waters redistributed uranium from primary ores along redox boundaries, forming ore deposits that resemble roll-front-type uranium ores. 11 figures

  6. Straightforward uranium-catalyzed dehydration of primary amides to nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enthaler, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The efficient uranium-catalyzed dehydration of a variety of primary amides, using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) as a dehydration reagent, to the corresponding nitriles has been investigated. With this catalyst system, extraordinary catalyst activities and selectivities were feasible. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Major geological events and uranium metallogenesis in South-west China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chengjiang; Xu Zhengqi; Ni Shijun; Chen Youliang

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in South-west China, with all types but on a not-so-large scale. South-west China is located on the combining site of several large tectonic elements and every tectonic movement has different effects on different regions. To study and clarify the correlation between the major geological events in South-west China and the Uranium metallogenesis, comprehensive research and field investigation are made besides collecting a lot of materials. Through analysis and research on the major geological events in South-west China, the evolution of those e vents is basically clarified and the events closely related with uranium mineralization are determined. It is discovered that there are several ore-forming geologic events in the geological history of South-west China; almost every major tectonic movement cycle is accompanied with uranium metallogenesis, from Jinning Movement to Chengjiang Movement, to Hercynian Movement, to Indosinian Movement. to Yanshan Movement. to Himalayan movement. Even though every major tectonic cycle is accompanied with uranium mineralization, three major geological events are generally obviously related with uranium metallogenesis, i.e. the Rodinian supercontinent breakup even in Jinning-Chengjiang Period, Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement, in which the first one is the process of uranium pre-enrichment and provides the source of uranium. Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement are the important processes for mineralization, mainly the hydrothermal superimposed mineralization. (authors)

  8. A density functional theory study of uranium-doped thoria and uranium adatoms on the major surfaces of thorium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, Ashley E. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Santos-Carballal, David [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Leeuw, Nora H. de, E-mail: DeLeeuwN@Cardiff.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Thorium dioxide is of significant research interest for its use as a nuclear fuel, particularly as part of mixed oxide fuels. We present the results of a density functional theory (DFT) study of uranium-substituted thorium dioxide, where we found that increasing levels of uranium substitution increases the covalent nature of the bonding in the bulk ThO{sub 2} crystal. Three low Miller index surfaces have been simulated and we propose the Wulff morphology for a ThO{sub 2} particle and STM images for the (100), (110), and (111) surfaces studied in this work. We have also calculated the adsorption of a uranium atom and the U adatom is found to absorb strongly on all three surfaces, with particular preference for the less stable (100) and (110) surfaces, thus providing a route to the incorporation of uranium into a growing thoria particle. - Highlights: • Uranium substitution in ThO{sub 2} is found to increase the covalent nature of the ionic bonding. • The (111), (110), and (100) surfaces of ThO{sub 2} are studied and the particle morphology is proposed. • STM images of the (111), (110), and (100) surfaces of ThO{sub 2} are simulated. • Uranium adsorption on the major surfaces of ThO{sub 2} is studied.

  9. Study on the primary mechanism of uranium biosorption by rhodotorula glutinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jing; Zhang Li'na; Fan Fangli; Lin Maosheng; Ding Huajie; Qin Zhi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the primary mechanism of uranium biosorption by Rhodotorula glutinis was studied using SEM and FTIR. Obvious changes were observed in the biomass SEM picture before and after uranium adsorption, and the peak of UO 2 at wave number of 904 cm -1 was detected by FTIR, indicated that uranium was really absorbed to Rhodotorula glutinis. (authors)

  10. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelman, J.W.; Chenoweth, W.L.; Ingerson, E.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium production industry is well into its third recession during the nuclear era (since 1945). Exploration is drastically curtailed, and many staffs are being reduced. Historical market price production trends are discussed. A total of 3.07 million acres of land was acquired for exploration; drastic decrease. Surface drilling footage was reduced sharply; an estimated 250 drill rigs were used by the uranium industry during 1980. Land acquisition costs increased 8%. The domestic reserve changes are detailed by cause: exploration, re-evaluation, or production. Two significant discoveries of deposits were made in Mohave County, Arizona. Uranium production during 1980 was 21,850 short tons U 3 O 8 ; an increase of 17% from 1979. Domestic and foreign exploration highlights were given. Major producing areas for the US are San Juan basin, Wyoming basins, Texas coastal plain, Paradox basin, northeastern Washington, Henry Mountains, Utah, central Colorado, and the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon. 3 figures, 8 tables

  11. The relationship between uranium distribution and some major crustal features in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnley, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    The availability of reconnaissance scale geochemical maps for large areas of Canada enables spatial associations between major crustal structures and surface uranium content to be identified. Maps of the distribution of uranium for an area greater than 2 million km 2 compiled from airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data are supplemented by maps for uranium, based on stream and lake sediment and some bore hole sampling. These are examined in relation to gravity, aeromagnetic and geological maps. The radioelement distribution can be related in detail to exposed bedrock and surface geology, but in addition there is evidence of the control of uranium distribution by major structural features which are marked by granitoids containing elevated levels of radioelements; several of these granitoids are associated with large negative Bouguer gravity anomalies. The distribution of such granitoids appears to be related to 'megashears', as in the case of the South Mountain batholith in Nova Scotia, or zones of tension. A belt of uranium enrichment, the Athabasca axis which is characterized by uraniferous granitoids with negative Bouguer gravity anomalies and associated tension faulting extends 2500 km northeastward from Edmonton, Alberta to the Melville Peninsula. This structure passes under the Athabasca basin which contains many large uranium deposits. (author)

  12. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    The article includes a historical preface about uranium, discovery of portability of sequential fission of uranium, uranium existence, basic raw materials, secondary raw materials, uranium's physical and chemical properties, uranium extraction, nuclear fuel cycle, logistics and estimation of the amount of uranium reserves, producing countries of concentrated uranium oxides and percentage of the world's total production, civilian and military uses of uranium. The use of depleted uranium in the Gulf War, the Balkans and Iraq has caused political and environmental effects which are complex, raising problems and questions about the effects that nuclear compounds left on human health and environment.

  13. Geology and structure of major uranium-bearing zones in India and their exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushana, J.C.; Vasudeva Rao, M.; Sahasrabudhe, G.H.; Krishnamoorthy, B.; Suryanarayana Rao, C.; Rama Rao, Y.N.

    1976-01-01

    Radiogeologic, lithostratigraphic, tectonic, and crustal evolutionary considerations have enabled the recognition of three major uranium provinces in India: the Singhbhum Province in the north-east; the Rajasthan Province in the north-west; and the Madhya Pradesh Province in central India. The paper describes the salient features of the three uranium provinces, with particular emphasis on their structural set-up, magmatectonics, and the controls of uranium mineralization, and presents a few recent case histories of individual deposits (Bagjata and Turamdih in Singhbhum, and Dhabi-Dumhat in Madhya Pradesh) discovered by integrated exploration techniques. The three uranium provinces are related to major deep-seated faults: the Singhbhum Province lies at the arcuate north-east end of the deep fault of the Eastern Ghats; the Rajasthan Province parallels the great boundary fault; and the Madhya Pradesh Province aligns with the Mahanadi-Son rift system. Some of the plausible explanations for these remarkable features are: localization of uranium ore during episodes of crustal fracturing in Precambrian times; reactivation and rejuvenation of favourable basement structures; and the role of local 'hot spots' (aided by compressional and vertical tectonics) in crustal zones anomalously enriched in the heat-producing elements. Uranium exploration strategy in India during the last three decades reveals two significant trends - the application of conventional radiometric techniques during the period 1950-65; and introduction of sophisticated methodology comprising non-radiometric geophysical techniques, emanometry, aerial and car-borne gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical surveys, and photogeological techniques as supplements to conventional radiometry, during the period 1965-75. It is concluded that extension of such integrated exploration techniques to favourable virgin terrains in India would lead to newer and richer uranium ore discoveries. (author)

  14. The primary discuss with migmatite uranium mineralization of 505 uranium points in Datian, Panzhihua, Sichuan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianbo; Yao Jian; Li Pilin

    2012-01-01

    The Presinian migmatitic complexes of Kangding Group distributed along 505 area of Datian, Panzhihua, Sichuan Province. Describing the geological features on 505 Uranium points, summarizing and analyzing the genesis of the migmatite complexes, overall structure, hydrothermal alteration, ore characteristics. It comes to a conclusion that the mineral type is migmatite uranium mineralization which is controlled by the migmatization and east-west structure. (authors)

  15. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.; Pagel, M.; Leroy, J.

    1992-01-01

    First, this book presents the physico-chemical properties of Uranium and the consequences which can be deduced from the study of numerous geological process. The authors describe natural distribution of Uranium at different scales and on different supports, and main Uranium minerals. A great place in the book is assigned to description and classification of uranium deposits. The book gives also notions on prospection and exploitation of uranium deposits. Historical aspects of Uranium economical development (Uranium resources, production, supply and demand, operating costs) are given in the last chapter. 7 refs., 17 figs

  16. Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Amrita; Campbell, Kate M.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Roebbert, Yvonne; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Borch, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Historically, it is believed that crystalline uraninite, produced via the abiotic reduction of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) is the dominant reduced U species formed in low-temperature uranium roll-front ore deposits. Here we show that non-crystalline U(IV) generated through biologically mediated U(VI) reduction is the predominant U(IV) species in an undisturbed U roll-front ore deposit in Wyoming, USA. Characterization of U species revealed that the majority (~58-89%) of U is bound as U(IV) to C-containing organic functional groups or inorganic carbonate, while uraninite and U(VI) represent only minor components. The uranium deposit exhibited mostly 238U-enriched isotope signatures, consistent with largely biotic reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). This finding implies that biogenic processes are more important to uranium ore genesis than previously understood. The predominance of a relatively labile form of U(IV) also provides an opportunity for a more economical and environmentally benign mining process, as well as the design of more effective post-mining restoration strategies and human health-risk assessment.

  17. Major depression in primary care: making the diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chung Wai Mark; How, Choon How; Ng, Yin Ping

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting, often presenting with somatic symptoms. It is potentially a chronic illness with considerable morbidity, and a high rate of relapse and recurrence. Major depression has a bidirectional relationship with chronic diseases, and a strong association with increased age and coexisting mental illnesses (e.g. anxiety disorders). Screening can be performed using clinical tools for major depression, such as the Patient Health Questionaire-2, Patient Health Questionaire-9 and Beck Depression Inventory, so that timely treatment can be initiated. An accurate diagnosis of major depression and its severity is essential for prompt treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. This is the first of a series of articles that illustrates the approach to the management of major depression in primary care. Our next articles will cover suicide risk assessment in a depressed patient and outline the basic principles of management and treatment modalities. PMID:27872937

  18. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article briefly discusses the Australian government policy and the attitude of political party factions towards the mining and exporting of the uranium resources in Australia. Australia has a third of the Western World's low-cost uranium resources

  19. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poty, B.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Virlogeux, D.; Capus, G.

    2010-01-01

    With the worldwide revival of nuclear energy comes the question of uranium reserves. For more than 20 years, nuclear energy has been neglected and uranium prospecting has been practically abandoned. Therefore, present day production covers only 70% of needs and stocks are decreasing. Production is to double by 2030 which represents a huge industrial challenge. The FBR-type reactors technology, which allows to consume the whole uranium content of the fuel, is developing in several countries and will ensure the long-term development of nuclear fission. However, the implementation of these reactors (the generation 4) will be progressive during the second half of the 21. century. For this reason an active search for uranium ores will be necessary during the whole 21. century to ensure the fueling of light water reactors which are huge uranium consumers. This dossier covers all the aspects of natural uranium production: mineralogy, geochemistry, types of deposits, world distribution of deposits with a particular attention given to French deposits, the exploitation of which is abandoned today. Finally, exploitation, ore processing and the economical aspects are presented. Contents: 1 - the uranium element and its minerals: from uranium discovery to its industrial utilization, the main uranium minerals (minerals with tetravalent uranium, minerals with hexavalent uranium); 2 - uranium in the Earth's crust and its geochemical properties: distribution (in sedimentary rocks, in magmatic rocks, in metamorphic rocks, in soils and vegetation), geochemistry (uranium solubility and valence in magmas, uranium speciation in aqueous solution, solubility of the main uranium minerals in aqueous solution, uranium mobilization and precipitation); 3 - geology of the main types of uranium deposits: economical criteria for a deposit, structural diversity of deposits, classification, world distribution of deposits, distribution of deposits with time, superficial deposits, uranium

  20. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The development, prospecting, research, processing and marketing of South Africa's uranium industry and the national policies surrounding this industry form the headlines of this work. The geology of South Africa's uranium occurences and their positions, the processes used in the extraction of South Africa's uranium and the utilisation of uranium for power production as represented by the Koeberg nuclear power station near Cape Town are included in this publication

  1. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, E.D.J.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion is given of uranium as an energy source in The Australian economy. Figures and predictions are presented on the world supply-demand position and also figures are given on the added value that can be achieved by the processing of uranium. Conclusions are drawn about Australia's future policy with regard to uranium (R.L.)

  2. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.

    1981-03-01

    The geological setting of uranium resources in the world can be divided in two basic categories of resources and are defined as reasonably assured resources, estimated additional resources and speculative resources. Tables are given to illustrate these definitions. The increasing world production of uranium despite the cutback in the nuclear industry and the uranium requirements of the future concluded these lecture notes

  3. Planning for a major expansion of the olympic dam copper/uranium resource in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The polymetallic Olympic Dam deposit in northern South Australia contains the world's largest known economic uranium resource. The current resource estimate is 3,970 million tones at 0.4 kg/t U308. Uranium is a co-product of an existing operation that also produces copper, gold and silver. Production began in 1998. Ore mined in 2006 is expected to be close to 10 million tones to produce 4,500 tonnes of uranium oxide and 220,000 tonnes of copper cathode. BHP Billiton is undertaking a pre-feasibility study into expanding annual production capacity to about 15,000 tonnes of uranium and 500,000 tonnes copper. Subject to successful completion of the pre-feasibility study and a final feasibility study, construction of the expansion could begin by early 2009, with the expanded production capacity being commissioned in 2013. The resource estimate has been significantly increased by drilling of the so-far undeveloped southern section of the orebody. Current planning indicates that this section could be mined by open pit. Ore is at depth and extends from 350 metres to about 1000 metres below surface. The existing operations facilities at Olympic Dam comprise an underground mine, and a mineral processing plant and associated infrastructure which would be expanded to support expanded mining. Major items of infrastructure could include a new powerline, water pipeline and associated coastal desalination plant, a rail link to Olympic Dam from the existing national network and further development of the Roxby Downs township (current population 4,000). The operation is regulated by an Indenture Agreement with the South Australian Government. To enable the expansion to proceed, the Indenture Agreement will be renegotiated. The operation is also regulated by the Federal Government. An Environmental Impact Statement is being developed to secure the necessary State and Federal approvals. A land access agreement is being negotiated with indigenous groups. Plans for

  4. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Events in the Canadian uranium industry during 1980 are reviewed. Mine and mill expansions and exploration activity are described, as well as changes in governmental policy. Although demand for uranium is weak at the moment, the industry feels optimistic about the future. (LL)

  5. Research on geochronology and uranium source of sandstone-hosted uranium ore-formation in major uranium-productive basins, Northern-China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Liu Hanbin; Lin Jinrong; Fan Guang; Hou Yanxian

    2004-12-01

    A method is developed for correcting uranium content in uranium ore samples by considering the U-Ra equilibrium coefficient, then a U-Pb isochron is drawn up. By performing the above correction ore-formation ages of sandstone-hosted uranium mineralization which may be more realistic have been obtained. The comparative research on U-Pb isotopic ages of detritic zircon in ore-hosting sandstone and zircon in intermediate-acid igneous rocks in corresponding provenance area indicates that the ore-hosting sandstone is originated from the erosion of intermediate-acid igneous rocks and the latters are the material basis for the formation of the uranium-rich sandstone beds. On the basis of the study on U-Pb isotopic system evolution of the provenance rocks and sandstones from ore-hosting series, it is verified that the uranium sources of the sandstone-hosted uranium deposit are: the intermediate-acid igneous rocks with high content of mobile uranium, and the sandstone bodies pre-concentrated uranium. (authors)

  6. Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R M

    1976-01-01

    Evidence of expanding markets, improved prices and the short supply of uranium became abundantly clear in 1975, providing the much needed impetus for widespread activity in all phases of uranium operations. Exploration activity that had been at low levels in recent years in Canada was evident in most provinces as well as the Northwest Territories. All producers were in the process of expanding their uranium-producing facilities. Canada's Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) by year-end had authorized the export of over 73,000 tons of U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ all since September 1974, when the federal government announced its new uranium export guidelines. World production, which had been in the order of 25,000 tons of U/sub 3/0/sub 8/ annually, was expected to reach about 28,000 tons in 1975, principally from increased output in the United States.

  7. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkin, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Developments in the Australian uranium industry during 1980 are reviewed. Mine production increased markedly to 1841 t U 3 O 8 because of output from the new concentrator at Nabarlek and 1131 t of U 3 O 8 were exported at a nominal value of $37.19/lb. Several new contracts were signed for the sale of yellowcake from Ranger and Nabarlek Mines. Other developments include the decision by the joint venturers in the Olympic Dam Project to sink an exploration shaft and the release of an environmental impact statement for the Honeymoon deposit. Uranium exploration expenditure increased in 1980 and additions were made to Australia's demonstrated economic uranium resources. A world review is included

  8. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Recent decisions by the Australian Government will ensure a significant expansion of the uranium industry. Development at Roxby Downs may proceed and Ranger may fulfil two new contracts but the decision specifies that apart from Roxby Downs, no new mines should be approved. The ACTU maintains an anti-uranium policy but reaction to the decision from the trade union movement has been muted. The Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC) has been asked by the Government to conduct an inquiry into a number of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle. The inquiry will examine in particular Australia's nuclear safeguards arrangements and the adequacy of existing waste management technology. In two additional decisions the Government has dissociated itself from a study into the feasibility of establishing an enrichment operation and has abolished the Uranium Advisory Council. Although Australian reserves account for 20% of the total in the Western World, Australia accounts for a relatively minor proportion of the world's uranium production

  9. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The French Government has decided to freeze a substantial part of its nuclear power programme. Work has been halted on 18 reactors. This power programme is discussed, as well as the effect it has on the supply of uranium by South Africa

  10. Proterozoic rifting and major unconformities in Rajasthan, and their implications for uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha-Roy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Evolution of the Precambrian terrain in Rajasthan has taken place via crustal consolidation of the basement at ca. 2.9 Ga, its cratonisation at ca. 2.5 Ga, through protracted tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Proterozoic cover sequences, following repeated rifting and Wilson cycles in the Aravalli and Delhi foldbelts. Consequently, the Proterozoic rift basins are characterised by growth faults and pull-aparts, and multitier volcanose dimentary sequences that contain a number of unconformities and stratigraphic breaks. The Archaean basement of the Mewar terrain that witnessed end-Archaean K-magmatism and ductile shearing, led to the creation of a possible uranium province, namely uranium enriched basement. This province acted as the source of remobilised uranium and its concentration at suitable multilevel structural and stratigraphic traps within the Proterozoic rift basins to give rise to unconformity-related syngenetic uranium mineralisation. Late Neoproterozoic to Pan-African tectonothermal reworking of the basement rocks produced fracture zones and caused Na-metasomatism giving rise to albitite-related uranium mineralisation. Based on an analysis of Proterozoic rift kinematics and lithofacies characteristics, five possible uranium-enriched stratigraphic horizons have been identified in the Aravalli and its equivalent sequences as well as in the North Delhi foldbelt sequences. From a regional synthesis, ten possible uranium metallogenic events, spanning ca. 2.5-0.5 Ga, are recognised in Rajasthan. These uranium events have predictive value for delineation of target areas for exploration. (author)

  11. Uranium occurrence in major rock types by fission-track mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledger, E.G.; Bomber, B.J.; Schaftenaar, W.E.; Tieh, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    Microscopic occurrence of uranium has been determined in about 50 igneous rocks from various location, and in a genetically unrelated sandstone from south Texas. Precambrian granites from the Llano uplift of central Texas contain from a few ppm uranium (considered normal) to over 100 ppm on a whole-rock basis. In granite, uranium is concentrated in: (1) accessory minerals including zircon, biotite, allanite, Fe-Ti oxides, and altered sphene, (2) along grain boundaries and in microfractures by precipitation from deuteric fluids, and (3) as point sources (small inclusions) in quartz and feldspars. Tertiary volcanic rocks from the Davis Mountains of west Texas include diverse rock types from basalt to rhyolite. Average uranium contents increase from 1 ppm in basalts to 7 ppm in rhyolites. Concentration occurs: (1) in iron-titanium-oxides, zircon, and rutile, (2) in the fine-grained groundmass as uniform and point-source concentrations, and (3) as late uranium in cavities associated with banded, silica-rich material. Uranium in ore-grade sandstone is concentrated to more than 3%. Specific occurrences include (1) leucoxene and/or anatase, (2) opaline and calcite cements, (3) mud clasts and altered volcanic rock fragments, and (4) in a few samples, as silt-size uranium- and molybdenum-rich spheres. Uranium content is quite low in pyrite, marcasite, and zeolites

  12. Postpartum major depression at six weeks in primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Major depression is a common and disabling complication of the postpartum period in women. It is thought to occur three times more commonly in the developing than in developed countries. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with major ...

  13. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; McKay, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Production for 1986 was 4899 t U 3 O 8 (4154 t U), 30% greater than in 1985, mainly because of a 39% increase in production at Ranger. Exports for 1986 were 4166 t U 3 O 8 at an average f.o.b. unit value of $40.57/lb U 3 O 8 . Private exploration expenditure for uranium in Australia during the 1985-86 fiscal year was $50.2 million. Plans were announced to increase the nominal capacity of the processing plant at Ranger from 3000 t/year U 3 O 8 to 4500 t and later to 6000 t/year. Construction and initial mine development at Olympic Dam began in March. Production is planned for mid 1988 at an annual rate of 2000 t U 3 O 8 , 30 000 t Cu, and 90 000 oz (2800 kg) Au. The first long-term sales agreement was concluded in September 1986. At the Manyingee deposit, testing of the alkaline solution mining method was completed, and the treatment plant was dismantled. Spot market prices (in US$/lb U 3 O 8 ) quoted by Nuexco were generally stable. From January-October the exchange value fluctuated from US$17.00-US$17.25; for November and December it was US$16.75. Australia's Reasonably Assured Resources of uranium recoverable at less than US$80/kg U at December 1986 were estimated as 462 000 t U, 3000 t U less than in 1985. This represents 30% of the total low-cost RAR in the WOCA (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economy Areas) countries. Australia also has 257 000 t U in the low-cost Estimated Additional Resources Category I, 29% of the WOCA countries' total resources in this category

  14. MAJOR MOLECULAR GENETIC DRIVERS IN SPORADIC PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is primarily due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma but multi-gland disease, parathyroid carcinoma, and ectopic parathyroid hormone production can occur. Although primary hyperparathyroidism mostly presents sporadically, strong familial predispositions also exist. Much is known about heritable genetic mutations responsible for these syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Acquired mutations in common sporadic hyperparathyroidism have also been discovered. Here we focus on the most common and well-established genetic drivers: 1) involvement of the oncogene cyclin D1 in human neoplasia was first established in parathyroid adenomas, followed by recognition of its importance in other tumor types including breast cancer and B-lymphoid malignancy; and 2) somatic mutation of the MEN1 gene, first identified as the source of pathogenic germline mutations in patients with familial endocrinopathies, is found in a substantial fraction of non-familial parathyroid adenomas.

  15. Major constituent quantitative determination in uranium alloys by coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and X ray fluorescence wavelength dispersive spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luis Claudio de; Silva, Adriana Mascarenhas Martins da; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves; Silva, Ieda de Souza

    2013-01-01

    A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometric method for determination of major constituents elements (Zr, Nb, Mo) in Uranium/Zirconium/Niobium and Uranium/Molybdenum alloy samples were developed. The methods use samples taken in the form of chips that were dissolved in hot nitric acid and precipitate particles melted with lithium tetraborate and dissolved in hot nitric acid and finally analyzed as a solution. Studies on the determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using matched matrix in calibration curve were developed. The same samples solution were analyzed in both methods. The limits of detection (LOD), linearity of the calibrations curves, recovery study, accuracy and precision of the both techniques were carried out. The results were compared. (author)

  16. Jabiluka uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Jabiluka uranium and gold deposit located in the Northern Territory of Australia is the world's largest known primary uranium deposits and as such has the potential to become one of the most important uranium projects in the world. Despite the financial and structural challenges facing the major owner Pancontinental Mining Limited and the changing political policies in Australia, Jabiluka is well situated for development during the 1990's. With the availability of numerous financial and development alternatives, Jabiluka could, by the turn of the century, take its rightful place among the first rank of world uranium producers. The paper discusses ownership, location, property rights, licensing, environmental concerns, marketing and development, capital costs, royalties, uranium policy considerations, geologic exploration history, regional and site geology, and mining and milling operations

  17. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  18. Assessment of major and trace elements in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi Uranium mine by WDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhen, Sabine N.; Oliveira, Fernando Mendes de; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Sakata, Solange K.; Scapin, Marcos A., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br, E-mail: snguilhen@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mascapin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, Walter S., E-mail: scassiotti@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios

    2015-07-01

    From 1982 to 1995, the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB) extracted and processed uranium from the Osamu Utsumi mine, located in Caldas (Minas Gerais/Brazil). After the operations were suspended in the mine, INB was convened to meet national regulatory requirements for decommissioning the mine. Several studies have since been initiated in order to support a safe and responsible closure of the mine. In this context, this work aims to establish and validate a non-destructive methodology for quantitative simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi uranium mine by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). The method was validated in accordance to the criteria established by INMETRO (Brazilian's National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology). The precision and accuracy achieved are statistically comparable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference material, SRM 2709a. The results showed significantly higher amounts of rare-earth elements and uranium in sediment samples, most likely because of the leaching process occurring in the pit's surroundings. This process is promoted by the acid mine drainage (AMD) that solubilized the elements present in the tailings throughout the mine's area. The solubilized elements end up accumulating in the pit water and further depositing up in the sediment. (author)

  19. Assessment of major and trace elements in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi Uranium mine by WDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhen, Sabine N.; Oliveira, Fernando Mendes de; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Sakata, Solange K.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Filho, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    From 1982 to 1995, the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB) extracted and processed uranium from the Osamu Utsumi mine, located in Caldas (Minas Gerais/Brazil). After the operations were suspended in the mine, INB was convened to meet national regulatory requirements for decommissioning the mine. Several studies have since been initiated in order to support a safe and responsible closure of the mine. In this context, this work aims to establish and validate a non-destructive methodology for quantitative simultaneous determination of major and minor constituents in soil and sediments from Osamu Utsumi uranium mine by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). The method was validated in accordance to the criteria established by INMETRO (Brazilian's National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology). The precision and accuracy achieved are statistically comparable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference material, SRM 2709a. The results showed significantly higher amounts of rare-earth elements and uranium in sediment samples, most likely because of the leaching process occurring in the pit's surroundings. This process is promoted by the acid mine drainage (AMD) that solubilized the elements present in the tailings throughout the mine's area. The solubilized elements end up accumulating in the pit water and further depositing up in the sediment. (author)

  20. Electron microscopy and microanalysis of uranium phases in primary ores, Eocene and Miocene of south Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.C.; Price, J.G.; Bobeck, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two contrasting types of roll-front uranium deposits occur in south Texas. In the barrier-bar sands of the Eocene Jackson Group, organic matter was essential to uranium reduction, whereas in the fluvial sands of the Miocene Oakville Formation, epigenetic pyrite was the reductant. In a sample of reduced Oakville ore, a uranium phase with grains ranging in diameter from < 1 to 20μm was recognized by SEM backscattered-electron imaging and wavelength-dispersive spectrometer (WDS) elemental-dot mapping. Quantitative microprobe analyses indicated that the phase is a uranium-calcium silicate-phosphate with molar Ca/P approximately equal to 1.0, U/P equal to 2.8 +/- 0.4 (n = 27), and U/Si approaching 1.0 in samples uncontaminated with quartz, feldspar, or clay minerals. Highest uranium content is 59%. Oakville ore is typically easy to leach by in-situ methods. Jackson ore contains 2 uranium phases. Sulfur-rich organic matter contains 4.1 +/- 1.6% uranium (n = 27). Although individual grains of a possible uranium mineral within the organic matter are too small to be resolved by electron imaging, a consistent molar U/Fe (0.5 +/- 0.1) suggests a uranium-iron oxide phase. Alternatively, uranium is adsorbed by or otherwise bound to the organic matter. The second phase is a uranium-calcium silicate-phosphate that differs from the Oakville ore. Molar Ca/P equals 0.8 +/- 0.2 (n = 13), and U/P equals 4.7 +/- 0.4. Small grain size (generally less than 1 μm) prevented analysis of samples uncontaminated with quartz and pyrite. The grain with highest uranium content (43%) has U/Si equal to 0.34. Jackson ore is less favorable for in-situ leaching than Oakville ore in part because the organic-associated uranium is difficult to extract

  1. Identification of major cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes using primary care data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, Koen Bernardus; Voorham, Jaco; Hak, Eelko; Denig, Petra

    2016-04-02

    Routine primary care data are increasingly being used for evaluation and research purposes but there are concerns about the completeness and accuracy of diagnoses and events captured in such databases. We evaluated how well patients with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be identified using primary care morbidity data and drug prescriptions. The study was conducted using data from 17,230 diabetes patients of the GIANTT database and Dutch Hospital Data register. To estimate the accuracy of the different measures, we analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) relative to hospitalizations and/or records with a diagnosis indicating major CVD, including ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular events. Using primary care morbidity data, 43% of major CVD hospitalizations could be identified. Adding drug prescriptions to the search increased the sensitivity up to 94%. A proxy of at least one prescription of either a platelet aggregation inhibitor, vitamin k antagonist or nitrate could identify 85% of patients with a history of major CVD recorded in primary care, with an NPV of 97%. Using the same proxy, 57% of incident major CVD recorded in primary or hospital care could be identified, with an NPV of 99%. A substantial proportion of major CVD hospitalizations was not recorded in primary care morbidity data. Drug prescriptions can be used in addition to diagnosis codes to identify more patients with major CVD, and also to identify patients without a history of major CVD.

  2. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  3. Uranium industry annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Uranium industry data collected in the EIA-858 survey provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of annual activities of the industry and include some information about industry plans over the next several years. This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities utility market requirements and related topics

  4. Identification of major cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes using primary care data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Koen Bernardus; Voorham, Jaco; Hak, Eelko; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Routine primary care data are increasingly being used for evaluation and research purposes but there are concerns about the completeness and accuracy of diagnoses and events captured in such databases. We evaluated how well patients with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be

  5. Uranium industry annual 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report consists of two major sections. The first addresses uranium raw materials activities and covers the following topics: exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment. The second major section is concerned with the following uranium marketing activities: uranium purchase commitments, uranium prices, procurement arrangements, uranium imports and exports, enrichment services, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and related topics. A glossary and appendices are included to assist the reader in interpreting the substantial array of statistical data in this report and to provide background information about the survey

  6. Major League pitching workload after primary ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction and risk for revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Marshall, Nathan E; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Khalil, Lafi; Tibone, James E; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2017-02-01

    Literature has attempted to correlate pitching workload with risk of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury; however, limited data are available in evaluating workload and its relationship with the need for revision reconstruction in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We identified 29 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction and compared them with 121 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared for the seasons after returning from primary reconstruction and for the last season pitched before undergoing revision surgery. The difference in workload between pitchers who did and did not require revision reconstruction was not statistically significant in games pitched, innings pitched, and MLB-only pitch counts. The one significant difference in workload was in total pitch counts (combined MLB and minor league), with the pitchers who required revision surgery pitching less than those who did not (primary: 1413.6 pitches vs. revision: 959.0 pitches, P = .04). In addition, pitchers who required revision surgery underwent primary reconstruction at an early age (22.9 years vs. 27.3 years, P risk for injury after primary UCL reconstruction. However, correlations of risk may be younger age and less MLB experience at the time of the primary reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Five-year outcome of major depressive disorder in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, K A; Vuorilehto, M S; Melartin, T K; Isometsä, E T

    2014-05-01

    Primary health care provides treatment for most patients with depression. Despite their importance for organizing services, long-term course of depression and risk factors for poor outcome in primary care are not well known. In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 patients representing primary care patients in a Finnish city was screened for depression with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews were used to diagnose Axis I and II disorders. The 137 patients with DSM-IV depressive disorder were prospectively followed up at 3, 6, 18 and 60 months. Altogether, 82% of patients completed the 5-year follow-up, including 102 patients with a research diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline. Duration of the index episode, recurrences, time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs) and partial or full remission were examined with a life-chart. Of the MDD patients, 70% reached full remission, in a median time of 20 months. One-third had at least one recurrence. The patients spent 34% of the follow-up time in MDEs, 24% in partial remission and 42% in full remission. Baseline severity of depression and substance use co-morbidity predicted time spent in MDEs. This prospective, naturalistic, long-term study of a representative cohort of primary care patients with depression indicated slow or incomplete recovery and a commonly recurrent course, which need to be taken into account when developing primary care services. Severity of depressive symptoms and substance use co-morbidity should be systematically evaluated in planning treatment.

  8. Descriptive models of major uranium deposits in China - Some results of the Workshop on Uranium Resource Assessment sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, in cooperation with China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing, and the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, and Reston, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W.I.; Feng, S.; Zuyi, C.; McCammon, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Four major types of uranium deposits occur in China: granite, volcanic, sandstone, and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock. These types are major sources of uranium in many parts of the world and account for about 95 percent of Chinese production. Descriptive models for each of these types record the diagnostic regional and local geologic features of the deposits that are important to genetic studies, exploration, and resource assessment. A fifth type of uranium deposit, metasomatite, is also modeled because of its high potential for production. These five types of uranium deposits occur irregularly in five tectonic provinces distributed from the northwest through central to southern China. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  9. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety. Primary piping in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. The

  10. Uranium industry framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, K.

    2008-01-01

    The global uranium market is undergoing a major expansion due to an increase in global demand for uranium, the highest uranium prices in the last 20 years and recognition of the potential greenhouse benefits of nuclear power. Australia holds approximately 27% of the world's uranium resources (recoverable at under US$80/kg U), so is well placed to benefit from the expansion in the global uranium market. Increasing exploration activity due to these factors is resulting in the discovery and delineation of further high grade uranium deposits and extending Australia's strategic position as a reliable and safe supplier of low cost uranium.

  11. Review of international classification systems for uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenyou

    2007-01-01

    The two primary classification systems for uranium resources in common use in the whole world are described. These uranium resource classification systems were developed under two distinct philosophies, it implies two very different processes, criteria, terms and definitions from which the systems evolved and were implemented. However, the two primary systems are all based on two considerations: the degree of geological confidence and the degree of economic attractiveness based on cost of producing the resource. The uranium resource classification methods currently used in most major uranium producing countries have all a bearing on the two aforesaid classification systems. The disparity exists only in the way or practice of classifying and estimating the uranium resources for reasons of different political and economical systems in various countries. The harmonization of these resource classification systems for uranium can be realized with the economic integration on a global scale. (authors)

  12. Uranium: a basic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crull, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    All energy sources and technologies, including uranium and the nuclear industry, are needed to provide power. Public misunderstanding of the nature of uranium and how it works as a fuel may jeopardize nuclear energy as a major option. Basic chemical facts about uranium ore and uranium fuel technology are presented. Some of the major policy decisions that must be made include the enrichment, stockpiling, and pricing of uranium. Investigations and lawsuits pertaining to uranium markets are reviewed, and the point is made that oil companies will probably have to divest their non-oil energy activities. Recommendations for nuclear policies that have been made by the General Accounting Office are discussed briefly

  13. Hospital burden of road traffic injury: major concern in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Faruque, M; Svanström, L; Rahman, F

    2010-04-01

    To assess the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh, and its economic impact on affected families. Cross-sectional study. The study was carried out in February and March 2001. To estimate the burden of RTI patients and the length of stay in hospital, the discharge records of primary and secondary level hospitals were used as data sources. Records from 16 district hospitals and 45 Upazila health complexes (subdistrict level hospitals), selected at random, were included in this study. A direct interview method was adopted to estimate the patient costs of RTI; this involved interviewing patients or their attendants. In this study, patient costs included money spent by the patient for medicine, transport, food and lodging (including attendants). Approximately 33% of the beds in primary and secondary level hospitals in Bangladesh were occupied by injury-related patients, and more than 19% of the injury patients had been injured in a road traffic accident. People aged 18-45 years were the major victims of RTI, and constituted 70% of the total RTI-related admissions in primary and secondary level hospitals. More than two-thirds of RTI patients were male. The average duration of hospital stay was 5.7 days, and the average patient cost for each RTI patient was US$86 (5834 BDT). RTI is a major cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh, and represents an economic and social burden for the family and the nation. A national strategy and road safety programme need to be developed to reduce the hospital burden and minimize the economic and social impact. 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The giant Alum Shale polymetallic deposits of Jämtland, Sweden – A major potential low cost supplier of uranium for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, R.; Goodall, W.

    2014-01-01

    Jämtland County in Sweden contains approximately 11% of global uranium resources which are compliant with either the Toronto or Australian Stock Exchange codes. A widespread unit through northern Europe, the Alum Shale host rock has been a historic source of alum, oil and uranium. Exploration for uranium in the 1970s located several tens of square kilometres with the development of relatively thick Alum Shale in Jämtland. The Alum Shale in Jämtland is a fine-grained, carbonaceous schist. The groundmass comprises quartz, feldspar, white micas and carbon. The uranium, molybdenum and vanadium have been shown to be concentrated in the organic/mica matrix. Nickel and zinc are preferentially concentrated within the pyrite grains. Total mineral resources in the district are approximately 5 billion tonnes, at a grade of approximately 136 ppm U (160 ppm U_3O_8). Aura Energy Ltd, one of the holders of permits in the district, has 2.35 BT @ 131 ppm U (155 ppm U_3O_8). The average grades of other metals present in the resource are: molybdenum 207ppm, vanadium 1,519ppm, nickel 316ppm, and zinc 431ppm. These polymetallic resources are exceptionally large, and Aura’s uranium resource constitutes the second largest undeveloped resource anywhere in the world. Black schists are typically considered to be challenging metallurgically. Hence the Alum Shale has been previously considered a potential high cost source of uranium. The primary issue has been the high cost associated with acid reagent to extract the uranium. Recently the pyrite has been recognised as a possible source of acid within the ore itself. Bacterial leaching to catalyse the oxidation of pyrite was demonstrated to be the most effective process for generating this acid. The Jämtland Alum Shales appear ideally suited to bioleaching because of the level of pyrite present, and the lower proportion of acid consuming minerals such as carbonates. Aura Energy has established leach extractions of up to 85% of the

  15. Documentation of the Uranium Market Model (UMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Market Model is used to make projections of activity in the US uranium mining and milling industry. The primary data sources were EIA, the Nuclear Assurance Corporation, and, to a lesser extent, Nuexco and Nuclear Resources International. The Uranium Market Model is a microeconomic simulation model in which uranium supplied by the mining and milling industry is provided to meet the demand for uranium by electric utilities with nuclear power plants. Uranium is measured on a U 3 O 8 (uranium oxide) equivalent basis. The model considers every major production center and utility on a worldwide basis (with Centrally Planned Economies considered in a limited way), and makes annual projections for each major uranium production and consumption region in the world. Typically, nine regions are used: the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa, Other Africa, Europe, Latin America, the Far East, and Other. Production centers and utilities are identified as being in one of these regions. In general, the model can accommodate any user-provided set of regional definitions and data

  16. A clinical prediction rule for detecting major depressive disorder in primary care : the PREDICT-NL study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Vergouwe, Yvonne; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Hak, Eelko; Moons, Karel G M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder often remains unrecognized in primary care. OBJECTIVE: Development of a clinical prediction rule using easily obtainable predictors for major depressive disorder in primary care patients. METHODS: A total of 1046 subjects, aged 18-65 years, were included from

  17. Major activated corrosion products cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingxia

    2012-01-01

    The production of the major activated corrosion products such as cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants and the impacts on the increase of the dose rates caused by these corrosion products during the shutdown are described in the paper. Investigating the corrosion product behavior during the operation and shutdown periods aims at detecting the appearance of these radiological pollutants in the early time and searching relevant solutions that may enable eventually to decrease the dose rate. The solutions may include: Replacing critical material in the primary system's equipment and components, which contact with primary coolant circuit to possibly limit the source term, Elaborating strictly the specific chemical and shutdown procedure to optimize the purification capacity and to minimize the over-contaminations; Improving purification techniques according to the real operation circumstance, and limiting the impacts of these pollutants. It is obvious in the real practices that implementing appropriate solution will be benefit to decrease or limit the pollutants species like cobalt, silver and antimony. (author)

  18. Detecting recurrent major depressive disorder within primary care rapidly and reliably using short questionnaire measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Ajay; Hammerton, Gemma; Collishaw, Stephan; Potter, Robert; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon; Craddock, Nicholas; Thapar, Anita; Smith, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often a chronic disorder with relapses usually detected and managed in primary care using a validated depression symptom questionnaire. However, for individuals with recurrent depression the choice of which questionnaire to use and whether a shorter measure could suffice is not established. To compare the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale against shorter PHQ-derived measures for detecting episodes of DSM-IV major depression in primary care patients with recurrent MDD. Diagnostic accuracy study of adults with recurrent depression in primary care predominantly from Wales Scores on each of the depression questionnaire measures were compared with the results of a semi-structured clinical diagnostic interview using Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis for 337 adults with recurrent MDD. Concurrent questionnaire and interview data were available for 272 participants. The one-month prevalence rate of depression was 22.2%. The area under the curve (AUC) and positive predictive value (PPV) at the derived optimal cut-off value for the three longer questionnaires were comparable (AUC = 0.86-0.90, PPV = 49.4-58.4%) but the AUC for the PHQ-9 was significantly greater than for the PHQ-2. However, by supplementing the PHQ-2 score with items on problems concentrating and feeling slowed down or restless, the AUC (0.91) and the PPV (55.3%) were comparable with those for the PHQ-9. A novel four-item PHQ-based questionnaire measure of depression performs equivalently to three longer depression questionnaires in identifying depression relapse in patients with recurrent MDD.

