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Sample records for major methodological challenge

  1. Qualitative interviewing: methodological challenges in Arab settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawamdeh, Sana; Raigangar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    To explore some of the main methodological challenges faced by interviewers in Arab settings, particularly during interviews with psychiatric nurses. Interviews are a tool used commonly in qualitative research. However, the cultural norms and practices of interviewees must be considered to ensure that an appropriate interviewing style is used, a good interviewee-interviewer relationship formed and consent for participation obtained sensitively. A study to explore the nature of psychiatric nurses' practices that used unstructured interviews. This is a methodology paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing many challenges that are specific to qualitative interviewing in Arab settings, supported by literature on the topic. Suggestions for improving the interview process to make it more culturally sensitive are provided and recommendations for future research are made. Openness, flexibility and a reflexive approach by the researcher can help manage challenges in Arab settings. Researchers should allow themselves to understand the cultural elements of a population to adapt interviewing methods with the aim of generating high quality qualitative research.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how...... increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. Methods: The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Results: Key stakeholders were identified...... as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step...

  3. Methodological challenges and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik; Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Taking as point of departure three recently conducted empirical studies, the aim of this article is to theoretically and empirically discuss methodological challenges studying the interrelations between media and social reality and to critically reflect on the methodologies used in the studies....... By deconstructing the studies, the article draws attention to the fact that different methods are able to grasp different elements of social reality. Moreover, by analysing the power relations at play, the article demonstrated that the interplay between interviewer and interviewee, and how both parties fit...... into present power structures, greatly influence the narratives that are co-produced during interviews. The article thus concludes that in order to fully understand complex phenomena it is not just enough to use a mixture of methods, the makeup of the research team is also imperative, as a diverse team...

  4. App Studies : Platform Rules and Methodological Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlitz, C.; Helmond, A.; van der Vlist, F.; Weltevrede, E.; De Groote, S.; Majmundar, P.

    2016-01-01

    The panel engages with conceptual and methodological challenges within a specific area of ‘internet rules’, namely the space of mobile apps. Whereas the web was set out to function as a ‘generative’ and open technology facilitating the production of unanticipated services and applications, the

  5. Assessing species saturation: conceptual and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Karger, Dirk N; Kessler, Michael

    2018-05-07

    Is there a maximum number of species that can coexist? Intuitively, we assume an upper limit to the number of species in a given assemblage, or that a lineage can produce, but defining and testing this limit has proven problematic. Herein, we first outline seven general challenges of studies on species saturation, most of which are independent of the actual method used to assess saturation. Among these are the challenge of defining saturation conceptually and operationally, the importance of setting an appropriate referential system, and the need to discriminate among patterns, processes and mechanisms. Second, we list and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used to study species saturation. These approaches vary in time and spatial scales, and in the variables and assumptions needed to assess saturation. We argue that assessing species saturation is possible, but that many studies conducted to date have conceptual and methodological flaws that prevent us from currently attaining a good idea of the occurrence of species saturation. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Challenges and Prospects of Methodological Anarchism for Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examjnes Feyerabend's idea of Methodological Anarchism. Specifically, it looks at its challenges and prospects for the growth of science and epistemology in Africa. Feyerabend's point is that people develop best in pluralistic societies; that contain many ideas, traditions and forms of life. It is argued that ...

  7. Conducting Research with LGB People of Color: Methodological Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlaere, Cirleen; Brewster, Melanie E.; Sarkees, Anthony; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Methodological barriers have been highlighted as a primary reason for the limited research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. Thus, strategies for anticipating and addressing potential methodological barriers are needed. To address this need, this article discusses potential challenges associated with conducting research with…

  8. Organizational ethnography and methodological angst: Myths and challenges in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the myths and challenges in the field of organizational ethnography and methodological angst. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is initially written as an invited keynote address for the 3rd Annual Joint Symposium on “Current Developments in

  9. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  10. Methodological Challenges of Research in Nudging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Complex societal issues, related to health and sustainability, provide major challenges to scientists, business managers, and policy makers alike. Despite their diversity, these issues have in common that effective solutions to public health (e.g., reducing prevalence of overweight and obesity) and

  11. Biomimetics as a design methodology – possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetics – or bionik as it is called in parts of Europe – offer a number of promising opportunities and challenges for the designer. The paper investigates how biomimetics as a design methodology is used in engineering design by looking at examples of biological searches and highlight...

  12. Methodological Challenges in Examining the Impact of Healthcare Predictive Analytics on Nursing-Sensitive Patient Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alvin D

    2015-06-01

    The expansion of real-time analytic abilities within current electronic health records has led to innovations in predictive modeling and clinical decision support systems. However, the ability of these systems to influence patient outcomes is currently unknown. Even though nurses are the largest profession within the healthcare workforce, little research has been performed to explore the impact of clinical decision support on their decisions and the patient outcomes associated with them. A scoping literature review explored the impact clinical decision support systems containing healthcare predictive analytics have on four nursing-sensitive patient outcomes (pressure ulcers, failure to rescue, falls, and infections). While many articles discussed variable selection and predictive model development/validation, only four articles examined the impact on patient outcomes. The novelty of predictive analytics and the inherent methodological challenges in studying clinical decision support impact are likely responsible for this paucity of literature. Major methodological challenges include (1) multilevel nature of intervention, (2) treatment fidelity, and (3) adequacy of clinicians' subsequent behavior. There is currently insufficient evidence to demonstrate efficacy of healthcare predictive analytics-enhanced clinical decision support systems on nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. Innovative research methods and a greater emphasis on studying this phenomenon are needed.

  13. Two Methodological Challenges for Teacher-Researchers: Reflexivity and Trustworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Teacher research is lauded as a beneficial enterprise both for practitioners and for learners. However, teachers are sometimes accused of not possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to conduct research effectively. This article focuses on the need for teacher-researchers to find means of addressing the methodological challenges of engaging…

  14. Economic evaluation in stratified medicine: methodological issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joerg eFugel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stratified Medicine (SM is becoming a practical reality with the targeting of medicines by using a biomarker or genetic-based diagnostic to identify the eligible patient sub-population. Like any healthcare intervention, SM interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. Methodological standards and guidelines exist for economic evaluations in clinical pharmacology and are an important component for health technology assessments (HTAs in many countries. However, these guidelines have initially been developed for traditional pharmaceuticals and not for complex interventions with multiple components. This raises the issue as to whether these guidelines are adequate to SM interventions or whether new specific guidance and methodology is needed to avoid inconsistencies and contradictory findings when assessing economic value in SM.Objective: This article describes specific methodological challenges when conducting health economic (HE evaluations for SM interventions and outlines potential modifications necessary to existing evaluation guidelines /principles that would promote consistent economic evaluations for SM.Results/Conclusions: Specific methodological aspects for SM comprise considerations on the choice of comparator, measuring effectiveness and outcomes, appropriate modelling structure and the scope of sensitivity analyses. Although current HE methodology can be applied for SM, greater complexity requires further methodology development and modifications in the guidelines.

  15. Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: Small Business Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    2001 Major Management Challenges and Program Risks Small Business AdministrationGAO-01-260 Form SF298 Citation Data Report Date ("DD MON YYYY...34) 00JAN2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Major Management Challenges and Program Risks Small Business ...Administration (SBA) as it seeks to aid, counsel, assist, and protect the interests of the nations small businesses and help businesses and families

  16. Affordances and Alignments: Continuing Challenges in Advising Undergraduate Psychology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric

    2018-01-01

    Challenges abound in providing accurate and useful information to prospective and declared psychology majors about their career options and how to make decisions that will lead to satisfying and rewarding postgraduate lives. One component of this challenge is that by majoring in psychology, career affordances (i.e., the opportunities and…

  17. A European test of pesticide-leaching models: methodology and major recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclooster, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Trevisan, M.; Brown, C.D.; Capri, E.; Eklo, O.M.; Gottesbüren, B.; Gouy, V.; Linden, van der A.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Testing of pesticide-leaching models is important in view of their increasing use in pesticide registration procedures in the European Union. This paper presents the methodology and major conclusions of a test of pesticide-leaching models. Twelve models simulating the vertical one-dimensional

  18. Tough Teens: The Methodological Challenges of Interviewing Teenagers as Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Raewyn; Beagan, Brenda L.; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Chapman, Gwen E.

    2008-01-01

    Encouraging a teenager to have a conversation in a semistructured research interview is fraught with difficulties. The authors discuss the methodological challenges encountered when interviewing adolescents of European Canadian, African Canadian, and Punjabi Canadian families who took part in the Family Food Decision-Making Study in two regions of…

  19. Vulnerable participants in health research: methodological and ethical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Kappel, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    , leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how to illuminate the needs and problems......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and healthcare research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over-simplistic representations of the often ‘messy’ realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  20. Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graneheim, Ulla H; Lindgren, Britt-Marie; Lundman, Berit

    2017-09-01

    This discussion paper is aimed to map content analysis in the qualitative paradigm and explore common methodological challenges. We discuss phenomenological descriptions of manifest content and hermeneutical interpretations of latent content. We demonstrate inductive, deductive, and abductive approaches to qualitative content analysis, and elaborate on the level of abstraction and degree of interpretation used in constructing categories, descriptive themes, and themes of meaning. With increased abstraction and interpretation comes an increased challenge to demonstrate the credibility and authenticity of the analysis. A key issue is to show the logic in how categories and themes are abstracted, interpreted, and connected to the aim and to each other. Qualitative content analysis is an autonomous method and can be used at varying levels of abstraction and interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Major Management Challenges and Program Risks. Department of Labor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This report addresses the major performance and accountability challenges facing the Department of Labor as it seeks to promote the welfare and economic security of the nations work force and ensure...

  2. Scalable privacy-preserving data sharing methodology for genome-wide association studies: an application to iDASH healthcare privacy protection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Ji, Zhanglong

    2014-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in genome-wide association study (GWAS) data privacy, the Integrating Data for Analysis, Anonymization and SHaring (iDASH) center organized the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge, with the aim of investigating the effectiveness of applying privacy-preserving methodologies to human genetic data. This paper is based on a submission to the iDASH Healthcare Privacy Protection Challenge. We apply privacy-preserving methods that are adapted from Uhler et al. 2013 and Yu et al. 2014 to the challenge's data and analyze the data utility after the data are perturbed by the privacy-preserving methods. Major contributions of this paper include new interpretation of the χ2 statistic in a GWAS setting and new results about the Hamming distance score, a key component for one of the privacy-preserving methods.

  3. THE CHALLENGE OF KEEPING-UP: CURRENT METHODOLOGIES IN ANALYZING THE STUDENTS RECRUITING AREA BY UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂLĂESCU SIMONA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of keeping-up: current methodologies in analyzing the students recruiting area by universities. Despite all progress made in the field and in some collateral areas extremely useful methodologically (e.g. the use of GIS, for some countries emerging from communist space methodologically upgrading to the latest advances in modelling and forecast of students recruitment by universities remains a difficult challenge. The analysis and modelling of the geographical area of recruiting students for a particular university represents even for the foreign literature a niche, not necessarily consciously neglected but only reached sidely due, most likely, to ignoring the benefits which the focus of concerns on this aspect would bring into focus and directing more efficiently university marketing efforts. This paper aims precisely to seek, through a meta-analysis of existing literature, disparate developments that led in some form or will allow improved modeling spatial areas of recruitment of students by universities and the challenges and limitations that apply methodological advances the area where universities belonging to the ex-communist involved. Beyond the theoretical benefit from a practical perspective, the meta-analysis aimed at synthesizing elements of good practice that can be applied to the local university system.

  4. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone Luigi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptual and methodological challenges that complicate the interpretation of findings from neuroimaging studies in ASDs, and that future imaging studies should address through improved designs. These include: (1 identification and implementation of tasks that more specifically target the neural processes of interest, while avoiding the confusion that the symptoms of ASD may impose on both the performance of the task and the detection of brain activations; (2 the inconsistency that disease heterogeneity in persons with ASD can generate on research findings, particularly heterogeneity of symptoms, symptom severity, differences in IQ, total brain volume, and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3 the problems with interpretation of findings from cross-sectional studies of persons with ASD across differing age groups. Failure to address these challenges will continue to hinder our ability to distinguish findings that outline the causes of ASDs from brain processes that represent downstream or compensatory responses to the presence of the disease. Here we propose strategies to address these issues: 1 the use of simple and elementary tasks, that are easier to understand for autistic subjects; 2 the scanning of a more homogenous group of persons with ASDs, preferably at younger age; 3 the performance of longitudinal studies, that may provide more straight forward and reliable results. We believe that this would allow for a better understanding of both the central pathogenic

  5. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen......Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...

  6. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology: Raw Accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Thaler-Kall, Kathrin; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Brønd, Jan C; Bonomi, Alberto; Schulze, Mareike; Vigl, Matthäus; Morseth, Bente; Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Schulz, Holger; Brage, Søren; Horsch, Alexander

    2016-12-07

    Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Key stakeholders were identified as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step of algorithms for processing raw accelerometer data should be documented, and ideally also motivated, to facilitate interpretation and discussion, iii) Algorithm developers and method users should be open about uncertainties in the description of data and the uncertainty of the inference itself, iv) All new algorithms which are pitched as "ready for implementation" should be shared with the community to facilitate replication and ongoing evaluation by independent groups, and v) A dynamic interaction between method stakeholders should be encouraged to facilitate a well-informed harmonization process. The workshop led to the identification of a number of opportunities for harmonizing methodological practice. The discussion as well as the practical checklists proposed in this review should provide guidance for stakeholders on how to contribute to increased harmonization.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE: PRESENT AND FUTURE METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Benítez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of quality of life in diverse domains, such as health, school performance and social participation, has led to the development of new conceptualisations and assessments of the construct. This diversity of perspectives brings about many benefits, but it also creates an obstacle for the formulation of a single unifying definition of the construct and, therefore, an agreed instrument or assessment framework. The aim of this study is to discuss the current methodological challenges in the measurement of quality of life. Firstly, we provide a brief description of the construct as defined in various areas, then we examine the new methodological developments and different applications. We also present an overview of the different possibilities for future developments in defining and measuring quality of life in national and international studies.

  8. The Psychological Study of Video Game Players: Methodological Challenges and Practical Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel; Delfabbro, Paul; Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Video game playing has received increased academic interest over the last few decades, particularly with regard to the psychological understanding of addiction. Based on the many studies carried out by the authors, this paper summarises some of the methodological challenges which may arise when studying video game players, including obstacles…

  9. The complexity and challenges of determining GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from grid electricity consumption and conservation in LCA (life cycle assessment) – A methodological review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Kiviluoma, Juha; Saikku, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The way in which GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions associated with grid electricity consumption is handled in different LCA (life cycle assessment) studies, varies significantly. Apart from differences in actual research questions, methodological choices and data set selection have a significant impact on the outcomes. These inconsistencies result in difficulties to compare the findings of various LCA studies. This review paper explores the issue from a methodological point of view. The perspectives of ALCA (attributional life cycle assessment) and CLCA (consequential life cycle assessment) are reflected. Finally, the paper summarizes the key issues and provides suggestions on the way forward. The major challenge related to both of the LCA categories is to determine the GHG emissions of the power production technologies under consideration. Furthermore, the specific challenge in ALCA is to determine the appropriate electricity production mix, and in CLCA, to identify the marginal technologies affected and related consequences. Significant uncertainties are involved, particularly in future-related LCAs, and these should not be ignored. Harmonization of the methods and data sets for various purposes is suggested, acknowledging that selections might be subjective. -- Highlights: ► Methods to assess GHG emissions from grid electricity consumption in LCA vary. ► We explored the major challenges related to various methods. ► Significant uncertainties are involved particularly in future-related GHG emissions. ► The most appropriate method depends on the equity viewpoints.

  10. Methodological Challenges in Estimating Trends and Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob K. Kariuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although 80% of the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is in developing countries, the 2010 global burden of disease (GBD estimates have been cited to support a premise that sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is exempt from the CVD epidemic sweeping across developing countries. The widely publicized perspective influences research priorities and resource allocation at a time when secular trends indicate a rapid increase in prevalence of CVD in SSA by 2030. Purpose. To explore methodological challenges in estimating trends and burden of CVD in SSA via appraisal of the current CVD statistics and literature. Methods. This review was guided by the Critical review methodology described by Grant and Booth. The review traces the origins and evolution of GBD metrics and then explores the methodological limitations inherent in the current GBD statistics. Articles were included based on their conceptual contribution to the existing body of knowledge on the burden of CVD in SSA. Results/Conclusion. Cognizant of the methodological challenges discussed, we caution against extrapolation of the global burden of CVD statistics in a way that underrates the actual but uncertain impact of CVD in SSA. We conclude by making a case for optimal but cost-effective surveillance and prevention of CVD in SSA.

  11. Researching local sports initiatives for young migrants from a political perspective: methodological and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi García-Arjona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of incorporation of young migrants have been studied using a range of new approaches. Among them, sports and physical activity have been claimed as a space for social and cultural integration. To date, most research has been based mainly on ethnographic and grassroots perspectives to better understand the experiences of sports practices of migrants and their families. However, fewer contributions have focused on the political discourse on sports as a field of integration. This article explores methodological challenges arosen when choosing sports policies as a field of study. The main methodological challenges considered include the contested conceptualizations of the target population in sports initiatives and the development of comparative selection criteria for different levels of institutional participants. An indepth analysis of these methodological issues can help to reflect on the ideological constructs of sports as a field of integration and highlight the contribution of the political sociological perspective to existing migration studies.

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Members: Review and Methodological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, Amy B; Daly, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at risk for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following ICU discharge. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature regarding post-ICU family PTSD symptoms with an emphasis on methodological issues in conducting research on this challenging phenomenon. An extensive review of the literature was performed confining the search to English language studies reporting PTSD symptoms in adult family members of adult ICU patients. Ten studies were identified for review published from 2004 to 2012. Findings demonstrate a significant prevalence of family PTSD symptoms in the months following ICU hospitalization. However, there are several methodological challenges to the interpretation of existing studies and to the conduct of future research including differences in sampling, identification of risk factors and covariates of PTSD, and lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate PTSD symptom measurement tools and timing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Challenges in implementing a Planetary Boundaries based Life-Cycle Impact Assessment methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Richardson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    of resolving the challenges and developing such methodology is discussed. The challenges are related to technical issues, i.e., modelling and including the Earth System processes and their control variables as impact categories in Life-Cycle Impact Assessment and to theoretical considerations with respect...... to the interpretation and use of Life-Cycle Assessment results in accordance with the Planetary Boundary framework. The identified challenges require additional research before a Planetary Boundaries based Life-Cycle Impact Assessment method can be developed. Research on modelling the impacts on Earth System processes......Impacts on the environment from human activities are now threatening to exceed thresholds for central Earth System processes, potentially moving the Earth System out of the Holocene state. To avoid such consequences, the concept of Planetary Boundaries was defined in 2009, and updated in 2015...

  14. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2010-11-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests.

  15. Methodological Challenges in Sustainability Science: A Call for Method Plurality, Procedural Rigor and Longitudinal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik von Wehrden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1 methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2 methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3 approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.

  16. Methodologies for nuclear material accounting and control: challenges and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (NUMAC) represents one of the most important and indispensable responsibilities of any nuclear installation. The emphasis is to ensure that the nuclear material being handled in the nuclear installation is properly accounted for with the expected accuracy and confidence levels. A number of analytical methods based on both destructive and non-destructive assay techniques are available at the disposal of the nuclear analytical scientists for this purpose and they have been enumerated extensively in literature. Instead of recounting the analytical methodologies available, an attempt has been made in this paper to highlight some of the challenges. (author)

  17. Conservation biology in Asia: the major policy challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jeffrey A; Kapoor-Vijay, Promila; Zhi, Lu; Olsvig-Whittaker, Linda; Sheikh, Kashif M; Smith, Andrew T

    2009-08-01

    With about half the world's human population and booming economies, Asia faces numerous challenges to its biodiversity. The Asia Section of the Society for Conservation Biology has identified some key policy issues in which significant progress can be made. These include developing new sources of funding for forest conservation; identifying potential impacts of energy alternatives on the conservation of biodiversity; curbing the trade in endangered species of plants and animals; a special focus on the conservation of mountain biodiversity; enhancing relevant research; ensuring that conservation biology contributes to major international conventions and funding mechanisms; using conservation biology to build a better understanding of zoonotic diseases; more effectively addressing human-animal conflicts; enhancing community-based conservation; and using conservation biology to help address the pervasive water-deficit problems in much of Asia. These challenges can be met through improved regional cooperation among the relevant stakeholders.

  18. Economic evaluation of health promotion interventions for older people: do applied economic studies meet the methodological challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huter, Kai; Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Kocot, Ewa; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Rothgang, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    In the light of demographic developments health promotion interventions for older people are gaining importance. In addition to methodological challenges arising from the economic evaluation of health promotion interventions in general, there are specific methodological problems for the particular target group of older people. There are especially four main methodological challenges that are discussed in the literature. They concern measurement and valuation of informal caregiving, accounting for productivity costs, effects of unrelated cost in added life years and the inclusion of 'beyond-health' benefits. This paper focuses on the question whether and to what extent specific methodological requirements are actually met in applied health economic evaluations. Following a systematic review of pertinent health economic evaluations, the included studies are analysed on the basis of four assessment criteria that are derived from methodological debates on the economic evaluation of health promotion interventions in general and economic evaluations targeting older people in particular. Of the 37 studies included in the systematic review, only very few include cost and outcome categories discussed as being of specific relevance to the assessment of health promotion interventions for older people. The few studies that consider these aspects use very heterogeneous methods, thus there is no common methodological standard. There is a strong need for the development of guidelines to achieve better comparability and to include cost categories and outcomes that are relevant for older people. Disregarding these methodological obstacles could implicitly lead to discrimination against the elderly in terms of health promotion and disease prevention and, hence, an age-based rationing of public health care.

  19. The Methodological Imperatives of Feminist Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle D. Schrock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Feminist ethnography does not have a single, coherent definition and is caught between struggles over the definition and goals of feminism and the multiple practices known collectively as ethnography. Towards the end of the 1980s, debates emerged that problematized feminist ethnography as a productive methodology and these debates still haunt feminist ethnographers today. In this article, I provide a concise historiography of feminist ethnography that summarizes both its promises and its vulnerabilities. I address the three major challenges I argue feminist ethnographers currently face, which include responding productively to feminist critiques of representing "others," accounting for feminisms' commitment to social change while grappling with poststructuralist critiques of knowledge production, and confronting the historical and ongoing lack of recognition for significant contributions by feminist ethnographers. Despite these challenges, I argue that feminist ethnography is a productive methodology and I conclude by delineating its methodological imperatives. These imperatives include producing knowledge about women's lives in specific cultural contexts, recognizing the potential detriments and benefits of representation, exploring women's experiences of oppression along with the agency they exercise in their own lives, and feeling an ethical responsibility towards the communities in which the researchers work. I argue that this set of imperatives enables feminist ethnographers to successfully navigate the challenges they face.