  19. Correlates of late-life major depression: a comparison of urban and rural primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bruce; Conwell, Yeates; Delavan, Rachel L

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether factors associated with depression differ between elderly residents of rural and urban areas. The research design was cross-sectional and observational. The study subjects consisted of 926 Medicare primary care patients (650 urban and 276 rural) who were age 65+ and cognitively intact and had enrolled in a randomized, controlled Medicare demonstration. Major depression was identified by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A logistic regression model was estimated that included a rural-urban indicator variable, additional independent variables, and interaction terms between the rural-urban indicator and independent variables that were significant at p Reporting 0-1 close friends (odds ratio [OR]: 6.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.18-21.58), 2+ emergency room visits during the past 6 months (OR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.19-13.43), and more financial strain (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.01-2.23) were associated with significantly higher likelihood of major depression among rural as compared with urban patients. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary score had a curvilinear relationship with major depression and was higher for urban patients. The predicted probability for major depression is lower for the rural patients when financial strain is low, about the same for rural and urban patients when strain is intermediate, and higher for rural patients when strain is high. Clinicians in rural areas should be vigilant for major depression among patients with very few close friends, several recent emergency department visits, and financial strain.

  20. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  1. Cost-utility of collaborative care for major depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorden, Maartje; Huijbregts, Klaas M L; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2015-10-01

    Major depression is a great burden on society, as it is associated with high disability/costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of Collaborative Care (CC) for major depressive disorder compared to Care As Usual (CAU) in a primary health care setting from a societal perspective. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted, including 93 patients that were identified by screening (45-CC, 48-CAU). Another 57 patients were identified by the GP (56-CC, 1-CAU). The outcome measures were TiC-P, SF-HQL and EQ-5D, respectively measuring health care utilization, production losses and general health related quality of life at baseline three, six, nine and twelve months. A cost-utility analysis was performed for patients included by screening and a sensitivity analysis was done by also including patients identified by the GP. The average annual total costs was €1131 (95% C.I., €-3158 to €750) lower for CC compared to CAU. The average quality of life years (QALYs) gained was 0.02 (95% C.I., -0.004 to 0.04) higher for CC, so CC was dominant from a societal perspective. Taking a health care perspective, CC was less cost-effective due to higher costs, €1173 (95% C.I., €-216 to €2726), of CC compared to CAU which led to an ICER of 53,717 Euro/QALY. The sensitivity analysis showed dominance of CC. The cost-utility analysis from a societal perspective showed that CC was dominant to CAU. CC may be a promising treatment for depression in the primary care setting. Further research should explore the cost-effectiveness of long-term CC. Netherlands Trial Register ISRCTN15266438. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Variations in Primary Teachers’ Responses and Development during Three Major Science In- Service Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on how different types of teachers responded to in-service aimed at developing investigative-based science education (IBSE in primary schools, and the extent to which they applied their new skills in the classroom. Common items from evaluation questionnaires allowed data to be combined from three major in-service programmes. Using complete data sets from 120 teachers, cluster analysis enabled three teacher types to be identified: a small group of ‘science unsures’, with low attitude scores and little confidence, who showed no response to the innovation; ‘holistic improvers’, who showed the largest improvement in science teaching confidence; and ‘high level, positive progressives’, who were very positive to science teaching throughout and showed gains in confidence in teaching physics and chemistry, as well as in demonstrating the relevance of science to their pupils. Taking account of these teacher types alongside interviews and observations, nine developmental stages in how teachers apply their new expertise in the classroom and the whole school are suggested. Major factorsinfluencing application in the classroom are the teachers’ initial science knowledge and pedagogical expertise, and motivating feedback to teachers when pupils responded positively to the innovation. Assessing teachers’ initial level of subject knowledge and science pedagogical expertise to inform the approach and amount of in-service provision is important. Subsequent mentoring as well as support from the school principal when teachers first try IBSE with pupils promotes successful implementation in the classroom.

  3. Fluvial sedimentology of a major uranium-bearing sandstone - A study of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation, the main ore-bearing sandstone in the San Juan basin, consists of a sequence of vertically stacked braided stream deposits. Three fluvial units within the sequence can be delineated in the basin. Volcanic pebbles are abundant in the middle fluvial unit, in a zone that forms a crude time line. A pronounced thickening of sandstone in the Westwater Canyon Member north of Gallup, once believed to be the apex of a large alluvial fan, is now thought to merely reflect a greater accumulation of sediment in response to downwarping of the basin in that area. Provenance studies suggest that highlands that contributed detritus to Westwater Canyon streams were located several hundred kilometers to the west and southwest of the San Juan basin, and thus fan apices would also have been several hundred kilometers upstream. The fluvial units recognized in the basin may well be coalesced distal fan deposits, but are probably best interpreted as vertically stacked braided steam sequences. Facies changes in fine-grained interbeds of the Westwater Canyon probably have greater significance in terms of localizing ore than any special attribute of the fluvial sandstones themselves. Uranium ore generally occurs in sandstones that are interbedded with greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones. Pore waters that were expelled from these mudstones are thought to have been the source of the pore-filling organic matter (humate) associated with primary uranium ore in nearby sandstones

  4. Geochemical study for primary dispersion of trace elements in uranium bearing black slates of the Ogcheon Group, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O.B.

    1980-01-01

    Total 145 boring core samples of Deogpyongri, Geosan and Mogsori, Geumsan in Ogcheon Group have been collected and analyzed for uranium and trace elements such as lead, zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, vanadium and mloybdenium. All the data of the elments analyzed have been processed statistically by computer in order to estimate the correlation co-efficient between elements. The vertical distribution pattern of trace elements has been discussed. The results obtained are summarized as follows: Uranium has high correlation co-efficients with vanadium and molybdenium. And the last two can be used as indicator elements for the geochemical prospecting of uranium. The occurrence of uranium is closely related with the carbonaceous material in boring core of Ogcheon Group. Considering the vertical distribution pattern of uranium, it can't be said that the epigenetic uranium absorption to the carbonaceous material is in progress. The uranium minerals in the carbonanceous material must be correctly defined to resolve the genetic problems of uranium deposit in Ogcheon Group. (Author)

  5. Lithology and uranium potential of Jurassic formations in the San Ysidro--Cuba and majors ranch areas, northwestern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.S.

    1975-01-01

    The aggregate thickness of sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age near the eastern and southeastern margin of the San Juan Basin in Sandoval County, N. Mex., is about 1150 feet (350 metres). The Entrada Sandstone is the base. The Entrada Sandstone, 97 to 227 feet (30 to 69 m) thick, consists of red and brown siltstone and fine-grained sandstone and brown and white sandstone. The Todilto Formation, 5 to 125 feet (1.5 to 38 m) thick, consists of a limestone unit and a massive white gypsum unit. The Summerville Formation, 0 to 50 feet (0 to 15 m) thick, consists of variegated, interstratified mudstone, claystone, siltstone, and sandstone. The Morrison Formation, 750 to 870 feet (229 to 265 m) thick, is divided into three members. The Recapture Member consists mainly of red and white color-banded fine-grained sandstone. The Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin Members consist mainly of red and green mudstone interstratified with grayish-orange arkosic sandstone. The upper unit of the Brushy Basin Member is called the Jackpile sandstone, a name of economic usage. Most of the sandstone in the Morrison Formation above the Recapture Member in the area studied is considered to be a potential host for uranium ore deposits. (auth)

  6. Classification of Uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A listing of the recognized types of uranium mineralization shows nineteen determinable types out of which only six can be classified as of economic significance at present: Oligomiitic quartz pebble conglomerates, sandstone types, calcretes, intra-intrusive types, hydrothermal veins, veinlike types. The different types can be genetically related to prevalent geological environments, i.e. 1. the primary uranium occurrences formed by endogenic processes, 2. the secondary derived from the primary by subsequent exogenic processes, 3. the tertiary occurrences are assumed to be formed by endogenic metamorphic processes, although little is known about the behaviour of the uranium during the metamorphosis and therefore the metallogenesis of this tertiary uranium generation is still vague. A metallotectonic-geochronologic correlation of the uranium deposits shows a distinct affinity of the uranium to certain geological epochs: The Upper Archean, Lower Proterozoic, the Hercynian and, in a less established stage, the Upper Proterozoic. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  7. Possible uranium sources of Streltsovsky uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lisheng

    2005-01-01

    The uranium deposit of the Late Jurassic Streltsovaky caldera in Transbaikalia of Russia is the largest uranium field associated with volcanics in the world, its uranium reserves are 280 000 t U, and it is the largest uranium resources in Russia. About one third of the caldera stratigraphic pile consists of strongly-altered rhyolites. Uranium resources of the Streltsovsky caldera are much larger than any other volcanic-related uranium districts in the world. Besides, the efficiency of hydrothermal alteration, uranium resources appear to result from the juxtaposition of two major uranium sources; highly fractionated peralkaline rhyolites of Jurassic age in the caldera, and U-rich subalkaline granites of Variscan age in the basement in which the major uranium-bearing accessory minerals were metamict at the time of the hydrothermal ore formation. (authors)

  8. Uranium Supply Strategy of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shangxiong; Zhang Decun; Zhang Yi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: With the rapid development of nuclear power in the next few years, uranium demand will increase accordingly. Overseas uranium development will be the major channel to meet the future requirement of NPP demand in China.

  9. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheeseman, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The international uranium market appears to be currently over-supplied with a resultant softening in prices. Buyers on the international market are unhappy about some of the restrictions placed on sales by the government, and Canadian sales may suffer as a result. About 64 percent of Canada's shipments come from five operating Ontario mines, with the balance from Saskatchewan. Several other properties will be producing within the next few years. In spite of the adverse effects of the Three Mile Island incident and the default by the T.V.A. of their contract, some 3 600 tonnes of new uranium sales were completed during the year. The price for uranium had stabilized at US $42 - $44 by mid 1979, but by early 1980 had softened somewhat. The year 1979 saw the completion of major environmental hearings in Ontario and Newfoundland and the start of the B.C. inquiry. Two more hearings are scheduled for Saskatchewan in 1980. The Elliot Lake uranium mining expansion hearings are reviewed, as are other recent hearings. In the production of uranium for nuclear fuel cycle, environmental matters are of major concern to the industry, the public and to governments. Research is being conducted to determine the most effective method for removing radium from tailings area effluents. Very stringent criteria are being drawn up by the regulatory agencies that must be met by the industry in order to obtain an operating licence from the AECB. These criteria cover seepages from the tailings basin and through the tailings retention dam, seismic stability, and both short and long term management of the tailings waste management area. (auth)

  10. The Adrenal Vein Sampling International Study (AVIS) for identifying the major subtypes of primary aldosteronism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, G.P.; Barisa, M.; Allolio, B.; Auchus, R.J.; Amar, L.; Cohen, D.; Degenhart, C.; Deinum, J.; Fischer, E.; Gordon, R.; Kickuth, R.; Kline, G.; Lacroix, A.; Magill, S.; Miotto, D.; Naruse, M.; Nishikawa, T.; Omura, M.; Pimenta, E.; Plouin, P.F.; Quinkler, M.; Reincke, M.; Rossi, E.; Rump, L.C.; Satoh, F.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Seccia, T.M.; Stowasser, M.; Tanabe, A.; Trerotola, S.; Vonend, O.; Widimsky Jr, J.; Wu, K.D.; Wu, V.C.; Pessina, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: In patients who seek surgical cure of primary aldosteronism (PA), The Endocrine Society Guidelines recommend the use of adrenal vein sampling (AVS), which is invasive, technically challenging, difficult to interpret, and commonly held to be risky. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to

  11. Efficiency of the scattered primary radiation as an internal standard in the determination of uranium and thorium in geological materials by X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra, J.P.; Bayon, A.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiency of the scattered primary coherent and incoherent X-radiation of various wavelengths has been studied as a matrix correction in the determination of uranium and thorium in geological materials by X-ray spectrometry. The excitation has been performed with molybdenum and tungsten targets. Results illustrate that the incoherently-scattered Mok βsub(1,3) and Mok βsub(1,2) radiation are, respectively, the optimum reference lines. The particle size influence and the critical thickness of the sample are also considered.(auth.)

  12. Critical review of uranium resources and production capability to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This report was prepared to assess the changing uranium supply and demand situation as well as the adequacy of uranium resources and the production capability to supply uranium concentrate to meet reactor demand through 2020. Uranium production has been meeting only 50 to 60 percent of the world requirements with the balance met from sale of excess inventory offered on the market at low prices. It is generally agreed by most specialists that the end of the excess inventory is approaching. With inventory no longer able to meet the production shortfall it is necessary to significantly expand uranium production to fill an increasing share of demand. Non-production supplies of uranium, such as the blending of highly enriched uranium (HEU) warheads to produce low enriched reactor fuel and reprocessing of spent fuel, are also expected to grow in importance as a fuel source. This analysis addresses three major concerns as follows: adequacy of resources to meet projected demand; adequacy of production capability to produce the uranium; and market prices to sustain production to fill demand. This analysis indicates uranium mine production to be the primary supply providing about 76 to 78 percent of cumulative needs through 2020. Alternative sources supplying the balance, in order of relative importance are: (1) low enriched uranium (LEU) blended from 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium (HEU) Russian weapons, plus initial US Department of Energy (US DOE) stockpile sales (11 to 13%); (2) reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (6%) and; (3) utility and Russian stockpiles. Further this report gives uranium production profiles by countries: CIS producers (Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) and other producers (Australia, Canada, China, Gabon, Mongolia, Namibia, Niger, South Africa, United States of America)

  13. PREDICTION AND PREVENTION OF LIVER FAILURE AFTER MAJOR LIVER PRIMARY AND METASTATIC TUMORS RESECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose of the study. Improvement of results of treatment in patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer by decreasing the risk of post-resection liver failure on the basis of the evaluation of the functional reserves of the liver.Materials and Methods. The study included two independent samples of patients operated about primary or metastatic lesions of the liver at the Department of abdominal Oncology, P. A. Hertsen MORI. The first group included 53 patients who carried out 13C-breath test metallimovie and dynamic scintigraphy of the liver in the preoperative stage in addition to the standard algorithm of examination. Patients of the 2nd group (n=35 had a standard clinical and laboratory examination, the patients were not performed the preoperative evaluation of the functional reserve of the liver, the incidences of total bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin time did not reveal a reduction of liver function. Post-resection liver failure have been established on the basis of the 50/50 criterion in the evaluation on day 5 after surgery.Results. Analysis of operating characteristics of the functional tests showed the absolute methacin breath test sensitivity (SE≥100%, high specificity (SP≥67% of scintigraphy of the liver and the negative predictive value of outcome (VP≥100% at complex use of two diagnostic methods. The incidence of PROPS in the study group was significantly 2 times higher in the control group –15,1% and 26.8%, respectively (p<0.001.Conclusion. The combination of preoperative dynamic scintigraphy of the liver with carrying out 13C-breath methacin test allows you to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the liver functional reserve and can significantly improve preoperative evaluation and postoperative results of anatomic resection in patients with primary and metastatic liver lesions.

  14. Clinical outcomes of patients with major bleeding after primary coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hongchao; Zhang Qi; Zhang Ruiyan; Hu Jian; Yang Zhenkun; Zhang Jiansheng; Shen Weifeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients complicated with major bleeding after primary coronary intervention (PCI) for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: During the period of January 2004-January 2008, primary PCI was performed in 412 consecutive patients with acute STEMI at Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including death, reoccurrence of myocardial infarction and target vessel revascularization, in patients with major bleeding were compared with that in patients without major bleeding. Results: Compared to patients without bleeding, the patients with bleeding were older (70.0 ± 8.9 years vs 64.9 ± 12.7 years, P=0.04), mainly the females (51.9% vs 23.1%, P=0.001) and treated more often with glycoprotein (GP) IIb / IIIa receptor inhibitor (88.9% vs 69.4%, P=0.03) or intra-aortic balloon pump (7.4% vs 1.3%, P=0.02). In-hospital and one-year MACE rate in the patients with bleeding was 18.5% and 37.0% respectively,which were significantly higher than that in the patients without bleeding (5.7% and 14.3%, with P=0.008 and P=0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that patient aged over 70 years, feminine gender and use of GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor were independent predictors for the occurrence of major bleeding. The occurrence of major bleeding after primary PCI was significantly correlated with MACE occurred within one year after the procedure (OR 2.79, 95% CI: 2.21-5.90, P<0.001). Conclusion: In patients with acute STEMI, the occurrence of major bleeding after primary PCI is closely linked to the increased MACE rate within one year after the treatment.Feminine gender, aged patient and use of GPIIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor are independent predictors to increase the danger of major bleeding. (authors)

  15. Australia and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A brief justification of the Australian Government's decision to mine and export Australian Uranium is presented along with a description of the Alligator River Region in the Northern Territory where the major mines are to be located. Aboriginal interests and welfare in the region, the proposed Kakadu National Park and the economic benefits resulting from uranium development are also briefly covered. (J.R.)

  16. Uranium industry in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikipelov, B.V.; Chernov, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A brief historical account of the Soviet production of natural and enriched uranium is given. The geological and geographical location of major uranium deposits are mentioned. The processing of natural ores including in-situ leaching (ISL) is also briefly described. Gas centrifuges play a large part in uranium enrichment. The role of Techsnabexport for the export of nuclear materials is explained

  17. High LET radiation shows no major cellular and functional effects on primary cardiomyocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heselich, Anja; Frieß, Johannes L.; Ritter, Sylvia; Benz, Naja P.; Layer, Paul G.; Thielemann, Christiane

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that ionizing radiation causes adverse effects on various mammalian tissues. However, there is little information on the biological effects of heavy ion radiation on the heart. In order to fill this gap, we systematically examined DNA-damage induction and repair, as well as proliferation and apoptosis in avian cardiomyocyte cultures irradiated with heavy ions such as titanium and iron, relevant for manned space-flight, and carbon ions, as used for radiotherapy. Further, and to our knowledge for the first time, we analyzed the effect of heavy ion radiation on the electrophysiology of primary cardiomyocytes derived from chicken embryos using the non-invasive microelectrode array (MEA) technology. As electrophysiological endpoints beat rate and field action potential duration were analyzed. The cultures clearly exhibited the capacity to repair induced DNA damage almost completely within 24 h, even at doses of 7 Gy, and almost completely recovered from radiation-induced changes in proliferative behavior. Interestingly, no significant effects on apoptosis could be detected. Especially the functionality of primary cardiac cells exhibited a surprisingly high robustness against heavy ion radiation, even at doses of up to 7 Gy. In contrast to our previous study with X-rays the beat rate remained more or less unaffected after heavy ion radiation, independently of beam quality. The only change we could observe was an increase of the field action potential duration of up to 30% after titanium irradiation, diminishing within the following three days. This potentially pathological observation may be an indication that heavy ion irradiation at high doses could bear a long-term risk for cardiovascular disease induction.

  18. What characteristics of primary anxiety disorders predict subsequent major depressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Antje; Goodwin, Renee D; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Beesdo, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind

    2004-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the associations between specific anxiety disorders and the risk of major depressive disorder and to explore the role of various clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders in these relationships using a prospective, longitudinal design. The data are from a 4-year prospective, longitudinal community study, which included both baseline and follow-up survey data on 2548 adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 24 years at baseline. DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The presence at baseline of any anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.6 to 3.2]) and each of the anxiety disorders (specific phobia, OR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.3 to 2.8]; social phobia, OR = 2.9 [95% CI = 1.7 to 4.8]; agoraphobia, OR = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4 to 6.7]; panic disorder, OR = 3.4 [95% CI = 1.2 to 9.0]; generalized anxiety disorder, OR = 4.5 [95% CI = 1.9 to 10.3]) was associated with a significantly (p depressive disorder. These associations remained significant after we adjusted for mental disorders occurring prior to the onset of the anxiety disorder, with the exception of the panic disorder association. The following clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders were associated with a significantly (p depressive disorder: more than 1 anxiety disorder, severe impairment due to the anxiety disorder, and comorbid panic attacks. In the final model, which included all clinical characteristics, severe impairment remained the only clinical characteristic that was an independent predictor of the development of major depressive disorder (OR = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.0 to 4.4]). Our findings suggest that anxiety disorders are risk factors for the first onset of major depressive disorder. Although a number of clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders appear to play a role in the association between anxiety disorders and depression, severe impairment is the strongest predictor of major depressive disorder.

  19. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2001-02-01

    This document deals with the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the depleted uranium. What is the depleted uranium? Why do the military use depleted uranium and what are the risk for the health? (A.L.B.)

  20. The economics of uranium demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The major characteristics of the demand for uranium are identified, and a number of factors which determine the actual level of uranium requirements of the nuclear power industry are discussed. Since the role of inventories is central to the process of short-term price formation, by comparing projections of uranium production and apparent consumption, the relative level of total inventories is calculated and an assessment is made of its likely impact on the uranium market during the 1980s. (author)

  1. Does patient-provider gender concordance affect mental health care received by primary care patients with major depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Bird, Chloe E; Weiss, Robert; Duan, Naihua; Meredith, Lisa S; Sherbourne, Cathy D

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine whether patient-provider gender concordance influences the detection and care of depression and comorbid anxiety and substance use in patients with major depression Cross-sectional analyses of baseline patient survey data linked with provider data were performed. Data based on routine primary care visits in clinics from a variety of health systems serving diverse patient populations across the United States. Participants all had major depression. Depression care was examined in the Quality Improvement for Depression (QID) Collaboration sample (n patients = 1,428, n providers = 389). In a subanalysis of data solely from 714 patients and 157 providers from Partners-In-Care, one of the projects participating in QID, we also examined detection of anxiety disorder and alcohol or drug problems. Rates of detection and care of mental health problems in primary care were low even among patients with major depression. Except for anxiety counseling in female patients, patient-provider gender concordance did not improve care as hypothesized. However, female providers were more likely to counsel on anxiety and less likely to counsel on alcohol or drug use than male providers. Female patients were less likely to be counseled on alcohol or drug use compared with male patients. Detection and care of mental health and substance use problems for patients with major depression is not influenced by patient-provider gender concordance. However, depressed female patients may have greater unmet needs for alcohol and drug use counseling than their male counterparts.

  2. Illness beliefs of Chinese American immigrants with major depressive disorder in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin A; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Parkin, Susannah; Fava, Maurizio; Yeung, Albert S

    2015-02-01

    Underutilization of mental health services in the U.S. is compounded among racial/ethnic minorities, especially Chinese Americans. Culturally based illness beliefs influence help-seeking behavior and may provide insights into strategies for increasing utilization rates among vulnerable populations. This is the first large descriptive study of depressed Chinese American immigrant patients' illness beliefs using a standardized instrument. 190 depressed Chinese immigrants seeking primary care at South Cove Community Health Center completed the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue, which probes different dimensions of illness beliefs: chief complaint, labeling of illness, stigma perception, causal attributions, and help-seeking patterns. Responses were sorted into categories by independent raters and results compared to an earlier study at the same site and using the same instrument. Contrary to prior findings that depressed Chinese individuals tend to present with primarily somatic symptoms, subjects were more likely to report chief complaints and illness labels related to depressed mood than physical symptoms. Nearly half reported they would conceal the name of their problem from others. Mean stigma levels were significantly higher than in the previous study. Most subjects identified psychological stress as the most likely cause of their problem. Chinese immigrants' illness beliefs were notable for psychological explanations regarding their symptoms, possibly reflecting increased acceptance of Western biomedical frameworks, in accordance with recent research. However, reported stigma regarding these symptoms also increased. As Asian American immigrant populations increasingly accept psychological models of depression, stigma may become an increasingly important target for addressing disparities in mental health service utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary experiment aimed at selecting the suitable dose to mutation induction in vicia faba major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulsi, Imad; Mir Ali, Nizar

    1992-08-01

    Seeds of a local faba been variety (Mahali) (Vicia faba major) were irradiated with (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 Gy) of gamma rays and sown under greenhouse and field conditions in Deir Al-Hajar Research Station near Damascus. Four replicates were used in a randomized complete block design. Germination percentage, seedling height, and daily growth rate, were estimated one month and two months after planting for the greenhouse and field treatments respectively. The results showed a stimulation effect in the 5 Gy dose, whereas, the higher doses showed a gradual decrease in seedling height. Doses up to 20 Gy had a similar germination percentage to that of the control (about 75%) whereas, the germination percentage decreased sharply at the higher doses (3% and 0.2% for the 100 Gy under greenhouse and the field respectively). The doses between 20 and 40 Gy were considered optimal for mutation from the plant breeder point of view where the lethality was moderate and an acceptable rate of mutation was shown. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Socioeconomic variation in incidence of primary and secondary major cardiovascular disease events: an Australian population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Rosemary J; Soga, Kay; Joshy, Grace; Calabria, Bianca; Attia, John; Wong, Deborah; Banks, Emily

    2016-11-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects disadvantaged people, but reliable quantitative evidence on socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence in Australia is lacking. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic variation in rates of primary and secondary CVD events in mid-age and older Australians. Baseline data (2006-2009) from the 45 and Up Study, an Australian cohort involving 267,153 men and women aged ≥ 45, were linked to hospital and death data (to December 2013). Outcomes comprised first event - death or hospital admission - for major CVD combined, as well as myocardial infarction and stroke, in those with and without prior CVD (secondary and primary events, respectively). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome in relation to education (and income and area-level disadvantage), separately by age group (45-64, 65-79, and ≥ 80 years), adjusting for age and sex, and additional sociodemographic factors. There were 18,207 primary major CVD events over 1,144,845 years of follow-up (15.9/1000 person-years), and 20,048 secondary events over 260,357 years (77.0/1000 person-years). For both primary and secondary events, incidence increased with decreasing education, with the absolute difference between education groups largest for secondary events. Age-sex adjusted hazard ratios were highest in the 45-64 years group: for major CVDs, HR (no qualifications vs university degree) = 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.77) for primary events, and HR = 1.49 (1.34-1.65) for secondary events; myocardial infarction HR = 2.31 (1.87-2.85) and HR = 2.57 (1.90-3.47) respectively; stroke HR = 1.48 (1.16-1.87) and HR = 1.97 (1.42-2.74) respectively. Similar but attenuated results were seen in older age groups, and with income. For area-level disadvantage, CVD gradients were weak and non-significant in older people (> 64 years). Individual-level data are important for quantifying socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence, which

  5. Admission hyperglycemia predicts inhospital mortality and major adverse cardiac events after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Ahmet; Cicek, Gokhan; Uluganyan, Mahmut; Gungor, Baris; Osman, Faizel; Ozcan, Kazim Serhan; Bozbay, Mehmet; Ertas, Gokhan; Zencirci, Aycan; Sayar, Nurten; Eren, Mehmet

    2014-02-01

    Admission hyperglycemia is associated with high inhospital and long-term adverse events in patients that undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to evaluate whether hyperglycemia predicts inhospital mortality. We prospectively analyzed 503 consecutive patients. The patients were divided into tertiles according to the admission glucose levels. Tertile I: glucose 145 mg/dL (n = 169). Inhospital mortality was 0 in tertile I, 2 in tertile II, and 9 in tertile III (P < .02). Cardiogenic shock occurred more frequently in tertile III compared to tertiles I and II (10% vs 4.1% and 0.6%, respectively, P = .01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients in tertile III had significantly higher risk of inhospital major adverse cardiac events compared to patients in tertile I (odds ratio: 9.55, P < .02). Admission hyperglycemia predicts inhospital adverse cardiac events in mortality and acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients that underwent primary PCI.

  6. The development of English grammar and reading comprehension by majority and minority language children in a bilingual primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja K. Steinlen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Both for the first language (L1 and for all additional languages (L2 or L3, grammatical knowledge plays a vital role in understanding texts (e.g., Grabe, 2005. However, little is known about the development and interaction of grammar and reading comprehension in beginning foreign language learning, especially with respect to children with a minority language background. This longitudinal study, therefore, examined minority and majority language children’s English grammar and reading comprehension skills. The children attended a German-English partial immersion primary school and were tested at the end of Grades 3 and 4. As expected, we found grammar to affect reading comprehension but also reverse effects. Most importantly, the results did not reveal any differences between the two language groups, irrespective of the test. Therefore, immersion primary school programs seem to be suitable for minority language children, and these children do not automatically represent an at-risk group for foreign language learning.

  7. Maintenance pharmacotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder in primary care: A 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, K; Vuorilehto, M; Isometsä, E

    2017-03-01

    Most practice guidelines recommend maintenance antidepressant treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder. However, the degree to which such guidance is actually followed in primary health care has remained obscure. We investigated the provision of maintenance antidepressant treatment within a representative primary care five-year cohort study. In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 adult patients was screened for depression using the Prime-MD. Depressive and comorbid psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews. Of the 137 patients with depressive disorders, 82% completed the prospective five-year follow-up. A graphic life chart enabling evaluation of the longitudinal course of episodes plus duration of pharmacotherapies was used. In accordance with national guidelines, an indication for maintenance treatment was defined to exist after three or more lifetime major depressive episodes (MDEs); maintenance treatment was to commence four months after onset of full remission. Of the cohort patients, 34% (46/137) had three or more lifetime MDEs, thus indicating the requirement for maintenance pharmacotherapy. Of these, half (54%, 25/46) received maintenance treatment, for only 29% (489/1670) of the months indicated. In this cohort of depressed primary care patients, half of patients with indications for maintenance treatment actually received it, and only for a fraction of the time indicated. Antidepressant maintenance treatment for the prevention of recurrences is unlikely to be subject to large-scale actualization as recommended, which may significantly undermine the potential public health benefits of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  9. A clinical prediction rule for detecting major depressive disorder in primary care: the PREDICT-NL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Vergouwe, Yvonne; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Hak, Eelko; Moons, Karel G M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2009-08-01

    Major depressive disorder often remains unrecognized in primary care. Development of a clinical prediction rule using easily obtainable predictors for major depressive disorder in primary care patients. A total of 1046 subjects, aged 18-65 years, were included from seven large general practices in the center of The Netherlands. All subjects were recruited in the general practice waiting room, irrespective of their presenting complaint. Major depressive disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Text Revision edition criteria was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Candidate predictors were gender, age, educational level, being single, number of presented complaints, presence of non-somatic complaints, whether a diagnosis was assigned, consultation rate in past 12 months, presentation of depressive complaints or prescription of antidepressants in past 12 months, number of life events in past 6 months and any history of depression. The first multivariable logistic regression model including only predictors that require no confronting depression-related questions had a reasonable degree of discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or concordance-statistic (c-statistic) = 0.71; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.67-0.76). Addition of three simple though more depression-related predictors, number of life events and history of depression, significantly increased the c-statistic to 0.80 (95% CI: 0.76-0.83). After transforming this second model to an easily to use risk score, the lowest risk category (sum score depression, which increased to 49% in the highest category (sum score > or = 30). A clinical prediction rule allows GPs to identify patients-irrespective of their complaints-in whom diagnostic workup for major depressive disorder is indicated.

  10. Uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Voto, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methodology and technology that are currently being used in varying degrees in uranium exploration activities worldwide. Since uranium is ubiquitous and occurs in trace amounts (0.2 to 5 ppm) in virtually all rocks of the crust of the earth, exploration for uranium is essentially the search of geologic environments in which geologic processes have produced unusual concentrations of uranium. Since the level of concentration of uranium of economic interest is dependent on the present and future price of uranium, it is appropriate here to review briefly the economic realities of uranium-fueled power generation. (author)

  11. Randomised controlled trial of counseling sessions, antidepressant medication, and combined treatment for major depression in primary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Al-Sayed, H.; Malik, Mariam A.; Al-Hageri, S.; Al-Shaar, I.

    2006-01-01

    The study was made to determine whether counseling sessions using Egan's model combined with antidepressant medication is more effective than either treatment alone in the management of major depression in primary care. Patient aged 18 years and above with major depression on the research diagnostic criteria - a score of 13 or more on the 17 items. Hamilton rating scale for depression and a minimum duration of 4 weeks. Counseling sessions based on Egan's Model by research family physician or antidepressant medication or combination of both was performed. Hamilton rating scale for depression, Beck depression inventory, clinical interview schedule, and modified social adjustment schedule were used and assessed at 6 , 12 and 52 weeks. Patients in all groups showed a clear improvement after 12 weeks. The combination of counseling sessions and antidepressant medication is more effective than either treatment alone. Counseling sessions used by a trained family physician is an effective treatment for depressive disorders in primary care. The combination of this treatment with antidepressant medication is more effective than either treatment alone. (author)

  12. Uranium enriched granites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.R.; Aakerblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

  13. Uranium. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The events characterising the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainly faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the market makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply

  14. Significant achievements in '10th five-year plan' period and primary guidance in '11th five-year plan' period on uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jindai; Li Youliang; Jian Xiaofei; Peng Xinjian; Jiang Deying

    2007-01-01

    During the '10th five-year-plane' period, uranium resource had attracted high attention and concentration from related organization of the CCPC and the central government because of the state's manifestation on the development goal for nuclear power, efforts on uranium research and exploration were intensified accordingly. In that five years, both uranium exploration, regional assessment and prognostication for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin in North China and research on uranium metallogeny theory and prospecting method had made fairly great progress and reached important fruits. Due to the improvement of prospecting theory and technology for ISL amenable sandstone hosted U-deposits, uranium exploration efficiency was great enhanced and had prompted the sustainable development for China's uranium exploration. This paper have briefly expounded the general deploy for the uranium geology research and exploration in the '11th five-year plan' period. (authors)

  15. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicras-Mainar A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antoni Sicras-Mainar,1 Ruth Navarro-Artieda2 1Research Unit, Badalona Serveis Assistencials SA, 2Medical Documentation Unit, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain Objective: To describe antidepressant (AD use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses, epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.Results: In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8% discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made.Conclusion: Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. Keywords: consumption, antidepressants, economic crisis

  16. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  17. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  18. World uranium production in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time since the political and economic opening of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, world uranium production actually increased in 1995. Preliminary estimates for 1996 continue this trend, indicating additional (if slight) production increases over 1995 levels. Natural uranium production increased by about 5% in 1995 to 34,218 tons uranium or 89 Mlbs U3O8. This is an increase of approximately 1700 tons of uranium or 4.3 Mlbs of U3O8 over the updated 1994 quantities. Data is presented for each of the major uranium producing countries, for each of the world's largest uranium mines, for each of the world's largest corporate producers, and for major regions of the world

  19. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.; Goodell, P.; Kelts, A.; Anthony, E.Y.; Fayek, M.; Fan, C.; Beshears, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions

  20. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  1. Distribution of uranium-bearing phases in soils from Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils and the Fernald Site, Ohio. Uranium particulates have been deposited on the soil through chemical spills and from the operation of an incinerator plant on the site. The major uranium phases have been identified by electron microscopy as uraninite, autunite, and uranium phosphite [U(PO 3 ) 4 ]. Some of the uranium has undergone weathering resulting in the redistribution of uranium within the soil

  2. Worldwide developments in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoellen, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    World uranium production will continue to change in most major producing nations. Canadian production will increase and will be increasingly dominated by western producers as eastern Canadian high-cost production declines. Australian production will increase as major projects come into operation before 2000. US production will stabilize through the end of the century. South African production will be dependent upon the worldwide support for economic sanctions. China's entry into the world market injects yet another variable into the already cloudy supply picture. Many risks and uncertainties will face uranium producers through the 1980s. Recognizing that the uranium industry is not a fast-growing market, many existing and potential producers are seeking alternate investment courses, causing a restructuring of the world uranium production industry in ways not anticipated even a few years ago. During the restructuring process, world uranium production will most likely continue to exceed uranium consumption, resulting in a further buildup of world uranium inventories. Inventory sales will continue to redistribute this material. As inventory selling runs its course, users will turn to normal sources of supply, stimulating additional production to meet needs. Stimulation in the form of higher prices will be determined by how fast producers are willing and able to return to the market. Production costs are expected to have an increasing impact as it has become apparent that uranium resources are large in comparison to projected consumption. Conversely, security-of-supply issues have seemed to be of decreasing magnitude as Canada, Australia, and other non-US producers continue to meet delivery commitments

  3. Uranium and thorium recovery in thorianite ore-preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotte, Joao V.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique T., E-mail: rvillegas@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of the studies aiming to develop a hydrometallurgical process to produce uranium and thorium concentrates from thorianite ore from Amapa State, Brazil. This process comprises two major parts: acid leaching and Th/U recovery using solvent extraction strategies. Thorianite ore has a typical composition of 60 - 70% of thorium, 8 - 10% lead and 7 - 10% uranium. Sulfuric acid leaching operational conditions were defined as follows: acid/ore ratio 7.5 t/t, ore size below 65 mesh (Tyler), 2 hours leaching time and temperature of 100 deg C. Leaching tests results showed that uranium and thorium recovery exceeded 95%, whereas 97% of lead ore content remained in the solid form. Uranium and thorium simultaneous solvent extraction is necessary due to high sulfate concentration in the liquor obtained from leaching, so the Primene JM-T primary anime was used for this extraction step. Aqueous raffinate from extraction containing sulfuric acid was recycled to the leaching step, reducing acid uptake around 60%, to achieve a net sulfuric acid consumption of 3 t/t of ore. Uranium and thorium simultaneous stripping was performed using sodium carbonate solution. In the aqueous stripped it was added sulfuric acid at pH 1.5, followed by a second solvent extraction step using the tertiary amine Alamine 336. The following stripping step was done with a solution of sodium chloride, resulting in a final solution of 23 g L-1 uranium. (author)

  4. Czechoslovak uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluskal, O.

    1992-01-01

    Data and knowledge related to the prospecting, mining, processing and export of uranium ores in Czechoslovakia are presented. In the years between 1945 and January 1, 1991, 98,461.1 t of uranium were extracted. In the period 1965-1990 the uranium industry was subsidized from the state budget to a total of 38.5 billion CSK. The subsidies were put into extraction, investments and geologic prospecting; the latter was at first, ie. till 1960 financed by the former USSR, later on the two parties shared costs on a 1:1 basis. Since 1981 the prospecting has been entirely financed from the Czechoslovak state budget. On Czechoslovak territory uranium has been extracted from deposits which may be classified as vein-type deposits, deposits in uranium-bearing sandstones and deposits connected with weathering processes. The future of mining, however, is almost exclusively being connected with deposits in uranium-bearing sandstones. A brief description and characteristic is given of all uranium deposits on Czechoslovak territory, and the organization of uranium mining in Czechoslovakia is described as is the approach used in the world to evaluate uranium deposits; uranium prices and actual resources are also given. (Z.S.) 3 figs

  5. Australian uranium: the boomerang brand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borton, D.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the status of each of the existing three sites of mining activity and the major sites of exploration for uranium in Australia is provided. It is intended to be a source of useful information for all people involved in debating the issues of uranium mining. 1 map., ills

  6. Recovery of uranium from lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium in raw lignite is associated with the organic matter and is readily soluble in acid (and carbonate) solutions. However, beneficiation techniques were not successful for concentrating the uranium or removing part of the reagent-consuming materials. Once the lignite was heated, the uranium became much less soluble in both acid and carbonate solutions, and complete removal of carbon was required to convert it back to a soluble form. Proper burning improves acid-leaching efficiency; that is, it reduces the reagent consumption and concentrates the uranium, thereby reducing plant size for comparable uranium throughput, and it eliminates organic fouling of leach liquors. Restrictions are necessary during burning to prevent the uranium from becoming refractory. The most encouraging results were obtained by flash-burning lignite at 1200 to 1300 0 C and utilizing the released SO 2 to supplement the acid requirement. The major acid consumers were aluminum and iron

  7. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  8. Utility of the PHQ-9 to identify major depressive disorder in adult patients in Spanish primary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Navarro, Roger; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Medrano, Leonardo Adrián; Schmitz, Florian; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Abellán-Maeso, Carmen; Font-Payeras, Maria Antonia; Hermosilla-Pasamar, Ana María

    2017-08-09

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Spanish primary care (PC) centres is high. However, MDD is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently only some patients receive the appropriate treatment. The present study aims to determine the utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to identify MDD in a subset of PC patients participating in the large PsicAP study. A total of 178 patients completed the full PHQ test, including the depression module (PHQ-9). Also, a Spanish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was implemented by clinical psychologists that were blinded to the PHQ-9 results. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool as compared to the SCID-I as a reference standard. The psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 for a cut-off value of 10 points were as follows: sensitivity, 0.95; specificity, 0.67. Using a cut-off of 12 points, the values were: sensitivity, 0.84; specificity, 0.78. Finally, using the diagnostic algorithm for depression (DSM-IV criteria), the sensitivity was 0.88 and the specificity 0.80. As a screening instrument, the PHQ-9 performed better with a cut-off value of 12 versus the standard cut-off of 10. However, the best psychometric properties were obtained with the DSM-IV diagnostic algorithm for depression. These findings indicate that the PHQ-9 is a highly satisfactory tool that can be used for screening MDD in the PC setting. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58437086 . Registered 20 May 2013.