  20. Family Photography and Persecuted Communities: Methodological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Kirsten Emiko

    2018-05-01

    This paper examines methodological challenges involved in conducting research on family photographs from persecuted communities, using Japanese Canadian photos as a case study. Approaching family photography as a social practice that instills dominant familial ideologies, the paper examines their "performative scripts" that arrange family members according to normative identities and roles. The paper argues that researchers are not immune to scripts that shape how and what we have been socialized to see (and not see) in family photos. The paper thus presents techniques to distance oneself from these performative scripts and one's involvement in their social and emotional dynamics. Once able to disentangle oneself from the genre's normative practices, the paper argues it is necessary to situate the photos in their social and political context of persecution and survival. Given the insular, inward looking character of family photographs, the paper concludes by calling for intersectional analyses, reflecting on how one might bring one's own family photos into engagement with the photos of Indigenous families and turns to those of the Skwxwú7mesh (Squamish) Nation. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  1. Turning Weaknesses into Strengths: Nordic Tourism, Potentials for Growth and Major Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genc

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nordic region is a geographical area which is characterized by a combination of nature, culture, history and technology and regarded as a common entity in political, economical and historical sense. Although rich in its resources, Nordic tourism has not actualized its potential in full. The present paper aims to identify weaknesses of the region, to outline a new set of directions for improving Nordic tourism and to delineate major challenges. Its geographical and natural beauties, cultural characteristics, technological advancement and policy development are identified as assets for tourism advancement in the region. Winter tourism, adventure tourism, nature-based tourism and cultural tourism are demonstrated as potential routes of growth. Marketing strategies and changing trends are discussed as major challenges, with suggestions for implementation.

  2. Methodological Challenges in Studies Comparing Prehospital Advanced Life Support with Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Timmy; Jones, Courtney M C; Shah, Manish N; Cushman, Jeremy T; Jusko, Todd A

    2017-08-01

    Determining the most appropriate level of care for patients in the prehospital setting during medical emergencies is essential. A large body of literature suggests that, compared with Basic Life Support (BLS) care, Advanced Life Support (ALS) care is not associated with increased patient survival or decreased mortality. The purpose of this special report is to synthesize the literature to identify common study design and analytic challenges in research studies that examine the effect of ALS, compared to BLS, on patient outcomes. The challenges discussed in this report include: (1) choice of outcome measure; (2) logistic regression modeling of common outcomes; (3) baseline differences between study groups (confounding); (4) inappropriate statistical adjustment; and (5) inclusion of patients who are no longer at risk for the outcome. These challenges may affect the results of studies, and thus, conclusions of studies regarding the effect of level of prehospital care on patient outcomes should require cautious interpretation. Specific alternatives for avoiding these challenges are presented. Li T , Jones CMC , Shah MN , Cushman JT , Jusko TA . Methodological challenges in studies comparing prehospital Advanced Life Support with Basic Life Support. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):444-450.

  3. Heterogeneous Effects in Education: The Promise and Challenge of Incorporating Intersectionality into Quantitative Methodological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudde, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    To date, the theory of intersectionality has largely guided qualitative efforts in social science and education research. Translating the construct to new methodological approaches is inherently complex and challenging, but offers the possibility of breaking down silos that keep education researchers with similar interests--but different…

  4. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; More, S. J.; Morton, D. B.; Hanlon, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. PMID:27613779

  5. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, Jill; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  6. Methodological challenges in a study on falls in an older population of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalula, Sebastiana Z; Ferreira, Monica; Swingler, George H; Badri, Motasim; Sayer, Avan A

    2017-09-01

    Falls are a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in older persons, but have been under researched in developing countries. To describe challenges encountered in a community-based study on falls in a multi-ethnic population aged ≥65 years in a low-income setting. The study was conducted in four stages: A pilot study (n=105) to establish a sample size for the survey. An equipment validation study (n=118) to use for fall risk determination. A cross-sectional baseline (n=837) and a 12-month follow-up survey (n=632) to establish prevalence and risk factors for falls. Prevalence rate of 26.4% (95% CI 23.5-29.5%) and risk factors for recurrent falls: previous falls, self-reported poor mobility and dizziness were established. Adaptations to the gold standard prospective fall research study design were employed: 1) to gain access to the study population in three selected suburbs, 2) to perform assessments in a non-standardised setting, 3) to address subjects' poverty and low literacy levels, and high attrition of subjects and field workers. Studies on falls in the older population of low- to middle-income countries have methodological challenges. Adaptive strategies used in the Cape Town study and the research experience reported may be instructive for investigators planning similar studies in such settings.

  7. Introduction to Visual Communication in the Age of Social Media: Conceptual, Theoretical and Methodological Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Russmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This thematic issue of Media and Communication focuses attention on the shift towards visual images on social media as well as the transformation of visual communication which has occurred within the online ecology of social media platforms. The sharing of images is becoming an integral part of the social media experience today, and given that social media platforms are the prime locus for sociability—at least among young people in the West—this shift towards visuals arguably transforms how we relate to each other and the world around us, as well as how we perceive and construct our sense of self. For researchers, this raises conceptual, theoretical and methodological challenges. This thematic issue presents six articles as well as a book review on visual communication in social media focusing on developing a conceptual apparatus and precise definitions of objects and practices of study as well as contributions that address and discuss the methodological challenges as well as their potential solutions. The idea was to synergize research from a wide variety of communication-related disciplines on this rather new topic.

  8. The Challenges of Participant Photography: A Critical Reflection on Methodology and Ethics in Two Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Linda; Nash, Meredith

    2017-05-01

    Photovoice and photo-elicitation are two common methods of participant photography used in health research. Although participatory photography has many benefits, this critical reflection provides fellow researchers with insights into the methodological and ethical challenges faced when using such methods. In this article, we critically reflect on two studies that used participatory photography in different cultural contexts. The first study used photo-elicitation to investigate mothers' experiences of infant settling in central Vietnam. The second study used photovoice to explore pregnant embodiment in Australia. Following a discussion of the literature and a detailed overview of the two studies, we examine the methodological challenges in using participant photography before, during and after each study. This is followed by a discussion of ethical concerns that arose in relation to the burden of participation, confidentiality, consent, and the photographing of families and children. To conclude, we highlight implications for using participatory photography in other settings.

  9. An analysis of the major challenges and obstacles for international technical cooperation in health, Brazil-Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eduardo Mazzaroppi Barao

    2017-07-01

    Health has become a priority issue on the agenda in relation to Brazilian international technical cooperation in the last decade. This applies to Mozambique which is a strategic partner of Brazil's when one takes into consideration the volume of projects that have been undertaken between the two countries and the available resources on offer. There has been a shift in the foreign policy paradigm which has resulted in a new Brazilian foreign policy posture that promotes bilateral agreements and international cooperation. On conducting a retrospective and current analysis it is clear that there are, however, major obstacles and challenges for bilateral agreements and technical international cooperation that require in-depth study and which need to be dealt with in the area of health. This paper seeks to identify and analyze these obstacles with a view to providing proposals for ways forward. It takes the approach of using the methodology of reviewing specialized journals on this topic as well as using qualitative research from the main actors and institutions involved in bilateral cooperation.

  10. A review on human reinstatement studies: an overview and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaker, Jan; Golkar, Armita; Hermans, Dirk; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2014-09-01

    In human research, studies of return of fear (ROF) phenomena, and reinstatement in particular, began only a decade ago and recently are more widely used, e.g., as outcome measures for fear/extinction memory manipulations (e.g., reconsolidation). As reinstatement research in humans is still in its infancy, providing an overview of its stability and boundary conditions and summarizing methodological challenges is timely to foster fruitful future research. As a translational endeavor, clarifying the circumstances under which (experimental) reinstatement occurs may offer a first step toward understanding relapse as a clinical phenomenon and pave the way for the development of new pharmacological or behavioral ways to prevent ROF. The current state of research does not yet allow pinpointing these circumstances in detail and we hope this review will aid the research field to advance in this direction. As an introduction, we begin with a synopsis of rodent work on reinstatement and theories that have been proposed to explain the findings. The review however mainly focuses on reinstatement in humans. We first describe details and variations of the experimental setup in reinstatement studies in humans and give a general overview of results. We continue with a compilation of possible experimental boundary conditions and end with the role of individual differences and behavioral and/or pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, we compile important methodological and design details on the published studies in humans and end with open research questions and some important methodological and design recommendations as a guide for future research. © 2014 Haaker et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Themes and challenges in making supply chains socially sustainable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Purpose of this paper is to explore and classify pattern of the currently discussed themes and challenges in making supply chains socially sustainable. Design/methodology/approach The methodology was based on a systematic review of the existing literature in order to explore what major...... themes and challenges have been discussed as well as the significant gaps where opportunities for further research can be found. Findings In total five categories of themes were identified, namely goods/service-centric, human-centric, organization-centric, corporate-centric, and management...... holistic view of the pattern of currently discussed themes and challenges may be beneficial in increasing the absorptive capacity of industrial and business practitioners when they design and operationalize innovative strategies in developing sustainable supply chains. Originality/value This paper may...

  12. Socio-Hydrology: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in the Bidirectional Coupling of Human and Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation reviews conceptual advances in the emerging field of socio-hydrology that focuses on coupled human and water systems. An important current challenge is how to better couple the bidirectional influences between human and water systems, which lead to emergent dynamics. The interactions among (1) the structure and dynamics of systems with (2) human values and norms lead to (3) outcomes, which in turn influence subsequent interactions. Human influences on hydrological systems are relatively well understood, chiefly resulting from developments in the field of water resources. The ecosystem-service concept of cultural value has expanded understanding of decision-making beyond economic rationality criteria. Hydrological impacts on social processes are less well developed conceptually, but this is changing with growing attention to vulnerability, adaptation, and resilience, particularly in the face of climate change. Methodological limitations, especially in characterizing the range of human responses to hydrological events and drivers, still pose challenges to modeling bidirectional human-water influences. Evidence from multiple case studies, synthesized in more broadly generic syndromes, helps surmount these methodological limitations and offers the potential to improve characterization and quantification of socio-hydrological systems.

  13. Customer satisfaction surveys: Methodological recommendations for financial service providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđić Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This methodological article investigates practical challenges that emerge when conducting customer satisfaction surveys (CSS for financial service providers such as banks, insurance or leasing companies, and so forth. It displays methodological recommendations in reference with: (a survey design, (b sampling, (c survey method, (d questionnaire design, and (e data acquisition. Article provides appropriate explanations that usage of: two-stage survey design, SRS method, large samples, and rigorous fieldwork preparation can enhance the overall quality of CSS in financial services. Proposed methodological recommendations can primarily be applied to the primary quantitative marketing research in retail financial services. However, majority of them can be successfully applied when conducting primary quantitative marketing research in corporate financial services as well. .

  14. Loyalty programs challenges in retail banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskienė, Neringa; Auruškevičienė, Viltė

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges of loyalty programs in retail banks in Lithuania. Case study methodology was chosen to analyze the loyalty programs launched by various banks to show how banks are building the loyalty of individual customers and what challenges these banks face. The findings suggest that the majority of analyzed loyalty programs reward a repeat purchasing. Lithuanian retail banks launching loyalty programs for two customer segments - the potentially prof...

  15. How to emerge from the conservatism in clinical research methodology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Nuria; Penel, Nicolas; Awada, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Despite recent changes in clinical research methodology, many challenges remain in drug development methodology. Advances in molecular biology and cancer treatments have changed the clinical research landscape. Thus, we moved from empirical clinical oncology to molecular and immunological therapeutic approaches. Along with this move, adapted dose-limiting toxicities definitions, endpoints, and dose escalation methods have been proposed. Moreover, the classical frontier between phase I, phase II, and phase III has become unclear in particular for immunological approaches. So, investigators are facing major challenges in drug development methodology. We propose to individualize clinical research using innovative approaches to significantly improve patient outcomes and targeting what is considered unmet need. Integrating high level of translational research and performing well designed biomarker studies with great potential for clinical practice are of utmost importance. This could be performed within new models of clinical research networks and by building a strong collaboration between academic, cooperative groups, on-site investigators, and pharma.

  16. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Lene

    2014-01-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new...

  17. Conceptual and methodological challenges for neuroimaging studies of autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzone, Luigi; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. We review three major conceptua...

  18. EULAR/ACR classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and their major subgroups: a methodology report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottai, Matteo; Tjärnlund, Anna; Santoni, Giola; Werth, Victoria P.; Pilkington, Clarissa; de Visser, Marianne; Alfredsson, Lars; Amato, Anthony A.; Barohn, Richard J.; Liang, Matthew H.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Aggarwal, Rohit; Arnardottir, Snjolaug; Chinoy, Hector; Cooper, Robert G.; Danko, Katalin; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Feldman, Brian M.; García-de la Torre, Ignacio; Gordon, Patrick; Hayashi, Taichi; Katz, James D.; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Lachenbruch, Peter A.; Lang, Bianca A.; Li, Yuhui; Oddis, Chester V.; Olesinka, Marzena; Reed, Ann M.; Rutkowska-Sak, Lidia; Sanner, Helga; Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Wook Song, Yeong; Vencovsky, Jiri; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Amoruso, Maria; Andersson, Helena; Bayat, Nastaran; Bhansing, Kavish J.; Bucher, Sara; Champbell, Richard; Charles-Schoeman, Christina; Chaudhry, Vinay; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Chung, Lorinda; Cronin, Mary; Curry, Theresa; Dahlbom, Kathe; Distler, Oliver; Efthimiou, Petros; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.; Faiq, Abdullah; Farhadi, Payam Noroozi; Fiorentino, David; Hengstman, Gerald; Hoogendijk, Jessica; Huber, Adam; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kim, Susan; Kong-Rosario, Michelle; Kontzias, Apostolos; Krol, Petra; Kurita, Takashi; Li, Zhan-Guo; Lindvall, Björn; Linklater, Helen; Maillard, Sue; Mamyrova, Gulnara; Mantegazza, Renato; Marder, Galina S.; Nagahashi Marie, Suely Kazue; Mathiesen, Pernille; Mavragani, Clio P.; McHugh, Neil J.; Michaels, Mimi; Mohammed, Reem; Morgan, Gabrielle; Moser, David W.; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M.

    2017-01-01

    To describe the methodology used to develop new classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and their major subgroups. An international, multidisciplinary group of myositis experts produced a set of 93 potentially relevant variables to be tested for

  19. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology Rev 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Robert D.; White, Michael K.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Andrews, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Documentation of the methodology used to calculate relative hazard and risk measure results for the DOE complex wide risk profiles. This methodology is used on major site risk profiles. In February 1997, the Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) was created and charged as a technical, field-based partner to the Office of Science and Risk Policy (EM-52). One of the initial charges to the CRE is to assist the sites in the development of ''site risk profiles.'' These profiles are to be relatively short summaries (periodically updated) that present a broad perspective on the major risk related challenges that face the respective site. The risk profiles are intended to serve as a high-level communication tool for interested internal and external parties to enhance the understanding of these risk-related challenges. The risk profiles for each site have been designed to qualitatively present the following information: (1) a brief overview of the site, (2) a brief discussion on the historical mission of the site, (3) a quote from the site manager indicating the site's commitment to risk management, (4) a listing of the site's top risk-related challenges, (5) a brief discussion and detailed table presenting the site's current risk picture, (6) a brief discussion and detailed table presenting the site's future risk reduction picture, and (7) graphic illustrations of the projected management of the relative hazards at the site. The graphic illustrations were included to provide the reader of the risk profiles with a high-level mental picture to associate with all the qualitative information presented in the risk profile. Inclusion of these graphic illustrations presented the CRE with the challenge of how to fold this high-level qualitative risk information into a system to produce a numeric result that would depict the relative change in hazard, associated with each major risk management action, so it could be presented graphically. This report presents the methodology developed

  20. Methodological reporting of randomized controlled trials in major hepato-gastroenterology journals in 2008 and 1998: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background It was still unclear whether the methodological reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in major hepato-gastroenterology journals improved after the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement was revised in 2001. Methods RCTs in five major hepato-gastroenterology journals published in 1998 or 2008 were retrieved from MEDLINE using a high sensitivity search method and their reporting quality of methodological details were evaluated based on the CONSORT Statement and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of interventions. Changes of the methodological reporting quality between 2008 and 1998 were calculated by risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of 107 RCTs published in 2008 and 99 RCTs published in 1998 were found. Compared to those in 1998, the proportion of RCTs that reported sequence generation (RR, 5.70; 95%CI 3.11-10.42), allocation concealment (RR, 4.08; 95%CI 2.25-7.39), sample size calculation (RR, 3.83; 95%CI 2.10-6.98), incomplete outecome data addressed (RR, 1.81; 95%CI, 1.03-3.17), intention-to-treat analyses (RR, 3.04; 95%CI 1.72-5.39) increased in 2008. Blinding and intent-to-treat analysis were reported better in multi-center trials than in single-center trials. The reporting of allocation concealment and blinding were better in industry-sponsored trials than in public-funded trials. Compared with historical studies, the methodological reporting quality improved with time. Conclusion Although the reporting of several important methodological aspects improved in 2008 compared with those published in 1998, which may indicate the researchers had increased awareness of and compliance with the revised CONSORT statement, some items were still reported badly. There is much room for future improvement. PMID:21801429

  1. Launching of New Pharmaceutical Product and Promotional Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gunjan; Jegathambigai Rameshwar Naidu; Ishab Kumar; Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of the study was to find out the basic challenges and major aspects in launching of new pharmaceutical products, and the usual way to overcome with the concerned challenges. The second most important purpose was to find out the role of innovative and creative way in promotion of new pharmaceutical product and its impact on their market value. Methodology: I went through questionnaire based survey on 10 medical representatives and 10 doctors respectively to find o...

  2. The appropriation of new media and the interrelation with social change in Uasin Gishu, Kenya - methodological and epistemological challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica; Nielsen, Poul Erik

    The aim of this paper is to theoretically and empirically discuss methodological challenges related to studying the interrelations between the appropriations of new media and socio-cultural changes in the Global South. Empirically the paper takes its point of departure in three sub-projects within...

  3. Caffeine and cognitive performance: persistent methodological challenges in caffeine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E

    2014-09-01

    Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk assessment of cryogenic installations – implementation, applicability of methodologies and challenges at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    For the safe design of a cryogenic installation, it is essential to carry out a comprehensive hazard identification and risk estimate in order to put in place the necessary control measures for an adequate risk mitigation. According to CERN Safety Rules, it is mandatory that the organic unit owning a cryogenic facility conducts and documents a risk assessment. This requirement is also given by the European Directive 2014/68/EU to manufacturers of pressure equipment. During the talk, some of the challenges CERN faces in the development of risk assessments across the broad array of activities involving cryogenic equipment in the organization will be discussed. Challenges such as the choice of the best-suited risk assessment methodology based on the features and complexity of the installation/activities, the efforts to develop tools to facilitate hazard identification, risk analysis and definition of related measures to protect the health and safety of workers, such as streamlined guidelines, forms and check...

  5. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cizao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies.

  6. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Alshammari, Thamir M; Al-Dhaeefi, Mohammed; Le Louet, Herve; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Pitts, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals were invited to participate in the discussion. The predefined themes of the study were the current practice and major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in regulatory bodies, hospitals, the community, and academia, as well as recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance practice.  Of the 29 participants invited, 27 attended the discussion. Challenges facing regulatory bodies included complicated adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting forms, lack of feedback on ADRs submitted to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, lack of decisions from the local authority to withdraw medications, and lack of data on pharmacovigilance. The challenges to pharmacovigilance in hospitals included the lack of knowledge of the significance of ADR reporting, workload, blaming culture, and lack of collaboration between regulatory bodies and hospitals. However, challenges facing pharmaceutical industries included the lack of drug manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and lack of interest in pharmacovigilance. Recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance included the need for communication, stronger regulatory requirements, the need for research, the need for unified ADRs reporting, and continuous education and training.  The study has identified the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and made certain recommendations to overcome them. These recommendations might be helpful for regulatory bodies to enhance spontaneous reporting and promote pharmacovigilance.

  7. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate S.; Magin, Parker; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP) pressure control in patients with hypertension. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. Method: A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. C...

  8. Methodological challenges of optical tweezers-based X-ray fluorescence imaging of biological model organisms at synchrotron facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; Bauters, Stephen; De Rijcke, Maarten; Deruytter, David; Janssen, Colin; Riekel, Christian; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a radically new synchrotron radiation-based elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural in vivo state was introduced. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time at ESRF-ID13. The optical manipulation possibilities and limitations of biological model organisms, the OT setup developments for XRF imaging and the confocal XRF-related challenges are reported. In general, the applicability of the OT-based setup is extended with the aim of introducing the OT XRF methodology in all research fields where highly sensitive in vivo multi-elemental analysis is of relevance at the (sub)micrometre spatial resolution level.

  9. Measuring alterations in oscillatory brain networks in schizophrenia with resting-state MEG: State-of-the-art and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamian, Golnoush; Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Pascarella, Annalisa; Thiery, Thomas; Combrisson, Etienne; Saive, Anne-Lise; Martel, Véronique; Althukov, Dmitrii; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Jerbi, Karim

    2017-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of disturbed resting-state brain networks in Schizophrenia (SZ). However, untangling the neuronal mechanisms that subserve these baseline alterations requires measurement of their electrophysiological underpinnings. This systematic review specifically investigates the contributions of resting-state Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in elucidating abnormal neural organization in SZ patients. A systematic literature review of resting-state MEG studies in SZ was conducted. This literature is discussed in relation to findings from resting-state fMRI and EEG, as well as to task-based MEG research in SZ population. Importantly, methodological limitations are considered and recommendations to overcome current limitations are proposed. Resting-state MEG literature in SZ points towards altered local and long-range oscillatory network dynamics in various frequency bands. Critical methodological challenges with respect to experiment design, and data collection and analysis need to be taken into consideration. Spontaneous MEG data show that local and global neural organization is altered in SZ patients. MEG is a highly promising tool to fill in knowledge gaps about the neurophysiology of SZ. However, to reach its fullest potential, basic methodological challenges need to be overcome. MEG-based resting-state power and connectivity findings could be great assets to clinical and translational research in psychiatry, and SZ in particular. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaginative methodologies in the social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke...... and reignite social scientific methodology. Imaginative Methodologies challenges the mainstream social science methodological orthodoxy closely guarding the boundaries between the social sciences and the arts and humanities, pointing out that authors and artists are often engaged in projects parallel to those...... of the social sciences and vice versa, and that artistic and cultural productions today do not constitute a specialist field, but are integral to our social reality. The book will be of interest to scholars and students in the social sciences and across the arts and humanities working with questions...

  11. Hypertension in Developing Countries: A Major Challenge for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen Ibrahim, M

    2018-05-01

    Outline recent epidemiologic data regarding hypertension in developing countries, distinguish differences from developed countries, and identify challenges in management and future perspectives. Increased sugar intake, air and noise pollution, and low birth weight are emerging hypertension risk factors. The major challenges in management are difficulties in accurate diagnosis of hypertension and adequate blood pressure control. In contrast to developed countries, hypertension prevalence rates are on the rise in developing countries with no improvement in awareness or control rates. The increasing burden of hypertension is largely attributable to behavioral factors, urbanization, unhealthy diet, obesity, social stress, and inactivity. Health authorities, medical societies, and drug industry can collaborate to improve hypertension control through education programs, public awareness campaigns, legislation to limit salt intake, encourage generic drugs, development and dissemination of national guidelines, and involving nurses and pharmacists in hypertension management. More epidemiologic data are needed in the future to identify reasons behind increased prevalence and poor blood pressure control and examine trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. National programs for better hypertension control based on local culture, economic characteristics, and available resources in the population are needed. The role of new tools for hypertension management should be tested in developing world.