  9. Usefulness of EQ-5D in Assessing Health Status in Primary Care Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowicki Marie-Laure

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Major depressive disorder (MDD is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with impaired patient functioning and reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQL. The present study describes the impact of MDD on patients' HRQL and examines preference-based health state differences by patient features and clinical characteristics. Methods 95 French primary care practitioners recruited 250 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD for inclusion in an eight-week follow-up cohort. Patient assessments included the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI, the Short Form-36 Item scale (SF-36, the Quality of Life Depression Scale (QLDS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D utility at baseline was 0.33, and 8% of patients rated their health state as worse than death. There were no statistically significant differences in utilities by demographic features. Significant differences were found in mean utilities by level of disease severity assessed by CGI. The different clinical response profiles, assessed by MADRS, were also revealed by EQ-5D at endpoint: 0.85 for responders remitters, 0.72 for responders non-remitter, and 0.58 for non-responders. Even if HRQL and EQ-5D were moderately correlated, they shared only 40% of variance between baseline and endpoint. Conclusions Self-reported patient valuations for depression are important patient-reported outcomes for cost-effectiveness evaluations of new antidepressant compounds and help in further understanding patient compliance with antidepressant treatment.

  10. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  11. Uranium prospecting; La prospection de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    This report is an instruction book for uranium prospecting. It appeals to private prospecting. As prospecting is now a scientific and technical research, it cannot be done without preliminary studies. First of all, general prospecting methods are given with a recall of fundamental geologic data and some general principles which are common with all type of prospecting. The peculiarities of uranium prospecting are also presented and in particular the radioactivity property of uranium as well as the special aspect of uranium ores and the aspect of neighbouring ores. In a third part, a description of the different uranium ores is given and separated in two different categories: primary and secondary ores, according to the place of transformation, deep or near the crust surface respectively. In the first category, the primary ores include pitchblende, thorianite and rare uranium oxides as euxenite and fergusonite for example. In the second category, the secondary ores contain autunite and chalcolite for example. An exhaustive presentation of the geiger-Mueller counter is given with the presentation of its different components, its functioning and utilization and its maintenance. The radioactivity interpretation method is showed as well as the elaboration of a topographic map of the measured radioactivity. A brief presentation of other detection methods than geiger-Mueller counters is given: the measurement of fluorescence and a chemical test using the fluorescence properties of uranium salts. Finally, the main characteristics of uranium deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  12. Uranium 2003 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2004-01-01

    Uranium 2003: Resources, Production and Demand paints a detailed statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and for the first time, a report for Turkmenistan. Also included are international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020.

  13. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  14. Uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poty, B.; Roux, J.

    1998-01-01

    The processing of uranium ores for uranium extraction and concentration is not much different than the processing of other metallic ores. However, thanks to its radioactive property, the prospecting of uranium ores can be performed using geophysical methods. Surface and sub-surface detection methods are a combination of radioactive measurement methods (radium, radon etc..) and classical mining and petroleum prospecting methods. Worldwide uranium prospecting has been more or less active during the last 50 years, but the rise of raw material and energy prices between 1970 and 1980 has incited several countries to develop their nuclear industry in order to diversify their resources and improve their energy independence. The result is a considerable increase of nuclear fuels demand between 1980 and 1990. This paper describes successively: the uranium prospecting methods (direct, indirect and methodology), the uranium deposits (economical definition, uranium ores, and deposits), the exploitation of uranium ores (use of radioactivity, radioprotection, effluents), the worldwide uranium resources (definition of the different categories and present day state of worldwide resources). (J.S.)

  15. Uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.; Asem, M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of the uranium market is present in two periods: The initial period 1947-1970 and from 1970 onwards, with the establishment of a commercial market. The world uranium requirements are derived from the corresponding forecast of nuclear generating capacity, with, particular emphasis to the brazilian requirements. The forecast of uranium production until the year 2000 is presented considering existing inventories and the already committed demand. The balance between production and requirements is analysed. Finally the types of contracts currently being used and the development of uranium prices in the world market are considered. (author)

  16. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report looks at the following issues: How much Soviet uranium ore and enriched uranium are imported into the United States and what is the extent to which utilities flag swap to disguise these purchases? What are the U.S.S.R.'s enriched uranium trading practices? To what extent are utilities required to return used fuel to the Soviet Union as part of the enriched uranium sales agreement? Why have U.S. utilities ended their contracts to buy enrichment services from DOE?

  17. Genetic aspects of uranium mineralization in the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, A.C.; Mahadevan, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Himalayan Uranium Province hosts five major types of uranium mineralization: (1) stratiform remobilized (Proterozoic), (2) structurally controlled hydrothermal (Proterozoic), (3) black shale-phosphorite (Palaeozoic-Mesozoic), (4) sandstone (Siwalik belt, Tertiary), and (5) primary disseminations in granitoids (Tertiary). Evaluation of the genetic aspects of these types has led to the identification of distinct spatial (lithostratigraphic and tectonic units) and temporal relations among them. The sandstone types are confined to the Tertiary (Middle Miocene to Pleistocene) molasse formations found south of th Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Between the MBT and the Main Central Thrust, in the Lesser Himalaya, mineralization hosted in the Chail quartzite-phyllite ± metabasic sequences is of stratiform remobilized type. The structurally controlled hydrothermal type is confined to Dalings and gneisses. Syngenetic uranium in black shale-phosphorite sequences of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic age is found on the southern fringes of the Lesser Himalaya, bordering the MBT. Disseminated uranium occurs in the Tertiary and Proterozoic(?) granitoids of the Greater Himalaya and Ladakh. Rb-Sr geochronological data on host rocks and U-Pb dates on uraninites from some areas indicate that uranium mineralization in stratiform remobilized and structurally controlled types hosted by the Chails, Dalings and gneisses is essentially Precambrian and thus existed much before the Himalayan Orogeny. The Himalayan Orogeny, however, appears to have aided in further remobilization. The sandstone type mineralization in the Siwalik, on the other hand, is directly related to the process of formation of the foredeep and molasse sedimentation and subsequent uplift and epigenesis of the uranium mineralization, all of which are directly relatable to the evolution of the Himalaya. The relevance of deep seated lineament structures to mineralization, particularly of uranium, needs to be evaluated critically, as most

  18. The role of secondary uranium supplies through 2013 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrey, Klaus; Aul, Friedel; Kwasny, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 4 dimensions of secondary supply: - The Western World's past reliance on secondary supply as a supplement to primary production,- The availability of secondary supplies from now until 2013 and - above all - continued availability of secondary supplies after the HEU deal's expiration in 2013,- Russia's requirements for secondary supply beyond 2013; and - The global requirement for secondary supplies post-2013. Historically, uranium production has seen 3 major phases. Industrial-scale uranium mining started long before the material was needed to fuel commercial nuclear power plants. The first phase, called ''Procurement of Weapons Uranium,'' extended from the 1950s into the early-1960s. Between 1975 and 1980 there was a second huge wave of primary uranium production. The mines' annual output doubled, driven by very ambitious plans for the construction of additional NPPs, further fuelled by the oil crisis of 1973. Throughout the third phase, which started in the mid 1980s, the Western World's natural uranium production remained significantly below the actual reactor demand. This was - and still is - a unique situation within the world's commodities markets. Secondary supplies have recently covered between 30 and 40% of the worldwide nuclear fuel demand. Since the bulk of the secondary supplies can be made available and fabricated into reactor fuel at costs which are below the current prices of fresh uranium, secondary supplies are widely given preference over fresh uranium. But what about the worldwide secondary supplies' role in the years to come, particularly after the expiration of the US-Russian HEU-LEU Agreement in 2013? (orig.)

  19. Hydrogeochemical modelling of an active system of uranium fixation by organic soils and sediments (Needle's Eye, Scotland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, P.; Schmitt, J.M.; Ledoux, E.; Hooker, P.J.; Escalier des Orres, P.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium accumulation in organic-rich sediments can be closely modelled by assuming that the dominant effect of the uranium-organic matter interaction is the direct or indirect reduction of uranyl compounds to form U(IV) minerals, especially uraninite-pitchblende. Application of this model to the Needle's Eye (Scotland) site where uranium is actively accumulating in Quaternary sediments demonstrates that uranium accumulation is both effective and rapid in environments involving shallow, organic-rich, reducing horizons. The period of uranium deposit formation at Needle's Eye is estimated to be as short as 5000 years. The transport of uranium to the site of deposition by oxidizing groundwaters and the channelling of these oxidizing uraniferous groundwaters are identified as important factors involved in the rapid accumulation of uranium. The regional hydrogeological model indicates that a fault in the area appears to act as a hydraulic screen for the uraniferous groundwaters. On one side of the fault the Quaternary sediments are well drained whilst on the other the flow of groundwater seeps out creating a major flux just at the bottom of the organic-rich layers. The local hydrogeological model shows that the groundwater flow is vertical in this area. A third significant factor in the development of these uranium accumulations is the presence of a significant nearby source of leachable primary uranium. In the case of the Needle's Eye site this is in the form of some thirty 185 ± 20 Ma, pitchblende-bearing veins. 32 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Short-term uranium price formation: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, L.Y.; de Graffenried, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    One of the major problems in analyzing the short-term uranium market is the lack of a well-defined spot market price. The two primary sources of price data covering the US uranium market are the series published by the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) and by the Nuclear Exchange Corporation (NUEXCO), a private brokerage firm. Because of the differences in both definition and coverage, these two series are not directly comparable. In this study, an econometric model was developed for analyzing the interrelationship between short-term uranium price (NUEXCO exchange value), supply, demand, and future price expectations formed by market participants. The validity of this model has been demonstrated by the fact that all simulation statistics derived are highly significant. Three forecasting scenarios were developed in this study

  1. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, G.

    1975-01-01

    The winning of uranium ore is the first stage of the fuel cycle. The whole complex of questions to be considered when evaluating the profitability of an ore mine is shortly outlined, and the possible mining techniques are described. Some data on uranium mining in the western world are also given. (RB) [de

  2. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  3. Uranium extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1983 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the IAEA jointly published a book on Uranium Extraction Technology. A primary objective of this report was to document the significant technological developments that took place during the 1970s. The purpose of this present publication is to update and expand the original book. It includes background information about the principle of the unit operations used in uranium ore processing and summarizes the current state of the art. The publication also seeks to preserve the technology and the operating 'know-how' developed over the past ten years. This publication is one of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing that have been prepared by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management at the IAEA. A complete list of these reports is included as an addendum. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  5. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  6. Uranium 2007 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2008-01-01

    Based on official information received from 40 countries, Uranium 2007 provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1st January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. It finds that with rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of underinvestment.

  7. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  8. Uranium tailings sampling manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The selection and implementation of applicable sampling procedures for such measurements at uranium tailings disposal sites are complicated by two primary factors. Firstly, the physical and chemical nature of uranium mine tailings and effluent is considerably different from natural soil materials and natural waters. Consequently, many conventional methods for the collection and analysis of natural soils and waters are not directly applicable to tailings. Secondly, there is a wide range in the physical and chemical nature of uranium tailings. The composition of the ore, the milling process, the nature of tailings depositon, and effluent treatment vary considerably and are highly site-specific. Therefore, the definition and implementation of sampling programs for uranium tailings disposal sites require considerable evaluation, and often innovation, to ensure that appropriate sampling and analysis methods are used which provide the flexibility to take into account site-specific considerations. The following chapters describe the objective and scope of a sampling program, preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings pore-water, and wind-blown dust and radon

  9. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  10. Predicting the onset of major depression in subjects with subthreshold depression in primary care: A prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Willemse, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: That subjects with subthreshold depression have an increased probability of developing major depression has been confirmed by many studies. However, the factors which may predict the onset of major depression have yet to be fully examined. Method: We examined the control group of a

  11. Major clinical events, signs and severity assessment scores related to actual survival in patients who died from primary biliary cirrhosis. A long-term historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, GM; Gips, CH; Reisman, Y; Maas, KW; Purmer, IM; Huizenga, [No Value; Verbaan, BW

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: One of the prognostic methods for survival in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the Mayo model, with a time-scale limited to 7 years. The aim of our study was to assess how major clinical events, signs, several severity assessment methods and Mayo survival probabilities fit in with

  12. Uranium 2005 Resources, Production and Demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris. Nuclear Energy Agency

    2006-01-01

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major c...

  13. Uranium 2014 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2014-01-01

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. It presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Long-term projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major changes in the industry.

  14. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.Q.

    1981-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  15. Uranium exploration in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high

  16. Review of uranium market price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Koh You Beng

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is used as an abundant source of concentrated energy and is the principal fuel for the generation of electricity by nuclear reactors. In nuclear reactors, the uranium fuel is assembled in such a way that a controlled fission chain reaction can be achieved. Since uranium is the main source of nuclear energy, demand prospects for uranium has increased dramatically with the renewed global interest in nuclear power generation in recent years. Although the global uranium market is relatively small worldwide, compared to other mineral and energy sources, it is a very important market as nuclear power generation accounts for about 18% of global electricity supply. After reaching historic lows in 1990s, uranium prices have risen substantially in recent years. The outlook for nuclear power has changed since 2000, with concerns over global warming, proven excellent safety record, competitive costs, progress on nuclear waste disposal issues and also continuing new nuclear plant construction around the world. These and various other influencing factors have resulted in the uranium market evolving from one that was driven by excess secondary supplies to that by primary production. This paper reviews the global market prices for the years 1987 until 2006 and the factors, which influence the changes in global uranium market prices. (Author)

  17. Uranium mineralization of migmatite in southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingyue

    1987-09-01

    The uranium mineralization occurs in migmatite in the form of disseminated uraninite is a new type found in southern China. According to the forms of uraninite existence in orebodies, it can be divided into primary and reworked subtypes. The principal uranium mineral in the deposits of primary subtype is uraninite, but those in reworked subtype are pitchblende and relict uraninite. The formation of uranium mineralization is considered as a result of remobilization, migration and local concentration caused by preferential melting of the uranium-rich strata.

  18. Uranium mineralization of migmatite in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue.

    1987-01-01

    The uranium mineralization occurs in migmatite in the form of disseminated uraninite is a new type found in southern China. According to the forms of uraninite existence in orebodies, it can be divided into primary and reworked subtypes. The principal uranium mineral in the deposits of primary subtype is uraninite, but those in reworked subtype are pitchblende and relict uraninite. The formation of uranium mineralization is considered as a result of remobilization, migration and local concentration caused by preferential melting of the uranium-rich strata

  19. DSM-5 PTSD's symptom dimensions and relations with major depression's symptom dimensions in a primary care sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contractor, A. A.; Durham, T. A.; Brennan, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature indicates significant comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. We examined whether PTSD's dysphoria and mood/cognitions factors, conceptualized by the empirically supported four-factor DSM-5 PTSD models, account for PTSD's inherent relatio...

  20. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Under the combined effect of various factors, such as interrogations related to facing the climatic changes, the increasing prices of oil versus announced decrease of its resources, the major geopolitical evolution and the remarkable development of Asia, we live nowadays a revival of nuclear power in the very front of stage. In tis context, the following question is posed: could the nuclear fission be a sustainable source of energy when taking into consideration the availability of uranium resources? The article aims at pinpointing the knowledge we have about the world uranium resources, their limits of uncertainty and the relation between knowledge resources and market evolution. To conclude, some susceptible tracks are proposed to improve the using process of uranium resources particularly in softening the impact of high prices

  1. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects; Uranium, uranium appauvri, effets biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  2. Uranium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreyra, Mariana D.; Suarez Mendez, Sebastian

    1997-01-01

    In this paper are presented the methods and procedures optimized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) for the determination of: natural uranium mass, activity of enriched uranium in samples of: urine, mucus, filters, filter heads, rinsing waters and Pu in urine, adopted and in some cases adapted, by the Environmental Monitoring and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory. The analyzed material corresponded to biological and environmental samples belonging to the staff professionally exposed that work in plants of the nuclear fuel cycle. For a better comprehension of the activities of this laboratory, it is included a brief description of the uranium radiochemical toxicity and the limits internationally fixed to preserve the workers health

  3. Uranium-enriched granites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.R.; Aakerblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by the anatexis of continental crust or processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichment in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (author)

  4. The significance of zircon characteristic and its uranium concentration in evaluation of uranium metallogenetic prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yaosong; Zhu Jiechen; Xia Yuliang

    1992-02-01

    Zircon characteristic and its relation to uranium metallogenetic process have been studied on the basis of physics properties and chemical compositions. It is indicated that the colour of zircon crystal is related to uranium concentration; on the basis of method of zircon population type of Pupin J.P., the sectional plan of zircon population type has been designed, from which result that zircon population type of uranium-producing rock body is distributed mainly in second section, secondly in fourth section; U in zircon presents synchronous increase trend with Th, Hf and Ta; the uranium concentration in zircon from uranium-producing geologic body increases obviously and its rate of increase is more than that of the uranium concentration in rock; the period, in which uranium concentration in zircon is increased, is often related to better uranium-producing condition in that period of this area. 1785 data of the average uranium concentration in zircon have been counted and clear regularity has been obtained, namely the average uranium concentrations in zircon in rich uranium-producing area, rock, geologic body and metallogenetic zone are all higher than that in poor or no uranium-producing area, rock, geologic body and metallogenetic zone. This shows that the average uranium concentration in zircon within the region in fact reflects the primary uranium-bearing background in region and restricts directly follow-up possibility of uranium mineralization. On the basis of this, the uranium source conditions of known uranium metallogenetic zones and prospective provinces have been discussed, and the average uranium concentrations in zircon from magmatic rocks for 81 districts have been contrasted and graded, and some districts in which exploration will be worth doing further are put forward

  5. Regional evaluation and primary geological structural and metallogenical research of great Kavir basin as view of possibility formation of sedimentary-surficial Uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali Sadr, S.

    2006-01-01

    Great Kavir basin is the largest inner basin in Iran that extended about 90000 km 2. This basin is situated in the centre of lran , to the south from Alborz mountain range and elongated in the sub- latitudinal trend and its construction is asymmetric. The basin cover consists generally of complicated sequence of continental - marine Oligocene - Miocene molasses. According to drainage systems - conditions, molassoid cycles, alluvial, alluvial - deltaic and lacustrine sediments, climate, morphological conditions and metallogenic and structural features, Great Kavir depression generally is favorable for exigence and surficial uranium deposits (vally - fill, flood plain, deltaic and playa). Uranium occurrences that are Known in the southern and north eastern part of the margent Great Kavir basin, are Arosan, Irekan and Mohammad Abad. Similar geological - structural conditions for uranium mineralization is possible in the margent of Great Kavir basin

  6. Domestic uranium exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium exploration in the United States reached its alltime high in 1978 when the chief exploration indicator, surface drilling, totaled 47 million feet. In 1979, however, total drilling declined to 41 million feet, and during the first 8 months of 1980 the trend continued, as surface drilling was 27% less than for the same period in 1979. The total drilling for 1980 now is expected to be below 30 million feet, far less than the 39.4 million feet planned by industry at the beginning of the year. Falling uranium prices, the uncertainties of future uranium demand, rising costs, and the possibility of stiff foreign competition are the prime causes for the current reduction in domestic uranium exploration. Uranium exploration in the United States continues to be concentrated in the vicinity of major producing areas such as the San Juan Basin, Wyoming Basins, Texas Coastal Plain, Paradox Basin, and northeastern Washington, and in areas of recent discoveries including the Henry Mountains, Utah, the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon, and central Colorado. The distributions, by location, of total surface drilling for 1979 and the first half of 1980 are presented

  7. New french uranium mineral species; Nouvelles especes uraniferes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branche, G; Chervet, J; Guillemin, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; {beta} uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the {alpha} uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [French] Dans ce travail, les auteurs etudient les nouveaux mineraux uraniferes francais: parsonsite et renardite, phosphates hydrates de plomb et d'uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrate d'uranium et de plomb uranopilite: sulfate d'uranium hydrate; bayleyite: carbonate d'uranium et de magnesium hydrate; {beta} uranolite: silicate d'uranium et de calcium hydrate. Pour tous ces mineraux, les auteurs donnent les caracteres cristallographiques, optiques, et les analyses chimiques quantitatives. Par contre, les especes suivantes, tres rares dans les gites francais, n'ont pas permis d'effectuer d'analyses quantitatives. Ce sont: l'ianthinite: oxyde uraneux hydrate; l'{alpha} uranotile: silicate d'uranium et de calcium hydrate; le bassetite: phosphate d'uranium et de fer hydrate; la hosphuranylite: phosphate duranium hydrate; la becquerelite: oxyde d'uranium hydrate; la curite: oxyde d'uranium et de plomb hydrate. Enfin, les auteurs presentent a la fin de cette etude

  8. Uranium ore deposits: geology and processing implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyk, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    There are fifteen accepted types of uranium ore deposits and at least forty subtypes readily identified around the world. Each deposit type has a unique set of geological characteristics which may also result in unique processing implications. Primary uranium production in the past decade has predominantly come from only a few of these deposit types including: unconformity, sandstone, calcrete, intrusive, breccia complex and volcanic ones. Processing implications can vary widely between and within the different geological models. Some key characteristics of uranium deposits that may have processing implications include: ore grade, uranium and gangue mineralogy, ore hardness, porosity, uranium mineral morphology and carbon content. Processing difficulties may occur as a result of one or more of these characteristics. In order to meet future uranium demand, it is imperative that innovative processing approaches and new technological advances be developed in order that many of the marginally economic traditional and uneconomic non-traditional uranium ore deposits can be exploited. (author)

  9. MHC class II restricted innate-like double negative T cells contribute to optimal primary and secondary immunity to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Zhirong; Liu, Dong; Okwor, Ifeoma; Jia, Ping; Orihara, Kanami; Uzonna, Jude Ezeh

    2014-09-01

    Although it is generally believed that CD4(+) T cells play important roles in anti-Leishmania immunity, some studies suggest that they may be dispensable, and that MHC II-restricted CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative, DN) T cells may be more important in regulating primary anti-Leishmania immunity. In addition, while there are reports of increased numbers of DN T cells in Leishmania-infected patients, dogs and mice, concrete evidence implicating these cells in secondary anti-Leishmania immunity has not yet been documented. Here, we report that DN T cells extensively proliferate and produce effector cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF and IL-17) and granzyme B (GrzB) in the draining lymph nodes and spleens of mice following primary and secondary L. major infections. DN T cells from healed mice display functional characteristics of protective anti-Leishmania memory-like cells: rapid and extensive proliferation and effector cytokines production following L. major challenge in vitro and in vivo. DN T cells express predominantly (> 95%) alpha-beta T cell receptor (αβ TCR), are Leishmania-specific, restricted mostly by MHC class II molecules and display transcriptional profile of innate-like genes. Using in vivo depletion and adoptive transfer studies, we show that DN T cells contribute to optimal primary and secondary anti-Leishmania immunity in mice. These results directly identify DN T cells as important players in effective and protective primary and secondary anti-L. major immunity in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  10. Malnutrition and poor oral health status are major risks among primary school children at Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Jamali, Abdul Karim; Sameen, Ifra; Burfat, Fateh Muhammad; Baloch, Mir Yousaf; Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Baloch, Ghulam Rasool; Lashari, Shazia Kulsoom; Ayaz, Sobiya Mohiuddin; Baloch, Muhammad Younus

    2017-05-19

    This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country. A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma. Out of 200 schools, 196 schools found opened, while 2% of schools (04) remained closed. A total of 6363 students were clinically screened. About 45% of the school children had normal body mass index (BMI) and rest were falling in different categories of malnutrition. More than 19% had ear, nose and throat (ENT) problems and around 19% presented with clinical anemia. Less than 50% of children had scar of BCG vaccination and 4% informed about use of gutka/supari chewing (smokeless tobacco use). In conclusion, we estimated high prevalence of malnutrition, poor oral health including smokeless tobacco use, and low BCG coverage among primary school children at Lasbela. Current scenario suggests immediate and contextually focused interventions to confine existing public health risks and avoid future burden of disease.

  11. Rossing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    In this article the geology of the deposits of the Rossing uranium mine in Namibia is discussed. The planning of the open-pit mining, the blasting, drilling, handling and the equipment used for these processes are described

  12. Overseas uranium exploration by PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Reiji; Iida, Yoshimasa; Shigeta, Naotaka; Takahashi, Osamu; Yamagishi, Akiko; Miyada, Hatsuho; Kobayashi, Takao

    1998-01-01

    Japan entirely depends on overseas countries for uranium resources for its nuclear electric power generation due to the lack of domestic resources. In order to secure a steady supply of natural uranium, Japanese government has implemented a long-term procurement policy through purchase contracts by private sectors, subsidizing private sectors' exploration and initial stage exploration outside the reach of private sectors' activity by PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation). The subsequent long slump in the price of uranium, however, led most of Japanese private sectors to discontinue their exploration activity. Upon this situation, PNC has pursued a little more advanced stage exploration in addition to basic research and initial stage exploration and has improved its exploration techniques to enable the discovery of deep-seated uranium ore deposits. As the result, PNC has acquired significant uranium exploration tenements and interests similar to those owned by major uranium companies such as Cameco and Cogema. PNC has also contributed to discovery of new uranium deposits. In this report, the history of PNC's activities and its role in the long-term uranium procurement policy are reviewed and it is also described about the outcome thorough its activities and future exploration trend and the tasks. (author)

  13. Developments in uranium in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Slippage in demand, increasing costs, and low spot market prices continued to influence the uranium industry during 1982. The supply of uranium exceeds the current demand and, as a result, exploration for uranium declined in the United States for the fourth straight year. During 1982, 92 companies spent $73.86 million on uranium exploration, including 6.1 million ft of surface drilling. This drilling was done mainly in the producing areas and in the areas of recent discoveries. During the year, a significant discovery was announced in south-central Virginia, the first major discovery in the eastern United States. Production of uranium concentrate declined in 1982, when 1,343 short tons of uranium oxide were produced. Numerous mines and 4 mills were closed during the year. Domestic uranium reserves, as calculated by the Department of Energy, decreased during 1982, mainly because of increasing production costs and the lack of exploration to find new reserves. Exploration for uranium in foreign countries also declined during 1982. Canada and Australia continue to dominate the long-term supply

  14. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  15. The construct validity of the Major Depression Inventory: A Rasch analysis of a self-rating scale in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Marie Germund; Ørnbøl, Eva; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bech, Per; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the measurement properties of the ten-item Major Depression Inventory when used on clinical suspicion in general practice by performing a Rasch analysis. General practitioners asked consecutive persons to respond to the web-based Major Depression Inventory on clinical suspicion of depression. We included 22 practices and 245 persons. Rasch analysis was performed using RUMM2030 software. The Rasch model fit suggests that all items contribute to a single underlying trait (defined as internal construct validity). Mokken analysis was used to test dimensionality and scalability. Our Rasch analysis showed misfit concerning the sleep and appetite items (items 9 and 10). The response categories were disordered for eight items. After modifying the original six-point to a four-point scoring system for all items, we achieved ordered response categories for all ten items. The person separation reliability was acceptable (0.82) for the initial model. Dimensionality testing did not support combining the ten items to create a total score. The scale appeared to be well targeted to this clinical sample. No significant differential item functioning was observed for gender, age, work status and education. The Rasch and Mokken analyses revealed two dimensions, but the Major Depression Inventory showed fit to one scale if items 9 and 10 were excluded. Our study indicated scalability problems in the current version of the Major Depression Inventory. The conducted analysis revealed better statistical fit when items 9 and 10 were excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uranium loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    When NUEXCO was organized in 1968, its founders conceived of a business based on uranium loans. The concept was relatively straightforward; those who found themselves with excess supplies of uranium would deposit those excesses in NUEXCO's open-quotes bank,close quotes and those who found themselves temporarily short of uranium could borrow from the bank. The borrower would pay interest based on the quantity of uranium borrowed and the duration of the loan, and the bank would collect the interest, deduct its service fee for arranging the loan, and pay the balance to those whose deposits were borrowed. In fact, the original plan was to call the firm Nuclear Bank Corporation, until it was discovered that using the word open-quotes Bankclose quotes in the name would subject the firm to various US banking regulations. Thus, Nuclear Bank Corporation became Nuclear Exchange Corporation, which was later shortened to NUEXCO. Neither the nuclear fuel market nor NUEXCO's business developed quite as its founders had anticipated. From almost the very beginning, the brokerage of uranium purchases and sales became a more significant activity for NUEXCO than arranging uranium loans. Nevertheless, loan transactions have played an important role in the international nuclear fuel market, requiring the development of special knowledge and commercial techniques

  17. Uranium distribution in Brazilian granitic rocks. Identification of uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.G.G.

    1993-01-01

    The research characterized and described uranium enriched granitoids in Brazil. They occur in a variety of tectonic environments and are represented by a variety granite types of distinct ages. It may be deduced that in general they have been generated by partial melting process of continental crust. However, some of them, those with tonality composition, indicate a contribution from mantle derived materials, thus suggesting primary uranium enrichment from the upper mantle. Through this study, the identification and characterization of uranium enriched granite or uranium provinces in Brazil can be made. This may also help identify areas with potential for uranium mineralization although it has been note that uranium mineralization in Brazil are not related to the uranium enrichment process. In general the U-anomalous granitoids are composed of granites with alkaline composition and granite ''sensu strictu'' which comprise mainly of syenites, quartz-syenites and biotite-hornblende granites, with ages between 1,800 - 1,300 M.a. The U-anomalous belongings to this period present high Sr initial ratios values, above 0.706, and high Rb contents. Most of the U-enriched granitoids occur within ancient cratonic areas, or within Early to Mid-Proterozoic mobile belts, but after their cratonization. Generally, these granitoids are related to the border zones of the mobile belts or deep crustal discontinuity. Refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Formation and types of uranium deposits, uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    To begin with, the formation and origin of uranium deposits is described, and uranium deposits are classified into four basic categories. Of these, those that are of economic interest are described in detail with regard to their characteristic geological features, and their geographic distribution in the western world is outlined. The major facts and data regarding the geological and geochronological classification of these deposits and their size are given in tables and easy-to-interpret diagrams. (RB) [de

  19. Old dumps of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Mager, D.

    1993-01-01

    The production of natural uranium through mining and milling results in large volumes of low-level radioactive waste, mainly in mine dumps and mill tailings. Hazards which relate to abandoned uranium production sites and environmental remediation approaches are described in reference to the Wismut case. During the period 1947 to 1990 the former Soviet-German Wismut Corporation produced about 200 000 t of uranium from several deposits in Thuringia and Saxonia within a relatively small and densely populated area. These activities resulted in major land disturbance and other environmental damage. Restoration problems are highlighted. (orig.)

  20. Uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Golynko, Z.Sh.

    1981-01-01

    The process of uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores in the South Africa is considered. Flowsheets of reprocessing gold-uranium conglomerates, pile processing and uranium extraction from the ores are presented. Continuous counter flow ion-exchange process of uranium extraction using strong-active or weak-active resins is noted to be the most perspective and economical one. The ion-exchange uranium separation with the succeeding extraction is also the perspective one.

  1. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path dec...... clinical benefit and cost-savings, and similar in cost-effectiveness to venlafaxine.......The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three......, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS costs. Analyses were conducted from healthcare system and societal perspectives. The human capital approach was used to estimate societal cost of lost productivity. Costs were reported...

  2. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. I t is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  3. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  4. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  5. Primary giant myxoma of the temporal bone with major intracranial extension: presenting with hearing impairment and ear polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are mesenchymal origin, benign tumor, constituting approximately half of the benign cardiac tumors. Occasionally, it may also occurs at other locations, though the intracranial location of a myxoma is considered exceptionally rare. Only isolated few cases of intracranial myxoma are reported in the literature, almost all were locally confined within the originating bone. The extensive Pubmed and Medline search yielded only eight cases of primary myxoma arising in the temporal bone with extension into intracranial compartment. However intracranial extension is limited as early detection, however, Osterdock et al reported a case also arising from temporal bone with extensive intracranial extension. Author report an interesting case of intracranial myxoma in 27- year- old- male, involving the temporal bone associated with extensive bony erosion and also extending into infratemporal fossa, mastoid, and frontoparietal region and a polypoidal mass protruding into external ear. To the best of knowledge of authors, temporal myxoma presenting with external ear polypoidal mass, which underwent successful surgical excision is not reported and represent first case in the world literature.

  6. An intensive primary-literature-based teaching program directly benefits undergraduate science majors and facilitates their transition to doctoral programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeracki, Carol A; Carey, Michael F; Colicelli, John; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Grossel, Martha

    2006-01-01

    UCLA's Howard Hughes Undergraduate Research Program (HHURP), a collaboration between the College of Letters and Science and the School of Medicine, trains a group of highly motivated undergraduates through mentored research enhanced by a rigorous seminar course. The course is centered on the presentation and critical analysis of scientific journal articles as well as the students' own research. This article describes the components and objectives of the HHURP and discusses the results of three program assessments: annual student evaluations, interviews with UCLA professors who served as research advisors for HHURP scholars, and a survey of program alumni. Students indicate that the program increased their ability to read and present primary scientific research and to present their own research and enhanced their research experience at UCLA. After graduating, they find their involvement in the HHURP helped them in securing admission to the graduate program of their choice and provided them with an advantage over their peers in the interactive seminars that are the foundation of graduate education. On the basis of the assessment of the program from 1998-1999 to 2004-2005, we conclude that an intensive literature-based training program increases student confidence and scientific literacy during their undergraduate years and facilitates their transition to postgraduate study.

  7. Seasonal and Spatial Dynamics of the Primary Vector of Plasmodium knowlesi within a Major Transmission Focus in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng L Wong

    Full Text Available The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is emerging as a public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysian Borneo where it now accounts for the greatest burden of malaria cases and deaths. Control is hindered by limited understanding of the ecology of potential vector species.We conducted a one year longitudinal study of P. knowlesi vectors in three sites within an endemic area of Sabah, Malaysia. All mosquitoes were captured using human landing catch. Anopheles mosquitoes were dissected to determine, oocyst, sporozoites and parous rate. Anopheles balabacensis is confirmed as the primary vector of. P. knowlesi (using nested PCR in Sabah for the first time. Vector densities were significantly higher and more seasonally variable in the village than forest or small scale farming site. However An. balabacensis survival and P. knowlesi infection rates were highest in forest and small scale farm sites. Anopheles balabacensis mostly bites humans outdoors in the early evening between 1800 to 2000 hrs.This study indicates transmission is unlikely to be prevented by bednets. This combined with its high vectorial capacity poses a threat to malaria elimination programmes within the region.