  12. The origin of life and its methodological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtershäuser, G

    1997-08-21

    The problem of the origin of life is discussed from a methodological point of view as an encounter between the teleological thinking of the historian and the mechanistic thinking of the chemist; and as the Kantian task of replacing teleology by mechanism. It is shown how the Popperian situational logic of historic understanding and the Popperian principle of explanatory power of scientific theories, when jointly applied to biochemistry, lead to a methodology of biochemical retrodiction, whereby common precursor functions are constructed for disparate successor functions. This methodology is exemplified by central tenets of the theory of the chemo-autotrophic origin of life: the proposal of a surface metabolism with a two-dimensional order; the basic polarity of life with negatively charged constituents on positively charged mineral surfaces; the surface-metabolic origin of phosphorylated sugar metabolism and nucleic acids; the origin of membrane lipids and of chemi-osmosis on pyrite surfaces; and the principles of the origin of the genetic machinery. The theory presents the early evolution of life as a process that begins with chemical necessity and winds up in genetic chance.

  13. A review of multi-risk methodologies for natural hazards: Consequences and challenges for a climate change impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Sperotto, Anna; Glade, Thomas; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a review of existing multi-risk assessment concepts and tools applied by organisations and projects providing the basis for the development of a multi-risk methodology in a climate change perspective. Relevant initiatives were developed for the assessment of multiple natural hazards (e.g. floods, storm surges, droughts) affecting the same area in a defined timeframe (e.g. year, season, decade). Major research efforts were focused on the identification and aggregation of multiple hazard types (e.g. independent, correlated, cascading hazards) by means of quantitative and semi-quantitative approaches. Moreover, several methodologies aim to assess the vulnerability of multiple targets to specific natural hazards by means of vulnerability functions and indicators at the regional and local scale. The overall results of the review show that multi-risk approaches do not consider the effects of climate change and mostly rely on the analysis of static vulnerability (i.e. no time-dependent vulnerabilities, no changes among exposed elements). A relevant challenge is therefore to develop comprehensive formal approaches for the assessment of different climate-induced hazards and risks, including dynamic exposure and vulnerability. This requires the selection and aggregation of suitable hazard and vulnerability metrics to make a synthesis of information about multiple climate impacts, the spatial analysis and ranking of risks, including their visualization and communication to end-users. To face these issues, climate impact assessors should develop cross-sectorial collaborations among different expertise (e.g. modellers, natural scientists, economists) integrating information on climate change scenarios with sectorial climate impact assessment, towards the development of a comprehensive multi-risk assessment process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate S; Magin, Parker; Roberts, Christopher; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP) pressure control in patients with hypertension. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control - usual care), Group B (Intervention), or Group C (Short Intervention). Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively), improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01), and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index) scores (P=0.91). There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention), and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care). Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  15. Implementation and evaluation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in primary care: outcomes and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajorek B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suboptimal utilisation of pharmacotherapy, non-adherence to prescribed treatment, and a lack of monitoring all contribute to poor blood (BP pressure control in patients with hypertension. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a pharmacist-led hypertension management service in terms of processes, outcomes, and methodological challenges. Method: A prospective, controlled study was undertaken within the Australian primary care setting. Community pharmacists were recruited to one of three study groups: Group A (Control – usual care, Group B (Intervention, or Group C (Short Intervention. Pharmacists in Groups B and C delivered a service comprising screening and monitoring of BP, as well as addressing poor BP control through therapeutic adjustment and adherence strategies. Pharmacists in Group C delivered the shortened version of the service. Results: Significant changes to key outcome measures were observed in Group C: reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs at the 3-month visit (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively, improvement in medication adherence scores (P=0.01, and a slight improvement in quality of life (EQ-5D-3L Index scores (P=0.91. There were no significant changes in Group B (the full intervention, and no differences in comparison to Group A (usual care. Pharmacists fed-back that patient recruitment was a key barrier to service implementation, highlighting the methodological implications of screening. Conclusion: A collaborative, pharmacist-led hypertension management service can help monitor BP, improve medication adherence, and optimise therapy in a step-wise approach. However, blood pressure screening can effect behaviour change in patients, presenting methodological challenges in the evaluation of services in this context.

  16. Babesia major: protection of intact calves against homologous challenge by the injection of irradiated piroplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, R.E.; Lewis, D.; Brocklesby, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Blood from a splenectomized calf infected with Babesia major was divided into 20 ml aliquots which were γ-irradiated at doses of 0, 23.3, 27.3, 31.4, 35.4 and 39.5 krad and then inoculated into groups of three intact calves. Animals receiving non-irradiated blood had typical mild B. major reactions, but those receiving blood irradiated at 23.3, 27.3 and 31.4 krad and 2 of 3 receiving blood irradiated at 35.4 krad had minimal reactions. The remaining 4 animals had no detectable parasitaemic reactions. When the calves were challenged with a similar number (6.0 x 10 9 ) of homologous parasites, they were all immune with the exception of the 4 animals which had not reacted initially. The immune status of individual cattle was reflected accurately in the results of the micro-ELISA test, which detected a significant rise in serum antibody titre of the 4 susceptible animals 7 days after challenge. (author)

  17. Babesia major: protection of intact calves against homologous challenge by the injection of irradiated piroplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, R E; Lewis, D; Brocklesby, D W [Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases

    1979-02-01

    Blood from a splenectomized calf infected with Babesia major was divided into 20 ml aliquots which were ..gamma..-irradiated at doses of 0, 23.3, 27.3, 31.4, 35.4 and 39.5 krad and then inoculated into groups of three intact calves. Animals receiving non-irradiated blood had typical mild B. major reactions, but those receiving blood irradiated at 23.3, 27.3 and 31.4 krad and 2 of 3 receiving blood irradiated at 35.4 krad had minimal reactions. The remaining 4 animals had no detectable parasitaemic reactions. When the calves were challenged with a similar number (6.0 x 10/sup 9/) of homologous parasites, they were all immune with the exception of the 4 animals which had not reacted initially. The immune status of individual cattle was reflected accurately in the results of the micro-ELISA test, which detected a significant rise in serum antibody titre of the 4 susceptible animals 7 days after challenge.

  18. What Are the Lived Challenges Experienced by Black Females in a STEM Doctoral Program at a Majority White Institution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleare, Sharlane S.

    The purpose of this study is to explore the challenges experienced by Black female STEM doctoral students at a Majority White Institution. This study examined how, and to what extent did the Majority White Institution's STEM environment influenced such challenges. The qualitative phenomenological approach to this investigation utilized the lenses of Black Feminist Thought and Critical Race Feminism Theoretical Frameworks as interconnected lenses by which to conceptualize this phenomenon. This study answered the following question: What are the lived challenges experienced by Black female in a STEM doctoral program at a Majority White Institution? Purposeful and snowball sampling were employed to recruit participants for this investigation. Both sampling methods were selected because of their wide use in qualitative investigations, as well as their proven ability to precisely source quality participants (Biernacki, & Waldorf,1981; Palinkas, Horwitz, Green, Wisdom, Duan, & Hoagwood, (2015). Observations, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and focus groups were conducted with eleven (11) Black females STEM doctoral students currently studying at a large Majority White Institution in the Midwest. The findings from this study suggest that this is a phenomenon worthy of considerable attention. Research in the area of Black females in STEM doctoral programs at Majority White Institutions can be further expanded and updated. Therefore, this study will contribute and supplement existing literature on Black females in STEM doctoral programs at Majority White Institutions. Most importantly, the results obtained from this study can assist Majority White Institutions in the development and enhancement of programs and policies specifically geared towards addressing the needs of this underrepresented minority population segment.

  19. Culturally appropriate methodology in obtaining a representative sample of South Australian Aboriginal adults for a cross-sectional population health study: challenges and resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Tania; Taylor, Anne Winifred; Grande, Eleonora Dal; Avery, Jodie; Tucker, Graeme; Morey, Kim

    2015-05-19

    The considerably lower average life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, compared with non-Aboriginal and non-Torres Strait Islander Australians, has been widely reported. Prevalence data for chronic disease and health risk factors are needed to provide evidence based estimates for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population health planning. Representative surveys for these populations are difficult due to complex methodology. The focus of this paper is to describe in detail the methodological challenges and resolutions of a representative South Australian Aboriginal population-based health survey. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling methodology based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 Census with culturally appropriate and epidemiological rigorous methods, 11,428 randomly selected dwellings were approached from a total of 209 census collection districts. All persons eligible for the survey identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander and were selected from dwellings identified as having one or more Aboriginal person(s) living there at the time of the survey. Overall, the 399 interviews from an eligible sample of 691 SA Aboriginal adults yielded a response rate of 57.7%. These face-to-face interviews were conducted by ten interviewers retained from a total of 27 trained Aboriginal interviewers. Challenges were found in three main areas: identification and recruitment of participants; interviewer recruitment and retainment; and using appropriate engagement with communities. These challenges were resolved, or at least mainly overcome, by following local protocols with communities and their representatives, and reaching agreement on the process of research for Aboriginal people. Obtaining a representative sample of Aboriginal participants in a culturally appropriate way was methodologically challenging and required high levels of commitment and resources. Adhering to these principles has resulted in a

  20. Identifying the determinants of premature mortality in Russia: overcoming a methodological challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon David A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that excessive alcohol consumption is related to the high mortality among working age men in Russia. Moreover it has been suggested that alcohol is a key proximate driver of the very sharp fluctuations in mortality seen in this group since the mid-1980s. Designing an individual-level study suitable to address the potential acute effects of alcohol consumption on mortality in Russia has posed a challenge to epidemiologists, especially because of the need to identify factors that could underlie the rapid changes up and down in mortality rates that have been such a distinctive feature of the Russian mortality crisis. In order to address this study question which focuses on exposures acting shortly before sudden death, a cohort would be unfeasibly large and would suffer from recruitment bias. Methods Although the situation in Russia is unusual, with a very high death rate characterised by many sudden and apparently unexpected deaths in young men, the methodological problem is common to research on any cause of death where many deaths are sudden. Results We describe the development of an innovative approach that has overcome some of these challenges: a case-control study employing proxy informants and external data sources to collect information about proximate determinants of mortality. Conclusion This offers a set of principles that can be adopted by epidemiologists studying sudden and unexpected deaths in other settings.

  1. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself.

  2. A Case Study: Syllabus, Methodology and Assessment with Oral EL Classes for Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengLianyi

    2004-01-01

    In response to the school curriculum reform,approximately 1200 out of the 3000 sophomores of non-English major in our university selected oral English as the optional course for the autumn semester study of 2003. The high demand for the spoken English classes is a challenge to the English teachers concerned. However how to conduct oral English lessons effectively in a considerably big-sized class of 35 plus with varied language aptitudes and personality traits calls forth a good topic for research studies.

  3. Challenges in dental statistics: survey methodology topics

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Milani, Silvano; Spada, Elena; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers some contributions concerning survey methodology in dental research, as discussed during the first Workshop of the SISMEC STATDENT working group on statistical methods and applications in dentistry, held in Ancona on the 28th September 2011.The first contribution deals with the European Global Oral Health Indicators Development (EGOHID) Project which proposed a comprehensive and standardized system of epidemiological tools (questionnaires and clinical forms) for national da...

  4. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity: An Interdisciplinary Methodological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Salling Olesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thematic issue presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis. Its particular focus is on subjectivity—as an aspect of the research object and as an aspect of the research process. By the term "approach" is indicated the intrinsic connection between the theorizing of an empirical object and the reflection of the research process and the epistemic subject. In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FQS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (BREUER, MRUCK & ROTH, 2002; MRUCK & BREUER, 2003. This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120345

  5. General discussion of data quality challenges in social media metrics: Extensive comparison of four major altmetric data aggregators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The data collection and reporting approaches of four major altmetric data aggregators are studied. The main aim of this study is to understand how differences in social media tracking and data collection methodologies can have effects on the analytical use of altmetric data. For this purpose, discrepancies in the metrics across aggregators have been studied in order to understand how the methodological choices adopted by these aggregators can explain the discrepancies found. Our results show that different forms of accessing the data from diverse social media platforms, together with different approaches of collecting, processing, summarizing, and updating social media metrics cause substantial differences in the data and metrics offered by these aggregators. These results highlight the importance that methodological choices in the tracking, collecting, and reporting of altmetric data can have in the analytical value of the data. Some recommendations for altmetric users and data aggregators are proposed and discussed. PMID:29772003

  6. Investigating the association between medication adherence and health-related quality of life in COPD : Methodological challenges when using a proxy measure of adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boland, Melinde R. S.; van Boven, Job F. M.; Kruis, Annemarije L.; Chavannes, Niels H.; van der Molen, Thys; Goossens, Lucas M. A.; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H.

    Background: The association between non-adherence to medication and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) remains poorly understood. Different ways to deal with methodological challenges to estimate this association have probably contributed to

  7. School-to-Work-Transition—Career Development and Family Planning: Methodological Guidelines and Challenges of a Qualitative Longitudinal Panel-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kühn

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the basic features of our qualitative German panel study concerning the job entry of young adults, dealing also with methodological issues. The selection of the respondents in qualified jobs (commercial-technical, crafts/trade, services took into account gender-specific aspects, different labor-market prospects and regions. From the quantitative panel, a theoretical sample of respondents was selected who were interviewed three times in three-years intervals (3 waves. These interviews, focusing on individual biographies (i.e. orientations and action strategies form the basis for constructing a typology. Methodological innovations concern the modeling of the sequence of occupational actions and orientations as life-course sequences and the case-specific and case-comparing analysis of interview transcripts. This was done—based on a data bank containing the interview material—by means of a detailed scheme of categories. The integration of quantitative and qualitative longitudinal data presents a theoretical and methodological challenge. Our focus is on biography and life-course research which suggests an interdisciplinary approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002178

  8. A Computational Methodology to Overcome the Challenges Associated With the Search for Specific Enzyme Targets to Develop Drugs Against Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catharina, Larissa; Lima, Carlyle Ribeiro; Franca, Alexander; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ramos; Alves-Ferreira, Marcelo; Tuffery, Pierre; Derreumaux, Philippe; Carels, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach for detecting enzymes that are specific of Leishmania major compared with Homo sapiens and provide targets that may assist research in drug development. This approach is based on traditional techniques of sequence homology comparison by similarity search and Markov modeling; it integrates the characterization of enzymatic functionality, secondary and tertiary protein structures, protein domain architecture, and metabolic environment. From 67 enzymes represented by 42 enzymatic activities classified by AnEnPi (Analogous Enzymes Pipeline) as specific for L major compared with H sapiens , only 40 (23 Enzyme Commission [EC] numbers) could actually be considered as strictly specific of L major and 27 enzymes (19 EC numbers) were disregarded for having ambiguous homologies or analogies with H sapiens . Among the 40 strictly specific enzymes, we identified sterol 24-C-methyltransferase, pyruvate phosphate dikinase, trypanothione synthetase, and RNA-editing ligase as 4 essential enzymes for L major that may serve as targets for drug development.

  9. Assessing climate risks across different business sectors and industries: an investigation of methodological challenges at national scale for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surminski, Swenja; Di Mauro, Manuela; Baglee, J. Alastair R.; Connell, Richenda K.; Hankinson, Joel; Haworth, Anna R.; Ingirige, Bingunath; Proverbs, David

    2018-06-01

    Climate change poses severe risks for businesses, which companies as well as governments need to understand in order to take appropriate steps to manage those. This, however, represents a significant challenge as climate change risk assessment is itself a complex, dynamic and geographically diverse process. A wide range of factors including the nature of production processes and value chains, the location of business sites as well as relationships and interdependencies with customers and suppliers play a role in determining if and how companies are impacted by climate risks. This research explores the methodological challenges for a national-scale assessment of climate risks through the lens of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (UKCCRA) process and compares the approaches adopted in the first and second UKCCRA (2011, 2016), while also reflecting on international experiences elsewhere. A review of these issues is presented, drawing on a wide body of contemporary evidence from a range of sources including the research disciplines, grey literature and government policy. The study reveals the methodological challenges and highlights six broad themes, namely scale, evidence base, adaptation responses, scope, interdependencies and public policy. The paper concludes by identifying suitable lessons for future national climate risk assessments, which should guide the next phase of research in preparation for UKCCRA3 and those of national-level risk assessments elsewhere. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  10. Inernational research in health care management: its need in the 21st century, methodological challenges, ethical issues, pitfalls, and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Rathert, Cheryl; D'Aunno, Thomas A; Savage, Grant T

    2015-01-01

    This commentary argues in favor of international research in the 21st century. Advances in technology, science, communication, transport, and infrastructure have transformed the world into a global village. Industries have increasingly adopted globalization strategies. Likewise, the health sector is more internationalized whereby comparisons between diverse health systems, international best practices, international benchmarking, cross-border health care, and cross-cultural issues have become important subjects in the health care literature. The focus has now turned to international, collaborative, cross-national, and cross-cultural research, which is by far more demanding than domestic studies. In this commentary, we explore the methodological challenges, ethical issues, pitfalls, and practicalities within international research and offer possible solutions to address them. The commentary synthesizes contributions from four scholars in the field of health care management, who came together during the annual meeting of the Academy of Management to discuss with members of the Health Care Management Division the challenges of international research. International research is worth pursuing; however, it calls for scholarly attention to key methodological and ethical issues for its success. This commentary addresses salient issues pertaining to international research in one comprehensive account.

  11. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Water Vapor Profile Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting and the AIRS 2015 NetMeeting. AIRS Version 6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version 6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version 5. Version 6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version 5, or even from Version 4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version 6.

  12. Methodological challenges involved in compiling the Nahua pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Paula

    2017-06-01

    Recent work in the history of science has questioned the Eurocentric nature of the field and sought to include a more global approach that would serve to displace center-periphery models in favor of approaches that take seriously local knowledge production. Historians of Iberian colonial science have taken up this approach, which involves reliance on indigenous knowledge traditions of the Americas. These traditions present a number of challenges to modern researchers, including availability and reliability of source material, issues of translation and identification, and lack of systematization. This essay explores the challenges that emerged in the author's attempt to compile a pre-contact Nahua pharmacopeia, the reasons for these challenges, and the ways they may - or may not - be overcome.

  13. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Ozone Profile Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting in the talk Improved Water Vapor and Ozone Profiles in SRT AIRS Version-6.X and the AIRS February 11, 2015 NetMeeting Further improvements in water vapor and ozone profiles compared to Version-6.AIRS Version-6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version-6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version-5. However, Version-6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version-5, or even from Version-4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version-6. This talk will concentrate on O3 profile retrievals. Improvements in water vapor profile retrievals are given in a separate presentation.

  14. Unsolicited written narratives as a methodological genre in terminal illness: challenges and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary R; Clark, David

    2012-02-01

    Stories about illness have proven invaluable in helping health professionals understand illness experiences. Such narratives have traditionally been solicited by researchers through interviews and the collection of personal writings, including diaries. These approaches are, however, researcher driven; the impetus for the creation of the story comes from the researcher and not the narrator. In recent years there has been exponential growth in illness narratives created by individuals, of their own volition, and made available for others to read in print or as Internet accounts. We sought to determine whether it was possible to identify such material for use as research data to explore the subject of living with the terminal illness amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease--the contention being that these accounts are narrator driven and therefore focus on issues of greatest importance to the affected person. We encountered and sought to overcome a number of methodological and ethical challenges, which is our focus here.

  15. A method comparison of photovoice and content analysis: research examining challenges and supports of family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Mary Ann; Garner, Shelby L

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to compare methods and thematic representations of the challenges and supports of family caregivers identified with photovoice methodology contrasted with content analysis, a more traditional qualitative approach. Results from a photovoice study utilizing a participatory action research framework was compared to an analysis of the audio-transcripts from that study utilizing content analysis methodology. Major similarities between the results are identified with some notable differences. Content analysis provides a more in-depth and abstract elucidation of the nature of the challenges and supports of the family caregiver. The comparison provides evidence to support the trustworthiness of photovoice methodology with limitations identified. The enhanced elaboration of theme and categories with content analysis may have some advantages relevant to the utilization of this knowledge by health care professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prototype application of best estimate and uncertainty safety analysis methodology to large LOCA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.; Huget, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Development of a methodology to perform best estimate and uncertainty nuclear safety analysis has been underway at Ontario Power Generation for the past two and one half years. A key driver for the methodology development, and one of the major challenges faced, is the need to re-establish demonstrated safety margins that have progressively been undermined through excessive and compounding conservatism in deterministic analyses. The major focus of the prototyping applications was to quantify the safety margins that exist at the probable range of high power operating conditions, rather than the highly improbable operating states associated with Limit of the Envelope (LOE) assumptions. In LOE, all parameters of significance to the consequences of a postulated accident are assumed to simultaneously deviate to their limiting values. Another equally important objective of the prototyping was to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting safety analysis as an incremental analysis activity, as opposed to a major re-analysis activity. The prototype analysis solely employed prior analyses of Bruce B large break LOCA events - no new computer simulations were undertaken. This is a significant and novel feature of the prototyping work. This methodology framework has been applied to a postulated large break LOCA in a Bruce generating unit on a prototype basis. This paper presents results of the application. (author)

  17. Methodological challenges in assessing the environmental status of a marine ecosystem: case study of the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available Assessments of the environmental status of marine ecosystems are increasingly needed to inform management decisions and regulate human pressures to meet the objectives of environmental policies. This paper addresses some generic methodological challenges and related uncertainties involved in marine ecosystem assessment, using the central Baltic Sea as a case study. The objectives of good environmental status of the Baltic Sea are largely focusing on biodiversity, eutrophication and hazardous substances. In this paper, we conduct comparative evaluations of the status of these three segments, by applying different methodological approaches. Our analyses indicate that the assessment results are sensitive to a selection of indicators for ecological quality objectives that are affected by a broad spectrum of human activities and natural processes (biodiversity, less so for objectives that are influenced by a relatively narrow array of drivers (eutrophications, hazardous substances. The choice of indicator aggregation rule appeared to be of essential importance for assessment results for all three segments, whereas the hierarchical structure of indicators had only a minor influence. Trend-based assessment was shown to be a useful supplement to reference-based evaluation, being independent of the problems related to defining reference values and indicator aggregation methodologies. Results of this study will help in setting priorities for future efforts to improve environmental assessments in the Baltic Sea and elsewhere, and to ensure the transparency of the assessment procedure.

  18. Sustainable Digital Environments: What Major Challenges Is Humankind Facing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the benefits, threats, and vulnerabilities related to the digital revolution. It aims to motivate research and its funding regarding digital threats and vulnerabilities related, in particular, to anticipating unintended, undesirable rebound effects, tipping points, critically fast evolutionary change rates, trade-offs, etc. A brief analysis of the history of the mind and technology reveals slow technological development over tens of thousands of years (including the invention of a place-value digital number system. Then, a small series of groundbreaking ideas (e.g., binary logic, Shannon’s symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits, architectures of computing enabled the industry-driven invention of programmable computing machines. Ultimately, the mastery of electron and semiconductor physics allowed for economical and seemingly unlimited storage capacity that made digital tools available to all domains of society. Based on the historical analysis, a coupled human-environment systems perspective (that includes a hierarchy assumption ranging from the human cell to the human species enables the identification of several potential challenges to society and science. First, digital nano-engineering promotes genetic modifications (i.e., directed evolution, and synthetic biology enables a new level of the appropriation of nature. The understanding of cell-based biocomputers may call for new forms of logic. These and other challenges require thorough sustainability research in order to anticipate major changes on all levels of human systems. Second, the human individual is exposed to new forms of vulnerability. In particular, the potential epigenetic effects resulting from the excessive use of digital information of historically unknown speed, density, and contents and the loss of (the Western common-law right to privacy resulting from big data (whose ownership is often unknown should become subjects of

  19. The Visual Object Tracking VOT2016 Challenge Results

    KAUST Repository

    Kristan, Matej

    2016-11-02

    The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2016 aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 70 trackers are presented, with a large number of trackers being published at major computer vision conferences and journals in the recent years. The number of tested state-of-the-art trackers makes the VOT 2016 the largest and most challenging benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the Appendix. The VOT2016 goes beyond its predecessors by (i) introducing a new semi-automatic ground truth bounding box annotation methodology and (ii) extending the evaluation system with the no-reset experiment. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website (http://votchallenge.net).