  8. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement

  9. Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry - the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors - is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23. edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres around the world, as well as from countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2035 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues

  10. Protocol for Isolation of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Corresponding Major Populations of Non-parenchymal Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Zeilinger, Katrin; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Beside parenchymal hepatocytes, the liver consists of non-parenchymal cells (NPC) namely Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC) and hepatic Stellate cells (HSC). Two-dimensional (2D) culture of primary human hepatocyte (PHH) is still considered as the "gold standard" for in vitro testing of drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. It is well-known that the 2D monoculture of PHH suffers from dedifferentiation and loss of function. Recently it was shown that hepatic NPC play a central role in liver (patho-) physiology and the maintenance of PHH functions. Current research focuses on the reconstruction of in vivo tissue architecture by 3D- and co-culture models to overcome the limitations of 2D monocultures. Previously we published a method to isolate human liver cells and investigated the suitability of these cells for their use in cell cultures in Experimental Biology and Medicine1. Based on the broad interest in this technique the aim of this article was to provide a more detailed protocol for the liver cell isolation process including a video, which will allow an easy reproduction of this technique. Human liver cells were isolated from human liver tissue samples of surgical interventions by a two-step EGTA/collagenase P perfusion technique. PHH were separated from the NPC by an initial centrifugation at 50 x g. Density gradient centrifugation steps were used for removal of dead cells. Individual liver cell populations were isolated from the enriched NPC fraction using specific cell properties and cell sorting procedures. Beside the PHH isolation we were able to separate KC, LEC and HSC for further cultivation. Taken together, the presented protocol allows the isolation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from one donor tissue sample. The access to purified liver cell populations could allow the creation of in vivo like human liver models. PMID:27077489

  11. Uranium update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steane, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is about the current uranium mining situation, especially that in Saskatchewan. Canada has a unique advantage with the Saskatchewan uranium deposits. Making the most of this opportunity is important to Canada. The following is reviewed: project development and the time and capital it takes to bring a new project into production; the supply and demand situation to show where the future production fits into the world market; and our foreign competition and how we have to be careful not to lose our opportunity. (author)

  12. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    The central theme of this report is to assess the adequacy of uranium resources to meet future requirements based on a range of opinions as to the future of nuclear power. The report discusses three demand cases that project uranium requirements from 2000 to 2050. The report also reviews the supply sources that are expected to be available to meet reactor uranium demand through to 2050. Supply is divided into two broad categories: secondary and primary supply. The report also assesses the adequacy of uranium resources to satisfy market based production requirements

  13. Australia: uranium and nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, R.

    1991-01-01

    Australia's uranium and nuclear policies have gone through several stages of development since the commercialisation of the industry. The early stages laid the foundations and built the superstructure of Australia's uranium development, export and safeguards policies. The uranium industry and other governments have understood the nature and operation of these policies. An important aim of this paper will be to explain the design and current construction stage of policies. This needs to be done against the background of broader industry developments. Within the past twelve months (1989/90) there have been dramatic changes, both within Australia and internationally, which have affected the uranium market. Internationally, we have seen the spot price indicators for uranium fall to an all time low. Within Australia, we have seen the removal of the fixed floor price requirement for the sale of Australia uranium. This was replaced by a requirement that contract prices reflect the market. This change in policy allowed the outcome of several major long-term contract renegotiations to be approved. It also allowed Australian producers to secure several new long-term contracts, despite the overall depressed state of the market. The 'three mines' policy remains in place although only two, Ranger in Northern Territory and Olympic Dare in Southern Australia are currently operating. The biggest unknown is the extent of future uranium demand. (author)

  14. Refining of crude uranium by solvent extraction for production of nuclear pure uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Manna, S.; Singha, M.; Hareendran, K.N.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Kumar, K.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is the primary fuel material for any nuclear fission energy program. Natural uranium contains only 0.712% of 235 U as fissile constituent. This low concentration of fissile isotope in natural uranium calls for a very high level of purity, especially with respect to neutron poisons like B, Cd, Gd etc. before it can be used as nuclear fuel. Solvent extraction is a widely used technique by which crude uranium is purified for reactor use. Uranium metal plant (UMP), BARC, Trombay is engaged in refining of uranium concentrate for production of nuclear pure uranium metal for fabrication of fuel for research reactors. This paper reviews some of the fundamental aspects of this refining process with some special references to UMP, BARC. (author)

  15. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures

  16. Critical review of uranium resources and production capability to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    Even with a modest forecast of nuclear power growth for the next 25 years, it is expected that the world uranium requirements will increase. This analysis indicates uranium mine production will continue to be the primary supply of requirements through 2020. Secondary supplies, such as low enriched uranium blended from highly enriched uranium, reprocessing of spent fuel would have to make-up the remaining balance, although the contribution of US and Russian strategic stockpiles is not well known at this time. (author)

  17. Uranium - resources development and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Australia possesses a major portion of the world's low cost uranium and it is confidently expected that further exploration will delineate yet more reserves. The level of such exploration and the rate of development of new production will remain critically dependent on world market developments. For the foreseeable future all development will be dedicated to supplying the export market. Australian government policies for uranium take account of both domestic and international concerns. With Australia, the policies act to protect the interests of the Aboriginal people affected by uranium production. In response to national interests and concerns, foreign investment in uranium production ventures is regulated in a manner which requires Australian control but allows a measure of foreign equity. Environmental concerns are recognized and projects may only be approved after comprehensive environmental protection procedures have been complied with. Without these policies public acceptability, which provides the foundations for long-term stability of the industry, would be prejudiced. On the world scene, Australia's safeguards policy serves to support international nuclear safeguards and, in particular, to honour its obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Export policy requires that reasonable sales contract conditions apply and that fair negotiated market prices are obtained for Australia's uranium. Australia's recent re-emergence as a major producer and exporter of uranium is convincing testimony to the success of these policies. (author)

  18. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  19. The toxicology of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickner, D.

    1988-11-01

    This review of literature presents and criticises the current knowledge relevant to risk assessment in cases of human exposure to natural uranium compounds due to industrial accidents. The major risk of high uranium exposure is renal-tubular damage which may lead to acute renal insufficiency and death. Radiation damage is not expected in these circumstances. In this review the metabolism of uranium in the body, the health effects and the possible medical treatment are discussed, with an emphasis on relatively large exposure of short duration. The current ICRP lung model does not represent all the factors affecting the kinetics of uranium oxides in the respiratory tract. The significance of these factors, not represented by the model, for risk assessment in such exposures, is not known. The current recommendations for treatment are not scientifically based. Further investigations are urgently needed to enable a rational medical preparadness

  20. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Uranium industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  2. Uranium industry annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Uranium Industry Annual 1991, data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2. A feature article entitled ''The Uranium Industry of the Commonwealth of Independent States'' is included in this report

  3. Uranium exploration in India: present status and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration for Uranium in India dates back to 1949, where surveys to locate atomic minerals were initiated in the well established Copper Thrust Belt (CTB) of Singhbhum, in the present day Jharkhand state. Based on the limited understanding on uranium geology, the thrust zones of Singhbhum which were popularly known for hosting Copper mineralization were targeted presuming sympathetic relation between Copper and Uranium. Exploration for uranium over the past six decades has resulted in identifying eleven major uranium deposits distributed in varied geological environs all over the country. Apart from conventional uranium mineralization, non-conventional resources like phosphorite, black shale etc. have immense potential. Even though their uranium grades will be of lower order, their uranium content will be huge due to their extensive size. In addition to intensifying uranium exploration in potential geological domains, AMD also plans to tap the non-conventional resources which will add substantially to the resource base

  4. Guided self-help concreteness training as an intervention for major depression in primary care: a Phase II randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watkins, E R; Taylor, R S; Baeyens, C

    2012-01-01

    major depression in primary care, although the effect was not significantly different from an existing active treatment (RT) matched for structural and common factors. Because of its relative brevity and distinct format, it may have value as an additional innovative approach to increase......Background The development of widely accessible, effective psychological interventions for depression is a priority. This randomized trial provides the first controlled data on an innovative cognitive bias modification (CBM) training guided self-help intervention for depression. Method One hundred...... and twenty-one consecutively recruited participants meeting criteria for current major depression were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (TAU) or to TAU plus concreteness training (CNT) guided self-help or to TAU plus relaxation training (RT) guided self-help. CNT involved repeated practice at mental...

  5. Decommissioning: A critical component of the design for uranium tailings management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, W.A.; Barsi, R.G.; Misfeldt, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium was discovered in the Beaverlodge area of northern Saskatchewan in 1934 with the first major mill beginning operation in 1953. Little attention was paid to tailings quality or tailings management practices. With the onset of the modem uranium operations beginning in the late 1970's, it was repeatedly evident, that the public had significant concerns, particularly with respect to tailings management, that must be addressed if the developments were to be allowed to proceed. Primary considerations related to environmental protection, public safety and an assurance of the ongoing sustainable development of the region. Integrating the decommissioning of a mine/mill site into development planning from the very outset has proven to be a critical component that has contributed to the ongoing success of the Saskatchewan uranium operations. This paper will provide a case study of the evolution of the uranium tailings management technology utilized in Saskatchewan. It documents the evolution of tailings management processes and the characteristics of tailings produced by successive mines in northern Saskatchewan. It also discusses the evolution of technologies applied to management of uranium mill tailings and demonstrates how progressively increasing levels of environmental protection have been achieved during the last 47 years of uranium mill operation. The paper also shows that the planned and progressive decommissioning of an operational site is the key to: Minimizing environmental impacts; Satisfying public and regulatory concerns; Minimizing operational and decommissioning costs; Minimizing corporate liability; and Shifting public resistance to public support. (author)

  6. Decommissioning: A critical component of the design for uranium tailings management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, A.W.; Barsi, R.G.; Misfeldt, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium was discovered in the Beaverlodge area of northern Saskatchewan in 1934 with the first major mill beginning operation in 1953. Little attention was paid to tailings quality or tailings management practices. With the onset of the modern uranium operations beginning in the late 1970's, it was repeatedly evident, that the public had significant concerns, particularly with respect to tailings management, that must be addressed if the developments were to be allowed to proceed. Primary considerations related to environmental protection, public safety and an assurance of the ongoing sustainable development of the region. Integrating the decommissioning of a mine/mill site into development planning from the very outset has proven to be a critical component that has contributed to the ongoing success of the Saskatchewan uranium operations. This paper will provide a case study of the evolution of the uranium tailings management technology utilized in Saskatchewan. It documents the evolution of tailings management processes and the characteristics of tailings produced by successive mines in northern Saskatchewan. It also discusses the evolution of technologies applied to management of uranium mill tailings and demonstrates how progressively increasing levels of environmental protection have been achieved during the last 47 years of uranium mill operation. The paper also shows that the planned and progressive decommissioning of an operational site is the key to: Minimizing environmental impacts; Satisfying public and regulatory concerns; Minimizing operational and decommissioning costs; Minimizing corporate liability; and Shifting public resistance to public support. (author)

  7. A Biomarker to Differentiate between Primary and Cocaine-Induced Major Depression in Cocaine Use Disorder: The Role of Platelet IRAS/Nischarin (I1-Imidazoline Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Keller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of cocaine use disorder (CUD and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD; CUD/MDD is characterized by high prevalence and poor treatment outcomes. CUD/MDD may be primary (primary MDD or cocaine-induced (CUD-induced MDD. Specific biomarkers are needed to improve diagnoses and therapeutic approaches in this dual pathology. Platelet biomarkers [5-HT2A receptor and imidazoline receptor antisera selected (IRAS/nischarin] were assessed by Western blot in subjects with CUD and primary MDD (n = 16 or CUD-induced MDD (n = 9; antidepressant free, AD−; antidepressant treated, AD+ and controls (n = 10 at basal level and/or after acute tryptophan depletion (ATD. Basal platelet 5-HT2A receptor (monomer was reduced in comorbid CUD/MDD subjects (all patients: 43% compared to healthy controls, and this down-regulation was independent of AD medication (decreases in AD−: 47%, and in AD+: 40%. No basal differences were found for IRAS/nischarin contents in AD+ and AD− comorbid CUD/MDD subjects. The comparison of IRAS/nischarin in the different subject groups during/after ATD showed opposite modulations (i.e., increases and decreases in response to low plasma tryptophan levels with significant differences discriminating between the subgroups of CUD with primary MDD and CUD-induced MDD. These specific alterations suggested that platelet IRAS/nischarin might be useful as a biomarker to discriminate between primary and CUD-induced MDD in this dual pathology.

  8. Aftermath of Uranium Ore Processing on Floodplains: Lasting Effects of Uranium on Soil and Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Boye, K.; Bargar, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    A former uranium ore processing site located between the Wind River and the Little Wind River near the city of Riverton, Wyoming, has generated a uranium plume in the groundwater within the floodplain. Uranium is toxic and poses a threat to human health. Thus, controlling and containing the spread of uranium will benefit the human population. The primary source of uranium was removed from the processing site, but a uranium plume still exists in the groundwater. Uranium in its reduced form is relatively insoluble in water and therefore is retained in organic rich, anoxic layers in the subsurface. However, with the aid of microbes uranium becomes soluble in water which could expose people and the environment to this toxin, if it enters the groundwater and ultimately the river. In order to better understand the mechanisms controlling uranium behavior in the floodplains, we examined sediments from three sediment cores (soil surface to aquifer). We determined the soil elemental concentrations and measured microbial activity through the use of several instruments (e.g. Elemental Analyzer, X-ray Fluorescence, MicroResp System). Through the data collected, we aim to obtain a better understanding of how the interaction of geochemical factors and microbial metabolism affect uranium mobility. This knowledge will inform models used to predict uranium behavior in response to land use or climate change in floodplain environments.

  9. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  10. Uranium's slide - and the long haul back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavitt, E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of the origin and development of the SA uranium industry. Mr. Pavitt dealt with the present state of the nuclear-power industry (a matter of concern to major uranium producers of the world) and their applications, their usefullness and public opinion towards nuclear weapons

  11. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  12. Uranium 2003: resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. This edition, the 20., presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1 January 2003 based on official information received from 43 countries. Uranium 2003: Resources, Production and Demand paints a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and for the first time, a report for Turkmenistan. Also included are international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020. The long lead times required to bring resources into production underscore the importance of making timely decisions to pursue production capability well in advance of any supply shortfall. (author)

  13. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  14. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  15. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels; Le Lay, Agathe; Hemels, Michiel E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path decision analytic model with a 6-month horizon was used. All patients started at the primary care path and were referred to outpatient or inpatient secondary care in the case of insufficient response to treatment. Model inputs included drug-specific probabilities derived from systematic literature review, ad-hoc survey and expert opinion. Main outcome measures were remission defined as MADRS escitalopram (64.1%) than citalopram (58.9%). From both perspectives, the total expected cost per successfully treated patient was lower for escitalopram (DKK 22,323 healthcare, DKK 72,399 societal) than for citalopram (DKK 25,778 healthcare, DKK 87,786 societal). Remission rates and costs were similar for escitalopram and venlafaxine. Robustness of the findings was verified in multivariate sensitivity analyses. For patients in primary care, escitalopram appears to be a cost-effective alternative to (generic) citalopram, with greater clinical benefit and cost-savings, and similar in cost-effectiveness to venlafaxine.

  16. Uranium concentrations in groundwater, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.; Tecca, Alison E.; Eliason, Devin M.

    2018-04-18

    88,600 μg/L, and the median concentration of uranium in groundwater for all sites was 1.4 μg/L.New (2017) uranium in groundwater concentration data were obtained by sampling 13 private domestic wells for uranium in areas without recent (2000s) water-quality data. Uranium was detected in all 13 wells sampled for this study; concentrations ranged from 1.03 to 1,180 μg/L with a median of 22 μg/L. Uranium concentrations of groundwater samples from 6 of the 13 wells exceeded the MCL for uranium. Uranium concentrations in water samples from two wells were 1,130 and 1,180 μg/L, respectively; nearly 40 times the MCL.Additional data collection and analysis are needed in rural areas where self-supplied groundwater withdrawals are the primary source of water for human consumption. Of the roughly 43,000 existing water wells in the study area, only 1,755 wells, as summarized in this document, have available uranium concentration data, and some of those data are decades old. Furthermore, analysis of area groundwater quality would benefit from a more extensive chemical-analysis suite including general chemistry in order to better understand local geochemical conditions that largely govern the mobility of uranium. Although the focus of the present study is uranium, it also is important to recognize that there are other radionuclides of concern that may be present in area groundwater.

  17. Uranium - what role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, T.; Gaul, J.; Crooks, P.; Robotham, R.

    1980-01-01

    Opposing viewpoints on the future role of uranium are presented. Topics covered include the Australian Government's uranium policy, the status of nuclear power around the world, Australia's role as a uranium exporter and problems facing the nuclear industry

  18. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This paper analyzes under four different scenarios the adequacy of a $500 million annual deposit into a fund to pay for the cost of cleaning up the Department of Energy's (DOE) three aging uranium enrichment plants. These plants are located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. In summary the following was found: A fixed annual $500 million deposit made into a cleanup fund would not be adequate to cover total expected cleanup costs, nor would it be adequate to cover expected decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) costs. A $500 million annual deposit indexed to an inflation rate would likely be adequate to pay for all expected cleanup costs, including D and D costs, remedial action, and depleted uranium costs

  20. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, M.

    1980-01-01

    The balance between uranium supply and demand is examined. Should new resources become necessary, some unconventional sources which could be considered include low-grade extensions to conventional deposits, certain types of intrusive rock, tuffs, and lake and sea-bed sediments. In addition there are large but very low grade deposits in carbonaceous shales, granites, and seawater. The possibility of recovery is discussed. Programmes of research into the feasibility of extraction of uranium from seawater, as a by-product from phosphoric acid production, and from copper leach solutions, are briefly discussed. Other possible sources are coal, old mine dumps and tailings, the latter being successfully exploited commercially in South Africa. The greatest constraints on increased development of U from lower grade sources are economics and environmental impact. It is concluded that apart from U as a by-product from phosphate, other sources are unlikely to contribute much to world requirements in the foreseeable future. (U.K.)

  1. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  2. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  3. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  4. A new era in U.S. uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Complex market conditions, including lower than anticipated electrical growth rates, creation of a large spot market of enriched uranium, fluctuations in currency exchange rates, and certain political considerations, have created an unstable market for all primary producers, including the United States. In response to these conditions, the Department of Energy made significant changes to the U.S. program including the issuance of the Utility Services contract on January 18, 1984. Other major changes include redirecting research and development efforts on the advanced gas centrifuge and atomic vapor laser isotope separation processes, rescoping of the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant project, and reevaluation of the operational mode of the three gaseous diffusion plants. Taken together, we believe these actions will retain the U.S. position of leadership in uranium enrichment. In summary, we plan to compete--through introduction of the world's most advanced, lowest cost technology and through responsiveness to our customers' needs

  5. Uranium - a challenging mining business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelhofer, J.W.; Wedig, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The main application of uranium is its use as a fuel for the nuclear electricity generation. Presently about 68,000 t (177 mill. lbs) of uranium are annually required, of which 41,500 (108 mill. lbs) are provided from fresh mine production whereas 26,500 t (69 mill. lbs) are stock drawdown supplies from civil or military sources. Two-thirds of production are recovered by underground mining and about 75% (30,350 t) of the world's uranium mine production are extracted from top ten mines. All major uranium mining companies are making efforts to enlarge their production capacities: The paramount Cameco's Cigar Lake project has been delayed due to mine water inflow. Production is expected to commence by latest in 2010; the nameplate capacity of 6000 t/a should be reached in 2011. AREVA reported plans to invest about Euro 500 to 600 mill. to double its uranium production by 2010. In 2006 Denison Mines and International Uranium Corporation announced that they have entered into an agreement to merge the two companies in order to create a mid-tier, North American-focused uranium producer with the potential annual production of more than 5.5 mill. lbs of U 3 O 8 by 2010. The skyrocketing global electricity demand, growing public acceptance and more favourable policies have initiated a new round of global development of the nuclear industry. Against this backdrop, about 30,000 t/a to 40,000 t/a of additional mine production will be required within the upcoming 20 years to substitute secondary uranium supplies and to meet the expected increased demand; new start-up junior mining companies (e.g. Paladin) will contribute to this increased production. (orig.)

  6. Uranium Industry. Annual 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, M.S.S.

    1985-01-01

    This report provides a statistical description of activities of the US uranium industry during 1984 and includes a statistical profile of the status of the industry at the end of 1984. It is based on the results of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) survey entitled ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (Form EIA-858). The principal findings of the survey are summarized under two headings - Uranium Raw Materials Activities and Uranium Marketing Activities. The first heading covers exploration and development, uranium resources, mine and mill production, and employment. The second heading covers uranium deliveries and delivery commitments, uranium prices, foreign trade in uranium, inventories, and other marketing activities. 32 figs., 48 tabs

  7. Effects and mechanisms of Shaofu-Zhuyu decoction and its major bioactive component for Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Sha, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Kavin Yue; Guo, Jianming; Yu, Li; Liu, Pei; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-06-20

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medical sciences in clinical application. The Chinese herbal formula, Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD), is considered as an effective prescription for treating Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis (CSBS) primary dysmenorrhea. The previous studies showed the SFZYD exhibited significant anti-inflammation and analgesic effect. In this present study the metabolomics of CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats and the cytokine transcription in PHA stimulated-PBMC were investigated to explore the effects and mechanisms. Explore a valuable insight into the effects and mechanisms of SFZYD on Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats. We established CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats according the clinical symptoms. A targeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based metabolomic platform was used to evaluate the metabolic profiling changes and the intervention effects by SFZYD. The PBMC cell was adopted to explore the mechanisms by analyzing the signaling pathway evaluated by expression of inflammatory cytokines, c-jun and c-fos and corresponding phosphorylation levels. Estradiol, oxytocin, progesterone, endothelin, β-endorphin and PGF2α were restored back to the normal level after the treatment of SFZYD. Total twenty-five metabolites (10 in plasma and 15 in urine), up-regulated or down-regulated, were identified. These identified biomarkers underpinning the metabolic pathway including pentose and glucuronate interconversions, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism are disturbed in model rats. Among these metabolites, twenty one potential biomarkers were regulated after SFZYD treated. The compound of paeoniflorin, a major bioactive compound in SFZYD, was proved to regulate the MAPK signaling pathway by inhibiting the expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, INFγ, c-jun and c-fos in PHA stimulated-PBMC. These findings

  8. Uranium price reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the systems for uranium price reporting currently available to the uranium industry. The report restricts itself to prices for U 3 O 8 natural uranium concentrates. Most purchases of natural uranium by utilities, and sales by producers, are conducted in this form. The bulk of uranium in electricity generation is enriched before use, and is converted to uranium hexafluoride, UF 6 , prior to enrichment. Some uranium is traded as UF 6 or as enriched uranium, particularly in the 'secondary' market. Prices for UF 6 and enriched uranium are not considered directly in this report. However, where transactions in UF 6 influence the reported price of U 3 O 8 this influence is taken into account. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms uranium and natural uranium used here refer exclusively to U 3 O 8 . (author)

  9. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ''Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,'' is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2

  10. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  11. ERA's Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.

    1997-01-01

    Energy Resource of Australia (ERA) is a public company with 68% of its shares owned by the Australian company North Limited. It is currently operating one major production centre - Ranger Mine which is 260 kilometres east of Darwin, extracting and selling uranium from the Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America. The first drum of uranium oxide from Ranger was drummed in August 1981 and operations have continued since that time. ERA is also in the process of working towards obtaining approvals for the development of a second mine - Jabiluka which is located 20 kilometres north of Ranger. The leases of Ranger and Jabiluka adjoin. The Minister for the Environment has advised the Minister for Resources and Energy that there does not appear to be any environmental issue which would prevent the preferred Jabiluka proposal from proceeding. Consent for the development of ERA's preferred option for the development of Jabiluka is being sought from the Aboriginal Traditional Owners. Ranger is currently the third largest producing uranium mine in the world producing 4,237 tonnes of U 3 O 8 in the year to June 1997

  12. The criterion validity of the web-based Major Depression Inventory when used on clinical suspicion of depression in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Germund; Ørnbøl, Eva; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    the web-based MDI in a primary care setting. The validation was based on the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) by phone. GPs in the 22 practices in our study included 132 persons suspected of depression. Depression was rated as yes/no according to the MDI and M-CIDI. Sensitivity......BACKGROUND: The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is widely used in Danish general practice as a screening tool to assess depression in symptomatic patients. Nevertheless, no validation studies of the MDI have been performed. The aim of this study was to validate the web-based version of the MDI...... against a fully structured telephone interview in a population selected on clinical suspicion of depression (ie, presence of two or three core symptoms of depression) in general practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: General practitioners (GPs) invited consecutive persons suspected of depression to complete...

  13. Uranium 2007: resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With several countries building nuclear power plants and many more considering the use of nuclear power to produce electricity in order to meet rising demand, the uranium industry has become the focus of considerable attention. In response to rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of under investment. The ''Red Book'', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on official information received from 40 countries. This 22. edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1. January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. (author)

  14. Uranium 2007: resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With several countries building nuclear power plants and many more considering the use of nuclear power to produce electricity in order to meet rising demand, the uranium industry has become the focus of considerable attention. In response to rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of under investment. The ''Red Book'', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on official information received from 40 countries. This second edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of first January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. (author)

  15. Human Resource Development for Uranium Production Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    2014-01-01

    Concluding Remarks & Suggestions: • HRD will be one of the major challenges in the expanding nuclear power program in countries like China and India. • China and India get uranium raw material from domestic mines and international market. In addition, China has overseas uranium property. India is also exploring the possibility of overseas Joint Venture and uranium properties. For uranium production cycle there is a need for trained geologist, mining engineers, chemical and mechanical engineers. • There is a need for introducing specialization course on “uranium production cycle” at post graduate levels in government and private universities. Overseas Utilities and private firms in India engaged in nuclear power and fuel cycle activities may like to sponsor MTech students with assurance of employment after the successful completion of the course. • The IAEA may consider to extend Technical Assistance to universities in HRD in nuclear power and fuel cycle in general and uranium production cycle in particular - IAEA workshops, with participation of international experts, on uranium geology, mining, milling and safety and best practices in uranium production cycle will be of great help. • The IAEA – UPSAT could play an important role in HRD in uranium production cycle

  16. Primary coronary angioplasty in 9,434 patients during acute myocardial infarction: predictors of major in- hospital adverse events from 1996 to 2000 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Luiz Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the results after the performance of primary coronary angioplasty in Brazil in the last 4 years. METHODS: During the first 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction onset, 9,434 (12.2% patients underwent primary PTCA. We analyzed the success and occurrence of major in-hospital events, comparing them over the 4-year period. RESULTS: Primary PTCA use increased compared with that of all percutaneous interventions (1996=10.6% vs. 2000=13.1%; p<0.001. Coronary stent implantation increased (1996=20% vs. 2000=71.9%; p<0.001. Success was greater (1998=89.5% vs. 1999=92.5%; p<0.001. Reinfarction decreased (1998=3.9% vs. 99=2.4% vs. 2000=1.5%; p<0.001 as did emergency bypass surgery (1996=0.5% vs. 2000=0.2%; p=0.01. In-hospital deaths remained unchanged (1996=5.7% vs. 2000=5.1%, p=0.53. Balloon PTCA was one of the independent predictors of a higher rate of unsuccessful procedures (odds ratio 12.01 [CI=95%] 1.58-22.94, and stent implantation of lower mortality rates (odds ratio 4.62 [CI=95%] 3.19-6.08. CONCLUSION: The success rate has become progressively higher with a significant reduction in reinfarction and urgent bypass surgery, but in-hospital death remains nearly unchanged. Coronary stenting was a predictor of a lower death rate, and balloon PTCA was associated with greater procedural failure.

  17. International uranium production. Namibian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Rossing uranium deposit is the only one currently being mined in Namibia. Construction began in 1974 and production started in 1979. Current production is close to 4800 s.t. U3O8 per annum. About 160 000 mt of ore and waste are removed from the open pit every day. Each truck load is radiometrically scanned to determine ore grade and is discharged either directly into the primary crusher or into low-grade stockpiles. The uranium is extracted in a sulphuric acid leaching plant and upgraded in an ion exchange and solvent extraction plant. An ion exchange plant recovers uranium from the tailings solution. Three thousand people are employed at the mine, most living in the nearby town site. Employee training and development are emphasized. Employee health is carefully monitored; no occupationally-related disease has been reported. Rossing contributes one third of the GNP of Namibia. (L.L.)

  18. Provision by the uranium and uranium products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    International uranium market is converted from the buyer market into the seller market. The prices of uranium are high and the market attempts to adapt to changing circumstances. The industry of uranium enrichment satisfies the increasing demands but should to increase ots capacities. On the whole the situation is not stable and every year may change the existing position [ru

  19. Uranium recovery from slags of metallic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornarolo, F.; Frajndlich, E.U.C.; Durazzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Center of the Nuclear Fuel of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research - IPEN finished the program of attainment of fuel development for research reactors the base of Uranium Scilicet (U 3 Si 2 ) from Hexafluoride of Uranium (UF 6 ) with enrichment 20% in weight of 235 U. In the process of attainment of the league of U 3 Si 2 we have as Uranium intermediate product the metallic one whose attainment generates a slag contend Uranium. The present work shows the results gotten in the process of recovery of Uranium in slags of calcined slags of Uranium metallic. Uranium the metallic one is unstable, pyrophoricity and extremely reactive, whereas the U 3 O 8 is a steady oxide of low chemical reactivity, what it justifies the process of calcination of slags of Uranium metallic. The calcination of the Uranium slag of the metallic one in oxygen presence reduces Uranium metallic the U 3 O 8 . Experiments had been developed varying it of acid for Uranium control and excess, nitric molar concentration gram with regard to the stoichiometric leaching reaction of temperature of the leaching process. The 96,0% income proves the viability of the recovery process of slags of Uranium metallic, adopting it previous calcination of these slags in nitric way with low acid concentration and low temperature of leaching. (author)

  20. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia. (author)

  1. Prospects for the uranium industry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    The report covers the basic issues of the coming uranium era discussing the world supply and demand situation, the trend in uranium prices and the continuing move to nuclear power as the world's primary source of electrical energy. In Australia, unknowns such as future contract prices and quantities, production start dates, royalties and the outcome of the environmental inquiry create the speculative image of the uranium stocks. The first section of the report discusses the technical aspects of the nuclear industry but is necessarily brief because the real story is the world trend to nuclear power for economic and political reasons and the old story of supply and demand (discussed in section two). Within Australia some companies are better placed than others to benefit from the uranium era. Section three looks at prices and section four reviews the individual companies involved in the uranium industry in Australia.

  2. Integrated prospecting model in Jinguanchong uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    Jinguanchong uranium deposit is large in scale, which brings difficulties to prospecting and researches. Based on conditions of mineral-formation, geophysics and geochemistry, this paper summarizes a few geophysical and geochemical prospecting methods applied to this deposit. The principles, characteristics, application condition and exploration phases of these prospecting methods are discussed and some prospecting examples are also given in the prospecting for Jinguanchong uranium deposit. Based on summarizing the practice and effects of different methods such as gamma and electromagnetic method, soil emanation prospecting, track etch technique and polonium method used in uranium prospecting, the author finally puts forward a primary uranium prospecting model for the further prospecting in Jinguanchong uranium deposit through combining the author's experience with practice. (authors)

  3. Geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The basic purpose of this book is to present an analysis of the various geochemical methods applicable in the search for all types of thorium and uranium deposits. The general chemistry and geochemistry of thorium and uranium are briefly described in the opening chapter, and this is followed by a chapter on the deposits of the two elements with emphasis on their indicator (pathfinder) elements and on the primary and secondary dispersion characteristics of thorium and uranium in the vicinity of their deposits. The next seven chapters form the main part of the book and describe geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium, stressing selection of areas in which to prospect, radiometric surveys, analytical geochemical surveys based on rocks (lithochemical surveys), unconsolidated materials (pedochemical surveys), natural waters and sediments (hydrochemical surveys), biological materials (biogeochemical surveys), gases (atmochemical surveys), and miscellaneous methods. A final brief chapter reviews radiometric and analytical methods for the detection and estimation of thorium and uranium. (Auth.)

  4. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of uranium isotopes in order to enrich the fuel for light water reactors with the light isotope U-235 is an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle. After the basic principals of isotope separation the gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process are explained. Both these techniques are employed on an industrial scale. In addition a short review is given on other enrichment techniques which have been demonstrated at least on a laboratory scale. After some remarks on the present situation on the enrichment market the progress in the development and the industrial exploitation of the gas centrifuge process by the trinational Urenco-Centec organisation is presented. (orig.)

  5. Dissolution of metallic uranium and its alloys. Part 1. Review of analytical and process-scale metallic uranium dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, C.A.; Gates-Anderson, D.; Fitch, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on dissolution/reaction systems capable of treating uranium metal waste to remove its pyrophoric properties. The primary emphasis is the review of literature describing analytical and production-scale dissolution methods applied to either uranium metal or uranium alloys. A brief summary of uranium's corrosion behavior is included since the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys affects their dissolution behavior. Based on this review, dissolution systems were recommended for subsequent screening studies designed to identify the best system to treat depleted uranium metal wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). (author)

  6. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%

  7. Developments in natural uranium - graphite reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, J.

    1964-01-01

    The French natural uranium-graphite power-reactor programme has been developing - from EDF 1 to EDF 4 - in the direction of an increase of the unit power of the installations, of the specific and volume powers, and of an improvement in the operational security conditions. The high power of EDF 4 (500 MWe) and the integration of the primary circuit into the reactor vessel, which is itself made of pre-stressed concrete, make it possible to make the most of the annular fuel elements already in use in EDF 1, and to arrive thus at a very satisfactory solution. The use of an internally cooled fuel element (an annular element) has led to a further step forward: it now becomes possible to increase the pressure of the cooling gas without danger of causing creep in the uranium tube. The use of a pre-stressed concrete vessel makes this pressure increase possible, and the integration of the primary circuit avoids the risk of a rapid depressurization which would be in this case a major danger. This report deals with the main problems presented by this new type of nuclear power station, and gives the main lines of research and studies now being carried out in France. - Neutronic and thermal research has made it possible to consider using large size fuel elements (internal diameter = 77 mm, external diameter 95 mm) while still using natural uranium. - The problems connected with the production of these elements and with their in pile behaviour are the subject of a large programme, both out of pile and in power reactors (EDF 2) and test reactors (Pegase). - The increase in the size of the element leads to a large lattice pitch (35 to 40 cm). This makes it possible to consider having one charging aperture per channel or for a small number of channels, whether the charge machine be inside or outside the pressure vessel. In conclusion are given the main characteristics of a project for a 500 MWe power station using such a fuel element. In particular this project is compared to EDF 4

  8. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  9. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  10. Issues in uranium availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, J.J. Jr.; Adams, S.S.; Gordon, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to show the process by which information about uranium reserves and resources is developed, evaluated and used. The following three papers in this volume have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base: (1) uranium reserve and resource assessment; (2) exploration for uranium in the United States; (3) nuclear power, the uranium industry, and resource development

  11. Australian uranium industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, R K

    1976-04-01

    Various aspects of the Australian uranium industry are discussed including the prospecting, exploration and mining of uranium ores, world supply and demand, the price of uranium and the nuclear fuel cycle. The market for uranium and the future development of the industry are described.

  12. Irradiated uranium reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, I.

    1961-12-01

    Task concerned with reprocessing of irradiated uranium covered the following activities: implementing the method and constructing the cell for uranium dissolving; implementing the procedure for extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products from radioactive uranium solutions; studying the possibilities for using inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbers for separation of U, Pu and fission products

  13. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  14. Recovering uranium from phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, M [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney-Ugine Kuhlmann, 75 - Paris (France)

    1981-06-01

    Processes for the recovery of the uranium contained in phosphates have today become competitive with traditional methods of working uranium sources. These new possibilities will make it possible to meet more rapidly any increases in the demand for uranium: it takes ten years to start working a new uranium deposit, but only two years to build a recovery plant.

  15. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.W.; Thomas, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of existing uranium enrichment contracts in the US is reviewed and expected natural uranium requirements for existing domestic uranium enrichment contracts are evaluated. Uncertainty in natural uranium requirements associated with requirements-type and fixed-commitment type contracts is discussed along with implementation of variable tails assay

  16. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Gagne, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are covered: the status of the Government's existing uranium enrichment services contracts, natural uranium requirements based on the latest contract information, uncertainty in predicting natural uranium requirements based on uranium enrichment contracts, and domestic and foreign demand assumed in enrichment planning

  17. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  18. Australia's uranium policy: an examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.A.W.; Derborough, M.A.; Diesendorf, M.; Inall, E.K.; Peaslee, D.C.; Taylor, S.R.

    1974-12-01

    The mining and export of Australian Uranium poses problems for the safety of the world that any responsible government is bound to consider. The following note lists the major problems, attempts to assess their importance, and to suggest what lines may be relevant to Australia for their solution. These problems were examined because of the concern about the appropriateness of attempting to fulfill projected world energy needs by any means; and their fulfillment, by using nuclear fuels carries special problems of biological, social and political hazards. Any development of Australia's uranium resources should be considered in this light. (author)

  19. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  20. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  1. Uranium in South Africa: 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  2. Uranium in South Africa: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  3. Uranium speciation in Fernald soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Conradson, S.D.; Tait, C.D.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Berg, J.; Musgrave, J.

    1992-01-01

    This report details progress made from January 1 to May 31, 1992 in this analytical support task to determine the speciation of uranium in contaminated soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site under the auspices of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration funded through the US DOE's Office of Technology Development. The authors' efforts have focused on characterization of soil samples collected by S.Y. Lee (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) from five locales at the Fernald site. These were chosen to sample a broad range of uranium source terms. On the basis of x-ray absorption spectroscopy data, they have determined that the majority of uranium (> 80--90%) exists in the hexavalent oxidation state for all samples examined. This is a beneficial finding from the perspective of remediation, because U(VI) species are more soluble in general than uranium species in other oxidation states. Optical luminescence data from many of the samples show the characteristic structured yellow-green emission from the uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) moiety. The luminescence data also suggest that much of the uranium in these soils is present as well-crystallized UO 2 2+ species. Some clear spectroscopic distinctions have been noted for several samples that illustrate significant differences in the speciation (1) from site to site, (2) within different horizons at the same site, and (3) within different size fractions of the soils in the same horizon at the same site. This marked heterogeneity in uranyl speciation suggests that several soil washing strategies may be necessary to reduce the total uranium concentrations within these soils to regulatory limits

  4. Reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, I.S.; Do, J.B.; Choi, Y.D.; Park, M.H.; Yun, H.H.; Kim, E.H.; Kim, Y.W.

    1982-01-01

    The single step continuous reduction of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) has been investigated. Heat required to initiate and maintain the reaction in the reactor is supplied by the highly exothermic reaction of hydrogen with a small amount of elemental fluorine which is added to the uranium hexafluoride stream. When gases uranium hexafluoride and hydrogen react in a vertical monel pipe reactor, the green product, UF 4 has 2.5g/cc in bulk density and is partly contaminated by incomplete reduction products (UF 5 ,U 2 F 9 ) and the corrosion product, presumably, of monel pipe of the reactor itself, but its assay (93% of UF 4 ) is acceptable for the preparation of uranium metal with magnesium metal. Remaining problems are the handling of uranium hexafluoride, which is easily clogging the flowmeter and gas feeding lines because of extreme sensitivity toward moisture, and a development of gas nozzel for free flow of uranium hexafluoride gas. (Author)

  5. Uranium - the world picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, J.M.; Wright, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The world resources of uranium and the future demand for uranium are discussed. The amount of uranium available depends on the price which users are prepared to pay for its recovery. As the price is increased, there is an incentive to recover uranium from lower grade or more difficult deposits. In view of this, attention is drawn to the development of the uranium industry in Australias

  6. Symptom-specific course trajectories and their determinants in primary care patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Evidence for two etiologically distinct prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, K J; Monden, R; Conradi, H J; de Jonge, P

    2015-07-01

    The course-heterogeneity of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) hampers development of better prognostic models. Although latent class growth analyses (LCGA) have been used to explain course-heterogeneity, such analyses have failed to also account for symptom-heterogeneity of depressive symptoms. Therefore, the aim was to identify more specific data-driven subgroups based on patterns of course-trajectories on different depressive symptom domains. In primary care MDD patients (n=205), the presence of the MDD criterion symptoms was determined for each week during a year. Weekly 'mood/cognition' (MC) and 'somatic' (SOM) scores were computed and parallel processes-LCGA (PP-LCGA) was used to identify subgroups based on the course on these domains. The classes׳ associations with baseline predictors and 2-/3-year outcomes were investigated. PP-LCGA identified four classes: quick recovery, persisting SOM, persisting MC, and persisting SOM+MC (chronic). Persisting SOM was specifically predicted by higher baseline somatic symptomatology and somatization, and was associated with more somatic depressive symptomatology at long-term follow-up. Persisting MC was specifically predicted by higher depressive severity, thinking insufficiencies, neuroticism, loneliness and lower self-esteem, and was associated with lower mental health related quality of life and more mood/cognitive depressive symptomatology at follow-up. The sample was small and contained only primary care MDD patients. The weekly depression assessments were collected retrospectively at 3-month intervals. The results indicate that there are two specific prototypes of depression, characterized by either persisting MC or persisting SOM, which have different sets of associated prognostic factors and long-term outcomes, and could have different etiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Uranium in tertiary stream channels, Lake Frome area, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunt, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium exploration over a wide area of the Southern Frome Embayment, South Australia, has defined a number of Lower Tertiary fluvial palacochannels incised in older rocks. The buried channels contain similar stratigraphic sequences of interbedded sand, silt, and clay, probably derived from the adjacent uranium-rich Olary Province. Uranium mineralization is pervasive within two major palacochannels, and four small uranium deposits have been found in the basal sands of these channel sequences, at the margins of extensive tongues of limonitic sand. A genetic model is proposed suggesting formation by a uraniferous geochemical cell which migrated down the stream gradient and concentrated uranium on its lateral margins adjacent to the channel bank

  8. Uranium 2001: resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. Its contents are based on official information received from 45 countries, supplemented by unofficial information for two others. This edition, the 19., presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2001 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and, for the first time, includes a report on Tajikistan. This edition also features international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020. (authors)

  9. Identification of major factors in Australian primary care pharmacists' practice environment that have a bearing on the implementation of professional models of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John K; Hussainy, Safeera Y; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J

    2017-08-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe an environmental framework for pharmacists in primary care in Australia and determine the major factors within that environment that have the greatest bearing on their capacity to implement patient-focused models of professional practice. Methods A draft framework for pharmacists' practice was developed by allocating structures, systems and related factors known to the researchers or identified from the literature as existing within pharmacists' internal, operational and external environments to one of five domains: Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental or Political [STEEP]. Focus groups of pharmacists used an adapted nominal group technique to assess the draft and add factors where necessary. Where applicable, factors were consolidated into groups to establish a revised framework. The three major factors or groups in each domain were identified. The results were compared with the enabling factors described in the profession's vision statement. Results Seventy-eight individual factors were ultimately identified, with 86% able to be grouped. The three dominant groups in each of the five domains that had a bearing on the implementation of professional models of practice were as follows: (1) Social: the education of pharmacists, their beliefs and the capacity of the pharmacist workforce; (2) Technological: current and future practice models, technology and workplace structures; (3) Economic: funding of services, the viability of practice and operation of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme; (4) Environmental: attitudes and expectations of stakeholders, including consumers, health system reform and external competition; and (5) Political: regulation of practice, representation of the profession and policies affecting practice. Conclusions The three dominant groups of factors in each of the five STEEP environmental domains, which have a bearing on pharmacists' capacity to implement patient-focused models of

  10. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care including PST and an antidepressant treatment algorithm for the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care; a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    depressive disorder, the collaborative care model, will be evaluated for effectiveness in the primary care setting. If effective across the Atlantic and across different health care systems, it is also likely to be an effective strategy to implement in the treatment of major depressive disorder in the Netherlands.