  20. The Visual Object Tracking VOT2016 Challenge Results

    KAUST Repository

    Kristan, Matej; Leonardis, Aleš; Matas, Jiři; Felsberg, Michael; Pflugfelder, Roman; Čehovin, Luka; Vojí r̃, Tomá š; Hä ger, Gustav; Lukežič, Alan; Ferná ndez, Gustavo; Gupta, Abhinav; Petrosino, Alfredo; Memarmoghadam, Alireza; Garcia-Martin, Alvaro; Solí s Montero, André s; Vedaldi, Andrea; Robinson, Andreas; Ma, Andy J.; Varfolomieiev, Anton; Alatan, Aydin; Erdem, Aykut; Ghanem, Bernard; Liu, Bin; Han, Bohyung; Martinez, Brais; Chang, Chang-Ming; Xu, Changsheng; Sun, Chong; Kim, Daijin; Chen, Dapeng; Du, Dawei; Mishra, Deepak; Yeung, Dit-Yan; Gundogdu, Erhan; Erdem, Erkut; Khan, Fahad; Porikli, Fatih; Zhao, Fei; Bunyak, Filiz; Battistone, Francesco; Zhu, Gao; Roffo, Giorgio; Subrahmanyam, Gorthi R. K. Sai; Bastos, Guilherme; Seetharaman, Guna; Medeiros, Henry; Li, Hongdong; Qi, Honggang; Bischof, Horst; Possegger, Horst; Lu, Huchuan; Lee, Hyemin; Nam, Hyeonseob; Chang, Hyung Jin; Drummond, Isabela; Valmadre, Jack; Jeong, Jae-chan; Cho, Jae-il; Lee, Jae-Yeong; Zhu, Jianke; Feng, Jiayi; Gao, Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Xiao, Jingjing; Kim, Ji-Wan; Jeong, Jiyeoup; Henriques, Joã o F.; Lang, Jochen; Choi, Jongwon; Martinez, Jose M.; Xing, Junliang; Gao, Junyu; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Lebeda, Karel; Gao, Ke; Mikolajczyk, Krystian; Qin, Lei; Wang, Lijun; Wen, Longyin; Bertinetto, Luca; Rapuru, Madan Kumar; Poostchi, Mahdieh; Maresca, Mario; Danelljan, Martin; Mueller, Matthias; Zhang, Mengdan; Arens, Michael; Valstar, Michel; Tang, Ming; Baek, Mooyeol; Khan, Muhammad Haris; Wang, Naiyan; Fan, Nana; Al-Shakarji, Noor; Miksik, Ondrej; Akin, Osman; Moallem, Payman; Senna, Pedro; Torr, Philip H. S.; Yuen, Pong C.; Huang, Qingming; Martin-Nieto, Rafael; Pelapur, Rengarajan; Bowden, Richard; Laganiè re, Robert; Stolkin, Rustam; Walsh, Ryan; Krah, Sebastian B.; Li, Shengkun; Zhang, Shengping; Yao, Shizeng; Hadfield, Simon; Melzi, Simone; Lyu, Siwei; Li, Siyi; Becker, Stefan; Golodetz, Stuart; Kakanuru, Sumithra; Choi, Sunglok; Hu, Tao; Mauthner, Thomas; Zhang, Tianzhu; Pridmore, Tony; Santopietro, Vincenzo; Hu, Weiming; Li, Wenbo; Hü bner, Wolfgang; Lan, Xiangyuan; Wang, Xiaomeng; Li, Xin; Li, Yang; Demiris, Yiannis; Wang, Yifan; Qi, Yuankai; Yuan, Zejian; Cai, Zexiong; Xu, Zhan; He, Zhenyu; Chi, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2016 aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 70 trackers are presented, with a large number of trackers being published at major computer vision conferences and journals in the recent years. The number of tested state-of-the-art trackers makes the VOT 2016 the largest and most challenging benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the Appendix. The VOT2016 goes beyond its predecessors by (i) introducing a new semi-automatic ground truth bounding box annotation methodology and (ii) extending the evaluation system with the no-reset experiment. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website (http://votchallenge.net).

  1. Methodology for determining major constituents of ayahuasca and their metabolites in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2012-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in potential medical applications of ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea with a long cultural history of indigenous medical and religious use. Clinical research into ayahuasca will require specific, sensitive and comprehensive methods for the characterization and quantitation of these compounds and their metabolites in blood. A combination of two analytical techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and/or fluorescence detection and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection) has been used for the analysis of some of the constituents of ayahuasca in blood following its oral consumption. We report here a single methodology for the direct analysis of 14 of the major alkaloid components of ayahuasca, including several known and potential metabolites of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and the harmala alkaloids in blood. The method uses 96-well plate/protein precipitation/filtration for plasma samples, and analysis by HPLC-ion trap-ion trap-mass spectrometry using heated electrospray ionization to reduce matrix effects. The method expands the list of compounds capable of being monitored in blood following ayahuasca administration while providing a simplified approach to their analysis. The method has adequate sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility to make it useful for clinical research with ayahuasca. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Vieths, Stefan; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    The hazelnut major allergens identified to date are an 18-kd protein homologous to Bet v 1 and a 14-kd allergen homologous to Bet v 2. No studies have reported hazelnut allergens recognized in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) results or in patients...

  3. Methodological challenges to bridge the gap between regional climate and hydrology models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, Denica; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph; Felder, Guido

    2017-04-01

    The frequency and severity of floods worldwide, together with their impacts, are expected to increase under climate change scenarios. It is therefore very important to gain insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for such events in order to constrain the associated uncertainties. Model simulations of the climate and hydrological processes are important tools that can provide insight in the underlying physical processes and thus enable an accurate assessment of the risks. Coupled together, they can provide a physically consistent picture that allows to assess the phenomenon in a comprehensive way. However, climate and hydrological models work at different temporal and spatial scales, so there are a number of methodological challenges that need to be carefully addressed. An important issue pertains the presence of biases in the simulation of precipitation. Climate models in general, and Regional Climate models (RCMs) in particular, are affected by a number of systematic biases that limit their reliability. In many studies, prominently the assessment of changes due to climate change, such biases are minimised by applying the so-called delta approach, which focuses on changes disregarding absolute values that are more affected by biases. However, this approach is not suitable in this scenario, as the absolute value of precipitation, rather than the change, is fed into the hydrological model. Therefore, bias has to be previously removed, being this a complex matter where various methodologies have been proposed. In this study, we apply and discuss the advantages and caveats of two different methodologies that correct the simulated precipitation to minimise differences with respect an observational dataset: a linear fit (FIT) of the accumulated distributions and Quantile Mapping (QM). The target region is Switzerland, and therefore the observational dataset is provided by MeteoSwiss. The RCM is the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), driven at the

  4. Researching health inequalities with Community Researchers: practical, methodological and ethical challenges of an 'inclusive' research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Sarah; Chowbey, Punita; Such, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Public health research sometimes uses members of communities as researchers. These are called Community Researchers. The advantage of using Community Researchers is that it enables people who live in communities to participate in research by designing the research, gathering data and being involved in analysis. This 'participatory' approach also has the potential to reach communities that might otherwise not be included in research. There are few studies that report the experiences of Community Researchers who take part in such research. This study helps fill this gap by exploring the issues and challenges faced by Community Researchers involved in a study of health and poverty in ethnically mixed areas of east London, UK. Through the accounts of 12 researchers, the study reveals that being a community 'insider' had advantages: many felt they had been able to gain the trust of respondents and access people for the research that would have otherwise been missed. The role of Community Researcher was, however, difficult to manage with some researchers feeling burdened by their role and the increased knowledge they had about the lives of those in their community. In addition to the personal challenges for the Community Researchers, the findings raise various ethical and methodological issues that need consideration in participatory research. Background Inclusive research approaches are increasingly employed by public health researchers. Recent methodological development includes the engagement of Community Researchers (CRs), who use their knowledge and networks to facilitate research with the community with which they identify. Few studies have explored the experiences of CRs in the research process, an important element of any comprehensive assessment of the pros and cons of such research endeavours. We report here on the experiences of CRs engaged in a study of health inequalities and poverty in ethnically diverse and disadvantaged areas of London, UK. Methods We

  5. Laboratory methodologies for indicators of iron status: strengths, limitations, and analytical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Looker, Anne C

    2017-12-01

    Biochemical assessment of iron status relies on serum-based indicators, such as serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), as well as erythrocyte protoporphyrin. These indicators present challenges for clinical practice and national nutrition surveys, and often iron status interpretation is based on the combination of several indicators. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) through SF concentration, the most commonly used indicator, is complicated by concomitant inflammation. sTfR concentration is an indicator of functional ID that is not an acute-phase reactant, but challenges in its interpretation arise because of the lack of assay standardization, common reference ranges, and common cutoffs. It is unclear which indicators are best suited to assess excess iron status. The value of hepcidin, non-transferrin-bound iron, and reticulocyte indexes is being explored in research settings. Serum-based indicators are generally measured on fully automated clinical analyzers available in most hospitals. Although international reference materials have been available for years, the standardization of immunoassays is complicated by the heterogeneity of antibodies used and the absence of physicochemical reference methods to establish "true" concentrations. From 1988 to 2006, the assessment of iron status in NHANES was based on the multi-indicator ferritin model. However, the model did not indicate the severity of ID and produced categorical estimates. More recently, iron status assessment in NHANES has used the total body iron stores (TBI) model, in which the log ratio of sTfR to SF is assessed. Together, sTfR and SF concentrations cover the full range of iron status. The TBI model better predicts the absence of bone marrow iron than SF concentration alone, and TBI can be analyzed as a continuous variable. Additional consideration of methodologies, interpretation of indicators, and analytic standardization is important for further

  6. Morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnoea for major spine surgery: An anaesthetic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Redhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly obese patients with clinical features of obstructive sleep apnoea can present a myriad of challenges to the anaesthesiologists which must be addressed to minimise the perioperative risks. Initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy early in the pre- and post-operative period along with appropriate anaesthetic planning is of paramount importance in such patients. This case report emphasises the usefulness of CPAP therapy, even for a short duration, to minimise morbidity, improve recovery and hasten early discharge from the hospital after major surgery.

  7. On the major ductile fracture methodologies for failure assessment of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Julio R.B.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P. de; Landes, John D.

    1996-01-01

    In structures like nuclear reactor components there is a special concern with the loads that may occur under postulated accident conditions. These loads can cause the stresses to go well beyond the linear elastic limits, requiring the use of ductile fracture mechanics methods to the prediction of the structure behavior. Since the use of numerical methods to apply EPFM concepts is expensive and time consuming, the existence of analytical engineering procedures are of great relevance. The lack of precision in detail, as compared with numerical nonlinear analyses, is compensated by the possibility of quick failure assessments. This is a determinant factor in situations where a systematic evaluation of a large range of geometries and loading conditions is necessary, like in thr application of the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept on nuclear piping. This paper outlines four ductile fracture analytical methods, pointing out positive and negative aspects of each one. The objective is to take advantage of this critical review to conceive a new methodology, one that would gather strong points of the major existent methods and would try to eliminate some of their drawbacks. (author)

  8. Analytical methodology for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to briefly describe the analytical methodologies available and also highlight some of the challenges, expectations from nuclear material accounting and control (NUMAC) point of view

  9. Cultural Adaptations: Conceptual, Ethical, Contextual, and Methodological Issues for Working with Ethnocultural and Majority-World Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Guillermo; Adames, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Mayor advancements have been achieved in research on the cultural adaptation of prevention and treatment interventions that are conducted with diverse ethnocultural groups. This commentary addresses conceptual, ethical, contextual, and methodological issues related to cultural adaptations. The articles in this special issue represent a major contribution to the study of cultural adaptations in prevention science. We frame our analysis of fidelity to core intervention components using a conceptual approach that examines (a) the propositional model (theory of change), (b) the procedural model (theory of action, methods), and (c) the philosophical assumptions that undergird these models. Regarding ethics, we caution against imposing the norms, values, and world views of the Western dominant society onto vulnerable populations such as ethnocultural groups. Given that the assumption of universality in behavioral science has been questioned, and as randomized clinical trials (RCTs) seldom examine the ecological validity of evidence-based interventions and treatments (EBI/T), imposing such interventions onto ethnocultural groups is problematic since these interventions contain values, norms, beliefs, and worldviews that may be contrary to those held by many ethnocultural groups. Regarding methods, several innovative designs are discussed that serve as alternatives to the RCT and represent an important contribution to prevention science. Also, we discuss guidelines for conducting cultural adaptations. Finally, the articles in this special issue make a major contribution to the growing field of cultural adaptation of preventive interventions with ethnocultural groups and majority-world populations.

  10. Sex Work Research: Methodological and Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    The challenges involved in the design of ethical, nonexploitative research projects with sex workers or any other marginalized population are significant. First, the size and boundaries of the population are unknown, making it extremely difficult to get a representative sample. Second, because membership in hidden populations often involves…

  11. Challenges to inferring causality from viral information dispersion in dynamic social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovski, John

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the mechanism behind large-scale information dispersion through complex networks has important implications for a variety of industries ranging from cyber-security to public health. With the unprecedented availability of public data from online social networks (OSNs) and the low cost nature of most OSN outreach, randomized controlled experiments, the "gold standard" of causal inference methodologies, have been used with increasing regularity to study viral information dispersion. And while these studies have dramatically furthered our understanding of how information disseminates through social networks by isolating causal mechanisms, there are still major methodological concerns that need to be addressed in future research. This paper delineates why modern OSNs are markedly different from traditional sociological social networks and why these differences present unique challenges to experimentalists and data scientists. The dynamic nature of OSNs is particularly troublesome for researchers implementing experimental designs, so this paper identifies major sources of bias arising from network mutability and suggests strategies to circumvent and adjust for these biases. This paper also discusses the practical considerations of data quality and collection, which may adversely impact the efficiency of the estimator. The major experimental methodologies used in the current literature on virality are assessed at length, and their strengths and limits identified. Other, as-yetunsolved threats to the efficiency and unbiasedness of causal estimators--such as missing data--are also discussed. This paper integrates methodologies and learnings from a variety of fields under an experimental and data science framework in order to systematically consolidate and identify current methodological limitations of randomized controlled experiments conducted in OSNs.

  12. A nationwide study on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, and risk of premature menopause in female survivors of childhood cancer: design and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Annelies

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly growing group of survivors. However, both chemo- and radiotherapy may adversely affect reproductive function. This paper describes the design and encountered methodological challenges of a nationwide study in the Netherlands investigating the effects of treatment on reproductive function, ovarian reserve, premature menopause and pregnancy outcomes in female childhood cancer survivors (CCS, the DCOG LATER-VEVO study. Methods The study is a retrospective cohort study consisting of two parts: a questionnaire assessing medical, menstrual, and obstetric history, and a clinical assessment evaluating ovarian and uterine function by hormonal analyses and transvaginal ultrasound measurements. The eligible study population consists of adult female 5-year survivors of childhood cancer treated in the Netherlands, whereas the control group consists of age-matched sisters of the participating CCS. To date, study invitations have been sent to 1611 CCS and 429 sister controls, of which 1215 (75% and 333 (78% have responded so far. Of these responders, the majority consented to participate in both parts of the study (53% vs. 65% for CCS and sister controls respectively. Several challenges were encountered involving the study population: dealing with bias due to the differences in characteristics of several types of (non- participants and finding an adequately sized and well-matched control group. Moreover, the challenges related to the data collection process included: differences in response rates between web-based and paper-based questionnaires, validity of self-reported outcomes, interpretation of clinical measurements of women using hormonal contraceptives, and inter- and intra-observer variation of the ultrasound measurements. Discussion The DCOG LATER-VEVO study will provide valuable information about the

  13. Methodology of sustainability accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Sokil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern challenges of the theory and methodology of accounting are realized through the formation and implementation of new concepts, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of users in standard and unique information. The development of a methodology for sustainability accounting is a key aspect of the management of an economic entity. The purpose of the article is to form the methodological bases of accounting for sustainable development and determine its goals, objectives, object, subject, methods, functions and key aspects. The author analyzes the theoretical bases of the definition and considers the components of the traditional accounting methodology. Generalized structural diagram of the methodology for accounting for sustainable development is offered in the article. The complex of methods and principles of sustainable development accounting for systematized and non-standard provisions has been systematized. The new system of theoretical and methodological provisions of accounting for sustainable development is justified in the context of determining its purpose, objective, subject, object, methods, functions and key aspects.

  14. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  15. Metabolic consequences of obesity and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: diagnostic and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanes, Yvonne M; Reeves, Sue

    2017-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a considerable risk of metabolic dysfunction. This review aims to present contemporary knowledge on obesity, insulin resistance and PCOS with emphasis on the diagnostic and methodological challenges encountered in research and clinical practice. Variable diagnostic criteria for PCOS and associated phenotypes are frequently published. Targeted searches were conducted to identify all available data concerning the association of obesity and insulin resistance with PCOS up to September 2016. Articles were considered if they were peer reviewed, in English and included women with PCOS. Obesity is more prevalent in women with PCOS, but studies rarely reported accurate assessments of adiposity, nor split the study population by PCOS phenotypes. Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, though there is considerable variation reported in part due to not distinguishing subgroups known to have an impact on insulin resistance as well as limited methodology to measure insulin resistance. Inflammatory markers are positively correlated with androgen levels, but detailed interactions need to be identified. Weight management is the primary therapy; specific advice to reduce the glycaemic load of the diet and reduce the intake of pro-inflammatory SFA and advanced glycation endproducts have provided promising results. It is important that women with PCOS are educated about their increased risk of metabolic complications in order to make timely and appropriate lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, well-designed robust studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms behind the improvements observed with dietary interventions.

  16. Challenges in dental statistics: survey methodology topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pizzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gathers some contributions concerning survey methodology in dental research, as discussed during the first Workshop of the SISMEC STATDENT working group on statistical methods and applications in dentistry, held in Ancona on the 28th September 2011.The first contribution deals with the European Global Oral Health Indicators Development (EGOHID Project which proposed a comprehensive and standardized system of epidemiological tools (questionnaires and clinical forms for national data collection on oral health in Europe. The second contribution regards the design and conduct of trials to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of toothbrushes and mouthrinses. Finally, a flexible and effective tool used to trace dental age reference charts tailored to Italian children is presented.

  17. Sulfonylurea herbicides – methodological challenges in setting aquatic limit values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Baun, Anders; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    according to the EU Water Framework Directive, the resulting Water Quality Standards (WQSs) are below the analytical quantification limit, making it difficult to verify compliance with the limit values. However, several methodological concerns may be raised in relation to the very low effect concentrations...... and rimsulfuron. The following parameters were varied during testing: pH, exposure duration, temperature and light/dark cycle. Preliminary results show that a decrease in pH causes an increase in toxicity for all compounds. Exposure to a high concentration for 24 hours caused a reduction in growth rate, from...... for setting limit values for SUs or if more detailed information should be gained by taking methodological considerations into account....

  18. Concept mapping methodology and community-engaged research: A perfect pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Jones, Jennifer R; Booth, Emily; Burke, Jessica G

    2017-02-01

    Concept mapping methodology as refined by Trochim et al. is uniquely suited to engage communities in all aspects of research from project set-up to data collection to interpreting results to dissemination of results, and an increasing number of research studies have utilized the methodology for exploring complex health issues in communities. In the current manuscript, we present the results of a literature search of peer-reviewed articles in health-related research where concept mapping was used in collaboration with the community. A total of 103 articles met the inclusion criteria. We first address how community engagement was defined in the articles and then focus on the articles describing high community engagement and the associated community outcomes/benefits and methodological challenges. A majority (61%; n=63) of the articles were classified as low to moderate community engagement and participation while 38% (n=39) of the articles were classified as high community engagement and participation. The results of this literature review enhance our understanding of how concept mapping can be used in direct collaboration with communities and highlights the many potential benefits for both researchers and communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Major health service transformation and the public voice: conflict, challenge or complicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham P; Carter, Pam; Dent, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Calls for major reconfigurations of health services have been accompanied by recommendations that wide ranging stakeholders be involved. In particular, patients and the wider public are seen as critical contributors as both funders and beneficiaries of public health care. But public involvement is fraught with challenges, and little research has focused on involvement in the health service transformation initiatives. This paper examines the design and function of public involvement in reconfiguration of health services within the English NHS. Methods Qualitative data including interviews, observation and documents were collected in two health service 'transformation' programmes; interviews include involved public and professional participants. Data were analysed using parallel deductive and inductive approaches. Results Public involvement in the programmes was extensive but its terms of reference, and the individuals involved, were restricted by policy pressures and programme objectives. The degree to which participants descriptively or substantively represented the wider public was limited; participants sought to 'speak for' this public but their views on what was 'acceptable' and likely to influence decision-making led them to constrain their contributions. Conclusions Public involvement in two major service reconfiguration programmes in England was seen as important and functional, and could not be characterized as tokenistic. Yet involvement in these programmes fell short of normative ideals, and could inadvertently reduce, rather than enlarge, public influence on health service reconfiguration decisions.

  20. Solving a methodological challenge in work stress evaluation with the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit (StART): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Vignoli, Michela; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2013-06-22

    Stress evaluation is a field of strong interest and challenging due to several methodological aspects in the evaluation process. The aim of this study is to propose a study protocol to test a new method (i.e., the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit) to assess psychosocial risk factors at work. This method addresses several methodological issues (e.g., subjective vs. objective, qualitative vs quantitative data) by assessing work-related stressors using different kinds of data: i) organisational archival data (organisational indicators sheet); ii) qualitative data (focus group); iii) worker perception (questionnaire); and iv) observational data (observational checklist) using mixed methods research. In addition, it allows positive and negative aspects of work to be considered conjointly, using an approach that considers at the same time job demands and job resources. The integration of these sources of data can reduce the theoretical and methodological bias related to stress research in the work setting, allows researchers and professionals to obtain a reliable description of workers' stress, providing a more articulate vision of psychosocial risks, and allows a large amount of data to be collected. Finally, the implementation of the method ensures in the long term a primary prevention for psychosocial risk management in that it aims to reduce or modify the intensity, frequency or duration of organisational demands.

  1. Recognizing and overcoming challenges of couple interview research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Ruth M; Slaymaker, Emma; Cleland, John

    2013-10-01

    In this article we discuss some methodological and ethical challenges we faced when conducting a couple-based study on men's role in contraceptive switching, and how we overcame them. The challenges we discuss include recruiting couples with a range of experiences, ensuring informed consent of participants, maintaining confidentiality within interviews, and participants discussing interview content between interviews. As appropriate, we have drawn on study participants' views of these challenges. We conclude that although couple research poses challenges, they can be overcome or minimized, and that for certain research questions this methodology is well worth using.

  2. Technologies, Methodologies and Challenges in Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta STANCIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the technologies and the methodologies used in Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (NIDPS. Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS technologies are differentiated by types of events that IDPSs can recognize, by types of devices that IDPSs monitor and by activity. NIDPSs monitor and analyze the streams of network packets in order to detect security incidents. The main methodology used by NIDPSs is protocol analysis. Protocol analysis requires good knowledge of the theory of the main protocols, their definition, how each protocol works.

  3. Methodology for eliciting, encoding and simulating human decision making behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, Conrad Edgar Scott

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) are an increasingly important research tool for describing and predicting interactions among humans and their environment. A key challenge for such models is the ability to faithfully represent human decision making with respect to observed behaviour. This thesis aims to address this challenge by developing a methodology for empirical measurement and simulation of decision making in humanenvironment systems. The methodology employs the Beliefs-Desires-I...

  4. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials.

  5. A time-driven, activity-based costing methodology for determining the costs of red blood cell transfusion in patients with beta thalassaemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E; Haysom, H E; Higgins, A M; Waters, N; Tahiri, R; Rushford, K; Dunstan, T; Saxby, K; Kaplan, Z; Chunilal, S; McQuilten, Z K; Wood, E M

    2018-04-10

    To describe the methodology to estimate the total cost of administration of a single unit of red blood cells (RBC) in adults with beta thalassaemia major in an Australian specialist haemoglobinopathy centre. Beta thalassaemia major is a genetic disorder of haemoglobin associated with multiple end-organ complications and typically requiring lifelong RBC transfusion therapy. New therapeutic agents are becoming available based on advances in understanding of the disorder and its consequences. Assessment of the true total cost of transfusion, incorporating both product and activity costs, is required in order to evaluate the benefits and costs of these new therapies. We describe the bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing methodology used to develop process maps to provide a step-by-step outline of the entire transfusion pathway. Detailed flowcharts for each process are described. Direct observations and timing of the process maps document all activities, resources, staff, equipment and consumables in detail. The analysis will include costs associated with performing these processes, including resources and consumables. Sensitivity analyses will be performed to determine the impact of different staffing levels, timings and probabilities associated with performing different tasks. Thirty-one process maps have been developed, with over 600 individual activities requiring multiple timings. These will be used for future detailed cost analyses. Detailed process maps using bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing for determining the cost of RBC transfusion in thalassaemia major have been developed. These could be adapted for wider use to understand and compare the costs and complexities of transfusion in other settings. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Time-to-event methodology improved statistical evaluation in register-based health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhmki, Tobias; Bramlage, Peter; Volk, Michael; Kaltheuner, Matthias; Danne, Thomas; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Beyersmann, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Complex longitudinal sampling and the observational structure of patient registers in health services research are associated with methodological challenges regarding data management and statistical evaluation. We exemplify common pitfalls and want to stimulate discussions on the design, development, and deployment of future longitudinal patient registers and register-based studies. For illustrative purposes, we use data from the prospective, observational, German DIabetes Versorgungs-Evaluation register. One aim was to explore predictors for the initiation of a basal insulin supported therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes initially prescribed to glucose-lowering drugs alone. Major challenges are missing mortality information, time-dependent outcomes, delayed study entries, different follow-up times, and competing events. We show that time-to-event methodology is a valuable tool for improved statistical evaluation of register data and should be preferred to simple case-control approaches. Patient registers provide rich data sources for health services research. Analyses are accompanied with the trade-off between data availability, clinical plausibility, and statistical feasibility. Cox' proportional hazards model allows for the evaluation of the outcome-specific hazards, but prediction of outcome probabilities is compromised by missing mortality information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Methodology to Implement an Information Security Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaíde Barbosa Martins

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Information security has actually been a major challenge to most organizations. Indeed, information security is an ongoing risk management process that covers all of the information that needs to be protected. ISO 17799 offers what companies need in order to better manage information security. The best way to implement this standard is to ease the security management process using a methodology that will define will define guidelines, procedures and tools that will be needed along the way. Hence, this paper proposes a methodology to assist companies in assessing their compliance with BS 7799/ ISO 17799 as well as planning and implementing the actions necessary to become compliant or certified to the standard. The concepts and ideas presented here had been applied in a case study involving the Cetrel S/A - Company of Environmental Protection. For this company, responsible for treatment of industrial residues generated by the Camaçari Petrochemical Complex and adjacent areas, to assure confidentiality and integrity of customers' data is a basic requirement.

  8. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uncovering the Transnational Networks, Organisational Techniques and State-Corporate Ties Behind Grand Corruption: Building an Investigative Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Lasslett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While grand corruption is a major global governance challenge, researchers notably lack a systematic methodology for conducting qualitative research into its complex forms. To address this lacuna, the following article sets out and applies the corruption investigative framework (CIF, a methodology designed to generate a systematic, transferable approach for grand corruption research. Its utility will be demonstrated employing a case study that centres on an Australian-led megaproject being built in Papua New Guinea’s capital city, Port Moresby. Unlike conventional analyses of corruption in Papua New Guinea, which emphasise its local characteristics and patrimonial qualities, application of CIF uncovered new empirical layers that centre on transnational state-corporate power, the ambiguity of civil society, and the structural inequalities that marginalise resistance movements. The important theoretical consequences of the findings and underpinning methodology are explored.

  10. Reference Management Methodologies for Large Structural Models at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Bingham, Ryan; Schmidt, Rick

    2011-01-01

    There have been many challenges associated with modeling some of NASA KSC's largest structures. Given the size of the welded structures here at KSC, it was critically important to properly organize model struc.ture and carefully manage references. Additionally, because of the amount of hardware to be installed on these structures, it was very important to have a means to coordinate between different design teams and organizations, check for interferences, produce consistent drawings, and allow for simple release processes. Facing these challenges, the modeling team developed a unique reference management methodology and model fidelity methodology. This presentation will describe the techniques and methodologies that were developed for these projects. The attendees will learn about KSC's reference management and model fidelity methodologies for large structures. The attendees will understand the goals of these methodologies. The attendees will appreciate the advantages of developing a reference management methodology.

  11. Local and regional low carbon scenarios methodology, challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its first part, this report discusses the emergence of local climate and energy policy in Europe, the implementation of nationally imposed but regionally anchored energy scenarios (i.e. in France, the Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes or SRCAE). Then it addresses the methodological and political aspects of local and regional low emission scenarios: methodologies and typologies of energy scenarios, ways to define an appropriate emission reduction and energy consumption objective, ways to deal with emission or carbon gaps, ways to make local emission inventories, ways to gather local data, ways to deal with special emission sources, ways to assess and develop local energy efficiency and renewable energy potentials, ways to take energy sufficiency into account, and the evolution from energy autonomy to 100% renewable energy territories. The last part addresses the issues of stake holder and citizen participation in the definition of long term strategies

  12. Women's decision to major in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Stephanie

    This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer

  13. Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M

    2002-09-01

    This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.

  14. [Would you mind a little bit less? Methodological and ethical challenges posed by the reduction of overtreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The present paper outlines two central challenges that should be taken into account when making a concerted effort to reduce excessive medical care (overdiagnosis and overtreatment): first, the inevitability of value judgements in the risk-benefit assessment of medical treatment measures in conjunction with the need to go beyond the individual doctor-patient relationship and make these value judgements while, at least in part, assuming the role of acting deputy; and second, the need for a sufficient level of competence and trust in evidence-based medicine on the part of both physicians and patients. The paper will explain how one can say in a methodologically reasonable and ethically acceptable manner that a certain medical measure - in the context of the regular care setting - will objectively cause a "net harm" to the patient. Relevant institutions in the German healthcare system will be described that are currently conducting risk-benefit assessments (by different means and with different purposes). Taking the known entity of clinical guidelines as an example, the paper will demonstrate that the subjects of overdiagnosis and overtreatment as well as shortage of medical care can be more explicitly communicated by employing certain additional methodological tools. Finally, some central implementation barriers to a successful application of "Less is more!" will be presented and critically discussed. (As supplied by publisher). Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  16. A stale challenge to the philosophy of science: commentary on "Is psychology based on a methodological error?" by Michael Schwarz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Nora; Slunecko, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In his article "Is psychology based on a methodological error?" and based on a quite convincing empirical basis, Michael Schwarz offers a methodological critique of one of mainstream psychology's key test theoretical axioms, i.e., that of the in principle normal distribution of personality variables. It is characteristic of this paper--and at first seems to be a strength of it--that the author positions his critique within a frame of philosophy of science, particularly positioning himself in the tradition of Karl Popper's critical rationalism. When scrutinizing Schwarz's arguments, however, we find Schwarz's critique profound only as an immanent critique of test theoretical axioms. We raise doubts, however, as to Schwarz's alleged 'challenge' to the philosophy of science because the author not at all seems to be in touch with the state of the art of contemporary philosophy of science. Above all, we question the universalist undercurrent that Schwarz's 'bio-psycho-social model' of human judgment boils down to. In contrast to such position, we close our commentary with a plea for a context- and culture sensitive philosophy of science.

  17. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING THE VALUE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Katulskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence at the enterprise znanievyh resources determines its capacity for sustainable and competitive development. The set of knowledge, skills and abilities (which has operational and management personnel, including transformed in intangible and other assets are considered to be the intellectual capital of the enterprise. Empirically, the presence of the intellectual capital of the enterprise can be identified by its success in the market and the ability to generate a high value added product. However, scientific and methodological point of view, approaches to assessing intellectual capital are currently not standardized and do not provide an objective valuation of the capital.This paper presents an overview of the methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of companies and shows the problems of using these approaches in analytical procedures. Based on the materials conclusion about the necessity of further development of the intellectual capital evaluation methods enterprises it was made.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article is to study the specifics of basic methodological approaches to the valuation of the intellectual capital of enterprises. Moreover, among the main tasks is to provide: an analysis of the most frequently used techniques in the Russian and international practice, assessment of intellectual capital.Methodology. The article is a content analysis of the theoretical and scientific-methodical positions, describing the key and the most frequently used Russian and international approaches to the evaluation of the intellectual capital of enterprises.Conclusions / relevance. The practical significance of this paper is to identify the main issues that arise in the evaluation of the intellectual capital of the enterprises, which determines the need for further scientific development and complement the currently used evaluation methods.

  18. Research Methodology in Global Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......, such as differences-in-differences and propensity score matching, have helped deal with challenges (e.g., endogeneity and causality) that bedeviled earlier studies and resulted in conflicting findings. These methodological advances need to be considered as tools that complement theoretical arguments and well......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....

  19. Comparative study on software development methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current state of knowledge in the field of software development methodologies. It aims to set the stage for the formalization of a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects. The paper starts by depicting specific characteristics in software development project management. Managing software development projects involves techniques and skills that are proprietary to the IT industry. Also the software development project manager handles challenges and risks that are predominantly encountered in business and research areas that involve state of the art technology. Conventional software development stages are defined and briefly described. Development stages are the building blocks of any software development methodology so it is important to properly research this aspect. Current software development methodologies are presented. Development stages are defined for every showcased methodology. For each methodology a graphic representation is illustrated in order to better individualize its structure. Software development methodologies are compared by highlighting strengths and weaknesses from the stakeholder's point of view. Conclusions are formulated and a research direction aimed at formalizing a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects is enunciated.

  20. Learning challenges and sustainable development: A methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable development requires learning, but the contents of learning are often complex and ambiguous. This requires new integrated approaches from research. It is argued that investigation of people's learning challenges in every-day work is beneficial for research on sustainable development. The aim of the paper is to describe a research method for examining learning challenges in promoting sustainable development. This method is illustrated with a case example from organic vegetable farming in Finland. The method, based on Activity Theory, combines historical analysis with qualitative analysis of need expressions in discourse data. The method linking local and subjective need expressions with general historical analysis is a promising way to overcome the gap between the individual and society, so much needed in research for sustainable development. Dialectically informed historical frameworks have practical value as tools in collaborative negotiations and participatory designs for sustainable development. The simultaneous use of systemic and subjective perspectives allows researchers to manage the complexity of practical work activities and to avoid too simplistic presumptions about sustainable development.

  1. Research and Development Projects with ICT and students as learning designers in Primary Schools: A methodological challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana

    of how: • ICT supports students learning, • ICT release time for more teaching, and • teachers digital literacy impact on the role of ICT in the educational practice. Further the call required collaboration between universities and university colleges in order to disseminate knowledge and new practices......In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... the Danish Ministry of Education named Development projects and pilot school experiments (Udviklingsprojekter med demonstrationsskoleforsøg vedr. it i folkeskolen – see Undervisningsministeriet 2013) in the spring 2013. The call was based on a governmental decision to allocate 500 million DKR to increase...

  2. Methodological issues of genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2010-12-01

    Genetic association studies explore the association between genetic polymorphisms and a certain trait, disease or predisposition to disease. It has long been acknowledged that many genetic association studies fail to replicate their initial positive findings. This raises concern about the methodological quality of these reports. Case-control genetic association studies often suffer from various methodological flaws in study design and data analysis, and are often reported poorly. Flawed methodology and poor reporting leads to distorted results and incorrect conclusions. Many journals have adopted guidelines for reporting genetic association studies. In this review, some major methodological determinants of genetic association studies will be discussed.

  3. Evaluating the effects of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on consumer behavior and health: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Smallwood, David M

    2003-12-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is the official nutrition policy statement for the United States. Government involvement in providing information on private behavior, such as food choice, is justified by the high cost of poor diets, as measured in medical expenses and lost productivity. The Guidelines are intended to provide an up-to-date, consistent information base for federal nutrition education and information efforts and food assistance program regulations. Through these policy mechanisms, the Guidelines are assumed to improve dietary behavior, and, ultimately, health. By law, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans must be updated every five years; however, there is no mandate for evaluation. Evaluation could provide useful information to assess the extent to which the Guidelines positively influence health and provide insights into reasons for their successes and limitations. However, evaluation would also present considerable challenges. This paper discusses the critical data and methodological needs for improving evaluation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  4. CAGE IIIA Distributed Simulation Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    2 VHF Very High Frequency VLC Video LAN Codec – an Open-source cross-platform multimedia player and framework VM Virtual Machine VOIP Voice Over...Implementing Defence Experimentation (GUIDEx). The key challenges for this methodology are with understanding how to: • design it o define the...operation and to be available in the other nation’s simulations. The challenge for the CAGE campaign of experiments is to continue to build upon this

  5. Proposal of methodology of tsunami accident sequence analysis induced by earthquake using DQFM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muta, Hitoshi; Muramatsu, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Since the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station accident, the Japanese regulatory body has improved and upgraded the regulation of nuclear power plants, and continuous effort is required to enhance risk management in the mid- to long term. Earthquakes and tsunamis are considered as the most important risks, and the establishment of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies for these events is a major issue of current PRA. The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) addressed the PRA methodology for tsunamis induced by earthquakes, which is one of the methodologies that should be enhanced step by step for the improvement and maturity of PRA techniques. The AESJ standard for the procedure of seismic PRA for nuclear power plants in 2015 provides the basic concept of the methodology; however, details of the application to the actual plant PRA model have not been sufficiently provided. This study proposes a detailed PRA methodology for tsunamis induced by earthquakes using the DQFM methodology, which contributes to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, this study also states the issues which need more research. (author)

  6. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A

    2008-09-01

    This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.

  7. Establishing Equivalence: Methodological Progress in Group-Matching Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; Atwood, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    This methodological review draws attention to the challenges faced by intellectual and developmental disabilities researchers in the appropriate design and analysis of group comparison studies. We provide a brief overview of matching methodologies in the field, emphasizing group-matching designs used in behavioral research on cognition and…

  8. Postgraduate Conception of Research Methodology: Implications for Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…

  9. Challenges in examining area effects across the life course on physical capability in mid-life: findings from the 1946 British Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Emily T; Southall, Humphrey; Aucott, Paula; Tilling, Kate; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-03-01

    A major limitation of past work linking area socioeconomic conditions to health in mid-life has been the reliance on single point in time measurement of area. Using the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, this study for the first time linked place of residence at three major life periods of childhood (1950), young adulthood (1972), and mid-life (1999) to area-socioeconomic data from the nearest census years. Using objective measures of physical capability as the outcome, the purpose of this study was to highlight four methodological challenges of attrition bias, secular changes in socio-economic measures, historical data availability, and changing reporting units over time. In general, standing balance and chair rise time showed clear cross-sectional associations with residing in areas with high deprivation. However, it was the process of overcoming the methodological challenges, which led to the conclusion that in this example percent low social class occupations was the most appropriate measure to use when extending cross-sectional analysis of standing balance and chair rise to life course investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Documenting Sociolinguistic Variation in Lesser-Studied Indigenous Communities: Challenges and Practical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, John; Stanford, James

    2017-01-01

    Documenting sociolinguistic variation in lesser-studied languages presents methodological challenges, but also offers important research opportunities. In this paper we examine three key methodological challenges commonly faced by researchers who are outsiders to the community. We then present practical solutions for successful variationist…

  11. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, H.

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  12. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological function in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Katie M; Porter, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Neuropsychological impairment is a core component of major depression, yet its relationship to clinical state is unclear. The aims of the present review were to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks were most sensitive to improvement in clinical state in major depression and to highlight the methodological issues in such research. Studies that included a baseline and at least one follow-up neuropsychological testing session in adults with major depression were identified using MEDLINE, Web of Science and ScienceDirect databases. Thirty studies were included in the review. Findings in younger adult populations suggested that improvement in mood was most strongly related to improved verbal memory and verbal fluency, while measures of executive functioning and attention tended to remain impaired across treatment. In late-life major depression, improved psychomotor speed was most closely related to treatment response, but there was much inconsistency between study findings, which may be due to methodological issues. In major depression, particular neuropsychological domains are more strongly related to clinical state than others. The findings from the present review suggest that the domains most sensitive to clinical state are verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. In contrast, measures of attention and executive functioning perhaps represent more trait-like markers of major depression. With further methodologically sound research, the changes in neuropsychological function associated with treatment response may provide a means of evaluating different treatment strategies in major depression.

  13. Methodological developments in qualitative longitudinal research: the advantages and challenges of regular telephone contact with participants in a qualitative longitudinal interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carduff, Emma; Murray, Scott A; Kendall, Marilyn

    2015-04-11

    Qualitative longitudinal research is an evolving methodology, particularly within health care research. It facilitates a nuanced understanding of how phenomena change over time and is ripe for innovative approaches. However, methodological reflections which are tailored to health care research are scarce. This article provides a synthesised and practical account of the advantages and challenges of maintaining regular telephone contact between interviews with participants in a qualitative longitudinal study. Participants with metastatic colorectal cancer were interviewed at 3 time points over the course of a year. Half the group also received monthly telephone calls to explore the added value and the feasibility of capturing change as close to when it was occurring as possible. The data gathered from the telephone calls added context to the participants' overall narrative and informed subsequent interviews. The telephone calls meant we were able to capture change close to when it happened and there was a more evolved, and involved, relationship between the researcher and the participants who were called on a monthly basis. However, ethical challenges were amplified, boundaries of the participant/researcher relationship questioned, and there was the added analytical burden. The telephone calls facilitated a more nuanced understanding of the illness experience to emerge, when compared with the interview only group. The findings suggest that intensive telephone contact may be justified if retention is an issue, when the phenomena being studied is unpredictable and when participants feel disempowered or lack control. These are potential issues for research involving participants with long-term illness.

  14. Linguistic Knowledge Aspects in Academic Reading: Challenges and Deployed Strategies by English-Major Undergraduates at a Jordanian Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albashtawi, Abeer H.; Jaganathan, Paramaswari; Singh, Manjet

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the linguistic knowledge aspect in academic reading, the challenges and the deployed strategies by English major undergraduates at a Jordanian institution of higher education. The importance of the study is attributed to the importance of the academic reading at university which is closely related to the academic…

  15. Factors and competitiveness analysis in rare earth mining, new methodology: case study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gustavo A; Petter, Carlos O; Albuquerque, Nelson R

    2018-03-01

    Rare earths are increasingly being applied in high-tech industries, such as green energy (e.g. wind power), hybrid cars, electric cars, permanent high-performance magnets, superconductors, luminophores and many other industrial sectors involved in modern technologies. Given that China dominates this market and imposes restrictions on production and exports whenever opportunities arise, it is becoming more and more challenging to develop business ventures in this sector. Several initiatives were taken to prospect new resources and develop the production chain, including the mining of these mineral assets around the world, but some factors of uncertainties, including current low prices, increased the challenge of transforming the current resources into deposits or productive mines. Thus, analyzing the competitiveness of advanced projects becomes indispensable. This work has the objective of introducing a new methodology of competitiveness analysis, where some variables are considered as main factors that can contribute strongly to make unfeasible a mining enterprise for the use of rare earth elements (REE) with this methodology, which is quite practical and reproducible, it was possible to verify some real facts, such as: the fact that the Lynas Mount Weld CLD (AUS) Project is resilient to the uncertainties of the RE sector, at the same time as the Molycorp Project is facing major financial difficulties (under judicial reorganization). It was also possible to verify that the Araxá Project of CBMM in Brazil is one of the most competitive in this country. Thus, we contribute to the existing literature, providing a new methodology for competitiveness analysis in rare earth mining.

  16. In vitro cumulative gas production techniques: history, methodological considerations and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymer, C.; Huntington, J.A.; Williams, B.A.; Givens, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Methodology used to measure in vitro gas production is reviewed to determine impacts of sources of variation on resultant gas production profiles (GPP). Current methods include measurement of gas production at constant pressure (e.g., use of gas tight syringes), a system that is inexpensive, but may

  17. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-01-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology

  18. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  19. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  20. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  1. Video ethnography during and after caesarean sections: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeni; Schmied, Virginia; Burns, Elaine; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2017-07-01

    To describe the challenges of, and steps taken to successfully collect video ethnographic data during and after caesarean sections. Video ethnographic research uses real-time video footage to study a cultural group or phenomenon in the natural environment. It allows researchers to discover previously undocumented practices, which in-turn provides insight into strengths and weaknesses in practice. This knowledge can be used to translate evidence-based interventions into practice. Video ethnographic design. A video ethnographic approach was used to observe the contact between mothers and babies immediately after elective caesarean sections in a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Women, their support people and staff participated in the study. Data were collected via video footage and field notes in the operating theatre, recovery and the postnatal ward. Challenges faced whilst conducting video ethnographic research included attaining ethics approval, recruiting vast numbers of staff members and 'vulnerable' pregnant women, and endeavouring to be a 'fly on the wall' and a 'complete observer'. There were disadvantages being an 'insider' whilst conducting the research because occasionally staff members requested help with clinical tasks whilst collecting data; however, it was an advantage as it enabled ease of access to the environment and staff members that were to be recruited. Despite the challenges, video ethnographic research enabled the provision of unique data that could not be attained by any other means. Video ethnographic data are beneficial as it provides exceptionally rich data for in-depth analysis of interactions between the environment, equipment and people in the hospital environment. The analysis of this type of data can then be used to inform improvements for future care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Lean Six Sigma in health care and the challenge of implementation of Six Sigma methodologies at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Six Sigma and Lean Thinking are quality initiatives initially deployed in industry to improve operational efficiency leading to better quality and subsequent cost savings. The financial rationale for embarking on this quality journey is clear; applying it to today's health care remains challenging. The cost of medical care is increasing at an alarming rate; most of these cost increases are attributed to an aging population and technological advances; therefore, largely beyond control. Furthermore, health care cost increases are caused by unnecessary operational inefficiency associated with the direct medical service delivery process. This article describes the challenging journey of implementing Six Sigma methodology at a tertiary care medical center. Many lessons were learned; however, of utmost importance were team approach, "buy in" of the stakeholders, and the willingness of team members to change daily practice and to adapt new and innovative ways how health care can be delivered. Six Sigma incorporated as part of the "company's or hospital's culture" would be most desirable but the learning curve will be steep.