  11. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC DRB exon 2 and DRA exon 3 fragments in a primary terrestrial rabies vector (Procyon lotor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarrah Castillo

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC presents a unique system to explore links between genetic diversity and pathogens, as diversity within MHC is maintained in part by pathogen driven selection. While the majority of wildlife MHC studies have investigated species that are of conservation concern, here we characterize MHC variation in a common and broadly distributed species, the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor. Raccoons host an array of broadly distributed wildlife diseases (e.g., canine distemper, parvovirus and raccoon rabies virus and present important human health risks as they persist in high densities and in close proximity to humans and livestock. To further explore how genetic variation influences the spread and maintenance of disease in raccoons we characterized a fragment of MHC class II DRA exon 3 (250 bp and DRB exon 2 (228 bp. MHC DRA was found to be functionally monomorphic in the 32 individuals screened; whereas DRB exon 2 revealed 66 unique alleles among the 246 individuals screened. Between two and four alleles were observed in each individual suggesting we were amplifying a duplicated DRB locus. Nucleotide differences between DRB alleles ranged from 1 to 36 bp (0.4-15.8% divergence and translated into 1 to 21 (1.3-27.6% divergence amino acid differences. We detected a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions at the peptide binding region (P = 0.005, indicating that DRB exon 2 in raccoons has been influenced by positive selection. These data will form the basis of continued analyses into the spatial and temporal relationship of the raccoon rabies virus and the immunogenetic response in its primary host.

  12. Natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-08-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with natural uranium

  13. Uranium decontamination of common metals by smelting, a review (handbook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautz, E.W.; Briggs, G.G.; Shaw, W.E.; Cavendish, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The published and unpublished literature relating to the smelting of common metals scrap contaminated with uranium-bearing compounds has been searched and reviewed. In general, standard smelting practice produces ingots having a low uranium content, particularly for ferrous, nickel, and copper metals or alloys. Aluminum recovered from uranium contaminated scrap shows some decontamination by smelting but the uranium content is not as low as for other metals. Due to the heterogeneous nature and origin of scrap metals contaminated with uranium, information is frequently missing as to the extent of the initial contamination and the degree of decontamination obtained. The uranium content of the final cast ingots is generally all that is available. Results are summarized below by the primary composition of the uranium contaminated scrap metal. (U.S.)

  14. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs

  15. Uranium 1999. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the world uranium market has been characterised by an imbalance between demand and supply and persistently depressed uranium prices. World uranium production currently satisfies between 55 and 60 per cent of the total reactor-related requirements, while the rest of the demand is met by secondary sources including the conversion of excess defence material and stockpiles, primarily from Eastern Europe. Although the future availability of these secondary sources remains unclear, projected low-cost production capability is expected to satisfy a considerable part of demand through to 2015. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand over the next 15 years. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost world reference on uranium. It is based on official information from 49 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1999. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and world-wide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply. (authors)

  16. Uranium management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Marshall, E.; Sideris, T.; Vasa-Sideris, S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the missions of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) has been the management of the Department's uranium materials. This mission has been accomplished through successful integration of ORO's uranium activities with the rest of the DOE complex. Beginning in the 1980's, several of the facilities in that complex have been shut down and are in the decommissioning process. With the end of the Cold War, the shutdown of many other facilities is planned. As a result, inventories of uranium need to be removed from the Department facilities. These inventories include highly enriched uranium (HEU), low enriched uranium (LEU), normal uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). The uranium materials exist in different chemical forms, including metals, oxides, solutions, and gases. Much of the uranium in these inventories is not needed to support national priorities and programs. (author)

  17. A target-driven collaborative care model for Major Depressive Disorder is effective in primary care in the Netherlands. A randomized clinical trial from the depression initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, Klaas M L; de Jong, Fransina J; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Adèr, Herman J; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Unützer, Jürgen; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2013-04-25

    Practice variation in the primary care treatment of depression may be considerable in the Netherlands, due to relatively small and unregulated practices. We adapted the collaborative care model for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to accommodate existing practice variation and tested whether this had added value over Care as Usual (CAU). A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare an adapted target driven collaborative care model with Care as Usual (CAU). Randomization was at the level of 18 (sub)urban primary care centers. The care manager and GP were supported by a web-based tracking and decision aid system that advised targeted treatment actions to achieve rapid response and if possible remission, and that warned the consultant psychiatrist if such treatment advice was not followed up. Eligible patients had a score of 10 or higher on the PHQ9, and met diagnostic criteria for major depression at the subsequent MINI Neuropsychiatric interview. A total of 93 patients were identified by screening. They received either collaborative care (CC) or CAU. Another 56 patients received collaborative care after identification by the GP. The outcome measures were response to treatment (50% or greater reduction of the PHQ9-total score from baseline) at three, six, nine and twelve months, and remission (a score of 0-4 on the PHQ9 at follow-up). Treatment response and remission in CAU were low. Collaborative care was more effective on achieving treatment response than CAU at three months for the total group of patients who received collaborative care [OR 5.2 ((1.41-16.09), NNT 2] and at nine months [OR 5.6 ((1.40-22.58)), NNT 3]. The effect was not statistically significant at 6 and 12 months. A relatively high percentage of patients (36.5%) did not return one or more follow-up questionnaires. There was no evidence for selective non response. Our adapted target driven CC was considerably more effective than CAU for MDD in primary care in the

  18. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  19. Uranium industry annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data collected on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ''Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,'' is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2

  20. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sub-level development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  1. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sublevel development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  2. The peraluminous leucogranitic complex of St Sylvestre (France, Massif Central NW). Evolution of the crystallochemistry of mineral phases and of the geochemistry of major and trace elements. Polygenetism characterization in peraluminous granites. Implication on uranium metallogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1983-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to improve the knowledge of the behaviour of uranium during magmatic and late magmatic processes. In France and other part of the world the close association of uranium (Sn-W) deposits and showings with this type of granite justifies the metallogenic interest of this study. At the scale of the whole granitic complex two distinct petrological groups are redefined: the facies of Brame and St Sylvestre. Mineral paragenesis closely follow the geochemical differentiation. Abundance of uraninite and scarcity of monazite and zircon, are additional features of these samples. The opposite behaviour of monazite (typical of the less evolved facies) and uraninite (whose abundance is directly related to the degree of differentiation) suggests two conclusions. Abundance in uranium is directly related to the magmatic differentiation processes. The early crystallization of monazite and zircon and their high abundance in poorly evolved facies imply a compatible behaviour for Th, Zr and light rare earths. More detailed geochemical studies evidence heterogeneities at on hectometric and locally at a metric scale. Differentiation processes, which appear to be continuous at a kilometric scale in the St Sylvestre facies, are discontinuous at the hectometric and metric scale. Such petrogeochemical discontinuities, implying petrogenitic heterogeneities are expressed in the concept of polygenetism [fr

  3. Uranium health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the Summer School on Uranium Health Physics held in Pretoria on the 14 and 15 April 1980. The following topics were discussed: uranium producton in South Africa; radiation physics; internal dosimetry and radiotoxicity of long-lived uranium isotopes; uranium monitoring; operational experience on uranium monitoring; dosimetry and radiotoxicity of inhaled radon daughters; occupational limits for inhalation of radon-222, radon-220 and their short-lived daughters; radon monitoring techniques; radon daughter dosimeters; operational experience on radon monitoring; and uranium mill tailings management

  4. Uranium: one utility's outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The perspective of the Arizona Public Service Company (APS) on the uncertainty of uranium as a fuel supply is discussed. After summarizing the history of nuclear power and the uranium industries, a projection is made for the future uranium market. An uncrtain uranium market is attributed to various determining factors that include international politics, production costs, non-commercial government regulation, production-company stability, and questionable levels of uranium sales. APS offers its solutions regarding type of contract, choice of uranium producers, pricing mechanisms, and aids to the industry as a whole. 5 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  5. Development of system on predicting uranium concentration from pregnant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Weiping

    2004-01-01

    Uranium concentration from pregnant solution is primary index of process for in-situ leaching of uranium, and the suitable method with which to predicate this index and effective means to solve it with were continuously studied hard. SPUC-system on predicting uranium concentration based on GM model of gray system theory is developed, and the mathematical model, constitution, function and theory foundation of this system are introduced. (authors)

  6. The fergusonite from Ampasipoana (Madagascar). Alteration mode and uranium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervet, J.

    1958-01-01

    The author reports, comments and discusses the general characteristics of the fergusonite, a primary ore of uranium, and more particularly those of a very specific ore extracted from a large deposit located in Madagascar. These characteristics notably concern the composition and the presence and shapes of various crystals. The studied ore contains yttrium phosphate which demonstrated an attack of uranium and yttrium niobate by phosphated acid solutions, and the formation of autunite provided by the fergusonite uranium

  7. Uranium and the War: The effects of depleted uranium weapons in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon williams

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army revealed in March 2003 that it dropped between 320 and 390 tons of depleted uranium during the Gulf War-the first time the material was ever used in combat-and it is estimated that more still has been dropped during the current invasion, though there have been no official counts as yet. Nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants require highly radioactive uranium, so the uranium 238 is removed from the naturally occurring uranium by a process known as enrichment. Depleted uranium is the by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Depleted uranium was a major topic of discussion during a Feb. 24 forum at Santa Cruz with speakers from the Iraq Veterans Against War (IVAW). The panel consisted of five members of the IVAW chapter in Olympia, Washington who visited Santa Cruz as part of a speaking tour of the west coast. These members of the IVAW believe that their experiences in the Gulf War were the beginnings of what will be a long-term health problem in the region. A study conducted by the Pentagon in 2002 predicted that every future battlefield will be contaminated with depleted uranium. Up-to-date health information from Iraq is difficult to come by. But a November report from Al-jazeera concluded that the cancer rate in Iraq has increased tenfold, and the number of birth defects has multiplied fivefold times since the 1991 war. The increase is believed to be caused by depleted uranium.

  8. Uranium production, the United States perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasier, G.E.

    1984-06-01

    U.S. uranium production appears to be headed for a level of approximately one quarter of the peak production of the early 1980's. In a free world market the majority of the U.S. production capability is noncompetitive and unnecessary to supply the free world's demand. Those world producers which can produce into the competitive uranium market of the present and the foreseeable future will be sufficient to supply the uranium needs of the world for the next ten to fifteen years. Thus, the U.S. production industry once the leading producer in the world will not regain nor approach that status in the foreseeable future

  9. Uranium evaluation and mining techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    accurate, comprehensive, and understandable appraisal of the world's potential uranium resources, and the ability to discover, develop and produce these resources within an acceptable time frame are absolutely essential to making meaningful decisions in relation to the future supply of nuclear fuel. Therefore, the methods used to appraise undiscovered uranium resources were examined and compared in the light of the needs of the world nuclear power industry as a whole. Notable among these methods is one based on interactive genetic models. It is currently being developed to reduce the amount of subjectivity inherent in most of the currently used appraisal techniques The goal is to use more geologic data and depend less on the intuition and experience of the estimator. The more esoteric statistical techniques based on past production rates, prices, rates of increase or decrease in reported reserves or resources, etc., while of unknown or unproved value, were not discussed at the symposium. The symposium provided a forum for discussion of closely related subjects as well. One of the major problems in reporting internationally in uranium resources is classification of the resources into various categories and defining those categories. Conceptually, among earth scientists, there is general agreement, but defining these concepts is a difficult task. At least three organizations have undertaken to develop classifications and definitions to satisfy the needs of international reporting. Two of these were described at the symposium. (The third has been used by the joint NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources but was not described.) The techniques of winning uranium from its several sources include, besides mining by conventional open pit or underground methods, in situ leaching of low-grade ores in special environments, and from ores left in mines In addition, virtually all marine phosphates contain some uranium that can be recovered as a by-product in the manufacture of

  10. Precambrian uranium deposits as a possible source of uranium for the European Variscan deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineeva, I.G.; Klochkov, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The Precambrian uranium deposits have been studied on the territory of Baltic and Ukrainian shields. The primary Early Proterozoic complex Au-U deposits originated in granite-greenstone belts as a result of their evolution during continental earth crust formation by prolonged rift genesis. The greenstone belts are clues for revealing ancient protoriftogenic structures. The general regularities of uranium deposition on Precambrian shields are also traceable in Variscan uranium deposits from the Bohemian massif. The Variscan period of uranium ore formation is connected with a polychronous rejuvenation of ancient riftogenous systems and relatively younger processes of oil and gas formation leading to the repeated mobilization of U from destroyed Proterozoic and Riphean uranium deposits. (author)

  11. Recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.; Bellary, M.P.; Keni, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    An innovative process has been developed for recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride cake. The process is based on direct dissolution of uranium tetrafluoride in nitric acid in presence of aluminium hydroxide and use of solvent extraction for removal of fluorides and other bulk impurities to make uranium amenable for refining. It is a simple process requiring minimum process step and has advantage of lesser plant corrosion. This process can be applied for processing of uranium tetrafluoride generated from various sources like uranium by-product during thorium recovery from thorium concentrate, first stage product of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by OPPA process and off grade uranium tetrafluoride material. The paper describes the details of the process developed and demonstrated on bench and pilot scale and its subsequent modification arising out of bulky solid waste generation. The modified process uses a lower quantity of aluminium hydroxide by allowing a lower dissolution of uranium per cycle and recycles the undissolved material to the next cycle, maintaining the overall recovery at high level. This innovation has reduced the solid waste generated by a factor of four at the cost of a slightly larger dissolution vessel and its increased corrosion rate. (author)

  12. Recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S K; Bellary, M P; Keni, V S [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    An innovative process has been developed for recovery of uranium from crude uranium tetrafluoride cake. The process is based on direct dissolution of uranium tetrafluoride in nitric acid in presence of aluminium hydroxide and use of solvent extraction for removal of fluorides and other bulk impurities to make uranium amenable for refining. It is a simple process requiring minimum process step and has advantage of lesser plant corrosion. This process can be applied for processing of uranium tetrafluoride generated from various sources like uranium by-product during thorium recovery from thorium concentrate, first stage product of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by OPPA process and off grade uranium tetrafluoride material. The paper describes the details of the process developed and demonstrated on bench and pilot scale and its subsequent modification arising out of bulky solid waste generation. The modified process uses a lower quantity of aluminium hydroxide by allowing a lower dissolution of uranium per cycle and recycles the undissolved material to the next cycle, maintaining the overall recovery at high level. This innovation has reduced the solid waste generated by a factor of four at the cost of a slightly larger dissolution vessel and its increased corrosion rate. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Olsen, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems

  14. Projections on the future of the natural uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishido, Akio

    1995-01-01

    This discussion looks at the future of the uranium industry and considers what type of procurement policy should be adopted. Viewing the future as an extension of the present, it is possible that supplies of natural uranium will begin to run short around 2015. However, natural uranium will have more resources available than petroleum. If rising uranium prices reinvigorate exploration and lead to the discovery of new uranium deposits, future shortages will be unlikely. Nonetheless, with structural changes expected in the world economy, the nature of natural uranium transactions will no doubt change, thereby increasing the present element of uncertainty that much more. At the same time, the oligopolistic situation created by today's major producers will intensify. Based on these projections, the author has reassessed Japan's past procurement policy of government exploration/development support combined with private-sector uranium purchasing and finds this shared risk approach to be the best. (author)

  15. Uranium exploration planning and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.Y.; Tauchid, M.

    1991-01-01

    A country may decide to begin uranium exploration for any of the following three reasons: 1. To meet the needs of a domestic nuclear power programme; 2. To supply uranium as a commodity to the world market in order to earn foreign exchange; 3. To acquire national information on the country's mineral resource planning. In any of these cases, a country must make some basic decisions regarding the means and modes whereby the uranium exploration will be carried out - by national organizations exclusively; by state organizations in joint venture with outside interests by foreign interests under the control of national regulations. Most uranium exploration is carried out following an exploration strategy in which the programme is divided into a series of steps or stages. Each of the phases is designed to eliminate areas of low potential to contain uranium deposits, while focusing attention on areas of higher potential that will be explored in greater detail at higher cost in the subsequent phase. The methods used in each phase are selected to provide the maximum information at the minimum cost so that at the end of each phase a decision can be made whether to continue to the next phase of stop. Because uranium exploration is a high cost high risk activity, governments must make decisions at the outset whether they wish to carry our the work alone and whether they can support the costs involved, or whether they wish to attract foreign investors to help absorb the costs and therefore the risks. In either case, major policy decisions are required to be made to establish the legal and fiscal environment in which the programm will be carried out. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  16. Comparing recent uranium supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N.; Gufler, K.

    2014-01-01

    For more than one decade – even after the Fukushima accidents - an increase in global nuclear energy generation capacity is widely expected. At the same time a variety of uranium supply scenarios were published by industry, academics or international organizations, drawing different pictures of future uranium supply. They were created with the background of a uranium market facing several challenges. First an excursion in the uranium market price, in 2007, then reduced nuclear growth expectations after 2011, at least in non-Asian countries, also implying considerable changes to the supply side. For this publication a meta-study was carried out identifying, evaluating and comparing different recent scenarios on the availability of uranium. While there are some differences in the frame conditions (e.g. the expected uranium demand, the time fame, the considered mining projects,..), there are also notable similarities in these scenarios. This concerns long lead times for mine openings as well as the dependence on large mining projects (e.g. Olympic Dam, Cigar Lake). Generally, a decline in production in about 10 years is assumed, and thus the necessity of the timely development of mining projects is pointed out. In addition the omission of uranium from Russian nuclear weapons and the chances of keeping the changes in secondary supplies in balance with primary production have been widely discussed. Here, the production growth in Kazakhstan but also the role of the current market situation are central aspects. As another aspect the possible contribution from unconventional resources is of interest, particularly against the background of rising production costs for conventional resources. Finally, it shall be reflected how well older scenarios were able to map the reality and which trends could or could not be anticipated. It is relevant to identify which aspects in the development of mining capacities are essential for security of supply, and can therefore be regarded

  17. An observational study of duloxetine versus SSRI monotherapy for the treatment of painful physical symptoms in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: primary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuga A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Kuga,1 Toshinaga Tsuji,2 Shinji Hayashi,2 Mako Matsubara,3 Shinji Fujikoshi,4 Hirofumi Tokuoka,1 Aki Yoshikawa,5 Rodrigo Escobar,6 Kazuhide Tanaka,7 Takaharu Azekawa8 1Bio Medicine, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 2Medical Affairs Department, Shionogi & Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 3Pharmacovigilance Department, Shionogi & Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 4Statistical Science, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 5Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K. Kobe, Japan; 6Bio-Medicines, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 7Hitsuji Clinic, Kusatsu, Japan; 8Shioiri Mental Clinic, Yokosuka, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of duloxetine monotherapy, in comparison with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI monotherapy, in the treatment of painful physical symptoms (PPS in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD in real-world clinical settings.Methods: This was a multicenter, 12-week prospective, observational study. This study enrolled MDD patients with at least moderate PPS, defined as a Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF average pain score (item 5 ≥3. Patients were treated with duloxetine or SSRIs (escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, or fluvoxamine for 12 weeks, and PPS were assessed by BPI-SF average pain score. The primary outcome was early improvement in the BPI-SF average pain score at 4 weeks post-baseline. Results: A total of 523 patients were evaluated for treatment effectiveness (duloxetine N=273, SSRIs N=250. The difference in BPI-SF average pain score between the two groups was not statistically significant at 4 weeks post-baseline, the primary endpoint (least-squares mean change from baseline [95% confidence interval]: duloxetine,−2.8 [−3.1, −2.6]; SSRIs, −2.5 [−2.8, −2.3]; P=0.166. There was a numerical advantage for duloxetine in improvement

  18. Primary biliary cirrhosis is characterized by IgG3 antibodies cross-reactive with the major mitochondrial autoepitope and its Lactobacillus mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios-Petrou; Baum, Harold; Okamoto, Manabu; Montalto, Paolo; Sharma, Umesh C; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Vlachogiannakos, John; Ma, Yun; Burroughs, Andrew K; Vergani, Diego

    2005-08-01

    The serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the presence of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 subunit (PDC-E2) antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs). Anti-PDC-E2 antibodies cross-react specifically with mycobacterial hsp65, and we have demonstrated that the motif SxGDL[ILV]AE shared by PDC-E2(212-226) and hsp's is a cross-reactive target. Having found that this same motif is present only in beta-galactosidase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii (BGAL LACDE), we hypothesized that this homology would also lead to cross-reactivity. The mimics were tested via ELISA for reactivity and competitive cross-reactivity using sera from 100 AMA-positive and 23 AMA-negative PBC patients and 190 controls. An Escherichia coli (ECOLI) PDC-E2 mimic that has been pathogenetically linked to PBC but lacks this motif has been also tested. Anti-BGAL(266-280) LACDE antibodies were restricted to AMA-positive patients (54 of 95, 57%) and belonged to immunoglobulin (Ig) G3. Of the 190 controls, 22 (12%; P ECOLI PDC-E2 reactivity was virtually absent. BGAL(266-280)/PDC-E2(212-226) reactivity of the IgG3 isotype was found in 52 (52%) AMA-positive PBC patients but in only 1 of the controls (P ECOLI PDC-E2 mimics. In conclusion, IgG3 antibodies to BGAL LACDE cross-react with the major mitochondrial autoepitope and are characteristic of PBC.

  19. Exploration for uranium and other nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.C.

    1975-05-01

    Prospecting and exploration for uranium and other nuclear minerals have one advantage over prospecting for other metals because of their inherent radioactivity. Radioactivity in the earth is not confined solely to these elements but also to radiations coming from cosmic rays and from fallouts from large-scale atomic and nuclear explosions. The primary uranium mineral is uranimite, however, concentrations of other uranium minerals may also lead to an economic deposit. Thorium is about three times more abundant than uranium in the earth's crust. Uranium is practically found in many types of geologic environment it being ubiquitous and very mobile. Uranium deposits are classified in a descriptive manner, owing to lack of basic information as to its origin. These classifications are peneconcordant, for deposits as conglomerates and sandstones, discordant for vein pegmatite and contact metamorphic deposits, concordant for deposits in shales and phosphate rocks, and miscellaneous for deposits in beach and placer sands containing mostly thorium minerals. The different exploration techniques and their associated instrumentations are discussed from a regional scale survey to a detailed survey. To date, only the Larap copper-molybdenum-magnetite deposit at the Paracale district, Camarines Norte in the Philippines, has been found to contain uranium as discrete uraninite grains in the ore mineral assemblage of the deposit

  20. Environmental issues related to uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental issues (both real and perceived) associated with uranium exploration, mining, milling, and tailings management. As well, some of the issues pertaining to the closeout of uranium tailings areas are discussed. These issues have received considerable attention in Canada in public inquiries and hearings that have been held across the country. The major conclusions of some of these hearings are also noted

  1. Uranium abundance in some sudanese phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out mainly to analysis of some Sudanese phosphate ores, for their uranium abundance and total phosphorus content measured as P 2 O 5 %. For this purpose, 30 samples of two types of phosphate ore from Eastern Nuba Mountains, in Sudan namely, Kurun and Uro areas were examined. In addition, the relationship between uranium and major, and trace elements were obtained, also, the natural radioactivity of the phosphate samples was measured, in order to characterize and differentiate between the two types of phosphate ores. The uranium abundance in Uro phosphate with 20.3% P 2 O 5 is five time higher than in Kurun phosphate with 26.7% P 2 O 5 . The average of uranium content was found to be 56.6 and 310 mg/kg for Kurun and Uro phosphate ore, respectively. The main elements in Kurun and Uro phosphate ore are silicon, aluminum, and phosphorus, while the most abundant trace elements in these two ores are titanium, strontium and barium. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that uranium in Kurun phosphate shows strong positive correlation with P 2 O 5 , and its distribution is essentially controlled by the variations of P2O5 concentration, whereas uranium in Uro phosphate shows strong positive correlation with strontium, and its distribution is controlled by the variations of Sr concentration. Uranium behaves in different ways in Kurun phosphate and in Uro phosphate. Uro phosphate shows higher concentrations of all the estimated radionuclides than Kurun phosphate. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that Uro phosphate is consider as secondary uranium source, and is more suitable for uranium recovery, because it has high uranium abundance and low P 2 O 5 %, than Kurun phosphate. (authors) [es

  2. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  3. Uranium Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — An integral part of Y‑12's transformation efforts and a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Uranium Center of Excellence, the Uranium...

  4. Uranium in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelmann, E.

    1978-03-01

    This document presents government policy in the enhancement of uranium resources, existing mining companies and their productions, exploitation projects and economical outcome related to the uranium mining and auxiliary activities [fr

  5. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  6. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The controversy about the extend of the uranium resources worldwide is still important, this article sheds some light on this topic. Every 2 years IAEA and NEA (nuclear energy agency) edit an inventory of uranium resources as reported by contributing countries. It appears that about 4.6 millions tons of uranium are available at a recovery cost less than 130 dollars per kg of uranium and a total of 14 millions tons of uranium can be assessed when including all existing or supposed resources. In fact there is enough uranium to sustain a moderate growth of the park of nuclear reactors during next decades and it is highly likely that the volume of uranium resources can allow a more aggressive development of nuclear energy. It is recalled that a broad use of the validated breeder technology can stretch the durability of uranium resources by a factor 50. (A.C.)

  7. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  8. Industrial realities: Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiron, H.

    1990-01-01

    In this special issue are examined ores and metals in France and in the world for 1988. The chapter on uranium gives statistical data on the uranium market: Demand, production, prices and reserves [fr

  9. Brazilian uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.C.S. dos.

    1985-01-01

    Estimatives of uranium reserves carried out in Figueira, Itataia, Lagoa Real and Espinharas, in Brazil are presented. The samples testing allowed to know geological structures, and the characteristics of uranium mineralization. (M.C.F.) [pt

  10. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  11. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Western world requirements for uranium based on increasing energy consumption and a changing energy mix, will warrant the development of Australia's resources. By 1985 Australian mines could be producing 9500 tonnes of uranium oxide yearly and by 1995 the export value from uranium could reach that from wool. In terms of benefit to the community the economic rewards are considerable but, in terms of providing energy to the world, Australias uranium is vital

  12. Radiation damage of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1966-11-01

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method

  13. Bicarbonate leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.

    1998-01-01

    The alkaline leach process for extracting uranium from uranium ores is reviewed. This process is dependent on the chemistry of uranium and so is independent on the type of mining system (conventional, heap or in-situ) used. Particular reference is made to the geochemical conditions at Crownpoint. Some supporting data from studies using alkaline leach for remediation of uranium-contaminated sites is presented

  14. Bicarbonate leaching of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.

    1998-12-31

    The alkaline leach process for extracting uranium from uranium ores is reviewed. This process is dependent on the chemistry of uranium and so is independent on the type of mining system (conventional, heap or in-situ) used. Particular reference is made to the geochemical conditions at Crownpoint. Some supporting data from studies using alkaline leach for remediation of uranium-contaminated sites is presented.

  15. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  16. Uranium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 x 10 7 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load

  17. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for converting uranium oxide to uranium metal is described comprising the steps of heating uranium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent to a temperature sufficient to reduce the uranium oxide to uranium metal and form a heterogeneous mixture of a uranium metal product and oxide by-products, heating the mixture in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature sufficient to convert uranium metal in the mixture to uranium hydride, cooling the resulting uranium hydride-containing mixture to a temperature sufficient to produce a ferromagnetic transition in the uranium hydride, magnetically separating the cooled uranium hydride from the mixture, and thereafter heating the separated uranium hydride in an inert atmosphere to a temperature sufficient to convert the uranium hydride to uranium metal

  18. Assessing the Renal Toxicity of Capstone Depleted Uranium Oxides and Other Uranium Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszell, Laurie E.; Hahn, Fletcher; Lee, Robyn B.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

    2009-01-01

    The primary target for uranium toxicity is the kidney. The most frequently used guideline for uranium kidney burdens is the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) value of 3 (micro)g U/g kidney, a value that is based largely upon chronic studies in animals. In the present effort, we have developed a risk model equation to assess potential outcomes of acute uranium exposure. Twenty-seven previously published case studies in which workers were acutely exposed to soluble compounds of uranium (as a result of workplace accidents) were analyzed. Kidney burdens of uranium for these individuals were determined based on uranium in the urine, and correlated with health effects observed over a period of up to 38 years. Based upon the severity of health effects, each individual was assigned a score (- to +++) and then placed into an Effect Group. A discriminant analysis was used to build a model equation to predict the Effect Group based on the amount of uranium in the kidneys. The model equation was able to predict the Effect Group with 85% accuracy. The risk model was used to predict the Effect Group for Soldiers exposed to DU as a result of friendly fire incidents during the 1991 Gulf War. This model equation can also be used to predict the Effect Group of new cases in which acute exposures to uranium have occurred

  19. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  20. Electrification, economic growth and uranium power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1983-01-01

    The worldwide growth of uranium power plant capacity is obviously dependent on both the growth of electrification and the competitive status of uranium power. In this paper the thesis is developed that expanded use of uranium power is essential to provide a substantial portion of the electricity necessary for world economic growth. Further, the case is made that the obstacles to this expansion arise not from the technology, but rather from the inadequacies of our industrial, political, and economic institutions to manage this new energy system effectively, nationally and internationally. Data are presented on the relation between electricity consumption and GNP; percentage of primary energy used for electricity; energy price ratio; relative generation costs of U, coal and oil-fired power plants; generating costs and capacity factors of conventional and uranium power plants. (U.K.)

  1. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  2. Licensing of uranium mine and mill waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamney, L.G.

    1986-09-01

    Systems for the management of wastes arising from uranium mining facilities are subject to regulatory control by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). This paper describes the primary objectives, principles, requirements and guidelines which the AECB uses in the regulation of waste management activities at uranium mining facilities, and provides an understanding of the licensing process used by the AECB

  3. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  4. Uranium energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkes, P.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium supply and demand as projected by the Uranium Institute is discussed. It is concluded that for the industrialized countries, maximum energy independence is a necessity. Hence it is necessary to achieve assurance of supply for uranium used in thermal power reactors in current programs and eventually to move towards breeders

  5. Australian uranium today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: Australia's resources; Northern Territory uranium in perspective; the government's decision [on August 25, 1977, that there should be further development of uranium under strictly controlled conditions]; Government legislation; outlook [for the Australian uranium mining industry]. (U.K.)

  6. Uranium resources, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The specific character of uranium as energy resources, the history of development of uranium resources, the production and reserve of uranium in the world, the prospect regarding the demand and supply of uranium, Japanese activity of exploring uranium resources in foreign countries and the state of development of uranium resources in various countries are reported. The formation of uranium deposits, the classification of uranium deposits and the reserve quantity of each type are described. As the geological environment of uranium deposits, there are six types, that is, quartz medium gravel conglomerate deposit, the deposit related to the unconformity in Proterozoic era, the dissemination type magma deposit, pegmatite deposit and contact deposit in igneaus rocks and metamorphic rocks, vein deposit, sandstone type deposit and the other types of deposit. The main features of respective types are explained. The most important uranium resources in Japan are those in the Tertiary formations, and most of the found reserve belongs to this type. The geological features, the state of yield and the scale of the deposits in Ningyotoge, Tono and Kanmon Mesozoic formation are reported. Uranium minerals, the promising districts in the world, and the matters related to the exploration and mining of uranium are described. (Kako, I.)

  7. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Bibliography on Saskatchewan uranium inquiries and the northern and global impact of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, J.; Forgay, B.; Gianoli, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years Saskatchewan, Canada has become the major site for the expansion of the world-wide uranium industry. Largely due to the higher concentration of ore in the province and reduced exploitation elsewhere, by 1984 Canada had become the world's leading non-communist producer of uranium. This expansion has remained one of the most controversial political and ecological issues in Saskatchewan for nearly a decade. What follows is a comprehensive bibliography on the Saskatchewan uranium mining inquiries that paralleled the growth of this industry in the province and on the northern and global impact of the uranium industry. It is the culmination of more than three years of research including in-depth content analysis of transcripts of uranium mining inquiries held in Saskatchewan between 1977-1980

  9. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  10. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal

  11. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  12. Surficial uranium deposits: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium occurs in a variety of surficial environments in calcretes, gypcretes, silcretes, dolocretes and in organic sediments. Groundwater moving on low gradients generates these formations and, under favourable circumstances, uranium deposits. A variety of geomorphic settings can be involved. Most surficial deposits are formed in desert, temperate wetland, tropical, or transitional environments. The largest deposits known are in sedimentary environments in arid lands. The deposits form largely by the interaction of ground or surface waters on the geomorphic surface in favourable geologic terrains and climates. The deposits are commonly in the condition of being formed or reconstituted, or being destroyed. Carnotite is common in desert deposits while in wetland deposits no uranium minerals may be seen. Radioactive disequilibrium is common, particularly in wetland deposits. Granites and related rocks are major source rocks and most large deposits are in regions with enriched uranium contents, i.e. significantly greater than 5 ppm uranium. Uranium dissolution and transport is usually under oxidizing conditions. Transport in desert conditions is usually as a bicarbonate. A variety of fixation mechanisms operate to extract the uranium and form the deposits. Physical barriers to groundwater flow may initiate ore deposition. Mining costs are likely to be low because of the near surface occurrence, but there may be processing difficulties as clay may be present and the saline or carbonate content may be high. (author)

  13. Impurities in uranium process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydell, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Several uranium purification circuits are presented in tabular form together with the average major impurity levels associated with each. The more common unit operations in these circuits, namely strong- and weak-base ion-exchange, solvent extraction and the precipitation of impurities are then discussed individually. Particular attention is paid to the effect and removal of impurities in each of these four unit operations. (author)

  14. Activity concentration of uranium in groundwater from uranium mineralized areas and its neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, S.A.; Funtua, I.I.; Dewu, B.B.M.; Alagbe, S.A.; Garba, M.L.; Kwaya, M.Y.; Baloga, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in parts of northeastern Nigeria necessitated its exploration during early eighties by the Nigeria Uranium Mining Company (NUMCO) which was later abandoned. During their course of decay, uranium isotopes pass through radioactive decay stage and eventually into stable isotope of lead. The course of concern for soluble uranium in groundwater especially from the mineralized areas include ionizing radiation, chemical toxicity and reproductive defects for which ingested uranium has been implicated to have caused. This study is aimed at assessing the levels of concentration of uranium in groundwater to ascertain its compliance with the World Health Organization's (WHO) and the United State Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guideline for uranium in drinking water. Thirty five groundwater samples were collected using EPA's groundwater sampling protocol and analyzed at the Department of Geology, University of Cape Town using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric (ICP-MS) technique. Significant finding of this work was that there is radiological contamination of groundwater in the area. There is also an indication that the extent of radiological contamination is not much within the mineralized zones, therefore, there is likelihood that groundwater has acted as a medium of transporting and enhancing uranium in groundwater in an environment away from that of origin. About 5.7 % of the samples studied had uranium concentration above WHO and EPA's maximum contaminant level of 30 μg/L which is a major concern for inhabitants of the area. It was also apparent that radiological contamination at the southwestern part of the study area extends into the adjacent sheet (sheet 152). Uranium concentration above set standards in those areas might have originated from rocks around established mineralized zones but was transported to those contaminated areas by groundwater that leaches across the host rock and subsequently mobilizing soluble uranium

  15. Uranium and nuclear energy: 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since the last Symposium of the Uranium Institute in 1989 several major world events have occurred. First there has been an energy glut characterized by low and fairly stable oil prices. Secondly there have been important political developments in Eastern Europe. There are twenty-six papers included in this book; all are indexed separately. The discussions following each session are included in the book but not indexed. The keynote address considers the prospects and challenges for nuclear power. There are three papers on the factors affecting electricity demand and supply, three on the market for uranium, papers on Canadian and Australian uranium policies, five papers on recycling, four on the evolving attitudes to nuclear power especially in the United Kingdom and Japan, three papers on the economics of nuclear power, two on regulatory developments and three on future investment in nuclear power in the USSR, Hungary and Ontario. As well as a symposium summary and list of participants there are two annexes, the first a list of nuclear power plants worldwide, the second a list of uranium production facilities. (UK)

  16. Principles of modern uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.W.

    1974-01-01

    The Athens Symposium followed the recommendations of a panel meeting in April 1970 on uranium exploration geology. It was attended by 220 participants representing 40 countries and two international organizations; 43 papers were presented. An overview of the supply challenge of uranium was given by Mr. Robert D. Nininger, of the USAEC, who acted as chairman of the Symposium. He outlined the major topics and problems to be discussed during the conference, with the aim of meeting this challenge: 'Uranium deposits in sandstone and quartz pebble conglomerates presently represent the preponderance of uranium resources. Yet there is a question whether geologic limitations on the occurrence of such deposits may preclude their discovery in numbers sufficient to meet the eventual resource needs. New types of deposits, low in grade but larger in size, representing the equivalent of the porphyry copper deposits, may supply the bulk of future resource additions. Further investigation is needed on the characteristics of such deposits and the means of their identification. Similarly, additional investigation is needed to determine whether limits on the more conventional deposits do, in fact, exist, and, if not, what advanced approaches to rapid identification of additional such deposits may be employed'

  17. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  18. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  19. Development of uranium metal targets for 99Mo production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    A substantial amount of high enriched uranium (HEU) is used for the production of medical-grade 99 Mo. Promising methods of producing irradiation targets are being developed and may lead to the reduction or elimination of this HEU use. To substitute low enriched uranium (LEU) for HEU in the production of 99 Mo, the target material may be changed to uranium metal foil. Methods of fabrication are being developed to simplify assembly and disassembly of the targets. Removal of the uranium foil after irradiation without dissolution of the cladding is a primary goal in order to reduce the amount of liquid radioactive waste material produced in the process. Proof-of-concept targets have been fabricated. Destructive testing indicates that acceptable contact between the uranium foil and the cladding can be achieved. Thermal annealing tests, which simulate the cladding/uranium diffusion conditions during irradiation, are underway. Plans are being made to irradiate test targets

  20. Acid Dissolution of Depleted Uranium from Catalyst using Microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Seong Gi; Park, Kwang Heon [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The separation process of uranium is one of the most important fields in nuclear industry because uranium is used primary in nuclear power plants. Uranium ores are treated by either acid or alkaline reagents. Uranium can be dissolved by acid or alkaline solutions. There are two oxidation states in which the hexavalent form, the oxide of which is UO{sub 3}, and the tetravalent form, the oxide of which is UO{sub 2}. However, depleted uranium(DU) has also been used as a catalyst in specialized chemical reaction such as ammoxidation. The preferred catalyst for propylene oxidation with ammonia was a uranium oxide-antimony oxide composition. The active phase of catalyst was known as USbO{sub 5} and USb{sub 3}O{sub 10}. There is pentavalent form. Waste catalyst containing DU was generated and stored in chemical industry. In this work, we removed DU from catalyst by acid dissolution

  1. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  2. Uranium speciation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, A.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Reich, T.; Rossberg, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  3. Status Report from the United States of America [Processing of Low-Grade Uranium Ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R H [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    1967-06-15

    The US uranium production rate has been dropping gradually from a high of 17 760 tons in fiscal year 1961 to a level of about 10 400 tons in fiscal year 1966. As of 1 January 1966, there were 17 uranium mills in operation in the USA compared with a maximum of 26 during 1961, the peak production year. Uranium procurement contracts between the USAEC and companies operating 11 mills have been extended through calendar year 1970. The USAEC contracts for the other six mills are scheduled to expire 31 December 1966. Some of these mills, however, have substantial private orders for production of uranium for nuclear power plants and will continue to operate after completion of deliveries under USAEC contracts. No new uranium mills have been brought into production since 1962. Under these circumstances the emphasis in process development activities in recent years has tended toward improvements that could be incorporated within the general framework of the existing plants. Some major flowsheet changes have been made, however. For example, two of the ore-processing plants have shifted from acid leaching to sodium carbonate leach in order to provide the flexibility to process an increasing proportion of ores of high limestone content in the tributary areas. Several mills employing ion exchange as the primary step for recovery of uranium from solution have added an 'Eluex' solvent extraction step on the ion exchange eluate. This process not only results in a highgrade final product, but also eliminates several metallurgical problems formerly caused by the chloride and nitrate eluants. Such changes together with numerous minor improvements have gradually reduced production cost and increased recoveries. The domestic uranium milling companies have generally had reserves of normal-grade ores well in excess of the amounts required to fulfil the requirements for their contracts with the USAEC. Therefore, there has been little incentive to undertake the processing of lower grade

  4. IAEA Activities on Uranium Resources and Production, and Databases for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, C.; Slezak, J. [Divison of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    In recent years rising expectation for nuclear power has led to a significant increase in the demand for uranium and in turn dramatic increases in uranium exploration, mining and ore processing activities worldwide. Several new countries, often with limited experience, have also embarked on these activities. The ultimate goal of the uranium raw material industry is to provide an adequate supply of uranium that can be delivered to the market place at a competitive price by environmentally sound, mining and milling practices. The IAEA’s programme on uranium raw material encompass all aspects of uranium geology and deposits, exploration, resources, supply and demand, uranium mining and ore processing, environmental issues in the uranium production cycle and databases for the uranium fuel cycle. Radiological safety and environmental protection are major challenges in uranium mines and mills and their remediation. The IAEA has revived its programme for the Uranium Production Site Appraisal Team (UPSAT) to assist Member States to improve operational and safety performances at uranium mines and mill sites. The present paper summarizes the ongoing activities of IAEA on uranium raw material, highlighting the status of global uranium resources, their supply and demand, the IAEA database on world uranium deposit (UDEPO) and nuclear fuel cycle information system (NFCIS), recent IAEA Technical Meetings (TM) and related ongoing Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. (author)

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  6. Market outlook for Australian uranium producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    2001-01-01

    Recent improvements in the uranium market and political changes in Australia presented the uranium producers with their best opportunity in over 15 years. The removal of the well known 'three mines policy' by the current government has encouraged Australian producers to develop new development plans. With the expansion of the existing operations at Ranger and Olympic Dam, and the potential operations of Jabiluka, Kintyre, Koongara, Honeymoon and Beverley, Australia expects to increase annual production to 11630 t U 3 O 8 by the end of the decade. It will then join Canada as a major supplier of uranium to the world's nuclear power utilities in the 21st century. Uranium exploration, which has been virtually nonexistent over the past 15 years, has once again been reactivated. This occurred because of the change in the Government, but also because the Aboriginal groups are once more allowing exploration on their land. (author)

  7. Investigations for the Recycle of Pyroprocessed Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, B. R.; Price, J. C.; Chambers, E. E.; Patterson, M. N.

    Given the renewed interest in uranium from the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel in a molten salt system, the two biggest hurdles for marketing the uranium are radiation levels and transuranic content. A radiation level as low as possible is desired so that handling operations can be performed directly with the uranium. The transuranic content of the uranium will affect the subsequent waste streams generated and, thus also should be minimized. Although the pyroprocessing technology was originally developed without regard to radiation and transuranic levels, adaptations to the process have been considered. Process conditions have been varied during the distillation and casting cycles of the process with increasing temperature showing the largest effect on the reduction of radiation levels. Transuranic levels can be reduced significantly by incorporating a pre-step in the salt distillation operation to remove a majority of the salt prior to distillation.

  8. Ecological considerations of natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Depleted 238 U is a major by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle for which increasing use is being made in counterweights, radiation shielding, and ordnance applications. This paper (1) summarizes the pertinent literature on natural and depleted uranium in the environment, (2) integrates results of a series of ecological studies conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in New Mexico where 70,000 kg of depleted and natural uranium has been expended to the environment over the past 34 years, and (3) synthesizes the information into an assessment of the ecological consequences of natural and depleted uranium released to the environment by various means. Results of studies of soil, plant, and animal communities exposed to this radiation and chemical environment over a third of a century provide a means of evaluating the behavior and effects of uranium in many contexts

  9. Contribution to uranium geochemistry in intrusive granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, R.

    1959-01-01

    This work aims to define the position of a certain number of French granitic deposits within the field of the geochemistry of granites in general, and of the geochemistry of uranium in particular. The regions concerned are: - 3 French Hercynian ranges, in the Vendee, in Brittany and in the Morvan, - 1 African range, probably precambrian, of the Hoggar. For each range, the petrochemical framework is first of all determined and then the degree of chemical homogeneity of the rocks is evaluated. In the petrochemical groups thus obtained the geochemical behaviour of the uranium is studied. From a point of view of the geochemistry of the granites under investigation, a comparison of the laws of distribution of the major elements in the 4 ranges shows up a convergence of average composition which was not anticipated by geological and petrographic considerations alone. The statistical and geochemical distribution laws of the total uranium as a function of the petrochemical variations are established. A study of the chemical forms of uranium in the rocks has drawn an attention to the qualitative and quantitative importance of the fraction of this uranium soluble in dilute acids. We have therefore reconsidered on the one hand, the laws of distribution of the insoluble uranium, which represents essentially the uranium fixed in crystalline structures (zircon, allanite...), and we have justified on the other hand the interest presented by the soluble uranium: this, although more complex in character, presents a geochemical unity in post magmatic phenomena which makes possible to find a genetic connection between the uraniferous deposits and the intrusive massifs. Finally we have given a plan of the geochemical cycle of uranium, in which we hope to have provided some more accurate data on the igneous phase. (author) [fr

  10. The evolution of the enriched uranium markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaiz, J.; Moleres, C.; Tarin, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the evolution of the enriched uranium component markets (uranium concentrates, conversion and enrichment), starting with the situation of historically low prices that occurred during 2000. The situation that has been reached as on December 2003, when the concentrates and conversion markets were 44% and 70% (current US$) respectively, and the enrichment prices 30%, higher, is analysed. Finally, the negative impact of the 90's depressed prices, due to abundant alternative sources of uranium components, on the primary production of all three components and, as a conclusion, the impact of the new situation on the transport logistics, and the need of appropriate economic conditions to make the future primary production sustainable, is commented. (Author)

  11. Uranium minerals in Upper Carboniferous rocks in the Nowa Ruda region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareja, E.

    1981-01-01

    Results of mineralogical studies on uranium in Upper Carboniferous rocks (Glinik Beds - Westphalian C - D and Ludwikowice Beds - Stephanian) in the vicinities of Nowa Ruda (Central Sudetic Depression) are presented. Uranium mineralization is here related to sandstones and polymictic conglomerates with clay and clay-carbonate cement. The major uranium-bearing horizon was found in middle part of the Glinik Beds, and some increase in uranium content - at the base of that unit. In the case of Stephanian rocks, points with uranium mineralization were found in various parts of the Ludwikowice Beds sequence: in basal conglomerate horizon and platy sandstones. Uranium minerals mainly occur in cement of sandstones and conglomerates. They were mainly identified as uranium blende and minerals of the sulfate group - zippeite and uranopilite. Mineralized uranium-bearing horizons display mineral paragenesis typical of Upper Carboniferous rocks of the Central Sudetic Depression: uranium blende, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. (author)

  12. The application of nuclear analytical techniques in the study of elements distribution pattern associated with Gubrunde Uranium occurrence in North-Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ige, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    Prospecting for high grade uranium deposits in North-East Nigeria has, over the years, amongst other reasons, been handicapped by lack of adequate understanding of the elemental primary and secondary dispersion patterns associated with known occurrences in the region. One hundred and forty-four samples from low grade Uranium occurrences at Gubrunde horst consisting of disseminated ores and host rocks, bark and soil samples were therefore, analysed for forty-four elements using Neutron Activation Analysis (with Gamma Spectrometry - INAA and Delayed Neutron Counting - DNC) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Techniques. The analytical data have been evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques. The results show some major element groupings (association). The first group consists of Ph, Ba, Ce and Sm (LREE) that are enriched with increasing uranium concentration in the mineralized zone and are therefore, capable of serving as path-finder elements for uranium. The second group comprising of K 2 O, CaO, Na 2 O and the HREE are depleted in the mineralized zones due to the action of hydrothermal fluids and are indicative of altered/mineralized rocks. The third group consists of the other elements which feature little or no significant enrichment with uranium but may be associated with ferruginisation (hematite) and possibly refractory minerals. It is found that iron does not correlate well with uranium in this report which may indicate ferruginization and mineralization as two independent processes

  13. The world market-situation for uranium and its enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the uranium market is described as well as all pertinent facts which may have contributed to the strong rise in uranium prices of the past three years. The policies of countries which may in the future become major uranium exporters are discussed. For the conversion of uranium there is sufficient capacity. However, if construction of new plants is not started soon shortages could occur in the early 80ies. The market for enrichment has characterized in past years by substantial overcapacities. If new enrichment plants are constructed according to present schedules this overcapacity may prevail into the early 90ies. (orig.) [de

  14. Uranium of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalyuk, Yu.; Gurevich, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over 25 % of the world's uranium reserves are concentrated in Kazakhstan. So, the world's largest Shu-Sarysu uranium province is situated on southern Kazakhstan, with resources exceeding 1 billion tonnes of uranium. No less, than 3 unique deposits with resources exceeding 100,000 tonnes are situated here. From the economic point of view the most important thing is that these deposits are suitable for in-situ leaching, which is the cheapest, environmentally friendly and most efficient method available for uranium extracting. In 1997 the Kazatomprom National Joint-Stock Company united all Kazakhstan's uranium enterprises (3 mine and concentrating plants, Volkovgeologiya Joint-Stock Company and the Ulbinskij Metallurgical plant). In 1998 uranium production came to 1,500 tonnes (860 kg in 1997). In 1999 investment to the industry were about $ 30 million. Plans for development of Kazakhstan's uranium industry provide a significant role for foreign partners. At present, 2 large companies (Comeco (Canada), Cogema (France) working in Kazakhstan. Kazakatomprom continues to attract foreign investors. The company's administration announced that in that in next year they have plan to make a radical step: to sell 67 % of stocks to strategic investors (at present 100 % of stocks belongs to state). Authors of the article regard, that the Kazakhstan's uranium industry still has significant reserves to develop. Even if the scenario for the uranium industry could be unfavorable, uranium production in Kazakhstan may triple within the next three to four years. The processing of uranium by the Ulbinskij Metallurgical Plant and the production of some by-products, such as rhenium, vanadium and rare-earth elements, may provide more profits. Obviously, the sale of uranium (as well as of any other reserves) cannot make Kazakhstan a prosperous country. However, country's uranium industry has a god chance to become one of the most important and advanced sectors of national economy

  15. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  16. Uranium occurrences of the Thunder Bay-Nipigon-Marathon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the 1981, 1982 and 1983 field seasons an inventory of all known uranium occurrences in the North Central Region of Ontario was undertaken. Three major categories of uranium occurrences were identified: uranium associated with the rocks of the Quetico Subprovince; uranium associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity; and uranium associated with alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age. Occurrences associated with the Quetico Belt are in white, albite-quartz-muscovite pegmatites. Occurrences associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity are usually of high gradee (up to 12% U 3 O 8 ), nearly always hematized and are related to fault or shear zones proximal to the unconformity. Although of high grade, many of the unconformity related occurrences are very narrow (<1 m). Alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age are an important source of uranium but possible metallurgical problems might downgrade their potential. The Quetico Subprovince is anomalously high in background uranium, and therefore contains important source rocks for uranium. Areas that have the highest potential for uranium deposits in the North Central Region are the Nipigon Basin area, and the areas underlain by the Gunflint and Rove Formations. All the high grade vein-type uranium deposits related to the unconformity are found within the Nipigon Basin. 126 refs

  17. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments

  18. Regional analysis of Landsat data concerning unconformity-vein uranium deposits, Pine Creek Geosyncline, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Linear features mapped from enhanced Landsat images in zones defining lineaments trending northeast and east-northeast across the uranium area of northern Australia. A model using Landsat data to select areas for uranium exploration is proposed, based on the observed spatial relation of uranium deposits and the newly defined major lineaments

  19. Civilian inventories of plutonium and highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1987-01-01

    In the future, commercial laser isotope enrichment technologies, currently under development, could make it easier for national to produce highly enriched uranium secretly. The head of a US firm that is developing a laser enrichment process predicts that in twenty years, major utilities and small countries will have relatively small, on-site, laser-based uranium enrichment facilities. Although these plants will be designed for the production of low enriched uranium, they could be modified to produce highly enriched uranium, an option that raises the possibility of countries producing highly enriched uranium in small, easily hidden facilities. Against this background, most of this report describes the current and future quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the world, their forms, the facilities in which they are produced, stored, and used, and the extent to which they are transported. 5 figures, 10 tables

  20. Balancing needs. Global trends in uranium production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, J.P.; Underhill, D.

    1998-01-01

    In many countries, uranium is a major energy resource, fueling nuclear power plants that collectively generate about 17% of the world's electricity. With global demand for energy especially electricity projected to grow rapidly over the coming decades, the price and availability of all energy sources, including uranium, are key components in the process of energy planning and decision-making. Particularly affecting the uranium market were changing projections about nuclear power's growth and the consequent demand for nuclear fuel; the emergence of a more integrated free market system including former centrally planned economies; and the emergence into the civilian market of uranium released from dismantled nuclear weapons. All these factors contributed to uncertainties in the commercial uranium market that raised questions about future fuel supplies for nuclear power plants. Signs today indicate that the situation is changing. The world uranium market is moving towards a more balanced relationship between supply and demand

  1. Determination of uranium in samples containing bulk aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kannan, R.; Dhami, P.S.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of uranium is of great importance in PUREX process and need to be analyzed at different concentration ranges depending on the stage of reprocessing. Various techniques like volumetry, spectrophotometry, ICP-OES, fluorimetry, mass spectrometry etc. are used for the measurement of uranium in these samples. Fast and sensitive methods suitable for low level detection of uranium are desirable to cater the process needs. Microgram quantities of uranium are analyzed by spectrophotometric method using 2-(5- bromo-2-pyridylazo-5-diethylaminophenol) (Br-PADAP) as the complexing agent. But, the presence of some of the metal ions viz. Al, Pu, Zr etc. interferes in its analysis. Therefore, separation of uranium from such interfering metal ions is required prior to its analysis. This paper describes the analysis of uranium in samples containing aluminium as major matrix

  2. Update of NRC uranium mill licensing activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Increased vigilance must be given to controlling emissions from active milling operations, particularly windblown tailings, to assure that the soon-to-be-effective EPA Fuel Cycle Standard is met. Comprehensive environmental monitoring programs will have to be developed to confirm that, in fact, the limit is met. Just as was the case last year, tailings management and disposal is still the major item of concern relating to uranium milling operations. As stated earlier, the NRC feels that below-grade disposal is the preferred method of tailings disposal in that it provides the greatest assurances of long-term isolation. In any event, tailings must be disposed of in such a way that no active care is required of disposal sites, to avoid committing future generations to a significant, lingering obligation to care for wastes generated to produce benefits which they will only indirectly receive, if at all. While the primary means of providing long-term isolation of tailings must be by physical barriers, as a prudent, supplementary measure of control, we are concluding in the GEIS on Uranium Milling that ownership of disposal sites by a Government agency is desirable. We expect a low level of continued surveillance at disposal sites with small expense involved. We are concluding that requiring operators to contribute on the order of $100,000 per disposal site to cover ongoing expenses would be the most apropriate means of conforming to the principle that the waste generator should pay full costs of waste disposal. We feel such an arrangement would be fair, simple, and efficient, favoring it over complicated schemes involving such things as taxes on product or tailings generated and continued management of ear-marked funds. Legislation is now pending in the Congress which would give NRC direct regulatory control over mill tailings and put into place the authorities needed to implement the long-term control and funding arrangements discussed above

  3. Annotated bibliography of uranium in Australia, 1970-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, C.; Webb, A.; Wade-Marshall, D.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 845 separate numbered items which deal with uranium mining in Australia during the period 1970-1987, which it was feasible to annotate, which are publicly available, and which are not of a highly technical nature. The bibliography is not restricted to material originating in Australia. The items are organised into nine major subject areas on the basis of their principal subject matter, with cross references being added in cases where more than one subject area is dealt with. The nine sections deal with the development and structure of the Australian uranium industry; the uranium debate; uranium policies; uranium and Aborigines; economic issues; domestic processing and utilisation of Australian uranium; environmental issues; nuclear proliferation and safeguards; and the major individual uranium projects. The bibliography is preceded by a chapter on its scope, organisation and sources and by an overview providing background information on the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium in Australia and Australian uranium policy and is followed by an author index

  4. Australia's uranium and the international nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1983-11-01

    A disposal strategy for high-level radioactive waste is presented. The waste is incorporated in SYNROC which is then buried in deep drill holes in a stable geological environment. It is suggested that acceptance of the safety of this strategy would remove a primary objection to the mining of Australian uranium. Further Australian involvement in the fuel cycle is advocated

  5. World uranium markets: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The current state of the world's uranium market and its effect on US nuclear-fueled utilities is discussed. Major uranium-related issues that will confront US utility nuclear fuel managers in the coming years are presented, emphasizing the perspectives of supply, demand, world market adjustment, and US market restrictions on imports. It is stated that the US market is essential by non-US producers to help equilibrate an otherwise excessive supply which would cause chaos in the market. To avoid another ten-year boom/bust cycle, the US is urged to reexamine its position on long-term contracts - which permit greater price stability in contrast to the spot market and its price fluctuations. 13 figures, 6 tables

  6. Type I Interferon Signaling Is Required for CpG-Oligodesoxynucleotide-Induced Control of Leishmania major, but Not for Spontaneous Cure of Subcutaneous Primary or Secondary L. major Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schleicher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that in mice infected with Leishmania major type I interferons (IFNs initiate the innate immune response to the parasite at day 1 and 2 of infection. Here, we investigated which type I IFN subtypes are expressed during the first 8 weeks of L. major infection and whether type I IFNs are essential for a protective immune response and clinical cure of the disease. In self-healing C57BL/6 mice infected with a high dose of L. major, IFN-α4, IFN-α5, IFN-α11, IFN-α13, and IFN-β mRNA were most prominently regulated during the course of infection. In C57BL/6 mice deficient for IFN-β or the IFN-α/β-receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1, development of skin lesions and parasite loads in skin, draining lymph node, and spleen was indistinguishable from wild-type (WT mice. In line with the clinical findings, C57BL/6 IFN-β−/−, IFNAR1−/−, and WT mice exhibited similar mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and arginase 1 during the acute and late phase of the infection. Also, myeloid dendritic cells from WT and IFNAR1−/− mice produced comparable amounts of IL-12p40/p70 protein upon exposure to L. major in vitro. In non-healing BALB/c WT mice, the mRNAs of IFN-α subtypes (α2, α4, α5, α6, and α9 were rapidly induced after high-dose L. major infection. However, genetic deletion of IFNAR1 or IFN-β did not alter the progressive course of infection seen in WT BALB/c mice. Finally, we tested whether type I IFNs and/or IL-12 are required for the prophylactic effect of CpG-oligodesoxynucleotides (ODN in BALB/c mice. Local and systemic administration of CpG-ODN 1668 protected WT and IFN-β−/− mice equally well from progressive leishmaniasis. By contrast, the protective effect of CpG-ODN 1668 was lost in BALB/c IFNAR1−/− (despite a sustained suppression of IL-4 and in BALB/c IL-12p35−/− mice. From these data, we conclude that IFN-β and IFNAR1 signaling are

  7. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  8. Titrimetric determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florence, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    Titrimetric methods are almost invariably used for the high precision assay of uranium compounds, because gravimetric methods are nonselective, and not as reliable. Although precipitation titrations have been used, for example with cupferron and ferrocyanide, and chelate titrations with EDTA and oxine give reasonable results, in practice only redox titrations find routine use. With all redox titration methods for uranium a precision of 01 to 02 percent can be achieved, and precisions as high as 0.003 percent have been claimed for the more refined techniques. There are two types of redox titrations for uranium in common use. The first involves the direct titration of uranium (VI) to uranium (IV) with a standard solution of a strong reductant, such as chromous chloride or titanous chloride, and the second requires a preliminary reduction of uranium to the (IV) or (III) state, followed by titration back to the (VI) state with a standard oxidant. Both types of redox titrations are discussed. 4 figs

  9. Politics of Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement

  10. Uranium resources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.

    1973-01-01

    The future supply of uranium has to be considered against a background of forecasts of uranium demand over the next decades which show increases of a spectacular nature. It is not necessary to detail these forecasts, they are well known. A world survey by the Joint NEA/IAEA Working Party on 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand', completed this summer, indicates that from a present production level of just over 19,000 tonnes uranium per year, the demand will rise to the equivalent of an annual production requirement of 50,000 tonnes uranium by 1980, 100,000 by 1985 and 180,000 by 1990. Few, if any, mineral production industries have been called upon to plan for a near tenfold increase in production in a space of about 15 years as these forecasts imply. This might possibly mean that, perhaps, ten times the present number of uranium mines will have to be planned and engineered by 1990

  11. How much uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1976-01-01

    Comment is made on the latest of a series of reports on world uranium resources from the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency and the UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (Uranium resources, production and demand (including other nuclear fuel cycle data), published by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris). The report categories uranium reserves by their recovery cost and looks at power demand and the whole of the nuclear fuel cycle, including uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing. The effect that fluctuations in uranium prices have had on exploration for new uranium resources is considered. It is stated that increased exploration is essential considering the long lead times involved but that thanks to today's higher prices there are distinct signs that prospecting activities are increasing again. (U.K.)

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  13. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed mainly to introduce the methods and techniques of uranium geochemical exploration to exploration geologists who may not have had experience with geochemical exploration methods in their uranium programmes. The methods presented have been widely used in the uranium exploration industry for more than two decades. The intention has not been to produce an exhaustive, detailed manual, although detailed instructions are given for a field and laboratory data recording scheme and a satisfactory analytical method for the geochemical determination of uranium. Rather, the intention has been to introduce the concepts and methods of uranium exploration geochemistry in sufficient detail to guide the user in their effective use. Readers are advised to consult general references on geochemical exploration to increase their understanding of geochemical techniques for uranium

  14. Uranium Newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The new Uranium Newsletter is presented as an IAEA annual newsletter. The organization of the IAEA and its involvement with uranium since its founding in 1957 is described. The ''Red Book'' (Uranium Resources, Production and Demand) is mentioned. The Technical Assistance Programme of the IAEA in this field is also briefly mentioned. The contents also include information on the following meetings: The Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Deposits in Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks, Advisory Group Meeting on the Use of Airborne Radiometric Data, and the Technical Committee Meeting on Metallogenesis. Recent publications are listed. Current research contracts in uranium exploration are mentioned. IAEA publications on uranium (in press) are listed also. Country reports from the following countries are included: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China (People's Republic of), Denmark, Finland, Germany (Federal Republic of), Malaysia, Philippines, Portugal, South Africa (Republic of), Spain, Syrian Arab Republic, United Kingdom, United States of America, Zambia, and Greece. There is also a report from the Commission of European Communities

  15. Uranium purchases report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B ''Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data

  16. Multielement geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Palmyrides region of central Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.M.; Hale, M.

    1988-01-01

    Multielement reconnaissance geochemistry coupled with ground scintillation gamma ray measurements has been used to investigate the dispersion patterns of uranium and other major and trace elements in the arid Palmyrides region of central Syria. Over 500 geochemical samples of outcropping rock, wadi and playa sediments, overburden and groundwaters were taken over an area of approximately 9000 sq km. Most samples were analyzed for 25 major and trace elements by nebulization ICPAES; for As, Sb, Bi and Se by hydride generation and ICPAES; and for U, Th and La and other REE by neutron activation analysis. The resulting data were interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate statistical methods. The areal distributions of U, its associated elements, multivariate geochemical functions and factor scores were mapped using computer graphics. Results of the factor analysis indicate that the primary lithogeochemical dispersion patterns of uranium and associated elements are controlled by a combination of structural, lithological and environmental factors. Uranium and associated elements have subsequently been leached out of the phosphorite and other U enriched clayey limestones and carbonate rocks into the hydro- geologic regime. Redistribution of these elements is taking place along fracture zones and major faults. A degree of urnaium accumulation in a Neogene aquifer of the Ad-Daww basin is evident

  17. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W.; Horton, James A.; Elliott, Guy R. B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  18. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  19. Uranium demand. An exploration challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, A J.A.

    1976-10-01

    The estimated world resources of uranium as well as the estimated consumption of uranium over the next 25 years are briefly discussed. Attention is also given to the prospecting for uranium in South Africa and elsewhere in the world.

  20. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-04-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine

  1. Uranium Extraction from Phosphates: - Background, Opportunities, Process Overview & Way Forward for Commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulsidas, Harikrishnan; Hilton, Julian; Kumar Haldar, Tapan

    2014-01-01

    Uranium Extraction from Phosphate - an attractive proposition: • Uranium is co-product of phosphate Industry and makes phosphate Industry economically viable & socially more acceptable; • Enable utilisation of mineral deposits having low Phosphate value through economic co-production of Phosphatic fertiliser & Uranium; • Bring new countries in global map of Uranium resources; • Enables socio-economic up-gradation of major part of global population by achieving Energy, food & Environmental security - so important in today’s scenario

  2. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are (1) rock cover, (2) soil and revegetation, or (3) a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%. For these steeper slopes, the use of rock talus or riprap will be necessary to maximize the probability of long-term stability. The use of vegetation to control erosion on the flatter portions of the site may be practicable in regions of the USA with sufficient rainfall and suitable soil types, but revegetation practices must be carefully evaluated to ensure that long

  3. Uranium industry annual, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on US uranium raw materials and marketing activities of the domestic uranium industry. It contains aggregated data reported by US companies on the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' (1988), Form EIA-858, and historical data from prior data collections and other pertinent sources. The report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent agency for data collection and analysis with the US Department of Energy

  4. Gold and uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.S.; Davidson, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for extracting gold and uranium from an ore containing them both comprising the steps of pulping the finely comminuted ore with a suitable cyanide solution at an alkaline pH, acidifying the pulp for uranium dissolution, adding carbon activated for gold recovery to the pulp at a suitable stage, separating the loaded activated carbon from the pulp, and recovering gold from the activated carbon and uranium from solution

  5. Uranium mine ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katam, K.; Sudarsono

    1982-01-01

    Uranium mine ventilation system aimed basically to control and decreasing the air radioactivity in mine caused by the radon emanating from uranium ore. The control and decreasing the air ''age'' in mine, with adding the air consumption volume, increasing the air rate consumption, closing the mine-out area; using closed drainage system. Air consumption should be 60m 3 /minute for each 9m 2 uranium ore surfaces with ventilation rate of 15m/minute. (author)

  6. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  7. Chemical thermodynamics of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenthe, I.; Fuger, J.; Lemire, R.J.; Muller, A.B.; Nguyen-Trung Cregu, C.; Wanner, H.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive overview on the chemical thermodynamics of those elements that are of particular importance in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems is provided. This is the first volume in a series of critical reviews to be published on this subject. The book provides an extensive compilation of chemical thermodynamic data for uranium. A description of procedures for activity corrections and uncertainty estimates is given. A critical discussion of data needed for nuclear waste management assessments, including areas where significant gaps of knowledge exist is presented. A detailed inventory of chemical thermodynamic data for inorganic compounds and complexes of uranium is listed. Data and their uncertainty limits are recommended for 74 aqueous complexes and 199 solid and 31 gaseous compounds containing uranium, and on 52 aqueous and 17 solid auxiliary species containing no uranium. The data are internally consistent and compatible with the CODATA Key Values. The book contains a detailed discussion of procedures used for activity factor corrections in aqueous solution, as well as including methods for making uncertainty estimates. The recommended data have been prepared for use in environmental geochemistry. Containing contributions written by experts the chapters cover various subject areas such a s: oxide and hydroxide compounds and complexes, the uranium nitrides, the solid uranium nitrates and the arsenic-containing uranium compounds, uranates, procedures for consistent estimation of entropies, gaseous and solid uranium halides, gaseous uranium oxides, solid phosphorous-containing uranium compounds, alkali metal uranates, uncertainties, standards and conventions, aqueous complexes, uranium minerals dealing with solubility products and ionic strength corrections. The book is intended for nuclear research establishments and consulting firms dealing with uranium mining and nuclear waste disposal, as well as academic and research institutes

  8. Development and testing af a model for the supergene distribution of uranium and accompanying elements around a known uranium deposit associated with an alkaline intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose-Hansen, J.; Soerensen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Ilimaussaq intrusion may be characterized as a geochemically abnormal region, since its rocks are strongly enriched in a number of rare elements, including elements which accompany uranium in deposits in other parts of the world. Examples are the rare earth metals, Nb, Ta, Be, Li, and metals as Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo and Sn. It was proposed to develop and test a model for the supergene distribution of uranium and accompanying elements around a known uranium deposit associated with an alkaline intrusion. The most promising results are those obtained by the PCA technique. For a more preliminary study of a region fjord and river sediments might be the sampling target. These sediments were found to be mixtures in which the proportion of material from the Ilimaussaq U-deposit could be evaluated by the PCA technique involving a distance function related to the loadings in the first principal dimen- sion of the elements characterizing the Ilimaussaq Intrusion. One of the major features of the material sampled in this study is the general high degree of preservation in the sub-arctic environment of the primary igneous mineralogy in the sediments, and in other areas, the structure of data should be investigated in order to test them in this respect. One obvious way is X-ray diffraction analysis. It was indicated that uranium is selectively absorbed on the organic material in lakes and is able to reflect the concentration of U in the lake waters, informing the ultimate potential of the drainage areas in question. It is however yet to be established whether the correlation of uranium and the organic material of the lake sediments actually reflects the long term U concentrations of the lake water. The use of the cluster analysis and discriminant analysis techniques proved to be of lesser value in this project. (author)

  9. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, K.B.

    1982-06-01

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  10. International uranium supply to the US market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, J.

    1987-01-01

    The 1980s have seen a major redistribution of global uranium production. Since 1984, the first full year of production from the Key Lake Mine, Canada has displaced the US as the world's largest uranium producer. Uranium production in the US has stabilized in the range of 10 to 15 million lb U 3 O 8 per year, having declined from a peak of over 43 million lb in 1980. Production from Africa and Europe has declined slightly, and Australia, with the startup of Ranger Mine, has emerged as a significant producer. The main factors that have affected the distribution of production aside from price and demand are ore grades and production costs, currency exchange rates, long-term contracts, and tied supply. It is interesting to examine uranium supply and demand for the North American continent. In 1980 and 1981, North American production was more than twice reactor requirements. By 1985, however, requirements were only slightly lower than production, a situation that has persisted into 1987. Indeed, given the export commitments by Canadian and US producers to Europe and Asia, it is apparent that the US must import uranium from other countries. The relative balance in North American supply and demand suggests that free trade between Canada and the US for both uranium and conversion services would be beneficial to both countries

  11. Microbial transformation of uranium in wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.; Cline, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from the disposal of uranium processing wastes is a major national concern. Although much is known about the physico- chemical aspects of U, we have little information on the effects of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activities on the mobilization or immobilization of U and other toxic metals in mixed wastes. In order to understand the mechanisms of microbial transformations of uranium, we examined a contaminated pond sediment and a sludge sample from the uranium processing facility at Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN. The uranium concentration in the sediment and sludge samples was 923 and 3080 ug/g dry wt, respectively. In addition to U, the sediment and sludge samples contained high levels of toxic metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The association of uranium with the various mineral fractions of the sediment and sludge was determined by selective chemical extraction techniques. Uranium was associated to varying degrees with the exchangeable carbonate, iron oxide, organic, and inert fractions in both samples. Initial results in samples amended with carbon and nitrogen indicate immobilization of U due to enhanced indigenous microbial activity under anaerobic conditions. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  12. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Durango Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.; Madson, M.E.; Rosenlund, G.C.; Reinhart, W.R.; Gardner, H.A.

    1981-06-01

    The Durango Quadrangle (2 0 ), Colorado, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to determine environments favorable for uranium deposits. General reconnaissance, geologic and radiometric investigations, was augmented by detailed surface examination and radiometric and geochemical studies in selected areas. Eight areas favorable for uranium deposits were delineated. Favorable geologic environments include roscoelite-type vanadium-uranium deposits in the Placerville and Barlow Creek-Hermosa Creek districts, sandstone uranium deposits along Hermosa Creek, and vein uranium deposits in the Precambrian rocks of the Needle Mountains area and in the Paleozoic rocks of the Tuckerville and Piedra River Canyon areas. The major portions of the San Juan volcanic field, the San Juan Basin, and the San Luis Basin within the quadrangle were judged unfavorable. Due to lack of information, the roscoelite belt below 1000 ft (300 m), the Eolus Granite below 0.5 mi (0.8 km), and the Lake City caldera are unevaluated. The Precambrian Y melasyenite of Ute Creek and the Animas Formation within the Southern Ute Indian Reservation are unevaluated due to lack of access

  13. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  14. Phospholyl-uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradoz, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    After having reported a bibliographical study on penta-methylcyclopentadienyl uranium complexes, and a description of the synthesis and radioactivity of uranium (III) and (IV) boron hydrides compounds, this research thesis reports the study of mono and bis-tetramethyl-phospholyl uranium complexes comprising chloride, boron hydride, alkyl and alkoxide ligands. The third part reports the comparison of structures, stabilities and reactions of homologue complexes in penta-methylcyclopentadienyl and tetramethyl-phospholyl series. The last part addresses the synthesis of tris-phospholyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes. [fr

  15. International trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reports are presented; one has been prepared by the Uranium Institute and is submitted by the United Kingdom delegation, the other by the United States delegation. The report of the Uranium Institute deals with the influence of the government on international trade in uranium. This influence becomes apparent predominantly by export and import restrictions, as well as by price controls. The contribution submitted by the United States is a uranium market trend analysis, with pricing methods and contracting modes as well as the effect of government policies being investigated in the light of recent developments

  16. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  17. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  18. Experimental leaching of uranium from tuffaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodell, P.C.; Trentham, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The premise to be tested in this work is that felsic volcanic rocks particularly ash-flow tuffs, can serve as source rocks for certain uranium deposits. The applicability of this idea to several geologic environments is investigated. A genetic model is developed dealing with the behavior of uranium during and subsequent to ash-flow tuff deposition. It is based upon previously described investigations, geologic logic, data presented here, and speculation. Ash-flow tuff sequences described in the literature show significant alkali element variation, particularly in thick tuff units. Some variation is attributed to initial magma variations, whereas additional change may be produced during cooling and degassing of the tuff. Uranium variations have been documented in tuff sequences which are assumed to represent magmatic compositions. Uranium may be released during the initial degassing, during hydrothermal alteration, and/or during later diagenesis. Experimental studies have been designed and carried out to simulate natural leaching conditions such as might occur during diagenesis. Synthetic ground waters have been pumped through pulverized uraniferous vitrophyres. Major and minor element contents have been determined. The most significant chemical changes take place quickly, within a matter of days. Several starting and product leachant solutions were analyzed fluorimetrically for uranium. They show significant increases in uranium contents, from less than 1 ppB at the start to greater than 10 ppB maximu. Such leachant solutions might be significant transport agents of uranium given geologic time. Leaching at low temperatures appears to involve a thin surface reaction and diffusion layer. Both dissolution and ion exchange influence the leachant composition. It is also concluded that glassy ash-flow tuffs may serve as uranium source rocks during low temperature diagenetic changes

  19. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this

  20. Stream sediment geochemical surveys for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Stream sediment is more universally available than ground and surface waters and comprises the bulk of NURE samples. Orientation studies conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory indicate that several mesh sizes can offer nearly equivalent information. Sediment is normally sieved in the field to pass a 420-micrometer screen (US Std. 40 mesh) and that portion of the dried sediment passing a 149-micrometer screen (US Std. 100 mesh) is recovered for analysis. Sampling densities usually vary with survey objectives and types of deposits anticipated. Principal geologic features that can be portrayed at a scale of 1:250,000, such as major tectonic units, plutons, and pegmatite districts, are readily defined using a sampling density of 1 site per 5 square miles (13 km 2 ). More detailed studies designed to define individual deposits require greater sampling density. Analyses for elements known to be associated with uranium in a particular mineral host may be used to estimate the relative proportion of uranium in several forms. For example, uranium may be associated with thorium and cerium in monazite, and with zirconium and hafnium in zircon. Readily leachable uranium may be adsorbed to trapped in oxide coatings on mineral particles. Soluble or mobile uranium may indicate an ore source, whereas uranium in monazite or zircon is not likely to be economically attractive. Various schemes may be used to estimate for form of uranium in a sample. Simple elemental ratios are a useful first approach. Multiple ratios and subtractive formulas empirically designed to account for the presence of particular minerals are more useful. Residuals calculated from computer-derived regression equations or factor scores appear to have the greatest potential for locating uranium anomalies

  1. Canada's uranium future, based on forty years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, N.; Dakers, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    Canada's role as a major supplier of uranium has matured through the cyclical markets of the past forty years. Present resource estimates would support a potential production capability by the late 1980s 50 per cent greater than the peak production of 12 200 tonnes uranium in 1959. New and improved exploration techniques are being developed as uranium deposits become more difficult to discover. Radiometric prospecting of glacial boulder fields and the use of improved airborne and ground geophysical methods have contributed significantly to recent discoveries in Saskatchewan. Advances have also been made in the use of airborne radiometric reconnaissance, borehole logging, emanometry (radon and helium gas) and multi-element regional geochemistry techniques. Higher productivity in uranium mining has been achieved through automation and mechanization, while improved ventilation systems in conjunction with underground environmental monitoring have contributed to worker health and safety. Improved efficiency is being achieved in all phases of ore processing. Factors contributing to the increased time required to develop uranium mines and mills from a minimum of three years in the 1950s to the ten years typical of today, are discussed. The ability of Canada's uranium refinery to manufacture ceramic grade UO 2 powder to consistent standards has been a major factor in the successful development of high density natural uranium fuel for the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. Over 400 000 fuel assemblies have been manufactured by three companies. The refinery is undertaking a major expansion of its capacity

  2. Formation of neogenic ores on the dump-heaps of old uranium mines and on the mine-head of mines under exploitation; Formation de mineraux neogenes sur les haldes d'anciennes mines d'uranium et sur le carreau des mines en exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to assess straight away the major degradations suffered by primary and secondary uranium ores under the weathering action of air and water. The uranium ores concerned in this case are those stored in the open air. The pyritic ores are the most vulnerable: the interactions between the pyrite, or rather its oxidation products, and the uraniferous compounds are liable to lead to the formation of neogenic ores, which are of considerable importance in the natural lixiviation of uranium ore stocks. (author) [French] Cette etude preliminaire a pour but de fixer des a present les degradations majeures que subissent les mineraux d'uranium primaires et secondaires, sous l'action de l'air et des eaux meteoriques. Il s'agit en l'occurence des mineraux d'uranium constituant les minerais entreposes a l'air libre. Les minerais pyriteux sont les plus vulnerables: les interactions entre la pyrite ou plutot de ses produits d'oxydation avec les composes uraniferes sont susceptibles de former des mineraux neogenes dont l'importance est considerable dans la lixiviation naturelle des stocks de minerais d'uranium. (auteur)

  3. Zeolitization at uranium ore manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, R.V.; Buntikova, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    The process of zeolitization at uranium ore manifestation is studied. A specific type of low-temperature wall endogenous alteration of rocks due to the effect of primary acid solution with low content of carbonic acid is established. Leaching of calcium from enclosing rocks and its deposition in ore-accompanying calcium zeolites is a characteristic feature of wall-metasomatosis. Formation of desmin- calcite-laumontite and quartz-fluoroapatite of vein associations, including ore minerals (uranophane and metaotenite), is genetically connected with calcium metasomatosis. On the basis of the connection of ore minerals with endogeneous process of zeolitization a conclusion can be made on endogenous origin of uranophane and metaotenite [ru

  4. Golden prospects for uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Beisa Mines Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Union Corporation, looks a born winner. Although only due for completion in 1982 it can already boast several 'firsts' in the mining industry. It is, of course, the first mine in South Africa to be developed as a primary producer of uranium with gold as a by-product. Its No. 1 Ventilation Shaft is also the smallest diameter shaft in SA to use a rocker-arm shovel loader for rock removal. Moreover, Beisa will be the first mine to use the revolutionary carbon-in-pulp process on a large scale

  5. URANIUM LEACHING AND RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaine, L.A.

    1959-08-18

    A process is described for recovering uranium from carbonate leach solutions by precipitating uranium as a mixed oxidation state compound. Uranium is recovered by adding a quadrivalent uranium carbon;te solution to the carbonate solution, adjusting the pH to 13 or greater, and precipitating the uranium as a filterable mixed oxidation state compound. In the event vanadium occurs with the uranium, the vanadium is unaffected by the uranium precipitation step and remains in the carbonate solution. The uranium-free solution is electrolyzed in the cathode compartment of a mercury cathode diaphragm cell to reduce and precipitate the vanadium.