  3. Research Methodology in Business: A Starter’s Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab, Mohamed AF; Arisha, Amr

    2018-01-01

    A cardinal requisite of successful research lies in the proper selection of the research methodology applied to achieve research objectives using the available resources. In addition to acquiring sufficient knowledge of their specific research topic, researchers are urged to develop good understanding of alternative research methodologies at their disposal to be able to identify the best-suited methods to address the research question. This, however, often poses a challenge for novice researc...

  4. News Sources, Gender and Majority-Minority in Danish TV News Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    In this paper, I am going to identify some central methodological challenges in relation to a project on TV-news and news sources in a perspective of intersectionality and to sketch a research design. In what follows, I will present some methodological issues and research designs of previous...

  5. Can Neuroscience Contribute to Practical Ethics? A Critical Review and Discussion of the Methodological and Translational Challenges of the Neuroscience of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Dubljević, Veljko; Jox, Ralf J; Baertschi, Bernard; Christensen, Julia F; Farisco, Michele; Jotterand, Fabrice; Kahane, Guy; Müller, Sabine

    2017-06-01

    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an 'ethics of neuroscience' and a 'neuroscience of ethics'. However, questions surface as to whether a 'neuroscience of ethics' is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. In this article, we examine why the neuroscience of ethics is a promising area of research and summarize what we have learned so far regarding its most promising goals and contributions. We then review some of the key methodological challenges which may have hindered the use of results generated thus far by the neuroscience of ethics. Strategies are suggested to address these challenges and improve the quality of research and increase neuroscience's usefulness for applied ethics and society at large. Finally, we reflect on potential outcomes of a neuroscience of ethics and discuss the different strategies that could be used to support knowledge transfer to help different stakeholders integrate knowledge from the neuroscience of ethics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  7. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    of ‘policy trail’, arguing that it can overcome ‘methodological nationalism’ and link structure and agency in research on the ‘European educational space’. The ‘trail’ metaphor, she suggests, captures the intentionality and the erratic character of policy. The trail connects sites and brings about change......, but – although policy may be intended to be linear, with specific outcomes – policy often has to bend, and sometimes meets insurmountable obstacles. This symposium outlines and develops the methodology, but also reports on research undertaken within a major FP7 project (LLLIght’in’Europe, 2012-15) which made use......In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global...

  8. Challenges and Solutions for Mapping Innovation in a Large Emerging Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    this paper is an outcome of my experience as a team member of the Euro-India Innovation mapping project. The project set out to map India’s IT Innovativeness over two years from January 2008-to December 2009. Here I bring to the fore the different methodologies that we reviewed in order...... to implement the innovation mapping project and our realization that each methodology in itself though useful may not be sufficient to address the complexity of the subject matter due to the vastness of India and its emerging nature. I outline some of the challenges faced by us when designing a methodology...... for mapping innovation in a large emerging economy. I discuss some solutions and report on how we solved the problem only to be faced with newer challenges. A methodological design is a challenging endeavor in the normal of time, when it comes to doing the same in a large emerging economy the problems becomes...

  9. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  10. Progress and challenges in the development and qualification of multi-level multi-physics coupled methodologies for reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.; Avramova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Current trends in nuclear power generation and regulation as well as the design of next generation reactor concepts along with the continuing computer technology progress stimulate the development, qualification and application of multi-physics multi-scale coupled code systems. The efforts have been focused on extending the analysis capabilities by coupling models, which simulate different phenomena or system components, as well as on refining the scale and level of detail of the coupling. This paper reviews the progress made in this area and outlines the remaining challenges. The discussion is illustrated with examples based on neutronics/thermohydraulics coupling in the reactor core modeling. In both fields recent advances and developments are towards more physics-based high-fidelity simulations, which require implementation of improved and flexible coupling methodologies. First, the progresses in coupling of different physics codes along with the advances in multi-level techniques for coupled code simulations are discussed. Second, the issues related to the consistent qualification of coupled multi-physics and multi-scale code systems for design and safety evaluation are presented. The increased importance of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are discussed along with approaches to propagate the uncertainty quantification between the codes. The incoming OECD LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) benchmark is the first international activity to address this issue and it is described in the paper. Finally, the remaining challenges with multi-physics coupling are outlined. (authors)

  11. Progress and challenges in the development and qualification of multi-level multi-physics coupled methodologies for reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K.; Avramova, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Current trends in nuclear power generation and regulation as well as the design of next generation reactor concepts along with the continuing computer technology progress stimulate the development, qualification and application of multi-physics multi-scale coupled code systems. The efforts have been focused on extending the analysis capabilities by coupling models, which simulate different phenomena or system components, as well as on refining the scale and level of detail of the coupling. This paper reviews the progress made in this area and outlines the remaining challenges. The discussion is illustrated with examples based on neutronics/thermohydraulics coupling in the reactor core modeling. In both fields recent advances and developments are towards more physics-based high-fidelity simulations, which require implementation of improved and flexible coupling methodologies. First, the progresses in coupling of different physics codes along with the advances in multi-level techniques for coupled code simulations are discussed. Second, the issues related to the consistent qualification of coupled multi-physics and multi-scale code systems for design and safety evaluation are presented. The increased importance of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are discussed along with approaches to propagate the uncertainty quantification between the codes. The incoming OECD LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) benchmark is the first international activity to address this issue and it is described in the paper. Finally, the remaining challenges with multi-physics coupling are outlined. (authors)

  12. Factors and competitiveness analysis in rare earth mining, new methodology: case study from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare earths are increasingly being applied in high-tech industries, such as green energy (e.g. wind power, hybrid cars, electric cars, permanent high-performance magnets, superconductors, luminophores and many other industrial sectors involved in modern technologies. Given that China dominates this market and imposes restrictions on production and exports whenever opportunities arise, it is becoming more and more challenging to develop business ventures in this sector. Several initiatives were taken to prospect new resources and develop the production chain, including the mining of these mineral assets around the world, but some factors of uncertainties, including current low prices, increased the challenge of transforming the current resources into deposits or productive mines. Thus, analyzing the competitiveness of advanced projects becomes indispensable. This work has the objective of introducing a new methodology of competitiveness analysis, where some variables are considered as main factors that can contribute strongly to make unfeasible a mining enterprise for the use of rare earth elements (REE with this methodology, which is quite practical and reproducible, it was possible to verify some real facts, such as: the fact that the Lynas Mount Weld CLD (AUS Project is resilient to the uncertainties of the RE sector, at the same time as the Molycorp Project is facing major financial difficulties (under judicial reorganization. It was also possible to verify that the Araxá Project of CBMM in Brazil is one of the most competitive in this country. Thus, we contribute to the existing literature, providing a new methodology for competitiveness analysis in rare earth mining. Keywords: Earth sciences, Business, Economics, Industry

  13. Methodological update in Medicina Intensiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Garmendia, J L

    2018-04-01

    Research in the critically ill is complex by the heterogeneity of patients, the difficulties to achieve representative sample sizes and the number of variables simultaneously involved. However, the quantity and quality of records is high as well as the relevance of the variables used, such as survival. The methodological tools have evolved to offering new perspectives and analysis models that allow extracting relevant information from the data that accompanies the critically ill patient. The need for training in methodology and interpretation of results is an important challenge for the intensivists who wish to be updated on the research developments and clinical advances in Intensive Medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  14. Scenario aggregation and analysis via Mean-Shift Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelli, D.; Yilmaz, A.; Metzroth, K.; Aldemir, T.; Denning, R.

    2010-01-01

    A new generation of dynamic methodologies is being developed for nuclear reactor probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) which explicitly account for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and use numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The dynamic event tree (DET) approach is one of these methodologies. One challenge with dynamic PRA methodologies is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to analyze without appropriate software tools. The concept of 'data mining' is well known in the computer science community and several methodologies have been developed in order to extract useful information from a dataset with a large number of records. Using the dataset generated by the DET analysis of the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) of an ABR-1000 for an aircraft crash recovery scenario and the Mean-Shift Methodology for data mining, it is shown how clusters of transients with common characteristics can be identified and classified. (authors)

  15. A Methodology for Integrating Maintainability Using Software Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.

    1989-01-01

    Maintainability must be integrated into software early in the development process. But for practical use, the techniques used must be as unobtrusive to the existing software development process as possible. This paper defines a methodology for integrating maintainability into large-scale software and describes an experiment which implemented the methodology into a major commercial software development environment.

  16. Quality Assurance in Trichiasis Surgery: a methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, John C; Limburg, Hans; Burton, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Trachoma remains a significant cause of blindness in many parts of the world. The major route to blindness involves upper lid entropion leading to trachomatous trichiasis (TT) which promotes progressive corneal opacification. The provision of surgery to correct TT in the populations most severely affected is a major challenge for the global effort to eliminate Trachoma blindness by the year 2020. Most attention has been paid to increasing the quantity of TT surgery performed, and large numbers of non-doctor operators have been trained to this end. Surgical audit by those performing TT surgery is not a routine part of any national trachoma control programme, and no effective mechanism exists for identifying surgeons experiencing poor outcomes. We propose a methodology for surgical audit at the level of the individual surgeon based on Lot Quality Assurance. A set number of patients operated on previously for upper eyelid TT are examined to detect the recurrence of TT. The number of recurrent cases found will lead to categorisation of the TT surgeon to either “high recurrence” or “low recurrence” with reasonable confidence. The threshold of unacceptability can be set by individual programmes according to previous local studies of recurrence rates or those from similar settings. Identification of surgeons delivering unacceptably high levels of recurrent TT will guide managers on the need for remedial intervention such as re-training. PMID:20881027

  17. Quality assurance in trichiasis surgery: a methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, John C; Limburg, Hans; Burton, Matthew J

    2011-03-01

    Trachoma remains a significant cause of blindness in many parts of the world. The major route to blindness involves upper lid entropion leading to trachomatous trichiasis (TT), which promotes progressive corneal opacification. The provision of surgery to correct TT in the populations most severely affected is a major challenge for the global effort to eliminate trachoma blindness by the year 2020. Most attention has focused on increasing the quantity of TT surgery performed, and large numbers of non-doctor operators have been trained to this end. Surgical audit by those performing TT surgery is not a routine part of any national trachoma control programme, and no effective mechanism exists for identifying surgeons experiencing poor outcomes. The authors propose a methodology for surgical audit at the level of the individual surgeon based on Lot Quality Assurance. A set number of patients operated on previously for upper eyelid TT are examined to detect the recurrence of TT. The number of recurrent cases found will lead to categorisation of the TT surgeon to either 'high recurrence' or 'low recurrence' with reasonable confidence. The threshold of unacceptability can be set by individual programmes according to previous local studies of recurrence rates or those from similar settings. Identification of surgeons delivering unacceptably high levels of recurrent TT will guide managers on the need for remedial intervention such as retraining.

  18. Campus Retrofitting (CARE) Methodology: A Way to Co-Create Future Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nenonen, Suvi; Eriksson, Robert; Niemi, Olli

    2016-01-01

    (CARE)- methodology for user-centric and co- creative campus retrofitting processes. The campus development research in Nordic countries and co-creation in retrofitting processes are discussed. The campus retrofitting cases in different countries are described by emphasising especially the methods...... of resources in form of both teachers and university facilities is challenged by development of integration of learning, teaching and the spaces where it takes place. The challenges are shared among users and owners of campus, where retrofitting is needed too. This paper aims to describe Campus Retrofitting...... they used. Based on the analysis of the methods the framework for Campus retrofitting (CARE) - methodology is presented and discussed. CARE-methodology is a tool to capture new logic to learning environment design. It has three key activities: co-creating, co-financing and co-evaluating. The integrated...

  19. Methodology Development and Applications of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Peterson, P.F.; Therios, I.U.; Whitlock, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the program on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of advanced nuclear energy systems (NESs) sponsored by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and to determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of a set of measures, which are the high-level PR and PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as the design progresses. It can thus be used to enable a program in safeguards by design or to enhance the conceptual design process of an NES with regard to intrinsic features for PR and PP.

  20. Technical challenges for big data in biomedicine and health: data sources, infrastructure, and analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, N; Holmes, J H; Sun, J

    2014-08-15

    To review technical and methodological challenges for big data research in biomedicine and health. We discuss sources of big datasets, survey infrastructures for big data storage and big data processing, and describe the main challenges that arise when analyzing big data. The life and biomedical sciences are massively contributing to the big data revolution through secondary use of data that were collected during routine care and through new data sources such as social media. Efficient processing of big datasets is typically achieved by distributing computation over a cluster of computers. Data analysts should be aware of pitfalls related to big data such as bias in routine care data and the risk of false-positive findings in high-dimensional datasets. The major challenge for the near future is to transform analytical methods that are used in the biomedical and health domain, to fit the distributed storage and processing model that is required to handle big data, while ensuring confidentiality of the data being analyzed.

  1. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Nenad V.; Studovic, Milovan

    2000-01-01

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  2. Plasmodium falciparum Resistance to Artemisinin Derivatives and Piperaquine: A Major Challenge for Malaria Elimination in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Valentine; Witkowski, Benoit; Ménard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the cornerstone of current strategies for fighting malaria. Over the last decade, ACTs have played a major role in decreasing malaria burden. However, this progress is being jeopardized by the emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Artemisinin resistance was first detected in western Cambodia in 2008 and has since been observed in neighboring countries in southeast Asia. The problem of antimalarial drug resistance has recently worsened in Cambodia, with reports of parasites resistant to piperaquine, the latest generation of partner drug used in combination with dihydroartemisinin, leading to worrying rates of clinical treatment failure. The monitoring and the comprehension of both types of resistance are crucial to prevent the spread of multidrug-resistant parasites outside southeast Asia, and particularly to Africa, where the public health consequences would be catastrophic. To this end, new tools are required for studying the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to antimalarial drugs and for monitoring the geographic distribution of the resistant parasites. In this review, we detail the major advances in our understanding of resistance to artemisinin and piperaquine and define the challenges that the malaria community will have to face in the coming years. PMID:27928074

  3. Methodological Challenges of Identifying Ultimate Land Use Changes Caused by Biofuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Kløverpris, Jesper; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2007-01-01

    that is only poorly dealt with by LCA methods. Even though the use of land, or change of land cover and its eco-systems, is acknowledged to be a very important impact of human activities, a methodology for assessing this impact category has not yet  been properly developed within LCA. Some LCA scientists have...... looked into methods for assessing the impacts of given changes of land use, i.e. the impact assessment component of the LCA, but very few have looked into how to actually do the inventory modelling, i.e. how to identify which land is ultimately affected by the decision and system under study. State...... in the systems being studied. The aims of this paper is to analyse the mechanisms influencing the long-term land use consequences of changes in crop demand and propose a methodological framework for identifying these consequences within a global scope. The outset of the paper is the principles of consequential...

  4. Canonical duality theory unified methodology for multidisciplinary study

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Vittorio; Ruan, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This book on canonical duality theory provides a comprehensive review of its philosophical origin, physics foundation, and mathematical statements in both finite- and infinite-dimensional spaces. A ground-breaking methodological theory, canonical duality theory can be used for modeling complex systems within a unified framework and for solving a large class of challenging problems in multidisciplinary fields in engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. This volume places a particular emphasis on canonical duality theory’s role in bridging the gap between non-convex analysis/mechanics and global optimization.  With 18 total chapters written by experts in their fields, this volume provides a nonconventional theory for unified understanding of the fundamental difficulties in large deformation mechanics, bifurcation/chaos in nonlinear science, and the NP-hard problems in global optimization. Additionally, readers will find a unified methodology and powerful algorithms for solving challenging problems in comp...

  5. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Collaboration challenges in systematic reviews: a survey of health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joey; McCrillis, Aileen; Williams, Jeff D

    2017-10-01

    While many librarians have been asked to participate in systematic reviews with researchers, often these researchers are not familiar with the systematic review process or the appropriate role for librarians. The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges and barriers that librarians face when collaborating on systematic reviews. To take a wider view of the whole process of collaborating on systematic reviews, the authors deliberately focused on interpersonal and methodological issues other than searching itself. To characterize the biggest challenges that librarians face while collaborating on systematic review projects, we used a web-based survey. The thirteen-item survey included seventeen challenges grouped into two categories: methodological and interpersonal. Participants were required to indicate the frequency and difficulty of the challenges listed. Open-ended questions allowed survey participants to describe challenges not listed in the survey and to describe strategies used to overcome challenges. Of the 17 challenges listed in the survey, 8 were reported as common by over 40% of respondents. These included methodological issues around having too broad or narrow research questions, lacking eligibility criteria, having unclear research questions, and not following established methods. The remaining challenges were interpersonal, including issues around student-led projects and the size of the research team. Of the top 8 most frequent challenges, 5 were also ranked as most difficult to handle. Open-ended responses underscored many of the challenges included in the survey and revealed several additional challenges. These results suggest that the most frequent and challenging issues relate to development of the research question and general communication with team members. Clear protocols for collaboration on systematic reviews, as well as a culture of mentorship, can help librarians prevent and address these challenges.

  7. Perception-oriented methodology for robust motion estimation design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich, A.; Vleuten, van der R.J.; Haan, de G.

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing a motion estimator (ME) for picture rate conversion is challenging. This is because there are many types of MEs and, within each type, many parameters, which makes subjective assessment of all the alternatives impractical. To solve this problem, we propose an automatic design methodology

  8. Doing synchronous online focus groups with young people: methodological reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Fiona E; Morris, Marianne; Rumsey, Nichola

    2007-04-01

    Although online focus groups are emerging as a worthwhile methodological approach for qualitative researchers, reporting has been constrained in several ways. The majority of studies report asynchronous groups, whereas others employ synchronous exchanges, the efficacy of which with young people has seldom been explored. Considering the popularity of the Internet as a communication tool for young people, this missed opportunity is surprising. Based on a series of synchronous online focus groups with young people, the authors explore why this approach might be an effective way of engaging young people with appearance-related concerns in research. In this article, they discuss the process of hosting and moderating synchronous online focus groups, highlighting some of the ethical, pragmatic, and personal challenges that might face researchers using this method. Through a reflexive approach, they intend to inform and encourage qualitative researchers to consider alternative ways of engaging young people in research.

  9. Toward the Long-Term Scientific Study of Encounter Group Phenomena: I. Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael Jay; Shapiro, Jerrold Lee

    This paper proposes a model for the long-term scientific study of encounter, T-, and sensitivity groups. The authors see the need for overcoming major methodological and design inadequacies of such research. They discuss major methodological flaws in group outcome research as including: (1) lack of adequate base rate or pretraining measures; (2)…

  10. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  11. Emerging Concepts and Methodologies in Cancer Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meixia; Zhang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Lanjing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer biomarker discovery is a critical part of cancer prevention and treatment. Despite the decades of effort, only a small number of cancer biomarkers have been identified for and validated in clinical settings. Conceptual and methodological breakthroughs may help accelerate the discovery of additional cancer biomarkers, particularly their use for diagnostics. In this review, we have attempted to review the emerging concepts in cancer biomarker discovery, including real-world evidence, open access data, and data paucity in rare or uncommon cancers. We have also summarized the recent methodological progress in cancer biomarker discovery, such as high-throughput sequencing, liquid biopsy, big data, artificial intelligence (AI), and deep learning and neural networks. Much attention has been given to the methodological details and comparison of the methodologies. Notably, these concepts and methodologies interact with each other and will likely lead to synergistic effects when carefully combined. Newer, more innovative concepts and methodologies are emerging as the current emerging ones became mainstream and widely applied to the field. Some future challenges are also discussed. This review contributes to the development of future theoretical frameworks and technologies in cancer biomarker discovery and will contribute to the discovery of more useful cancer biomarkers.

  12. Cochrane Rehabilitation Methodology Committee: an international survey of priorities for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, William M; Meyer, Thorsten; Negrini, Stefano; Malmivaara, Antti

    2017-10-01

    Cochrane Rehabilitation aims to improve the application of evidence-based practice in rehabilitation. It also aims to support Cochrane in the production of reliable, clinically meaningful syntheses of evidence related to the practice of rehabilitation, while accommodating the many methodological challenges facing the field. To this end, Cochrane Rehabilitation established a Methodology Committee to examine, explore and find solutions for the methodological challenges related to evidence synthesis and knowledge translation in rehabilitation. We conducted an international online survey via Cochrane Rehabilitation networks to canvass opinions regarding the future work priorities for this committee and to seek information on people's current capabilities to assist with this work. The survey findings indicated strongest interest in work on how reviewers have interpreted and applied Cochrane methods in reviews on rehabilitation topics in the past, and on gathering a collection of existing publications on review methods for undertaking systematic reviews relevant to rehabilitation. Many people are already interested in contributing to the work of the Methodology Committee and there is a large amount of expertise for this work in the extended Cochrane Rehabilitation network already.

  13. Methodology of teaching and new challenges in the training of professionals in the area of industrial radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.M. Araujo; Pelegrineli, S.Q.; Lima, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main causes of radiological accidents is the lack of knowledge in radiological protection of workers. In order to meet the needs of professionals in radiology techniques in training in industrial radiology and radiological protection, the Training Course in Industrial Radiology was created in 2009 by MAXIM, in partnership with the Casa Branca Faculty. The objective is to present the structure and methodology of teaching used in this course to reach the objectives of training professionals with solid knowledge in industrial radiology, as well as to mention the challenges of this training. For the elaboration of the study, a statistical data base and theoretical analysis of the teaching structure of the course was used. Professional training in industrial radiology is subdivided into basic, specific, practical and complementary modules, totaling a workload of 360 hours. It is noted that most of the professionals trained come from the great urban centers of the country, favoring employability in the port terminals and industries that are located in these regions. It is concluded, therefore, that it is necessary and of great importance for the growing industrial market, the formation of new professionals, mainly in cities of the interior

  14. Methodology for Measuring the Complexity of Enterprise Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of enterprise information systems is currently a challenge faced not only by IT professionals and project managers, but also by the users of such systems. Current methodologies and frameworks used to design and implement information systems do not specifically deal with the issue of their complexity and, apart from few exceptions, do not at all attempt to simplify the complexity. This article presents the author's own methodology for managing complexity, which can be used to complement any other methodology and which helps limit the growth of complexity. It introduces its own definition and metric of complexity, which it defines as the sum of entities of the individual UML models of the given system, which are selected according to the MMDIS methodology so as to consistently describe all relevant content dimensions of the system. The main objective is to propose a methodology to manage information system complexity and to verify it in practice on a real-life SAP implementation project.

  15. The importance of fungi and mycology for addressing major global challenges*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2014-12-01

    In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale. The current mission statement gives an overview of where we are, what needs to be done, what obstacles to overcome, and which potentials are within reach. It further provides a vision for how mycology can be strengthened: The time is right to make the world aware of the immense importance of fungi and mycology for sustainable global development, where land, water and biological materials are used in a more efficient and more sustainable manner. This is an opportunity for profiling mycology by narrating the role played by fungi in the bioeconomy. Greater awareness and appreciation of the role of fungi can be used to build support for mycology around the world. Support will attract more talent to our field of study, empower mycologists around the world to generate more funds for necessary basic research, and strengthen the global mycology network. The use of fungi for unlocking the full potentials of the bioeconomy relies on such progress. The fungal kingdom can be an

  16. Identification of Nigerian English idioms: A methodological perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The task becomes more challenging when the feature of interest involves figurative meaning such as idioms and idiomatic expressions. In a recently completed project that sought to examine idioms in Nigerian English, questions and issues about methodology were raised. Among these were the questions of how idioms in ...

  17. HIV Risks, Testing, and Treatment in the Former Soviet Union: Challenges and Future Directions in Research and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution of the USSR resulted in independence for constituent republics but left them battling an unstable economic environment and healthcare. Increases in injection drug use, prostitution, and migration were all widespread responses to this transition and have contributed to the emergence of an HIV epidemic in the countries of former Soviet Union. Researchers have begun to identify the risks of HIV infection as well as the barriers to HIV testing and treatment in the former Soviet Union. Significant methodological challenges have arisen and need to be addressed. The objective of this review is to determine common threads in HIV research in the former Soviet Union and provide useful recommendations for future research studies. In this systematic review of the literature, Pubmed was searched for English-language studies using the key search terms "HIV", "AIDS", "human immunodeficiency virus", "acquired immune deficiency syndrome", "Central Asia", "Kazakhstan", "Kyrgyzstan", "Uzbekistan", "Tajikistan", "Turkmenistan", "Russia", "Ukraine", "Armenia", "Azerbaijan", and "Georgia". Studies were evaluated against eligibility criteria for inclusion. Thirty-nine studies were identified across the two main topic areas of HIV risk and barriers to testing and treatment, themes subsequently referred to as "risk" and "barriers". Study design was predominantly cross-sectional. The most frequently used sampling methods were peer-to-peer and non-probabilistic sampling. The most frequently reported risks were condom misuse, risky intercourse, and unsafe practices among injection drug users. Common barriers to testing included that testing was inconvenient, and that results would not remain confidential. Frequent barriers to treatment were based on a distrust in the treatment system. The findings of this review reveal methodological limitations that span the existing studies. Small sample size, cross-sectional design, and non-probabilistic sampling methods were frequently

  18. A methodology for overall consequence modeling in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment in chemical process industry is a very important issue for safeguarding human and the ecosystem from damages caused to them. Consequence assessment is an integral part of risk assessment. However, the commonly used consequence estimation methods involve time-consuming complex mathematical models and simple assimilation of losses without considering all the consequence factors. This lead to the deterioration of quality of estimated risk value. So, the consequence modeling has to be performed in detail considering all major losses with optimal time to improve the decisive value of risk. The losses can be broadly categorized into production loss, assets loss, human health and safety loss, and environment loss. In this paper, a conceptual framework is developed to assess the overall consequence considering all the important components of major losses. Secondly, a methodology is developed for the calculation of all the major losses, which are normalized to yield the overall consequence. Finally, as an illustration, the proposed methodology is applied to a case study plant involving benzene extraction. The case study result using the proposed consequence assessment scheme is compared with that from the existing methodologies.

  19. Methodological challenges in measurements of functional ability in gerontological research. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses two important challenges in the measurement of functional ability in gerontological research: the first challenge is to connect measurements to a theoretical frame of reference which enhances our understanding and interpretation of the collected data; the second relates...... procedure, validity, discriminatory power, and responsiveness. In measures of functional ability it is recommended: 1) always to consider the theoretical frame of reference as part of the validation process (e.g., the theory of "The Disablement Process"; 2) always to assess whether the included activities...

  20. Taking a Distributed Perspective: Epistemological and Methodological Tradeoffs in Operationalizing the Leader-Plus Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pustejovsky, James; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Lewis, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is concerned with the epistemological and methodological challenges involved in studying the distribution of leadership across people within the school--the leader-plus aspect of a distributed perspective, which it aims to investigate. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the entailments of the distributed…

  1. Challenges in Piaget's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibace, Roger

    2013-03-01

    The publication of After Piaget (Martí and Rodríguez 2012) hopefully triggers a new effort to understand the richness of the efforts of that major psychologist of the 20th century. Piaget was consistently concerned with part/whole relationships throughout his life. He addressed this issue philosophically, epistemologically, and psychologically. Conceptually Piaget struggled with the issue of continuity/discontinuity in development and changed his mind about how to reconcile the discontinuities of stages with his concept of development. I also attribute his variability to the implications of his important work on perception, and to his willingness to get involved in widespread concrete applications of his approach to education including the education of children with special needs; his center for genetic epistemology, and his interest in psychoanalysis. Benefiting from all the authors of After Piaget, I want to point out that Piaget has identified many major issues that will continue to constitute challenges to psychology in this century. These include specifying terms such as 'development;' methodological issues such as sampling both quantitatively in one culture and across cultures; comprehensive inclusion of the psychological processes covered by introductory textbooks in psychology; and conceptual issues such as the relationships among all these parts within a whole. I make a distinction between an 'issue' and a 'problem'--problems have solutions; while issues refer to controversies in science generally as well as in psychology that have persisted for centuries.

  2. Blanket safety by GEMSAFE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Saito, Masaki

    2001-01-01

    General Methodology of Safety Analysis and Evaluation for Fusion Energy Systems (GEMSAFE) has been applied to a number of fusion system designs, such as R-tokamak, Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) designs in the both stages of Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) and Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Though the major objective of GEMSAFE is to reasonably select design basis events (DBEs) it is also useful to elucidate related safety functions as well as requirements to ensure its safety. In this paper, we apply the methodology to fusion systems with future tritium breeding blankets and make clear which points of the system should be of concern from safety ensuring point of view. In this context, we have obtained five DBEs that are related to the blanket system. We have also clarified the safety functions required to prevent accident propagations initiated by those blanket-specific DBEs. The outline of the methodology is also reviewed. (author)

  3. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  4. Clinical Studies of Biofield Therapies: Summary, Methodological Challenges, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Mills, Paul; Cohen, Lorenzo; Krieger, Richard; Vieten, Cassandra; Lutgendorf, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Biofield therapies are noninvasive therapies in which the practitioner explicitly works with a client's biofield (interacting fields of energy and information that surround living systems) to stimulate healing responses in patients. While the practice of biofield therapies has existed in Eastern and Western cultures for thousands of years, empirical research on the effectiveness of biofield therapies is still relatively nascent. In this article, we provide a summary of the state of the evidence for biofield therapies for a number of different clinical conditions. We note specific methodological issues for research in biofield therapies that need to be addressed (including practitioner-based, outcomes-based, and research design considerations), as well as provide a list of suggested next steps for biofield researchers to consider. PMID:26665043

  5. Methodological Challenges to Economic Evaluations of Vaccines: Is a Common Approach Still Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2016-06-01

    Economic evaluation of vaccination is a key tool to inform effective spending on vaccines. However, many evaluations have been criticised for failing to capture features of vaccines which are relevant to decision makers. These include broader societal benefits (such as improved educational achievement, economic growth and political stability), reduced health disparities, medical innovation, reduced hospital beds pressures, greater peace of mind and synergies in economic benefits with non-vaccine interventions. Also, the fiscal implications of vaccination programmes are not always made explicit. Alternative methodological frameworks have been proposed to better capture these benefits. However, any broadening of the methodology for economic evaluation must also involve evaluations of non-vaccine interventions, and hence may not always benefit vaccines given a fixed health-care budget. The scope of an economic evaluation must consider the budget from which vaccines are funded, and the decision-maker's stated aims for that spending to achieve.

  6. SSME Investment in Turbomachinery Inducer Impeller Design Tools and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Thomas; Mitchell, William; Lunde, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Within the rocket engine industry, SSME turbomachines are the de facto standards of success with regard to meeting aggressive performance requirements under challenging operational environments. Over the Shuttle era, SSME has invested heavily in our national inducer impeller design infrastructure. While both low and high pressure turbopump failures/anomaly resolution efforts spurred some of these investments, the SSME program was a major benefactor of key areas of turbomachinery inducer-impeller research outside of flight manifest pressures. Over the past several decades, key turbopump internal environments have been interrogated via highly instrumented hot-fire and cold-flow testing. Likewise, SSME has sponsored the advancement of time accurate and cavitating inducer impeller computation fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. These investments together have led to a better understanding of the complex internal flow fields within aggressive high performing inducers and impellers. New design tools and methodologies have evolved which intend to provide confident blade designs which strike an appropriate balance between performance and self induced load management.

  7. Interaction between core analysis methodology and nuclear design: some PWR examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothleder, B.M.; Eich, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction between core analysis methodology and nuclear design is exemplified by PSEUDAX, a major improvement related to the Advanced Recycle methodology program (ARMP) computer code system, still undergoing development by the Electric Power Research Institute. The mechanism of this interaction is explored by relating several specific nulcear design changes to the demands placed by these changes on the ARMP system, and by examining the meeting of these demands, first within the standard ARMP methodology and then through augmentation of the standard methodology by development of PSEUDAX

  8. Supply Chain Management on IBS Implementation in Klang Valley Construction Industry: Challenges and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrizal Fauzi, Mohd; Hasim, Sulaiman; Awang, Anizah; Ridzuan, Ahmad Ruslan Mohd; Nur Yunus, Juzailah

    2017-12-01

    Industrialized Building System (IBS) is a system where the components of the building are manufactured in a factory and it will be transported to the site to form the structures. The supply chain management (SCM) is a system where the delivery flows of the IBS products from manufacturers to the site. The aim of this research is to identify the major challenges and to analyze the issues on IBS implementation in SCM in Klang Valley from the manufacturers perspective. The methodology used in this paper is based on primary data through questionnaire and interview. Questionnaires were sent to the Manufacturers. It can be concluded that this paper attempts to present more on the challenges and issues that those companies of manufacturers faced during their success journey in finding integration in their supply chain. The main contributions of this paper are integrating all the supply chain integration challenges and issues on IBS. Therefore, these contributions will be helpful for the organization of manufacturers and IBS players that establish the integration in their SCM.

  9. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000 R plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  10. The Challenge of Researching Violent Societies: Navigating Complexities in Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2009-01-01

    Through use of a recent study researching democratic education and citizenship in Zimbabwe, this paper examines the methodological dilemmas and challenges faced by an ethnographer, particularly by a research student in a violent context. The article posits a bricolage strategy to navigate some of the dangers and methodological dilemmas inherent so…

  11. Socioeconomic value of orthopedic devices: evidence and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorenson C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corinna Sorenson,1,2 Michael Drummond2,31LSE Health, London School of Economics, London, UK; 2European Health Technology Institute for Socioeconomic Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UKAbstract: With continued technological advances in orthopedic devices and increasingly limited health care resources, greater attention will be placed on substantiating the socioeconomic value of these devices. Therefore, this study focused on a systematic review of available economic evaluations of selected orthopedic devices (n = 33 studies to assess their impact on different clinical and economic outcomes. The existing evidence suggests that they have important benefits to patients, including reduced risk of fractures, increased mobility and functioning, and enhanced quality of life, and do so cost effectively or with cost savings. However, we have identified several methodological obstacles to sufficient ascertainment of value, such as a lack of robust information on health economic outcomes and long-term evidence. We also identify areas where additional research is needed to assess more fully the value of orthopedic devices.Keywords: medical devices, orthopedics, health economic evaluation

  12. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  13. EVOLUTION OF THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Grazhevska

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the evolution stages of theoretical and methodological foundations of comparative economics. The author highlights algorithms of comparative analysis as well as theoretical and methodological limitations of four research programs of the new comparative economics. The article justifies the necessity of a comprehensive comparative study of the major trends and contradictions in the development of national economies in the era of globalization.

  14. EVOLUTION OF THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the evolution stages of theoretical and methodological foundations of comparative economics. The author highlights algorithms of comparative analysis as well as theoretical and methodological limitations of four research programs of the new comparative economics. The article justifies the necessity of a comprehensive comparative study of the major trends and contradictions in the development of national economies in the era of globalization.

  15. Visual Perspectives on Majority-World Adolescent Thriving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; Theron, Linda; Tapanya, Sombat; Li, Chun; Lau, Cindy; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers socio-ecological, situated perspectives on adolescent resilience derived from an application of interpretive visual methodologies to deepen understanding of adaptive youth development in diverse majority-world cultural contexts (South Africa, Thailand, China, Mexican migration to Canada). The research is not…

  16. Advanced Methodologies for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, N. E.; Feigelson, E.; Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Most of NASA's commitment to computational space science involves the organization and processing of Big Data from space-based satellites, and the calculations of advanced physical models based on these datasets. But considerable thought is also needed on what computations are needed. The science questions addressed by space data are so diverse and complex that traditional analysis procedures are often inadequate. The knowledge and skills of the statistician, applied mathematician, and algorithmic computer scientist must be incorporated into programs that currently emphasize engineering and physical science. NASA's culture and administrative mechanisms take full cognizance that major advances in space science are driven by improvements in instrumentation. But it is less well recognized that new instruments and science questions give rise to new challenges in the treatment of satellite data after it is telemetered to the ground. These issues might be divided into two stages: data reduction through software pipelines developed within NASA mission centers; and science analysis that is performed by hundreds of space scientists dispersed through NASA, U.S. universities, and abroad. Both stages benefit from the latest statistical and computational methods; in some cases, the science result is completely inaccessible using traditional procedures. This paper will review the current state of NASA and present example applications using modern methodologies.

  17. Adverse Side Effects of Psychotropic Medication and Challenging Behavior: Pilot Work Assessing Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G; Schieber, Elizabeth; McMahon, Meara; Beard, Lisa; Wilkinson, Alyssa; Carpenter, Jaimie

    2017-12-01

    Psychotropic medications are often prescribed to reduce challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Functional analyses (FAs) have demonstrated utility in assessing medication impact on behavior; however, the impact of adverse side effects (ASE) on challenging behavior is under-assessed. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, similar to FAs, to explore potential medication ASE impact on challenging behavior in seven individuals with IDD. Results revealed response rate differences in designed ASE conditions for most participants. Outcomes support further development and use of this methodology to assess the presence and impact of ASEs.

  18. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...

  19. The CRC 20 years: An overview of some of the major achievements and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doek, Jaap E

    2009-11-01

    On 20 November 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). It entered into force on 2 September 1990 and has by now been ratified by 193 States, making the most universally ratified human rights treaty. This overview will present and discuss the impact of this treaty both at the international and the national level, an overview which necessarily has to be limited to some of the developments as a result of the implementation of the CRC. The first part of this paper will be devoted to the impact the CRC had and still has on the setting and development of the international agenda for the promotion and protection of the rights and welfare of children. Special attention will given to developments, achievements, and remaining challenges at the international level with regard to protection of children in armed conflict; prevention and the protection of children from sexual exploitation; and from all forms of violence. This will include some information on the impact of these international developments and actions at the national level, for example, in the area of legislation. The second part will focus on the impact at the national level. Given the wide scope of the CRC this part will be limited to some of the General Measures of Implementation (law reform, national programmes, and independent monitoring) and the General Principles (non-discrimination, best interest, right to be heard) of the CRC. This will be based on reports of States on the implementation of the CRC submitted to the CRC Committee and the Concluding Observations of this Committee and on a number of studies. The conclusion will provide remarks on poverty as one of the major remaining challenges for the implementation of children's rights.

  20. A methodology for the quantitative risk assessment of major accidents triggered by seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioni, Giacomo; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative risk assessment of accidents triggered by seismic events in industrial facilities was developed. The starting point of the procedure was the use of available historical data to assess the expected frequencies and the severity of seismic events. Available equipment-dependant failure probability models (vulnerability or fragility curves) were used to assess the damage probability of equipment items due to a seismic event. An analytic procedure was subsequently developed to identify, evaluate the credibility and finally assess the expected consequences of all the possible scenarios that may follow the seismic events. The procedure was implemented in a GIS-based software tool in order to manage the high number of event sequences that are likely to be generated in large industrial facilities. The developed methodology requires a limited amount of additional data with respect to those used in a conventional QRA, and yields with a limited effort a preliminary quantitative assessment of the contribution of the scenarios triggered by earthquakes to the individual and societal risk indexes. The application of the methodology to several case-studies evidenced that the scenarios initiated by seismic events may have a relevant influence on industrial risk, both raising the overall expected frequency of single scenarios and causing specific severe scenarios simultaneously involving several plant units

  1. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  2. Modeling energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Methodological challenges and insights from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshall, Lily; Gurney, Kevin; Hammer, Stephen A.; Mendoza, Daniel; Zhou, Yuyu; Geethakumar, Sarath

    2010-01-01

    Local policy makers could benefit from a national, high-resolution inventory of energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions based on the Vulcan data product, which plots emissions on a 100 km 2 grid. We evaluate the ability of Vulcan to measure energy consumption in urban areas, a scale of analysis required to support goals established as part of local energy, climate or sustainability initiatives. We highlight the methodological challenges of this type of analytical exercise and review alternative approaches. We find that between 37% and 86% of direct fuel consumption in buildings and industry and between 37% and 77% of on-road gasoline and diesel consumption occurs in urban areas, depending on how these areas are defined. We suggest that a county-based definition of urban is preferable to other common definitions since counties are the smallest political unit for which energy data are collected. Urban counties, account for 37% of direct energy consumption, or 50% if mixed urban counties are included. A county-based definition can also improve estimates of per-capita consumption.

  3. Self trust, a major challenge for nuclear regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibenschutz, J. [National Nuclear Safety and Safeguards Commission (CNSN), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Self trust. The nuclear community and particularly nuclear regulators overreact to accidents, this has been the case with the three NPP major accidents. Lowering admissible radiation levels, for example, conveys the wrong message to politicians and the general public, and contributes to enhance mistrust towards nuclear. Industry as well as regulators should mature and act with self respect, since the scientific bases of regulation are very solid and should be trusted. Lessons learned should be seriously pursued in spite of the 'uneven playing field'. Obviously safety continues as the main priority, but paranoid reactions from the nuclear professionals could destroy the future of nuclear power. (author)

  4. Self trust, a major challenge for nuclear regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibenschutz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Self trust. The nuclear community and particularly nuclear regulators overreact to accidents, this has been the case with the three NPP major accidents. Lowering admissible radiation levels, for example, conveys the wrong message to politicians and the general public, and contributes to enhance mistrust towards nuclear. Industry as well as regulators should mature and act with self respect, since the scientific bases of regulation are very solid and should be trusted. Lessons learned should be seriously pursued in spite of the 'uneven playing field'. Obviously safety continues as the main priority, but paranoid reactions from the nuclear professionals could destroy the future of nuclear power. (author)

  5. Agile methodology selection criteria: IT start-up case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micic, Lj

    2017-05-01

    Project management in modern IT companies is often based on agile methodologies which have several advantages compared to traditional methodologies such is waterfall. Having in mind that clients sometimes change project during development it is crucial for an IT company to choose carefully which methodology is going to implement and is it going to be mostly based on one or is it going got be combination of several. There are several modern and often used methodologies but among those Scrum, Kanban and XP programming are usually the most common. Sometimes companies use mostly tools and procedures from one but quite often they use some of the combination of those methodologies. Having in mind that those methodologies are just a framework they allow companies to adapt it for their specific projects as well as for other limitations. These methodologies are in limited usage Bosnia but more and more IT companies are starting to use agile methodologies because it is practice and common not just for their clients abroad but also starting to be the only option in order to deliver quality product on time. However it is always challenging which methodology or combination of several companies should implement and how to connect it to its own project, organizational framework and HR management. This paper presents one case study based on local IT start up and delivers solution based on theoretical framework and practical limitations that case company has.

  6. A Quality-Driven Methodology for Information Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Zikra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information systems integration is an essential instrument for organizations to attain advantage in today’s growing and fast changing business and technology landscapes. Integration solutions generate added value by combining the functionality and services of heterogeneous and diverse systems. Existing integration environments tend to rely heavily on technical, platform-dependent skills. Consequently, the solutions that they enable are not optimally aligned with the envisioned business goals of the organization. Furthermore, the gap between the goals and the solutions complicates the task of evaluating the quality of integration solutions. To address these challenges, we propose a quality-driven, model-driven methodology for designing and developing integration solutions. The methodology spans organizational and systems design details, providing a holistic view of the integration solution and its underlying business goals. A multi-view meta-model provides the basis for the integration design. Quality factors that affect various aspects of the integration solution guide and inform the progress of the methodology. An example business case is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology.

  7. Malaysian Container Seaport-Hinterland Connectivity: Status, Challenges and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ling Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts a qualitative methodology to assess the Malaysian container seaport-hinterland connectivity from the perspective of its physical properties. The findings reveal that although Malaysia's major container seaports are connected to the hinterlands through road and rail transport, they are highly dependent on road. These seaports are also connected to inland freight facilities such as dry ports and ICDs, which are positioned as transit points to help connect exporters and importers in the hinterlands to seaports as well as facilitating regional and cross-border trades. This paper suggests that the quality of hinterland connectivity of Malaysian container seaports could be improved by implementing strategies which tackle the existing challenges including overcoming an extremely imbalanced modal split, insufficient rail capacity and limited train services, increasing road congestion and the limitations of space restriction in some inland facilities.

  8. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Challenges Facing Comparative Cancer Survivorship Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syse, A.; Syse, A.; Geller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer survivorship research includes the study of physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment among pediatric and adult cancer survivors. Historically, the majority of cancer survivorship studies were from the United States, but survivorship issues are increasingly being addressed in other developed countries. Cross-cultural studies remain, however, scarce. The degree to which knowledge attained may or may not be transferred across cultures, countries, or regions is not known. Some important challenges for comparative research are therefore discussed in a cross-cultural perspective. Several substantive and methodological challenges that complicate the execution of cross-cultural cancer survivorship research are presented with examples and discussed to facilitate comparative research efforts in the establishment of new survivorship cohorts and in the planning and implementation of survivorship studies. Comparative research is one key to understanding the nature of cancer survivorship, distinguishing modifiable from non modifiable factors at individual, hospital, societal, and system levels and may thus guide appropriate interventions. Lastly, suggested future courses of action within the field of comparative cancer survivorship research are provided.

  9. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced vehicular heat engines: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandelwal, P.K.; Provenzano, N.J.; Schneider, W.E. [Allison Engine Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1996-02-01

    One of the major challenges involved in the use of ceramic materials is ensuring adequate strength and durability. This activity has developed methodology which can be used during the design phase to predict the structural behavior of ceramic components. The effort involved the characterization of injection molded and hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) PY-6 silicon nitride, the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology, and the development of analytical life prediction methodology. Four failure modes are addressed: fast fracture, slow crack growth, creep, and oxidation. The techniques deal with failures initiating at the surface as well as internal to the component. The life prediction methodology for fast fracture and slow crack growth have been verified using a variety of confirmatory tests. The verification tests were conducted at room and elevated temperatures up to a maximum of 1371 {degrees}C. The tests involved (1) flat circular disks subjected to bending stresses and (2) high speed rotating spin disks. Reasonable correlation was achieved for a variety of test conditions and failure mechanisms. The predictions associated with surface failures proved to be optimistic, requiring re-evaluation of the components` initial fast fracture strengths. Correlation was achieved for the spin disks which failed in fast fracture from internal flaws. Time dependent elevated temperature slow crack growth spin disk failures were also successfully predicted.