  6. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil's physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques

  7. Mode of distribution of uranium mineralization and sequence of the formation of minerals in albitites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechishnikov, N.P.; Kramar, O.A.; Rapovich, F.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and generalization of factural material data on the distribution nature of accessory uranium mineralization in albitites permitting to judge of the role and textural-structural peculiarities of enclosing rocks in mineralization localization are given. It is shown that the uranium mineral formation is closely related with the albitite formation and proceeded during two stages. A main mass of primary uranium minerals (brannerites and uraninites) in the form of impregnated mineralization was formed during the first uraninite-brannerite-albitite stage. Uranium oxides, silicates and titanates in the shape of veines formed. During the second coffinite-pitchblende-chloritic stage the formation of uranium oxides, silicates and titanates occured. Uranium mineralization in albitites developes in zones of cataclasm, small jointing, mylonitization localizing in fine-grained aggregates. A main mass of primary uranium minerals in albitites (brannerite, uraninite relates to neogenic during metasomatosis dark-coloured minerals (riebenite, aegirine, chlorite)

  8. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.; Ehrfeld, U.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium enrichment is not a principal problem of technological feasibility. Several processes exist for producing LWR fuel and the enrichment method can be selected in consideration of economical, environmental, and political aspects. To date, the gaseous diffusion process constitutes the major part of enrichment capacity. This process has been well demonstrated for over 30 years and, as a matter of fact, no major technological and economical progress is to be expected in the future. Because of their comparatively high development potential, the centrifuge and the separation nozzle method may become increasingly favorable in economics. The development of the centrifuge process which is superior by its low specific energy consumption aims at technological improvements. In the separation nozzle process which offers the advantage of a comparatively simple technology a further reduction of the specific energy consumption is to be expected because of the thermodynamically favorable separation mechanism of this process. Laser isotope separation methods are still on the laboratory scale, although large financial funds have been spent. (orig.) [de

  9. Gastrointestinal absorption of uranium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method has been established for determining the fractional absorption of uranium directly in man. Measurements are made of the urinary excretion rates of uranium for individuals whose drinking water has a high 234 U to 238 U activity ratio and is the primary source of 234 U in their diets. For two individuals, the values obtained for the fractional absorption of 234 U were 0.004 and 0.006. The values obtained for the fractional absorption of 238 U, using a literature value for the 238 U intake from food, were 0.008 and 0.015. The present ICRP value is 0.20. 7 references, 1 table

  10. Providing radiation safety for the environment and people at uranium ore mining and primary processing operations and treatment of radioactive wastes in the Navoi mining and metallurgy combinat, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchersky, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    The rise of the uranium industry in the Republic of Uzbekistan is closely connected with the discovery of a number of significant uranium deposits of sheet sandstone type in the Kyzylkum desert area, between the Amu-Darya and Syr-Darya rivers. Based on these deposits, in 1958 the construction of Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (NMMC) commenced. In 1965 the Hydrometallurgical Plant No. 1 (HMP-1), located in the industrial zone near the Navoi town, started producing the uranium protoxide-oxide (yellow cake). The structure of the NMMC uranium production operations includes HMP-1 and three mining facilities. Conventional open-pit and underground uranium mining were shut down here in 1994 and at present all the uranium is extracted by in situ leaching (ISL). The radiation and hygiene sanitary monitoring aimed at collecting information on the radiation conditions at the working places and in the environment, on the current and expected irradiation doses taken by the personnel and various population groups inhabiting the area involved in the activities of the existing, liquidated or temporarily closed NMMC facilities constitutes an integral part of the radiation safety providing system. No radioactive contamination of any environmental objects has been detected outside the sanitary zones and production sites. The radionuclides content in the atmosphere, on the ground surface, in the underground water was found to be at the background level. Current annual average exposure doses of the limited critical population groups were detected to be essentially lower than the current international standards and were about 1 mSv per year

  11. Trends in uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  12. Uranium industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U 3 O 8 (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U 3 O 8 (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world's largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market

  13. Trends in uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  14. Uranium industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  15. Aspects of uranium mineralization in the Beaufort West Karoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, L E

    1977-01-01

    The distribution and controlling factors of uranium mineralization in the sedimentary rocks of the Lower Beaufort Group have been investigated in the Beaufort West area between 22/sup 0/O' and 24/sup 0/O'E longitude and 32/sup 0/O' and 32/sup 0/45'S latitude. The mineralization is classified as 'primary' or 'secondary', depending on the time of emplacement and not on the oxidation state of the uranium minerals present. Petrographic and geochemical aspects of primary uranium deposition point to a syngenetic origin. Reconstruction of the paleodepositional environment suggests that the primary mineralization is restricted to paleo-pools or -meander cut-offs where stagnant reducing conditions existed. From geological mapping done to the south of Beaufort West it appears that this uranium mineralization is located in an 'intermediate' paleo-depositional zone between the true fluvial and delta front environments. The indications of secondary uranium distribution and epigenetic concentration in 'rolls' within the area were studied along with various other aspects of such mineralization. The permeability of the arenaceous rocks in the area seems to be too low to host large uranium deposits of this kind. Detail geochemical soil sampling suggests that Zn, P, Co and As could be used as pathfinder elements for uranium. Although regional anomalies were investigated no meaningful pattern could be developed.

  16. Re-examining uranium supply and demand: New insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahouli, Sondes

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a simultaneous system of equations which aims at analysing the uranium supply and demand. In addition to reviewing and updating previous studies dealing with the uranium market analysis, in particular , the contribution of the paper lies in putting attention to some questions which are still either controversial or unanswered. They are especially related to the controversial hypothesis of the interdependence between uranium market and other commodities markets, both, with respect to the demand side, i.e. oil and coal markets, and the supply side, i.e. gold market. The paper also casts lights on electricity and uranium price effects on uranium demand as well as on the simultaneous interdependencies that may exist between nuclear consumption and nuclear installed capacity. The model is estimated for three different time periods which takes into account the major events that have influenced the nuclear-uranium development, that is, that have constrained the growth rate of nuclear generating capacity, i.e. oil crisis and nuclear accidents. This permits to show if uranium market reaction is independent or it is correlated with specific events associated with each time periods. The model was estimated by using the 3SLS method that correct for the presence of contemporaneously error terms correlation and for the existence of simultaneity bias in the model. Main results give evidence of significant correlation between uranium price and competing fossil fuel prices. They also point-out that uranium price is significantly correlated with the supply forces where supply is significantly dependent on gold prices. Moreover, results show that the electricity prices have a significant effect on the uranium demand only in the post-1990 period, probably following the worldwide electricity prices increasing trend. Further, our estimations show that uranium demand is significantly correlated with uranium price only in the period of nuclear major expansion. As

  17. Re-examining uranium supply and demand: New insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahouli, Sondes, E-mail: sondes.kahouli@univ-nantes.f [Universite de Nantes, Laboratoire d' Economie et de Management de Nantes Atlantique (LEMNA), Institut d' Economie et de Management de Nantes-I.A.E., Chemin de la Censive du Tertre-B.P. 52231, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, we derive a simultaneous system of equations which aims at analysing the uranium supply and demand. In addition to reviewing and updating previous studies dealing with the uranium market analysis, in particular , the contribution of the paper lies in putting attention to some questions which are still either controversial or unanswered. They are especially related to the controversial hypothesis of the interdependence between uranium market and other commodities markets, both, with respect to the demand side, i.e. oil and coal markets, and the supply side, i.e. gold market. The paper also casts lights on electricity and uranium price effects on uranium demand as well as on the simultaneous interdependencies that may exist between nuclear consumption and nuclear installed capacity. The model is estimated for three different time periods which takes into account the major events that have influenced the nuclear-uranium development, that is, that have constrained the growth rate of nuclear generating capacity, i.e. oil crisis and nuclear accidents. This permits to show if uranium market reaction is independent or it is correlated with specific events associated with each time periods. The model was estimated by using the 3SLS method that correct for the presence of contemporaneously error terms correlation and for the existence of simultaneity bias in the model. Main results give evidence of significant correlation between uranium price and competing fossil fuel prices. They also point-out that uranium price is significantly correlated with the supply forces where supply is significantly dependent on gold prices. Moreover, results show that the electricity prices have a significant effect on the uranium demand only in the post-1990 period, probably following the worldwide electricity prices increasing trend. Further, our estimations show that uranium demand is significantly correlated with uranium price only in the period of nuclear major expansion. As

  18. Re-examining uranium supply and demand. New insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahouli, Sondes [Universite de Nantes, Laboratoire d' Economie et de Management de Nantes Atlantique (LEMNA), Institut d' Economie et de Management de Nantes - I.A.E., Chemin de la Censive du Tertre - B.P. 52231, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, we derive a simultaneous system of equations which aims at analysing the uranium supply and demand. In addition to reviewing and updating previous studies dealing with the uranium market analysis, in particular, the contribution of the paper lies in putting attention to some questions which are still either controversial or unanswered. They are especially related to the controversial hypothesis of the interdependence between uranium market and other commodities markets, both, with respect to the demand side, i.e. oil and coal markets, and the supply side, i.e. gold market. The paper also casts lights on electricity and uranium price effects on uranium demand as well as on the simultaneous interdependencies that may exist between nuclear consumption and nuclear installed capacity. The model is estimated for three different time periods which takes into account the major events that have influenced the nuclear-uranium development, that is, that have constrained the growth rate of nuclear generating capacity, i.e. oil crisis and nuclear accidents. This permits to show if uranium market reaction is independent or it is correlated with specific events associated with each time periods. The model was estimated by using the 3SLS method that correct for the presence of contemporaneously error terms correlation and for the existence of simultaneity bias in the model. Main results give evidence of significant correlation between uranium price and competing fossil fuel prices. They also point-out that uranium price is significantly correlated with the supply forces where supply is significantly dependent on gold prices. Moreover, results show that the electricity prices have a significant effect on the uranium demand only in the post-1990 period, probably following the worldwide electricity prices increasing trend. Further, our estimations show that uranium demand is significantly correlated with uranium price only in the period of nuclear major expansion. As

  19. Uranium production economics in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorentino, C.M.R.; Butler, R.D.; Thomas, C.M.; McIlveen, G.R.; Huxlin, M.E.

    1990-02-01

    This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U 3 O 8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs

  20. Uranium enrichment. Technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R+D efforts on various processes. (author)

  1. Studies on uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, I.S.; Chun, J.K.; Park, S.W.; Choi, S.J.; Lee, C.H.; Chung, M.K.; Lim, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    For the exploitation of domestic uranium ore deposit, comprehensive studies on uranium ore processing of the Geum-San pit ore are carried out. Physical and chemical characteristics of the Geum-San ore are similar to those of Goe-San ore and the physical beneficiation could not be applicable. Optimum operating conditions such as uranium leaching, solid-liquid separation, solvent extraction and precipitation of yellow cake are found out and the results are confirmed by the continous operation of the micro-plant with the capacity of 50Kg, ore/day. In order to improve the process of ore milling pilot plant installed recently, the feasibility of raffinate-recycle and the precipitation methods of yellow cake are intensively examined. It was suggested that the raffinate-recycle in the leaching of filtering stage could be reduced the environmental contamination and the peroxide precipitation technique was applicable to improve the purity of yellow cake. The mechanism and conditions the third phase formation are thoroughly studied and confirmed by chemical analysis of the third phase actually formed during the operation of pilot plant. The major constituents of the third phase are polyanions such as PMosub(12)Osub(40)sup(3-) or SiMosub(12)Osub(40)sup(4-). And the formation of these polyanions could be reduced by the control of redox potential and the addition of modifier. (Author)

  2. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Jr., W. R.; Vanstrum, P. R.; Saire, D. E.; Gestson, D. K.; Peske, S. E.

    1982-08-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes.

  3. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Vanstrum, P.R.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  4. Uranium market issues and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julian, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The market for uranium has become increasingly international in scope. This trend is expected to continue, with additional sources of competitive supply entering the market. The decrease in constant-dollar uranium prices over the past 11-12 years has realigned competitive supply sources. Implementation of the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement in 1989 is a significant event in its implications for future trade patterns. Namibian independence from South Africa would open additional markets for Rossing production. Decisions by the government of Australia concerning the three mine policy and the floor price for contracts are crucial in the development of supply in that country. Uranium from China and the USSR may become increasingly available and acceptable to some worldwide buyers. Over the long run, the competitive status of the US with respect to certain foreign producers will probably depend more on the success of US producers in minimizing costs or using unconventional mining techniques, such as in-situ leach where feasible, than on legislative measures. Investment in promising areas outside of the US is a potential avenue to be explored for profitable ventures. Price formation is dependent on a number of interacting supply-and-demand factors. Future price movement will be the major factor determining which production centers will be competitive

  5. Uranium geochemistry, mineralogy, geology, exploration and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vivo, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book comprises papers on the following topics: history of radioactivity; uranium in mantle processes; transport and deposition of uranium in hydrothermal systems at temperatures up to 300 0 C: Geological implications; geochemical behaviour of uranium in the supergene environment; uranium exploration techniques; uranium mineralogy; time, crustal evolution and generation of uranium deposits; uranium exploration; geochemistry of uranium in the hydrographic network; uranium deposits of the world, excluding Europe; uranium deposits in Europe; uranium in the economics of energy; role of high heat production granites in uranium province formation; and uranium deposits

  6. Recovery of uranium from uranium mine waters and copper ore leaching solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D R; Ross, J R [Salt Lake City Metallurgy Research Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1967-06-15

    Waters pumped from uranium mines in New Mexico are processed by ion exchange to recover uranium. Production is approximately 200 lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8}/d from waters containing 5 to 15 ppm U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Recoveries range from 80 to 90%. Processing plants are described. Uranium has been found in the solutions resulting from the leaching of copper-bearing waste rock at most of the major copper mines in western United States. These solutions, which are processed on a very large scale for recovery of copper, contain 2 to 12 ppm U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Currently, uranium is not being recovered, but a potential production of up to 6000 lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8}/d is indicated. Ion exchange and solvent extraction research studies are described. (author)

  7. Kvanefjeld uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This report contains a description and an investment estimate for the infrastructure connected with establishing uranium mining activities at Narssaq. The infrastructure comprises dwellings for employess, etc., personnel and cargo transport, incl. harbours, primary storage facilities and supply routes. The report does not cover the production plant, ore and tailings transport systems, energy supply, nor workshop and administration buildings. The report assumes that the Greenland mining enterprise will employ approx. 280 persons in mining and administration, and approx. 300 persons in processing plants, etc. An increased population will also provide increased demand for shops, institutions and facilities for leisure activities. It is expected that areas will be reserved for local shops, and one or two day-care institutions for children will be built. The increase in cargo transport to and from production plants and in connection with population growth will necessitate the construction of new harbours and/or extension of the existing harbour in Narssaq. The annual volumes of coal and chemical products in bulk for the processing plant will amount to approx. 160,000 t. Approx. 8,000 tons a year will be needed to satisfy the requirements of both mining and the increased population. The present volume passing through the harbour in Narssaq is approx. 7,000 t. (EG)

  8. Uranium enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article includes an introduction about the isotopes of natural uranium, their existence and the difficulty of the separation between them. Then it goes to the details of a number of methods used to enrich uranium: Gaseous Diffusion method, Electromagnetic method, Jet method, Centrifugal method, Chemical method, Laser method and Plasma method.

  9. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Sintered uranium dioxide pellets composed of particles of size > 50 microns suitable for power reactor use are made by incorporating a small amount of sulphur into the uranium dioxide before sintering. The increase in grain size achieved results in an improvement in overall efficiency when such pellets are used in a power reactor. (author)

  10. Uranium's scientific history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    The bicentenary of the discovery of uranium coincides with the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of fission, an event of worldwide significance and the last episode in the uranium -radium saga which is the main theme of this paper. Uranium was first identified by the German chemist Martin Klaproth in 1789. He extracted uranium oxide from the ore pitchblende which was a by-product of the silver mines at Joachimsthal in Bohemia. For over a century after its discovery, the main application for uranium derived from the vivid colours of its oxides and salts which are used in glazes for ceramics, and porcelain. In 1896, however, Becquerel discovered that uranium emitted ionizing radiation. The extraction by Pierre and Marie Curie of the more radioactive radium from uranium in the early years of the twentieth century and its application to the treatment of cancer shifted the chief interest to radium production. In the 1930s the discovery of the neutron and of artificial radioactivity stimulated research in a number of European laboratories which culminated in the demonstration of fission by Otto Frisch in January 1939. The new found use of uranium for the production of recoverable energy, and the creation of artificial radioelements in nuclear reactors, eliminated the radium industry. (author)

  11. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation

  12. Rheinbraun's Australian uranium business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, S.

    1989-01-01

    The leaflet argues against the mining activities of the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG in Germany and especially against uranium mining in Australia. The ethno-ecological impact on flora and fauna, aborigines and miners are pointed out. Uranium mining and lignite mining are compared. (HSCH) [de

  13. Nuclear and uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNabb, G.M.; Uranium Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario)

    The background of the uranium industry in Canada is described. Government policies with respect to ownership of the uranium mining industry, price stabilization, and especially reservation of sufficient supplies of nuclear fuels for domestic utilities, are explained. Canadian policy re nuclear exports and safeguards is outlined. (E.C.B.)

  14. Uranium and transuranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnaud, F.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical chemistry of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium is reviewed. Uranium and neptunium are mainly treated and curium is only briefly evoked. Analysis methods include coulometry, titration, mass spectrometry, absorption spectrometry, spectrofluorometry, X-ray spectrometry, nuclear methods and radiation spectrometry [fr

  15. Preparation of uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirths, G.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium dioxide is converted to uranium tetrafluoride under stoichiometric excess of hydrogen fluoride. The water formed in the process and the unreacted hydrogen fluoride are cooled and the condensate fractionally distilled into water and approx. 40% hydrofluoric acid. The hydrofluoric acid and water-free hydrogen fluoride are fed back into the process. (WI) [de

  16. Rossing uranium 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the activities and organization of the Rossing uranium mine in South West Africa. The development of the mine during the last six years is described as well as the geology of the uranium deposits and aspects of the mining operations. The manpower structure and training possibilities for personnel are described

  17. Uranium resources evaluation model as an exploration tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation of uranium resources, as conducted by the Uranium Resources Evaluation Section of the Geological Survey of Canada, comprises operations analogous with those performed during the preparatory stages of uranium exploration. The uranium resources evaluation model, simulating the estimation process, can be divided into four steps. The first step includes definition of major areas and ''unit subdivisions'' for which geological data are gathered, coded, computerized and retrieved. Selection of these areas and ''unit subdivisions'' is based on a preliminary appraisal of their favourability for uranium mineralization. The second step includes analyses of the data, definition of factors controlling uranium minearlization, classification of uranium occurrences into genetic types, and final delineation of favourable areas; this step corresponds to the selection of targets for uranium exploration. The third step includes geological field work; it is equivalent to geological reconnaissance in exploration. The fourth step comprises computation of resources; the preliminary evaluation techniques in the exploration are, as a rule, analogous with the simplest methods employed in the resource evaluation. The uranium resources evaluation model can be conceptually applied for decision-making during exploration or for formulation of exploration strategy using the quantified data as weighting factors. (author)

  18. Critical analysis of the management of waste system originated at the uranium mining and processing. A case study of the Concentrated Unit of Uranium - INB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Valeska Peres de

    2005-01-01

    The uranium world market faced a depreciation of this commodity during the last decades. Recently, decreases in the secondary supply (represented by highly enriched uranium - HEU - stocks detained by the former Soviet Union) turned out the market dependent upon primary supply again. In order to cope with this changing demands and market conditions, new uranium mining/milling projects must start operation, or at least, former uranium production plants must be improved. Environmental questions have been and certainly will continue to be a determinant factor concerning the operational feasibility of these facilities. Mining/milling activities have the potential to cause risks to the human health and to the environment. In case of uranium projects, radiological impacts shall also be taken into consideration. Amongst the most relevant environmental aspects associated with the operation of a uranium project, generated wastes are usually of major concern and deserve appropriate management strategies. As a result the objective of the present work was to examine the waste management system of the Brazilian uranium production unity located at the municipality of Caetite, northeast region of the country. An open pit mine and a milling facility compose this unit. The extraction method employed is acid heap leach (using H 2 SO 4 ). It could be assessed that the overall conceptual management strategy is in agreement with the practices adopted worldwide. Atmospheric impacts, caused by the emissions of radon and aerosols must be investigated in more details. Mathematical simulation revealed that no significant impact in groundwater is expected due to mobilization and transport of radionuclides from the milling wastes. However, the impacts of drainage water, accumulated in the open pit, into groundwater cannot be discarded yet. Screening techniques were applied to assess the potential contribution of the leached ore piles as a 226 Ra source of pollution. Our results did not allow

  19. Prospects brighten for world uranium producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.

    1996-01-01

    Since the beginning of 1995, uranium spot market prices have risen by more than 67%. This has been due to supply related factors and might have been greater if world nuclear power projections had not shown virtually zero growth over the next few decades except in the Far East. Perceptions of a looming supply shortfall have been created by rapidly declining inventories, western mine production being able to meet only half of plant requirements, constraints on access to CIS supplies in the future and considerably less than anticipated uranium-equivalent supply from nuclear weapons material. Data on projected world supply and demand balances are presented. On the supply side this includes all primary production and inventories of all forms. A supply deficit of 5 million 1b, U 3 O 8 by 2010 is shown. Trade constraints, weapons stockpiles and laser enrichment, which are the most important factors affecting both the near- and longer-term uranium markets, are discussed. (UK)

  20. Preparation and certification of a reference uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-06-01

    The CEA Analysis Coordination has produced a reference uranium metal of guaranteed minimum uranium content. The metal was purified by electro-refining in fused salt baths and the dendrites obtained were cast in the form of an ingot by electron bombardment. The ingot was rolled and cut into pieces of mass between 0.5 g and 1.5 g, and each piece conditioned in a glass ampoule under primary vacuum. The total number of reference samples is about 4500. The uranium content was inferred from the impurity concentration determined by spark mass spectrometry and atomic or molecular adsorption spectrophotometry and from the gas concentration determined by specific methods. A certificate of guarantee gives instructions for the use of these reference samples [fr

  1. Potential for uranium recovery at Nolans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, K.; Ho, E.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration of uranium in Nolans is higher than is typical of phosphate rock deposits worldwide. This requires appropriate management of the radioactivity during ore processing, but also provides an opportunity for recovery of uranium as a by-product. The recovery must be integrated into the rare earth process, which is the primary focus of the project. Furthermore, the separation of rare earths from the phosphate matrix and the recovery of phosphoric acid or other fertiliser products is also an important consideration. This paper discusses the various process options that are being considered for the development of a process for Nolans that integrates the recovery of phosphate values and uranium as by-products or rare earth processing

  2. Management of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategy depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider. (authors)

  3. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L [Batavia, IL; Ackerman, John P [Prescott, AZ; Williamson, Mark A [Naperville, IL

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  4. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  5. Uranium oxide recovering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kazuaki; Takazawa, Hiroshi; Teramae, Naoki; Onoue, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrates containing uranium nitrate are charged in a molten salt electrolytic vessel, and a heat treatment is applied to prepare molten salts. An anode and a cathode each made of a graphite rod are disposed in the molten salts. AC voltage is applied between the anode and the cathode to conduct electrolysis of the molten salts. Uranium oxides are deposited as a recovered product of uranium, on the surface of the anode. The nitrates containing uranium nitrate are preferably a mixture of one or more nitrates selected from sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and magnesium nitrate with uranium nitrate. The nitrates may be liquid wastes of nitrates. The temperature for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably from 150 to 300degC. The voltage for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably an AC voltage of from 2 to 6V, more preferably from 4 to 6V. (I.N.)

  6. Uranium mines of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A; Gusakov, E.G.; Marushenko, A.A.; Botov, A.Yu.; Yunusov, M.M.

    2002-12-01

    The book describes location laws, the main properties of geological structure and industrial perspectives for known uranium mines of the Republic of Tajikistan. Used methods of industrial processing of uranium mines are described. The results of investigations of technological properties of main types of uranium ores and methods of industrial processing of some of them are shown. Main properties of uranium are shortly described as well as problems, connected with it, which arise during exploitation, mining and processing of uranium ores. The main methods of solution of these problems are shown. The book has interest for specialists of mining, geological, chemical, and technological fields as well as for students of appropriate universities. This book will be interested for usual reader, too, if they are interested in mineral resources of their country [ru

  7. Uranium chemistry research unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The initial field of research of this Unit, established in 1973, was the basic co-ordination chemistry of uranium, thorium, copper, cobalt and nickel. Subsequently the interest of the Unit extended to extractive metallurgy relating to these metals. Under the term 'co-ordination chemistry' is understood the interaction of the central transition metal ion with surrounding atoms in its immediate vicinity (within bonding distance) and the influence they have on each other - for example, structural studies for determining the number and arrangement of co-ordinated atoms and spectrophotometric studies to establish how the f electron energy levels of uranium are influenced by the environment. New types of uranium compounds have been synthesized and studied, and the behaviour of uranium ions in non-aqueous systems has also received attention. This work can be applied to the development and study of extractants and new extractive processes for uranium

  8. EPR of uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, I.; Lupei, V.

    1984-02-01

    A review of the electron paramagnetic resonance data on the uranium ions is given. After a general account of the electronic structure of the uranium free atoms and ions, the influence of the external fields (magnetic field, crystal fields) is discussed. The main information obtained from EPR studies on the uranium ions in crystals are emphasized: identification of the valence and of the ground electronic state, determination of the structure of the centers, crystal field effects, role of the intermediate coupling and of the J-mixing, role of the covalency, determination of the nuclear spin, maqnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment of the odd isotopes of uranium. These data emphasize the fact that the actinide group has its own identity and this is accutely manifested at the beginning of the 5fsup(n) series encompassed by the uranium ions. (authors)

  9. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  10. Forms of uranium associated to silica in the environment of the Nopal deposit (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T.; Othmane, G.; Menguy, N.; Vercouter, T.; Morin, G.; Calas, G.; Fayek, M.

    2011-12-01

    The understanding of the processes that control the transfers of uranium in the environment is necessary for the safety assessement of nuclear waste repositories. In particular, several poorly ordered phases (e.g. Fe oxihydroxides) are expected to play an important role in trapping uranium from surface waters. Among them, natural systems containing amorphous silica are poorly documented. A former study from the environment of the Peny mine (France) showed the importance of silica in uranium speciation [1]. The Nopal uranium deposit is located in volcanic tuff from tertiary period. It hosted several hydrothermal alteration episodes responsible for clay minerals formation. A primary uranium mineralisation occurred in a breccia pipe, consisting in uraninite, subsequently altered in secondary uranium minerals among which several silicates. Eventually, opal was formed and coated uranyl silicates such as uranophane and weeksite [2], [3]. Opals also contain minor amounts of uranium. The Nopal deposit is still considered as a natural analogue of high level nuclear waste repository located in volcanic tuff. It may be used to reveal the low temperature conditions of trapping of uranium in systems devoid of iron oxides such as silica-containing ones. The aim of this study is then to determine the uranium speciation, and its possible complexity, associated to these opals that represent a late trapping episode. It will provide insights ranging from the micrometer scale of electron microscopies to the molecular scale provided by fluorescence spectroscopy. Three samples of green or yellow opals have been analysed by a combination of complementary tools including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on cross-sections, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on focused ion beam (FIB) films, cathodoluminescence and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Uranium speciation was found to be complex. We first evidence U-bearing microparticles of beta-uranophane Ca[(UO2)(Si

  11. Method of converting uranium fluoride to intermediate product for uranium oxide manufacture with recycling or reusing valuable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, V.; Moltasova, J.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium fluoride is acted upon by water with nitrate containing a cation capable of binding fluoride ions. The uranium is extracted, for instance, with tributyl phosphate with the generated organic phase containing the prevalent proportion of uranium and representing the required intermediate product and the aqueous phase from which is isolated the fluorine component which may be used within the fuel cycle. The nitrate component of the aqueous phase is recycled following treatment. It is also possible to act on uranium fluoride directly with an aqueous solution. Here the cations of nitrate form with the fluorides soluble nondissociated complexes and reduce the concentration of free fluoride ions. The nitrate +s mostly used in an amount corresponding to its solubility in the system prior to the introduction of UF 6 . The uranium from the solution with the reduced concentration of free fluoride ions is extracted into the reaction system under such conditions as to make the prevalent majority of fluorides and an amount of uranium smaller than 5x10 -2 mol/l remain in the aqueous phase and that such an amount of fluorides should remain in the organic phase which is smaller than corresponds to the fluorine/uranium molar ratio in the organic phase. Uranium contained in the organic phase is processed into uranium oxide, with advantage into UO 2 . From the isolated compounds of fluorine and the cation of the nitrate gaseous HF is released which is used either inside or outside of the fuel cycle. (J.P.)

  12. The day-to-day acute effect of wake therapy in patients with major depression using the HAM-D6 as primary outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus; Refsgaard, Else; Lund, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports day-to-day data for from a one-week intervention phase, part of a 9-weeks randomised parallel study with patient having major depression (data from weekly visits have been reported). Wake therapy (sleep deprivation) has an established antidepressant effect with onset of action...... within hours. Deterioration on the following night's sleep is, however, common, and we used daily light therapy and sleep time stabilisation as a preventive measure. In particular, we evaluated the day-to-day acute effect of and tolerance to sleep deprivation and examined predictors of response....

  13. The Nopal 1 Uranium Deposit: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Galoisy, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal 1 natural analogue is located in the Pena Blanca uranium district, about 50 kms north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit is hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs, dated at 44 Ma (Nopal and Colorados formations), and overlying the Pozos conglomerate formation and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The deposit is exposed at the ground surface and consists of a near vertical zone extending over about 100 m with a diameter of 40 m. An interesting characteristic is that the primary mineralization has been exposed above the water table, as a result of the uplift of the Sierra Pena Blanca, and subsequently oxidized with a remobilization of hexavalent uranium. The primary mineralization has been explained by various genetic models. It is associated to an extensive hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic tuffs, locally associated to pyrite and preserved by an intense silicification. Several kaolinite parageneses occur in fissure fillings and feldspar pseudomorphs, within the mineralized breccia pipe and the barren surrounding rhyolitic tuffs. Smectites are mainly developed in the underlying weakly welded tuffs. Several radiation-induced defect centers have been found in these kaolinites providing a unique picture of the dynamics of uranium mobilization (see Allard et al., this session). Another evidence of this mobilization is given by the spectroscopy of uranium-bearing opals, which show characteristic fluorescence spectra of uranyl groups sorbed at the surface of silica. By comparison with the other uranium deposits of the Sierra Pena Blanca and the nearby Sierra de Gomez, the Nopal 1 deposit is original, as it is one of the few deposits hving retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  14. A coalescence model for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart-Williams, V.; Taylor, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium mineralization was found in the Pristerognathus-Diictodon Assemblage Zone of the Teekloof Formation, Beaufort Group, west of Beaufort West, Cape Province, South Africa. All the anomalies can be related to a single mineralization model. Mineralization is found at the termination of a silt parting between two coalescing sandstones and lies in the lower sandstone as an inclined zone dipping downflow from the termination of the silt parting. The existence of primary Eh-pH gradient is indicated by a uranium-molybdenum zonation, the molybdenum lying above the uranium mineralization. The upper sandstone was an oxidizing fluvial channel in an arid environment through which uranyl carbonate was being transported in solution. Carbonaceous material undergoing anaerobic bacterial breakdown generated a weakly reducing fluid in the lower sandstone. Carbonaceous material at the REDOX front developed between the two mixing fluids at the point of sandstone coalescence reduced uranyl carbonates in solution. Once reduced the uranium minerals remained stable because the conditions in the REDOX front were only very weakly oxidizing. As floodplain aggradation continued, the upper sandstone was buried and the entire sandstone couplet became reducing, permanently stabilizing the uranium mineralization

  15. Modeling of geochemical processes related to uranium mobilization in the groundwater of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, P.; Garralon, A.; Buil, B.; Turrero, Ma.J.; Sanchez, L.; Cruz, B. de la

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the processes leading to uranium distribution in the groundwater of five boreholes near a restored uranium mine (dug in granite), and the environmental impact of restoration work in the discharge area. The groundwater uranium content varied from < 1 μg/L in reduced water far from the area of influence of the uranium ore-containing dyke, to 104 μg/L in a borehole hydraulically connected to the mine. These values, however, fail to reflect a chemical equilibrium between the water and the pure mineral phases. A model for the mobilization of uranium in this groundwater is therefore proposed. This involves the percolation of oxidized waters through the fractured granite, leading to the oxidation of pyrite and arsenopyrite and the precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. This in turn leads to the dissolution of the primary pitchblende and, subsequently, the release of U(VI) species to the groundwater. These U(VI) species are retained by iron hydroxides. Secondary uranium species are eventually formed as reducing conditions are re-established due to water-rock interactions

  16. Uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Debao, He [CNNC Key Laboratory of Uranium Resource Exploration and Evaluation Technology, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology (China)

    2012-07-15

    The paper briefly introduces the differences between uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in the 5 provinces of South China, and discusses their main characteristics in 4 aspects, the uranium productive granite is highly developed in fracture, very strong in alteration, often occurred as two-mica granite and regularly developed with intermediate-basic and acid dikes. The above characteristics distinguish the uranium productive granite from the uranium rich granite. (authors)

  17. Uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; He Debao

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly introduces the differences between uranium rich granite and uranium productive granite in the 5 provinces of South China, and discusses their main characteristics in 4 aspects, the uranium productive granite is highly developed in fracture, very strong in alteration, often occurred as two-mica granite and regularly developed with intermediate-basic and acid dikes. The above characteristics distinguish the uranium productive granite from the uranium rich granite. (authors)

  18. Pengaruh Kandungan Uranium Dalam Umpan Terhadap Efisiensi Pengendapan Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Torowati

    2010-01-01

    PENGARUH KANDUNGAN URANIUM DALAM UMPAN TERHADAP EFISIENSI PENGENDAPAN URANIUM. Setiap aktivitas analisis di Laboratorium Kendali Kualitas, Bidang Bahan Bakar Nuklir selalu dihasilkan limbah radioaktif cair. Limbah radioaktif cair di laboratorium masih mengandung uranium yang cukup besar ± 0,600 g U/l dengan keasamaan yang cukup besar pula. Karena uranium mempunyai nilai ekonomis yang cukup tinggi maka perlu USAha untuk mengambil kembali uranium tersebut. Pada kegiatan ini telah dilak...

  19. Carbon nanoencapsulation of uranium dicarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, E.

    1996-01-01

    Nanoparticles of uranium dicarbide encapsulated in carbon smaller than 100 nm have been obtained by chemical reactions at high temperature. Two types of nanocapsules were identified and characterized. The majority of them had small diffuse kernel surfaces, with dimensions between 5 and 15 nm, surrounded by thick spherical carbon cover. Others, in minor quantity and ranging from 15 to 40 nm, were polyhedrical and surrounded with several perfect graphite layers oriented parallel to their external surface. The nanocapsules are as chemically inert as graphite. (orig.)

  20. Carbon nanoencapsulation of uranium dicarbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. Combustibles Nucleares; Adelfang, P. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. Combustibles Nucleares; Regueiro, M.N. [EPM-Matformag, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    1996-07-01

    Nanoparticles of uranium dicarbide encapsulated in carbon smaller than 100 nm have been obtained by chemical reactions at high temperature. Two types of nanocapsules were identified and characterized. The majority of them had small diffuse kernel surfaces, with dimensions between 5 and 15 nm, surrounded by thick spherical carbon cover. Others, in minor quantity and ranging from 15 to 40 nm, were polyhedrical and surrounded with several perfect graphite layers oriented parallel to their external surface. The nanocapsules are as chemically inert as graphite. (orig.).

  1. Uranium and the fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of uranium availability upon the future of the fast reactor is reviewed. The important issues considered are uranium reserves and resources, uranium market prices, fast reactor economics and the political availability of uranium to customers in other countries. (U.K.)

  2. Uranium producers foresee new boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1979-01-01

    The status of uranium production in Canada is reviewed. Uranium resources in Saskatchewan and Ontario are described and the role of the Cluff Lake inquiry in securing a government decision in favour of further uranium development is mentioned. There have been other uranium strikes near Kelowna, British Columbia and in the Northwest Territories. Increasing uranium demand and favourable prices are making the development of northern resources economically attractive. In fact, all uranium currently produced has been committed to domestic and export contracts so that there is considerable room for expanding the production of uranium in Canada. (T.I.)

  3. Uranium-series disequilibria as a means to study recent migration of uranium in a sandstone-hosted uranium deposit, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Maozhong; Peng Xinjian; Wang Jinping; Osmond, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium concentration and alpha specific activities of uranium decay series nuclides 234 U, 238 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra were measured for 16 oxidized host sandstone samples, 36 oxic-anoxic (mineralized) sandstone samples and three unaltered primary sandstone samples collected from the Shihongtan deposit. The results show that most of the ores and host sandstones have close to secular equilibrium alpha activity ratios for 234 U/ 238 U, 230 Th/ 238 U, 230 Th/ 234 U and 226 Ra/ 230 Th, indicating that intensive groundwater-rock/ore interaction and uranium migration have not taken place in the deposit during the last 1.0 Ma. However, some of the old uranium ore bodies have locally undergone leaching in the oxidizing environment during the past 300 ka to 1.0 Ma or to the present, and a number of new U ore bodies have grown in the oxic-anoxic transition (mineralized) subzone during the past 1.0 Ma. Locally, uranium leaching has taken place during the past 300 ka to 1.0 Ma, and perhaps is still going on now in some sandstones of the oxidizing subzone. However, uranium accumulation has locally occurred in some sandstones of the oxidizing environment during the past 1 ka to 1.0 Ma, which may be attributed to adsorption of U(VI) by clays contained in oxidized sandstones. A recent accumulation of uranium has locally taken place within the unaltered sandstones of the primary subzone close to the oxic-anoxic transition environment during the past 300 ka to 1.0 Ma. Results from the present study also indicate that uranium-series disequilibrium is an important tool to trace recent migration of uranium occurring in sandstone-hosted U deposits during the past 1.0 Ma and to distinguish the oxidation-reduction boundary

  4. Uranium enrichment: heading for the abyss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses the federal government's $2.3 billion a year business enriching uranium for nuclear power plants which is heading toward a major crisis. Due to miscalculations by the Department of Energy, it is caught with billions of dollars of construction in progress just as projected demand for enriched uranium is decreasing. At the center of the controversy is the Gas Centrifuge Plant at Portsmouth, Ohio - estimated to cost $10 billion dollars. A review of how DOE got into this situation and how they plan to solve it is presented

  5. Spectrographic determination of microconstituents in uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Reino, L.C. de; Lordello, A.R.

    1982-11-01

    A espectrographic method for the direct determination of impurities in uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) was developed. The major impurities introduced during the preparation of UF 4 (Fe, Ni, Cr) and other impurities introduced in the prior stages of this preparation were determined. Spectrochemical carriers were used to suppress the uranium distillation during excitation, because fluoride compound is more volatile the refractory matrix (U 3 O 8 ). Better results were obtained using as carrier a mixture of 20% MgO and 10% MgO and 10% NaCl, concerning to the UF 4 matrix. The sensibilities for some of those impurities are in the ppm level. (Author) [pt

  6. Uranium deposits of the world. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, Franz J.

    2016-07-01

    Uranium Deposits of the World, in three volumes, comprises an unprecedented compilation of data and descriptions of the uranium regions in Asia, USA, Latin America and Europe structured by countries. With this third, the Europe volume, Uranium Deposits of the World presents the most extensive data collection of the set. It covers about 140 uranium regions in more than 20 European countries with nearly 1000 mentioned uranium deposits. Each country and region receives an analytical overview followed by the geologically- and economically-relevant synopsis of the individual regions and fields. The presentations are structured in three major sections: (a) location and magnitude of uranium regions, districts, and deposits, (b) principal features of regions and districts, and (c) detailed characteristics of selected ore fields and deposits. This includes sections on geology, alteration, mineralization, shape and dimensions of deposits, isotopes data, ore control and recognition criteria, and metallogenesis. Beside the main European uranium regions, for example in the Czech Republic, Eastern Germany, France, the Iberian Peninsula or Ukraine, also small regions an districts to the point of singular occurrences of interest are considered. This by far the most comprehensive presentation of European uranium geology and mining would not be possible without the author's access to extensive information covering the countries of the former Eastern Bloc states, which was partly not previously available. Abundantly illustrated with information-laden maps and charts throughout, this reference work is an indispensable tool for geologists, mining companies, government agencies, and others with an interest in European key natural resources. A great help for the reader's orientation are the substantial bibliography of uranium-related publications and the indices, latter containing about 3900 entries in the geographical part alone. The three volumes of Uranium Deposits of the

  7. Controlling intake of uranium in the workplace: Applications of biokinetic modeling and occupational monitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; McGinn, Wilson [ORNL; Meck, Dr. Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2012-01-01

    This report provides methods for interpreting and applying occupational uranium monitoring data. The methods are based on current international radiation protection guidance, current information on the chemical toxicity of uranium, and best available biokinetic models for uranium. Emphasis is on air monitoring data and three types of bioassay data: the concentration of uranium in urine; the concentration of uranium in feces; and the externally measured content of uranium in the chest. Primary Reference guidance levels for prevention of chemical effects and limitation of radiation effects are selected based on a review of current scientific data and regulatory principles for setting standards. Generic investigation levels and immediate action levels are then defined in terms of these primary guidance levels. The generic investigation and immediate actions levels are stated in terms of radiation dose and concentration of uranium in the kidneys. These are not directly measurable quantities, but models can be used to relate the generic levels to the concentration of uranium in air, urine, or feces, or the total uranium activity in the chest. Default investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest are recommended for situations in which there is little information on the form of uranium taken into the body. Methods are prescribed also for deriving case-specific investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest when there is sufficient information on the form of uranium to narrow the range of predictions of accumulation of uranium in the main target organs for uranium: kidneys for chemical effects and lungs for radiological effects. In addition, methods for using the information herein for alternative guidance levels, different from the ones selected for this report, are described.

  8. Metals other than uranium affected microbial community composition in a historical uranium-mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Jana; Löffler, Sylvia; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Büchel, Georg; Hazen, Terry C; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    To understand the links between the long-term impact of uranium and other metals on microbial community composition, ground- and surface water-influenced soils varying greatly in uranium and metal concentrations were investigated at the former uranium-mining district in Ronneburg, Germany. A soil-based 16S PhyloChip approach revealed 2358 bacterial and 35 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTU) within diverse phylogenetic groups with higher OTU numbers than at other uranium-contaminated sites, e.g., at Oak Ridge. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB), which have the potential to attenuate uranium and other metals by the enzymatic and/or abiotic reduction of metal ions, were found at all sites. Although soil concentrations of solid-phase uranium were high, ranging from 5 to 1569 μg·g (dry weight) soil(-1), redundancy analysis (RDA) and forward selection indicated that neither total nor bio-available uranium concentrations contributed significantly to the observed OTU distribution. Instead, microbial community composition appeared to be influenced more by redox potential. Bacterial communities were also influenced by bio-available manganese and total cobalt and cadmium concentrations. Bio-available cadmium impacted FeRB distribution while bio-available manganese and copper as well as solid-phase zinc concentrations in the soil affected SRB composition. Archaeal communities were influenced by the bio-available lead as well as total zinc and cobalt concentrations. These results suggest that (i) microbial richness was not impacted by heavy metals and radionuclides and that (ii) redox potential and secondary metal contaminants had the strongest effect on microbial community composition, as opposed to uranium, the primary source of contamination.

  9. Objective measures of sleep duration and continuity in major depressive disorder with comorbid hypersomnolence: a primary investigation with contiguous systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Cook, Jesse D; Goldstein, Michael R

    2017-06-01

    Hypersomnolence plays an important role in the presentation, treatment and course of mood disorders. However, there has been relatively little research that examines objective measures of sleep duration and continuity in patients with depression and hypersomnolence, despite the use of these factors in sleep medicine nosological systems. This study compared total sleep time and efficiency measured by naturalistic actigraphic recordings followed by ad libitum polysomnography (PSG; without prescribed wake time) in 22 patients with major depressive disorder and co-occurring hypersomnolence against age- and sex-matched healthy sleeper controls. The major depressive disorder and co-occurring hypersomnolence group demonstrated significantly longer sleep duration compared with healthy sleeper controls quantified by sleep diaries, actigraphy and ad libitum PSG. No between-group differences in sleep efficiency (SE), latency to sleep or wake after sleep onset were observed when assessed using objective measures. To further contextualize these findings within the broader scientific literature, a systematic review was performed to identify other comparable investigations. A meta-analysis of pooled data demonstrated patients with mood disorders and co-occurring hypersomnolence have significantly greater sleep duration and similar SE compared with healthy controls when assessed using ad libitum PSG. These results suggest current sleep medicine nosology that distinguishes hypersomnia associated with psychiatric disorders primarily as a construct characterized by low SE and increased time in bed may not be accurate. Future studies that establish the biological bases hypersomnolence in mood disorders, as well as clarify the accuracy of nosological thresholds to define excessive sleep duration, are needed to refine the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  11. Uranium processing developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.Q.

    1977-01-01

    The basic methods for processing ore to recover the contained uranium have not changed significantly since the 1954-62 period. Improvements in mill operations have been the result of better or less expensive reagents, changes in equipment, and in the successful resolvement of many environmental matters. There is also an apparent trend toward large mills that can profitably process lower grade ores. The major thrust in the near future will not be on process technology but on the remaining environmental constraints associated with milling. At this time the main ''spot light'' is on tailings dam and impoundment area construction and reclamation. Plans must provide for an adequate safety factor for stability, no surface or groundwater contamination, and minimal discharge of radionuclides to unrestricted areas, as may be required by law. Solution mining methods must also provide for plans to restore the groundwater back to its original condition as defined by local groundwater regulations. Basic flowsheets (each to finished product) plus modified versions of the basic types are shown

  12. Developments in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The enrichment services market is still characterized by overcapacities. While consumption worldwide will rise by some 15% to 39,000 t SWU/a over the next ten years, capacities amount to nearly 50,000 t SWU/a. The price for enrichment services probably has reached its all time low. Prices below U.S. $ 100/kg SWU are not likely to cover costs even of the economically most advanced enrichment processes. Urenco has prepared for the difficult enrichment business in the years to come by streamlining and cost cutting measures. The company intends to hold and increase its share of more than 10% in the world market. The uranium enrichment plant of Gronau will be expanded further. Expansion beyond 1000 t is subject to another permit being granted under the Atomic Energy Act, an application for which was filed in December 1994. Centrifuge technology is the superior enrichment technology, i.e., there is still considerable potential for further development. Construction of enrichment plants employing the centrifuge technology in the United States and in France is being pursued in various phases, from feasibility studies to licensing procedures. Before these plants could be implemented, however, considerable problems of organization would have to be solved, and the market would have to change greatly, respectively. The laser process, at the present time, does not seem to be able to develop into a major industrial competitor. (orig.) [de

  13. The uranium production cycle and the environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Within the international community it is widely recognized that the responsibility for management of uranium production and all related activities should be independent of the organizations providing for the oversight and regulatory function. An important role of the IAEA is establishing international safety standards for protection of health and environment against exposure to ionizing radiation. Once legally binding laws, regulations and standards are established,either through national and international programmes, it becomes the responsibility of the management and operators of uranium production projects for carrying our all activities to meet these requirements. The major emphasis of the IAEA's Project on Raw Materials for Reactor Fuels is to improve and strengthen the practice of preventive measures by establishing guidelines for environmental impact assessment and mitigation and the recognition and promotion of good practice and modern technology. The Waste Technology programme provides advice on the cleanup and remediation of old production sites and wastes. One important mechanism for recognizing and promoting best practice in environmental management of uranium production is fostering information exchange among specialists. The IAEA exercises this mechanism, for examples though publications, electronic information exchange and, particularly, through large gatherings of specialists and decision makers at international conferences, symposia and seminars. The topics covered at the symposium were: Energy needs and challenges for the 21{sup st} Century; uranium supply for the short and long term; sustainable development, energy resources and nuclear energy's role in greenhouse gas abatement; economic impact of world mining; impacts of mining on developed and developing countries; environmental and social impacts of uranium mining in several countries; examples of positive and negative impacts of uranium mining projects on local communities; environmental

  14. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnapriya, K.C.; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice can efficiently uptake uranium from water contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2.6 H 2 O), while cooking. • Unusual uranium uptake to the extent of about 1000 ppm is observed when rice is cooked in highly concentrated uranium contaminated water (1240 ppm). • Nature of interaction of uranium with carbohydrates is probed using small monosaccharides like glucose and mannose. • Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed UO 2 2+ to be the most stable species in water in such solutions which can form complexes with sugars. • The species (UO 2 2+ ) is also observed in the case of water exposed to the common mineral, uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and similar type of complexation is observed with sugars. - Abstract: The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO 2 2+ , the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO 2 2+ with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO 2 (s), both of which exist as UO 2 2+ in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and without NaCl affected the extent of chemical interaction but was not consistent with the

  15. The uranium production cycle and the environment. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Within the international community it is widely recognized that the responsibility for management of uranium production and all related activities should be independent of the organizations providing for the oversight and regulatory function. An important role of the IAEA is establishing international safety standards for protection of health and environment against exposure to ionizing radiation. Once legally binding laws, regulations and standards are established,either through national and international programmes, it becomes the responsibility of the management and operators of uranium production projects for carrying our all activities to meet these requirements. The major emphasis of the IAEA's Project on Raw Materials for Reactor Fuels is to improve and strengthen the practice of preventive measures by establishing guidelines for environmental impact assessment and mitigation and the recognition and promotion of good practice and modern technology. The Waste Technology programme provides advice on the cleanup and remediation of old production sites and wastes. One important mechanism for recognizing and promoting best practice in environmental management of uranium production is fostering information exchange among specialists. The IAEA exercises this mechanism, for examples though publications, electronic information exchange and, particularly, through large gatherings of specialists and decision makers at international conferences, symposia and seminars. The topics covered at the symposium were: Energy needs and challenges for the 21 st Century; uranium supply for the short and long term; sustainable development, energy resources and nuclear energy's role in greenhouse gas abatement; economic impact of world mining; impacts of mining on developed and developing countries; environmental and social impacts of uranium mining in several countries; examples of positive and negative impacts of uranium mining projects on local communities; environmental issues

  16. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  17. Redox reactivity and coordination chemistry of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocton, G.

    2009-09-01

    The study and the understanding of actinides chemistry have important implications in the nuclear field both for the development of new actinides materials and the retreatment of the nuclear wastes. One of the major issues in that chemistry is that the actinides elements are known to undergo redox reaction and to form assemblies of different size and different topologies. In that context uranium can be a good model of the heavier radioelement because it is much less radioactive. So, this work concerns the synthesis and the study of the spectroscopy and the magnetic properties of several uranium based polymetallic assemblies synthesized by taking advantage of the redox properties and the coordination chemistry of uranium. The hydrolysis reactivity of trivalent uranium has been studied in absence of sterically hindered ligands and led to the synthesis of oxo/hydroxo uranium assemblies with different sizes by changing the starting complex or the reaction conditions. By following the same strategy, the controlled oxidation of trivalent uranium complexes led to an original azido/nitrido uranium complex. The coordination chemistry of the pentavalent uranyl polymer {[UO 2 py 5 ][KI 2 py 3 ]} n has also been studied with different ligand and in different conditions and led to several cation-cation complexes for which the stability is sufficient for studying there dismutation by proton NMR. By changing the ancillary ligands stable monomeric complexes of pentavalent uranyl complexes were also obtained. The magnetic properties of all the complexes, monomers and polymetallic complexes were studied and an antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for the cation-cation pentavalent uranyl dimer [UO 2 (dbm) 2 (K 18 C 6 )] 2 . (author)

  18. Uranium tipped ammunition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the uranium enrichment process required to make nuclear weapons or fuel, the concentration of the 'fissile' U-235 isotope has to be increased. What is left, depleted uranium, is about half as radioactive as natural uranium, but very dense and extremely hard. It is used in armour piercing shells. External radiation levels from depleted uranium (DU) are low. However DU is about as toxic as lead and could be harmful to the kidneys if eaten or inhaled. It is estimated that between 40 and 300 tonnes of depleted uranium were left behind by the Allied armies after the Gulf war. The biggest hazard would be from depleted uranium shells which have hit Iraqui armoured vehicles and the resulting dust inhaled. There is a possible link between depleted uranium shells and an illness known as 'Desert Storm Syndrome' occurring in some Gulf war veterans. As these shells are a toxic and radioactive hazard to health and the environment their use and testing should be stopped because of the risks to troops and those living near test firing ranges. (UK)

  19. US uranium market developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusiewski, S.V.; Patterson, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Domestic uranium delivery commitments have risen significantly since January 1979, with the bulk of deliveries scheduled after 1990. Much of the long-term procurement will be obtained from captive production. However, buyers have adjusted their delivery schedules in the near term, deferring some procurement to later years, including a portion of planned captive production. Under current commitments, US imports of foreign uranium in the 1981 to 1985 period will be greater than our exports of domestic uranium. The anticipated supply of domestic uranium through 1985 is clearly more than adequate to fill the probable US demand in the meantime, uranium producers are continuing their efforts to increase future domestic supply by their considerable investments in new or expanded mine and mill facilities. Since January 1980, average contract prices including market-price settlements, for 1980 uranium deliveries have increased slightly, but average market-price settlements made this year have decreased by several dollars. While the general trend of US uranium prices has been upward since we began reporting price data in 1973, some reductions in average prices for future deliveries appeared in 1980. The softening of prices for new procurement can be expected to be increasingly apparent in future surveys

  20. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  1. Production of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.E.; Shuck, D.L.; Lyon, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous, four stage fluidized bed process for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder suitable for use in the manufacture of fuel pellets for nuclear reactors is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of first reacting UF 6 with steam in a first fluidized bed, preferably at about 550 0 C, to form solid intermediate reaction products UO 2 F 2 , U 3 O 8 and an off-gas including hydrogen fluoride (HF). The solid intermediate reaction products are conveyed to a second fluidized bed reactor at which the mol fraction of HF is controlled at low levels in order to prevent the formation of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ). The first intermediate reaction products are reacted in the second fluidized bed with steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 630 0 C. The second intermediate reaction product including uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) is conveyed to a third fluidized bed reactor and reacted with additional steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 650 0 C producing a reaction product consisting essentially of uranium dioxide having an oxygen-uranium ratio of about 2 and a low residual fluoride content. This product is then conveyed to a fourth fluidized bed wherein a mixture of air and preheated nitrogen is introduced in order to further reduce the fluoride content of the UO 2 and increase the oxygen-uranium ratio to about 2.25

  2. Purification of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Shikama, Tatsuo; Ochiai, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    We developed the system for purifying uranium metal and its metallic compounds and for growing highly pure uranium compounds to study their intrinsic physical properties. Uranium metal was zone refined under low contamination conditions as far as possible. The degree of the purity of uranium metal was examined by the conventional electrical resistivity measurement and by the chemical analysis using the inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). The results show that some metallic impurities evaporated by the r.f. heating and other usual metallic impurities moved to the end of a rod with a molten zone. Therefore, we conclude that the zone refining technique is much effective to the removal of metallic impurities and we obtained high purified uranium metal of 99.99% up with regarding to metallic impurities. The maximum residual resistivity ratio, the r.r.r., so far obtained was about 17-20. Using the purified uranium, we are attempting to grow a highly pure uranium-titanium single crystals. (author)

  3. Production from new uranium mines a Cogema resources Saskatchewan perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, B.

    2001-01-01

    The province of Saskatchewan is best known for the large flat tracts of land in the south that are primarily used for agricultural purposes. Less well known is the fact that the northern part of the province hosts the richest uranium mines in the world. In fact, to use a petroleum analogy, Saskatchewan has been referred to as the 'Saudi Arabia' of the uranium producing countries. The mining industry in Saskatchewan is a flourishing, high technology industry and supplies approximately one-third of the annual world primary production of uranium. The purpose of this paper is to examine the uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan and why this province stands alone as the dominant uranium producer in the world and will maintain that position into the foreseeable future. As well, an overview of the significant role played by COGEMA Resources in developing the Saskatchewan uranium industry will be undertaken. This company whose roots date back almost 40 years in the province, now holds significant interests in all four of the mines currently producing uranium. With investments of over one billion dollars (U.S.) in this province, COGEMA has established itself as a long-term player in the Saskatchewan Uranium Industry. (author)

  4. Strong demand for natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, P.

    1975-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum and the task group 'fuel elements' of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft had organized an international two-day symposium in Mainz on natural uranium supply which was attended by 250 experts from 20 countries. The four main themes were: Demand for natural uranium, uranium deposits and uranium production, attitude of the uranium producing countries, and energy policy of the industrial nations. (orig./AK) [de

  5. The uranium equation in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, J.; Fulton, M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: comparison of world nuclear generating capacity forecasts; world uranium requirements; comparison of uranium production capability forecasts; supply and demand situation in 1990 and 1995; a perspective on the uranium equation (economic factors; development lead times as a factor affecting market stability; the influence of uncertainty; the uranium market in perspective; the uranium market in 1995). (U.K.)

  6. Uranium resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine what is generally known about uranium resources, what is subject to conjecture, how well do the explorers themselves understand the occurrence of uranium, and who are the various participants in the exploration process. From this we hope to reach a better understanding of the quality of uranium resource estimates as well as the nature of the exploration process. The underlying questions will remain unanswered. But given an inability to estimate precisely our uranium resources, how much do we really need to know. To answer this latter question, the various Department of Energy needs for uranium resource estimates are examined. This allows consideration of whether or not given the absence of more complete long-term supply data and the associated problems of uranium deliverability for the electric utility industry, we are now threatened with nuclear power plants eventually standing idle due to an unanticipated lack of fuel for their reactors. Obviously this is of some consequence to the government and energy consuming public. The report is organized into four parts. Section I evaluates the uranium resource data base and the various methodologies of resource assessment. Part II describes the manner in which a private company goes about exploring for uranium and the nature of its internal need for resource information. Part III examines the structure of the industry for the purpose of determining the character of the industry with respect to resource development. Part IV arrives at conclusions about the emerging pattern of industrial behavior with respect to uranium supply and the implications this has for coping with national energy issues

  7. Developments in natural uranium - graphite reactors; Developpement des reacteurs a graphite et uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Saitcevsky, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    The French natural uranium-graphite power-reactor programme has been developing - from EDF 1 to EDF 4 - in the direction of an increase of the unit power of the installations, of the specific and volume powers, and of an improvement in the operational security conditions. The high power of EDF 4 (500 MWe) and the integration of the primary circuit into the reactor vessel, which is itself made of pre-stressed concrete, make it possible to make the most of the annular fuel elements already in use in EDF 1, and to arrive thus at a very satisfactory solution. The use of an internally cooled fuel element (an annular element) has led to a further step forward: it now becomes possible to increase the pressure of the cooling gas without danger of causing creep in the uranium tube. The use of a pre-stressed concrete vessel makes this pressure increase possible, and the integration of the primary circuit avoids the risk of a rapid depressurization which would be in this case a major danger. This report deals with the main problems presented by this new type of nuclear power station, and gives the main lines of research and studies now being carried out in France. - Neutronic and thermal research has made it possible to consider using large size fuel elements (internal diameter = 77 mm, external diameter 95 mm) while still using natural uranium. - The problems connected with the production of these elements and with their in pile behaviour are the subject of a large programme, both out of pile and in power reactors (EDF 2) and test reactors (Pegase). - The increase in the size of the element leads to a large lattice pitch (35 to 40 cm). This makes it possible to consider having one charging aperture per channel or for a small number of channels, whether the charge machine be inside or outside the pressure vessel. In conclusion are given the main characteristics of a project for a 500 MWe power station using such a fuel element. In particular this project is compared to EDF 4

  8. Developments in natural uranium - graphite reactors; Developpement des reacteurs a graphite et uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Saitcevsky, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    The French natural uranium-graphite power-reactor programme has been developing - from EDF 1 to EDF 4 - in the direction of an increase of the unit power of the installations, of the specific and volume powers, and of an improvement in the operational security conditions. The high power of EDF 4 (500 MWe) and the integration of the primary circuit into the reactor vessel, which is itself made of pre-stressed concrete, make it possible to make the most of the annular fuel elements already in use in EDF 1, and to arrive thus at a very satisfactory solution. The use of an internally cooled fuel element (an annular element) has led to a further step forward: it now becomes possible to increase the pressure of the cooling gas without danger of causing creep in the uranium tube. The use of a pre-stressed concrete vessel makes this pressure increase possible, and the integration of the primary circuit avoids the risk of a rapid depressurization which would be in this case a major danger. This report deals with the main problems presented by this new type of nuclear power station, and gives the main lines of research and studies now being carried out in France. - Neutronic and thermal research has made it possible to consider using large size fuel elements (internal diameter = 77 mm, external diameter 95 mm) while still using natural uranium. - The problems connected with the production of these elements and with their in pile behaviour are the subject of a large programme, both out of pile and in power reactors (EDF 2) and test reactors (Pegase). - The increase in the size of the element leads to a large lattice pitch (35 to 40 cm). This makes it possible to consider having one charging aperture per channel or for a small number of channels, whether the charge machine be inside or outside the pressure vessel. In conclusion are given the main characteristics of a project for a 500 MWe power station using such a fuel element. In particular this project is compared to EDF 4

  9. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katherine E; Williamson, Charles; Grasby, Stephen E; Spear, John R; Templeton, Alexis S

    2013-01-01

    We combined free enenergy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S(0)) deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn, and [Formula: see text] oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S(0) was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr (dissimilatory sulfite reductase)genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and [Formula: see text] oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for [Formula: see text] oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification) or nitrite (anammox). The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum) is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-h sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic

  10. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We combined free energy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S0 deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn and NH4+ oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S0 was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and NH4+ oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for NH4+ oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification or nitrite (anammox. The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-hour sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic environment in the sulfur below, where the Epsilonproteobacteria can

  11. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  12. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  13. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  14. The politics of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, N.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: what God hath joined (historical and technical summary of the atomic bomb project and the post-war attempt at international control of atomic energy); finding uranium and using it; atoms for peace; nuclear optimists (development of nuclear power); the Treaty brake (Non-Proliferation Treaty); bending the rules; plowshares and swords; the club and the gambler (uranium production industry); turnabout (government policies); the uranium cycle; nuclear conflict; tiger in the nursery (radiation hazards; nuclear controversy); breaking the rules (proliferation); new answers, old questions. (U.K.)

  15. Uranium thiolate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverd, Pascal C.

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis proposes a new approach to the chemistry of uranium thiolate complexes as these compounds are very promising for various uses (in bio-inorganic chemistry, in some industrial processes like oil desulphurization). It more particularly addresses the U-S bond or more generally bonds between polarizable materials and hard metals. The author thus reports the study of uranium organometallic thiolates (tricyclo-penta-dienic and mono-cyclo-octa-tetraenylic complexes), and of uranium homoleptic thiolates (tetra-thiolate complexes, hexa-thiolate complexes, reactivity of homoleptic thiolate complexes) [fr

  16. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  17. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  18. Preparation of uranium electrodeposited target in aqueous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiping; Li Yougen; Zhong Wenbin

    2006-03-01

    The main factors affecting uranium electrodeposition were tested and discussed. In the primary experiment about preparation of uranium isotopic target by electrodeposition, a stainless steel disk has been chosen as the target material, the electrolytic bath is comprised of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 and (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , which has been adjusted to a pH of 2-3. Composition of the lost electrolytic bath was analysed by spectrophotometer. The thickness of resulting film is about 8-10 mg/cm 2 , the target having a thin, continuous, uniform layer of uranium, and its electrodeposited rate is more than 80%. (authors)

  19. World uranium reserves and assurance of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This book deals mainly with those aspects of energy policy which concern uranium supply. A different complexion is put on the quantitative estimates of world uranium supplies available which are being overshadowed by political problems resulting from the special properties of this primary energy source as well as from its geographical distribution. The national policy of non-proliferation and the resource policy are demonstrated, taking the largest uranium supply countries as examples. The consumers' policy is explained, taking Europe and Japan as an example. Furthermore, a few possible political solutions are suggested. (UA) [de

  20. Semi-automated potentiometric titration method for uranium characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, B F G; Delgado, J U; da Silva, J W S; de Barros, P D; de Araújo, R M S; Lopes, R T

    2012-07-01

    The manual version of the potentiometric titration method has been used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis time and the influence of the analyst, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The method was applied with traceability assured by using a potassium dichromate primary standard. The combined standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of petrological characteristics of uranium-bearing sandstone in the south of ordos basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Cheng; Jia Licheng; Li Song; Zhang Zimin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between uranium-bearing abundance and texture constituent of sedimentary rock, on the basis of the research of petrological characteristic of sandstone in the south of Ordos basin. The influence of infiltration of sandstone and uranium migration and accumulation by the major diagenesis of compaction and cementation, clay minerals evolution, corrosion and forming of secondary porosity are discussed. Uranium-bearing sandstones are divided into four types and their petrological characteristics are discussed. After mineralization conditions being summed up, the uranium-mineralization model of sandstone-type is built. Reliable petrological evidences for evaluating favourable uranium mineralization rich areas are furnished. (authors)

  2. State of competition and petroleum firm participation in the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrieri, U.; Hogarty, T.

    1980-01-01

    This report analyzes the state of competition in the US uranium industry and the effects of petroleum firm participation on that competition. The analysis is based primarily on data derived from a 1979 API survey of uranium producers. Pior work on the subject was performed by API, the Federal Trade Commission, the Department of Justice, and National Economic Research Associates. The uranium industry principally serves electric utilities. The three phases of this industry studied in this report are exploration, ore mining, and uranium concentrate production. The major findings with respect to the state of competition in the uranium industry are discussed

  3. Regulatory impacts on the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of environmental and safety regulation in Canada is described and the impacts of these developments on various phases of the uranium industry are examined. In the past 25 years, seven new uranium mining projects, major expansions to four projects, and five uranium refining/conversion projects have undergone environmental assessment in Canada. As regulations and the processes for applying them have developed, the size, complexity and cost of obtaining operating approvals for uranium projects have increased exponentially. Uranium projects are subject to a level of scrutiny that goes far beyond what can be justified by their potential for environmental damage, based primarily on a perceived degree of public concern, rather than any objective measure of environmental risk. The author believes that it is time to re-examine our priorities, to establish some balance between the risks of a project and the assessment effort required. Otherwise, we shall soon find ourselves in the position where smaller projects will never be developed because they cannot cover the regulatory costs. (author)

  4. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  5. Translocation of uranium from water to foodstuff while cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapriya, K C; Baksi, Ananya; Chaudhari, Swathi; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, T

    2015-10-30

    The present work report the unusual uranium uptake by foodstuff, especially those rich in carbohydrates like rice when they are cooked in water, contaminated with uranium. The major staple diet in South Asia, rice, was chosen to study its interaction with UO2(2+), the active uranium species in water, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Highest uptake limit was checked by cooking rice at very high uranium concentration and it was found to be good scavenger of uranium. To gain insight into the mechanism of uptake, direct interaction of UO2(2+) with monosaccharides was also studied, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry taking mannose as a model. The studies have been done with dissolved uranium salt, uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO2(NO3)2·6H2O), as well as the leachate of a stable oxide of uranium, UO2(s), both of which exist as UO2(2+) in water. Among the eight different rice varieties investigated, Karnataka Ponni showed the maximum uranium uptake whereas unpolished Basmati rice showed the minimum. Interaction with other foodstuffs (potato, carrot, peas, kidney beans and lentils) with and without NaCl affected the extent of chemical interaction but was not consistent with the carbohydrate content. Uranium interaction with D-mannose monitored through ESI-MS, under optimized instrumental parameters, identified the peaks corresponding to uranyl adduct with mannose monomer, dimer and trimer and the species were confirmed by MS/MS studies. The product ion mass spectra showed peaks illustrating water loss from the parent ion as the collision energy was increased, an evidence for the strong interaction of uranium with mannose. This study would constitute the essential background for understanding interaction of uranium with various foods. Extension of this work would involve identification of foodstuff as green heavy metal scavengers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Training and replacing a 'lost generation' of uranium professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    It wasn't long ago, actually only a few years ago, when uranium companies and skilled uranium professionals receive little attention and limited interest from other sections of the mining and resource industries. Actually, there were many uranium professionals, whom in some cases, spent over a decade unwinding their CV's to limit the emphasis on uranium exploration and development from the past. Actually, when the bottom fell out of the uranium industry in the late 70's and early 80's there were literally tens of thousands of professionals internationally that were in a major regroup with their careers to get back into mining proper without the uranium connection and believe me, that wasn't always easy. As in most cases, there was no or limited places for uranium professionals wanting to stay in the industry and consequently, virtually all were forced to leave the sector. Who could have predicted that, after nearly 25 years of limited international investment and significant interest in new uranium exploration and development, that the price for yellowcake today would be in excess of US$100/pound? Concerns over energy security and global warming on top of the all-time high uranium price have really come together to make a true uranium renaissance. A renaissance which looks sounder and more sustainable than ever before. So, how is the industry facing a chronic shortage of experience and the huge task of training a multidisciplinary professional workforce going to cope? Effectively there is a 'lost generation' of professionals and very few people available or knowledgeable enough to train those new to the industry. This is a unique problem in the industry and likely more chronic than the other mining sectors, as typically the economic cycles are seven or eight years, not 25 years as has been seen with uranium

  7. Characteristics of the natural uranium ingots developed in IPEN - CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, M.C.B.; Koshimizu, S.

    1990-01-01

    The natural uranium consists of two primary isotopes, the U sup(235) (0,7%) and the U sup(238) (99,3%). The isotopic separation carried out in order to obtain enriched uranium, generates a by-product called depleted uranium, which can be applied for industrial uses. The most singular property, from engineering standpoint, is its high density. When the density is the only important factor, the uranium has great advantage over other heavy metals related to economic and technical considerations. Among some applications of uranium are aircraft and missile counterweights, kinetics energy penetrators, radiation shielding, gyro rotors and oil-well sinker bars. The uranium ingot fabrication is done by direct reduction of UF, with magnesium, without remelting. The microstructure of as-cast uranium is, as in the other as-cast, formed by coarse and. (author)

  8. Study on the treatment of waste waster containing uranium by organic modified vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenjuan; Zeng Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption capability of uranium on organic modified Vermiculite was studied. The influence factors of the amount of adsorbent, initial pH, initial concentration of uranium and adsorption time have been investigated too. Through the orthogonal test, the primary factors of impacting the adsorption treatment can be obtained. Finally, the preliminary research and analysis on the principle adsorption of organic modified vermiculite test of uranium have been conducted. The results show that: Modifying Vermiculite by CTMAB makes Vermiculite adsorption capacity stronger when treating solution containing uranium. Combined flocculants with vermiculite to treat with low concentration of uranium solution has synergy, significantly enhancing its adsorption capacity. The impact factors of organic modified vermiculite's adsorption of uranium are adsorbent dosage, pH, initial concentration of uranium solution and adsorption time. The best adsorption pH is between 5∼6.5. (authors)

  9. Prognostic value, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of high sensitivity C-reactive protein as a marker in primary prevention of major cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Schwarzer, Ruth; Göhler, Alexander; Grandi, Norma; Grabein, Kristin; Stollenwerk, Björn; Klauß, Volker; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe

    2009-05-12

    models with and without hs-CRP fell between 0.00 and 0.023 with a median of 0.003. A decision-analytic modeling study reported a gain in life-expectancy for those using statin therapy for populations with elevated hs-CRP levels and normal lipid levels as compared to statin therapy for those with elevated lipid levels (approximately 6.6 months gain in life-expectancy for 58 year olds). Two decision-analytic models (three publications) on cost-effectiveness reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between Euro 8,700 and 50,000 per life year gained for the German context and between 52,000 and 708,000 for the US context. The empirical input data for the model is highly uncertain. No sufficient evidence is available to support the notion that hs-CRP-values should be measured during the global risk assessment for CAD or cardiovascular disease in addition to the traditional risk factors. The additional measurement of the hs-CRP-level increases the incremental predictive value of the risk prediction. It has not yet been clarified whether this increase is clinically relevant resulting in reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. For people with medium cardiovascular risk (5 to 20% in ten years) additional measurement of hs-CRP seems most likely to be clinical relevant to support the decision as to whether or not additional statin therapy should be initiated for primary prevention. Statin therapy can reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events for asymptomatic individuals with normal lipid and elevated hs-CRP levels. However, this is not enough to provide evidence for a clinical benefit of hs-CRP-screening. The cost-effectiveness of general hs-CRP-screening as well as screening among only those with normal lipid levels remains unknown at present.

  10. Prognostic value, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of high sensitivity C-reactive protein as a marker in primary prevention of major cardiac events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauß, Volker

    2009-05-01

    statistically significant. The difference [in the AUC] between the models with and without hs-CRP fell between 0.00 and 0.023 with a median of 0.003. A decision-analytic modeling study reported a gain in life-expectancy for those using statin therapy for populations with elevated hs-CRP levels and normal lipid levels as compared to statin therapy for those with elevated lipid levels (approximately 6.6 months gain in life-expectancy for 58 year olds. Two decision-analytic models (three publications on cost-effectiveness reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between Euro 8,700 and 50,000 per life year gained for the German context and between 52,000 and 708,000 for the US context. The empirical input data for the model is highly uncertain. Conclusion: No sufficient evidence is available to support the notion that hs-CRP-values should be measured during the global risk assessment for CAD or cardiovascular disease in addition to the traditional risk factors. The additional measurement of the hs-CRP-level increases the incremental predictive value of the risk prediction. It has not yet been clarified whether this increase is clinically relevant resulting in reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. For people with medium cardiovascular risk (5 to 20% in ten years additional measurement of hs-CRP seems most likely to be clinical relevant to support the decision as to whether or not additional statin therapy should be initiated for primary prevention. Statin therapy can reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events for asymptomatic individuals with normal lipid and elevated hs-CRP levels. However, this is not enough to provide evidence for a clinical benefit of hs-CRP-screening. The cost-effectiveness of general hs-CRP-screening as well as screening among only those with normal lipid levels remains unknown at present.

  11. Uranium and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Basic principles and definitions of reactor technology, biological radiation effects in man, and radioactive wastes are outlined. An argument is presented against Australia exploiting its uranium resources. (R.L.)

  12. Uranium hexafluoride purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF 6 -HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF 6 -HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  13. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a sintered, high density, large crystal grain size uranium dioxide pellet is described which involves: (i) reacting a uranyl nitrate of formula UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O with a sulphur source, at a temperature of from about 300 deg. C to provide a sulphur-containing uranium trioxide; (ii) reacting the thus-obtained modified uranium trioxide with ammonium nitrate to form an insoluble sulphur-containing ammonium uranate; (iii) neutralizing the thus-formed slurry with ammonium hydroxide to precipitate out as an insoluble ammonium uranate the remaining dissolved uranium; (iv) recovering the thus-formed precipitates in a dry state; (v) reducing the dry precipitate to UO 2 , and forming it into 'green' pellets; and (vi) sintering the pellets in a hydrogen atmosphere at an elevated temperature

  14. Uranium market activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized from the 1974 ERDA annual survey of buyers and sellers and from a survey of uranium price data which provided information on additional domestic buying activity during the first half of 1975 through 1982

  15. Heap leaching for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Denison Mines Ltd. is using two bacterial leaching processes to combat the high cost of extracting uranium from low grade ore in thin reefs. Both processes use thiobacillus ferro-oxidans, a bacterium that employs the oxidation of ferrous iron and sulphur as its source of energy for growth. The first method is flood leaching, in which ore is subjected to successive flood, drain and rest cycles. The second, trickle leaching, uses sprinklers to douse the broken muck continuously with leaching solution. In areas where grades are too low to justify the expense of hauling the ore to the surface, the company is using this biological process underground to recover uranium. In 1987 Denison recovered 840 000 lb of uranium through bacterial heap leaching. It plans to have biological in-place leaching contribute 25% of the total uranium production by 1990. (fig.)

  16. Uranium purchases report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858, Schedule B,'' Uranium Marketing Activities,'' are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year's report. The report contains a glossary of terms

  17. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  18. Uranium in granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Y.T.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research activities of the Canadian Uranium in Granites Study are presented in 18 papers and 3 abstracts. 'Granites' is used as a generic term for granitoids, granitic rocks, and plutonic rocks

  19. Uranium Research in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanouté, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    The work of mining companies have so far not proved economic uranium resources, but they have nevertheless contributed greatly to a better understanding of the geology, particularly in Eastern Senegal, on the upper Precambrian basin including which equivalents exist throughout West Africa (the uranium belt of Zaire) prospected by CEA-COGEMA teams. The researches carried out in Senegal, but also in Guinea and Mali helped establish a detailed map and understand the course of geological history. With new exploration techniques and data of airborne geophysical (radiometric) provided by the Mining Sector Support Programme (PASMI 9th EDF 9 ACP SE 09), AREVA, at the end of the first period validity of the exploration permit increased significantly, the resources. Prospects are favorable to a doubling of resources; objective of a uranium mine in Senegal. Synergies are possible and desirable with joint exploitation of uranium deposits located in Mali, near the border with Senegal.

  20. Uranium industry seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The tenth annual Uranium Industry Seminar, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Grand Junction Office, was held in Grand Junction, Colorado, on October 22 and 23, 1980. There were 700 registered attendees as compared to 833 attending the previous year. The attendees were drawn largely from uranium and other energy resource companies, electric utility firms, energy consultants and service companies, and governmental agencies. In addition, there were representatives present from Indian tribes, universities, the media, DOE laboratories, and foreign countries and organizations. There were 14 papers presented at the seminar by speakers from the Department of Energy, US Geological Survey, and Bendix Field Engineering Corporation which is the on-site prime contractor for DOE's Grand Junction Office. The topics the papers dealt with were uranium policies, exploration, respources, supply, enrichment, and market conditions. There also were papers describing the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program and international activities. All 14 papers in this Proceedings have been abstracted and indexed