  10. Interviewing with or without the partner present?--an underexposed dilemma between ethics and methodology in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Hall, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    To discuss ethical and methodological challenges related to in-depth interviews with patients and partners when interviewed together or separately. Increased interest in exploring illness phenomena from both patients' and partners' perspectives has emerged. The decision about how to collect data is challenging. Patients and partners can be interviewed separately or together; in both scenarios researchers face complex questions of methodology and ethics. This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on individual or joint interviewing and the effect of absence/presence of the partner on data collection. Discussion paper that draws on data from three phenomenological studies. Referring to three cases from our phenomenological studies, we discuss the different types of ethical and methodological dilemmas faced when undertaking joint and separate interviews with couples. Furthermore, we discuss how the unexpected presence of the partner potentially influences the data gathered from the patient. The cases demonstrate the interrelatedness of ethics and methodology in studies based on in-depth interviews with couples. Nurse researchers may be caught up in a dilemma between ethical concerns and methodological considerations. We argue that the presence of the partner during an interview session might influence the data and favour expressions of shared rather than individual experiences of the phenomenon studied. Furthermore, we argue that ethical concerns must be given higher priority than methodology when interviewing couples. An increased awareness of the tension between ethical and methodological challenges in joint or individual interviewing with patients and partners is necessary, as this issue is underexposed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Applications of landscape genetics in conservation biology: concepts and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernot Segelbacher; Samuel A. Cushman; Bryan K. Epperson; Marie-Josee Fortin; Olivier Francois; Olivier J. Hardy; Rolf Holderegger; Stephanie Manel

    2010-01-01

    Landscape genetics plays an increasingly important role in the management and conservation of species. Here, we highlight some of the opportunities and challenges in using landscape genetic approaches in conservation biology. We first discuss challenges related to sampling design and introduce several recent methodological developments in landscape genetics (analyses...

  12. IBM Industry Practice: Challenges in Offshore Software Development from a Global Delivery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musio, Ilario

    Offshore software development has greatly influenced competitiveness among IT companies in the last decade. Despite the fact that there are matured and developed offshoring methodologies, there is an ongoing tendency to look for new ways of improving them. Major IT corporations successfully rely on their offshore delivery centers for bridging the gap between communication and infrastructure boundaries. However, projects tend to fail, so problems have to be considered that arise between on- and offshore parts within the same corporation. Based on seven case studies from the industry, this paper describes experiences and challenges faced during the execution of offshore application development between IBM Switzerland and IBM India. Additionally, approaches on how they can be solved are proposed.

  13. Challenges of youth participation in participatory action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine; Berliner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated...... community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying...

  14. HUMAN CAPITAL: Major Human Capital Challenges at SEC and Key Trade Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillman, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... The leadership provided by this subcommittee and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs has been especially important in focusing attention on the federal government s human capital challenges.

  15. Measurement and verification of low income energy efficiency programs in Brazil: Methodological challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto De; Rodrigues da Silva, Ana Lucia; Melo, Conrado Augustus de; Paccola, Jose Angelo; Dourado Maia Gomes, Rodolfo (State Univ. of Campinas, International Energy Initiative (Brazil))

    2009-07-01

    Electric utilities in Brazil are investing about 80 million dollars annually in low-income energy efficiency programs, about half of their total compulsory investments in end-use efficiency programs under current regulation. Since 2007 the regulator has enforced the need to provide evaluation plans for the programs delivered. This paper presents the measurement and verification (MandV) methodology that has been developed to accommodate the characteristics of lighting and refrigerator programs that have been introduced in the Brazilian urban and peri-urban slums. A combination of household surveys, end-use measurements and metering at the transformers and grid levels were performed before and after the program implementation. The methodology has to accommodate the dynamics, housing, electrical wiring and connections of the population as well as their ability to pay for the electricity and program participation. Results obtained in slums in Rio de Janeiro are presented. Impacts of the programs were evaluated in energy terms to households and utilities. Feedback from the evaluations performed also permitted the improvement in the design of new programs for low-income households.

  16. The Challenge of Integrating OHS into Industrial Project Risk Management: Proposal of a Methodological Approach to Guide Future Research (Case of Mining Projects in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although risk management tools are put to good use in many industrial sectors, some large projects have been met with numerous problems due to failure to take occupational health and safety (OHS into consideration. In spite of the high level of risk and uncertainty associated with many industrial projects, the number of studies of methods for managing all known risks systematically remains small. Under effervescent economic conditions, industries must meet several challenges associated with frequent project start-ups. In highly complex and uncertain environments, rigorous management of risk remains indispensable for avoiding threats to the success of projects. Many businesses seek continually to create and improve integrated approaches to risk management. This article puts into perspective the complexity of the challenge of integrating OHS into industrial project risk management. A conceptual and methodological approach is proposed to guide future research focused on meeting this challenge. The approach is based on applying multi-disciplinary research modes to a complex industrial context in order to identify all scenarios likely to contain threats to humans or the environment. A case study is used to illustrate the potential of the proposed approach for application and its contribution to meeting the challenge of taking OHS into consideration. On-site researchers were able to develop a new approach that helped two mining companies in Quebec (Canada to achieve successful integration of OHS into expansion projects.

  17. Business coaching: challenges for an emerging industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clegg, S.R.; Rhodes, C.G.; Kornberger, M.; Stilin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose — To identify the distinguishing characteristics and future challenges for the business coaching industry in Australia. Design/methodology/approach — A telephone survey of business coaching firms was used to identify the main structural characteristics of the industry. Structured interviews

  18. Challenges in data science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, M.; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: "What...... can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ". Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking "What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?" These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection...... of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Investigating Challenges Facing Self-Management Empowerment Education in Adolescents and Youths with Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzazan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Thalassemia is considered an important public health problem worldwide, especially in developing and poor countries. Although several advanced techniques have been developed for prevention of thalassemia in the recent years, many adolescents and youths are still living with this disease. Independence from parents, decisions about high-risk behaviors, uncovering the identity, and adapting to mental and physical effects of the disease occur together in adolescents. Objectives This study was conducted to explore challenges of self-management empowerment in adolescents and youths with major thalassemia. Materials and Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory study. The study population consisted of adolescents and youths with major thalassemia who had medical records in the Bushehr Thalassemia Center, affiliated with Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. The study samples were purposively selected. Demographic information questionnaire and empowerment questionnaire were used to collect data from the semistructured interview. We analyzed qualitative data by content analysis method and quantitative data by descriptive (mean, standard deviation and analytical (Student's t-test, ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient statistical methods, using the statistical software SPSS 18. Results In qualitative part of the study, data from semistructured in-depth interviews with 15 participants were coded and summarized in five themes including: 1 awareness of personal changes; 2 need for adaptation; 3 maintaining independence and self-management; 4 uncovering the identity and role playing; and 5 sense of control and satisfaction. Results of the quantitative part showed that the overall score of participants on empowerment was 92.46 of 149 scores, which showed a moderate situation in the empowerment of these individuals. In addition, the empowerment score showed no statistically significant correlation with demographic characteristics

  20. Multi-objective evolutionary emergency response optimization for major accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiadou, Paraskevi S.; Papazoglou, Ioannis A.; Kiranoudis, Chris T.; Markatos, Nikolaos C.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency response planning in case of a major accident (hazardous material event, nuclear accident) is very important for the protection of the public and workers' safety and health. In this context, several protective actions can be performed, such as, evacuation of an area; protection of the population in buildings; and use of personal protective equipment. The best solution is not unique when multiple criteria are taken into consideration (e.g. health consequences, social disruption, economic cost). This paper presents a methodology for multi-objective optimization of emergency response planning in case of a major accident. The emergency policy with regards to protective actions to be implemented is optimized. An evolutionary algorithm has been used as the optimization tool. Case studies demonstrating the methodology and its application in emergency response decision-making in case of accidents related to hazardous materials installations are presented. However, the methodology with appropriate modification is suitable for supporting decisions in assessing emergency response procedures in other cases (nuclear accidents, transportation of hazardous materials) or for land-use planning issues.

  1. A methodology to promote business development from research outcomes in food science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Valorization of knowledge produced in research units has been a major challenge for research universities in contemporary societies. The prevailing forces have led these institutions to develop a “third mission”, the facilitation of technology transfer and activity in an entrepreneurial paradigm. Effective management of challenges encountered in the development of academic entrepreneurship and the associated valorization of knowledge produced by universities are major factors to bridge the gap between research and innovation in Europe.The need to improve the existing institutional knowledge valorization processes, concerning entrepreneurship and business development and the processes required were discussed.A case study was designed to describe the institutional knowledge valorization process in a food science and technology research unit and a related incubator, during a five year evaluation period that ended in 2012.The knowledge valorization processes benefited from the adoption of a structured framework methodology that led to ideas and teams from a business model generation to client development, in parallel, when possible, with an agile product/service development.Although academic entrepreneurship engagement could be improved, this case study demonstrated that stronger skills development was needed to enable the researcher to be more aware of business development fundamentals and therefore contribute to research decisions and the valorisation of individual and institutional knowledge assets. It was noted that the timing for involvement of companies in the research projects or programs varied with the nature of the research.

  2. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology, including advanced validation concepts, to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Williams, B.; Hemez, F.; Atamturktur, S.H.; McClure, P.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The best estimate plus uncertainty methodology (BEPU) is one option in the licensing of nuclear reactors. → The challenges for extending the BEPU method for fuel qualification for an advanced reactor fuel are primarily driven by schedule, the need for data, and the sufficiency of the data. → In this paper we develop an extended BEPU methodology that can potentially be used to address these new challenges in the design and licensing of advanced nuclear reactors. → The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. → The methodology includes a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to existing data, so that required new testing can be minimized, saving cost by demonstrating that further testing will not enhance the quality of the predictive tools. - Abstract: Many evolving nuclear energy technologies use advanced predictive multiscale, multiphysics modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to reduce the cost and schedule of design and licensing. Historically, the role of experiments has been as a primary tool for the design and understanding of nuclear system behavior, while M and S played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multiscale, multiphysics computational-based technology development, this role has been reversed. The experiments will still be needed, but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate the models leading to predictive simulations for design and licensing. Minimizing the required number of validation experiments produces cost and time savings. The use of multiscale, multiphysics models introduces challenges in validating these predictive tools - traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these challenges. This paper gives the basic aspects of a methodology that can potentially be used to address these new challenges in

  3. [Improving treatment adherence in kidney transplantation: a major challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Michèle

    2014-06-01

    The kidney transplant recipient is faced not only with the perspective of taking immunosuppressive drugs lifelong, but also the possibility of other long-term treatments prescribed for preexisting conditions, complications, or side effects. Proper management, and most importantly patient adherence, can become a complex challenge. Here we recall current definitions and describe methods for measuring treatment adherence, followed by a discussion on the prevalence of non-adherence in kidney transplant recipients, its effect on graft survival, and factors predictive of non-adherence. Ways of improving adherence are examined, leading to the conviction that helping patients take their medications regularly would probably have a greater impact on graft survival than marketing a new immunosuppressive agent. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Ensuring energy security in ASEAN countries: Current trends and major challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderov, Sergey; Vorobev, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the issues of formation of future challenges to energy security of the ASEAN countries in the period up to 2035. The article gives examples of strategic threats to the energy security of Russia. The opportunities to meet future demand for primary energy for individual countries of ASEAN and the whole region are discussed.

  5. HIV Risks, Testing, and Treatment in the Former Soviet Union: Challenges and Future Directions in Research and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M. Saadat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dissolution of the USSR resulted in independence for constituent republics but left them battling an unstable economic environment and healthcare. Increases in injection drug use, prostitution, and migration were all widespread responses to this transition and have contributed to the emergence of an HIV epidemic in the countries of former Soviet Union. Researchers have begun to identify the risks of HIV infection as well as the barriers to HIV testing and treatment in the former Soviet Union. Significant methodological challenges have arisen and need to be addressed. The objective of this review is to determine common threads in HIV research in the former Soviet Union and provide useful recommendations for future research studies.Methods. In this systematic review of the literature, Pubmed was searched for English-language studies using the key search terms “HIV”, “AIDS”, “human immunodeficiency virus”, “acquired immune deficiency syndrome”, “Central Asia”, “Kazakhstan”, “Kyrgyzstan”, “Uzbekistan”, “Tajikistan”, “Turkmenistan”, “Russia”, “Ukraine”, “Armenia”, “Azerbaijan”, and “Georgia”. Studies were evaluated against eligibility criteria for inclusion.Results. Thirty-nine studies were identified across the two main topic areas of HIV risk and barriers to testing and treatment, themes subsequently referred to as “risk” and “barriers”. Study design was predominantly cross-sectional. The most frequently used sampling methods were peer-to-peer and non-probabilistic sampling. The most frequently reported risks were condom misuse, risky intercourse, and unsafe practices among injection drug users.  Common barriers to testing included that testing was inconvenient, and that results would not remain confidential.  Frequent barriers to treatment were based on a distrust in the treatment system. Conclusion. The findings of this review reveal methodological limitations

  6. HUMAN CAPITAL: Major Human Capital Challenges at SEC and Key Trade Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillman, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We appreciate the opportunity to appear here today to discuss the human capital challenges facing the agencies that play key roles in monitoring publicly traded companies and enforcing our nation's trade laws...

  7. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  8. Mobility Turn in Contemporary Society as an Educational Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Svyrydenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the research is to uncover the series of challenges produced by the social dynamics with one’s mobile nature. Using methodological potential of social philosophy author attempts to demonstrate the essence and logics of mobility turn as a metaphor of contemporary society development. Author shows the radical changes at social-cultural dynamics which are also concieved by the modern social sciences (sociology of mobilities, series of postmodern concepts such as nomad etc. Using methodological approaches of philosophy of education author formulates “order of the day” of the mobility challenges at higher education sphere. Author shows that educational sphere also becomes mobile transforming the character of one’s vital activity, but also actualizing some special phenomena such as academic mobility. Formulating “order of the day” of mobility challenges to modern higher education, author demonstrates the horizon of future researches due to complex nature of researched problem

  9. Status and challenges of residential and industrial non-intrusive load monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adabi, Ali; Mantey, Patrick; Holmegaard, Emil

    2015-01-01

    in recent years due to improvement in algorithms and methodologies. Currently, the important challenges facing residential NILM are inaccessibility of electricity meter high sampling data, and lack of reliable high resolution datasets. For industrial NILM the identification is more challenging due......Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is the process of identification of loads from an aggregate power interface using disaggregation algorithms. This paper identifies the current status, methodologies and challenges of NILM in residential and industrial settings. NILM has advanced substantially...... to increased number of loads and the variability of equipment type, temporal patterns and industrial secrecy. From our examination of data and its use in NILM, we observe that the number of devices that can be recognized and the training period required to achiever recognition is not only a function...

  10. Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, Jaime G.; Sleeman, Derek

    1982-01-01

    Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. It is imperative to analyze the repertoire of AI methods with respect to past experience, utility in new domains,...

  11. Methodological challenges for the evaluation of clinical effectiveness in the context of accelerated regulatory approval: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolacott, Nerys; Corbett, Mark; Jones-Diette, Julie; Hodgson, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory authorities are approving innovative therapies with limited evidence. Although this level of data is sufficient for the regulator to establish an acceptable risk-benefit balance, it is problematic for downstream health technology assessment, where assessment of cost-effectiveness requires reliable estimates of effectiveness relative to existing clinical practice. Some key issues associated with a limited evidence base include using data, from nonrandomized studies, from small single-arm trials, or from single-center trials; and using surrogate end points. We examined these methodological challenges through a pragmatic review of the available literature. Methods to adjust nonrandomized studies for confounding are imperfect. The relative treatment effect generated from single-arm trials is uncertain and may be optimistic. Single-center trial results may not be generalizable. Surrogate end points, on average, overestimate treatment effects. Current methods for analyzing such data are limited, and effectiveness claims based on these suboptimal forms of evidence are likely to be subject to significant uncertainty. Assessments of cost-effectiveness, based on the modeling of such data, are likely to be subject to considerable uncertainty. This uncertainty must not be underestimated by decision makers: methods for its quantification are required and schemes to protect payers from the cost of uncertainty should be implemented. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol and burden of disease in Australia: the challenge in assessing consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeil, Rowan P; Room, Robin; Matthews, Sharon; Lloyd, Belinda

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the major avoidable risk factors for disease, illness and injury in the Australian community. Population health scientists and economists use estimates of alcohol consumption in burden of disease frameworks to estimate the impact of alcohol on disease, illness and injury. This article highlights challenges associated with estimating alcohol consumption in these models and provides a series of recommendations to improve estimates. Key challenges in measuring alcohol consumption at the population level are identified and discussed with respect to how they apply to burden of disease frameworks. Methodological advances and limitations in the estimation of alcohol consumption are presented with respect to use of survey data, population distributions of alcohol consumption, consideration of 'patterns' of alcohol use including 'bingeing', and capping exposure. Key recommendations for overcoming these limitations are provided. Implications and conclusion: Alcohol-related burden has a significant impact on the health of the Australian population. Improving estimates of alcohol related consumption will enable more accurate estimates of this burden to be determined to inform future alcohol policy by legislators. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Novel Methodology for Functional Modeling and Simulation of Wireless Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa Morales Emma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel methodology is presented for the modeling and the simulation of wireless embedded systems. Tight interaction between the analog and the digital functionality makes the design and verification of such systems a real challenge. The applied methodology brings together the functional models of the baseband algorithms written in C language with the circuit descriptions at behavioral level in Verilog or Verilog-AMS for the system simulations in a single kernel environment. The physical layer of an ultrawideband system has been successfully modeled and simulated. The results confirm that this methodology provides a standardized framework in order to efficiently and accurately simulate complex mixed signal applications for embedded systems.

  14. Mixed-mode modelling mixing methodologies for organisational intervention

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Steve; Lehaney, Brian

    2001-01-01

    The 1980s and 1990s have seen a growing interest in research and practice in the use of methodologies within problem contexts characterised by a primary focus on technology, human issues, or power. During the last five to ten years, this has given rise to challenges regarding the ability of a single methodology to address all such contexts, and the consequent development of approaches which aim to mix methodologies within a single problem situation. This has been particularly so where the situation has called for a mix of technological (the so-called 'hard') and human­ centred (so-called 'soft') methods. The approach developed has been termed mixed-mode modelling. The area of mixed-mode modelling is relatively new, with the phrase being coined approximately four years ago by Brian Lehaney in a keynote paper published at the 1996 Annual Conference of the UK Operational Research Society. Mixed-mode modelling, as suggested above, is a new way of considering problem situations faced by organisations. Traditional...

  15. Research with Children: Challenges and Dilemmas as an Insider Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Won

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas raised by my own experience of researching an immigrant Korean child at an ethnic Sunday School where I taught. I review the ethical and methodological challenges raised in my interactions with the child as an insider researcher from the ways I approached consent forms through to interview…

  16. Using functional analysis in archival appraisal a practical and effective alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Marcus C

    2014-01-01

    In an age of scarcity and the challenge of electronic records, can archivists and records managers continue to rely upon traditional methodology essentially unchanged since the early 1950s? Using Functional Analysis in Archival Appraisal: A Practical and Effective Alternative to Traditional Appraisal Methodologies shows how archivists in other countries are already using functional analysis, which offers a better, more effective, and imminently more practical alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies that rely upon an analysis of the records themselves.

  17. Methodology for determining influence of organizational culture to business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Skoumalová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Content this article is to propose the possible methodology for quantitative measuring the organizational culture using the set of statistical methods. In view of aim we elected procedure consisting of two major sections. The first is classification of organizational culture and role of quantitative measurement on organizational culture. This part includes definition and several methods used to classify organizational culture: Hofstede, Peters and Waterman, Deal and Kennedy, Edgar Schein, Kotter and Heskett, Lukášová and opinions why a measurement perspective is worthwhile. The second major section contains methodology for measuring the organizational culture and its impact on organizational performance. We suggest using structural equation modeling for quantitative assessment of organizational culture.

  18. Key Challenges to the introduction of hydrogen - European stakeholder views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, E. Hugo; Murray, Luke; Fernandes, Rei

    2008-01-01

    Recent hydrogen policy initiatives focus on fostering the market introduction of hydrogen technologies. These initiatives include hydrogen roadmapping projects. Stakeholder involvement in strategic planning is of key importance to the successful implementation of the strategy. Thus, the views of the stakeholder group involved in the European roadmapping project HyWays are pertinent to the introduction of hydrogen in Europe. A qualitative assessment using the Key Changes and Actor Mapping (KCAM) methodology showed that on average stakeholders expect hydrogen systems to begin to be introduced over the next 15 years. Hydrogen production is expected to be based initially on steam methane reforming of natural gas and onsite electrolysis using wind power, and any hydrogen transport is likely to be by truck. The major challenges envisaged are to do with carbon capture and storage, high-temperature hydrogen production technologies and hydrogen pipeline development. (author)

  19. Toward Detection of Exoplanetary Rings via Transit Photometry: Methodology and a Possible Candidate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Masataka; Masuda, Kento; Suto, Yasushi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Uehara, Sho [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-4397 (Japan); Kawahara, Hajime, E-mail: aizawa@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    The detection of a planetary ring of exoplanets remains one of the most attractive, but challenging, goals in the field of exoplanetary science. We present a methodology that implements a systematic search for exoplanetary rings via transit photometry of long-period planets. This methodology relies on a precise integration scheme that we develop to compute a transit light curve of a ringed planet. We apply the methodology to 89 long-period planet candidates from the Kepler data so as to estimate, and/or set upper limits on, the parameters of possible rings. While the majority of our samples do not have sufficient signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) to place meaningful constraints on ring parameters, we find that six systems with higher S/Ns are inconsistent with the presence of a ring larger than 1.5 times the planetary radius, assuming a grazing orbit and a tilted ring. Furthermore, we identify five preliminary candidate systems whose light curves exhibit ring-like features. After removing four false positives due to the contamination from nearby stars, we identify KIC 10403228 as a reasonable candidate for a ringed planet. A systematic parameter fit of its light curve with a ringed planet model indicates two possible solutions corresponding to a Saturn-like planet with a tilted ring. There also remain two other possible scenarios accounting for the data; a circumstellar disk and a hierarchical triple. Due to large uncertain factors, we cannot choose one specific model among the three.

  20. Methodology for worker neutron exposure evaluation in the PDCF facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherpelz, R. I.; Traub, R. J.; Pryor, K. H.

    2004-01-01

    A project headed by Washington Group International is meant to design the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) to convert the plutonium pits from excessed nuclear weapons into plutonium oxide for ultimate disposition. Battelle staff are performing the shielding calculations that will determine appropriate shielding so that the facility workers will not exceed target exposure levels. The target exposure levels for workers in the facility are 5 mSv y -1 for the whole body and 100 mSv y -1 for the extremity, which presents a significant challenge to the designers of a facility that will process tons of radioactive material. The design effort depended on shielding calculations to determine appropriate thickness and composition for glove box walls, and concrete wall thicknesses for storage vaults. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used ORIGEN-S and SOURCES to generate gamma and neutron source terms, and Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) (MCNP-4C) to calculate the radiation transport in the facility. The shielding calculations were performed by a team of four scientists, so it was necessary to develop a consistent methodology. There was also a requirement for the study to be cost-effective, so efficient methods of evaluation were required. The calculations were subject to rigorous scrutiny by internal and external reviewers, so acceptability was a major feature of the methodology. Some of the issues addressed in the development of the methodology included selecting appropriate dose factors, developing a method for handling extremity doses, adopting an efficient method for evaluating effective dose equivalent in a non-uniform radiation field, modelling the reinforcing steel in concrete, and modularising the geometry descriptions for efficiency. The relative importance of the neutron dose equivalent compared with the gamma dose equivalent varied substantially depending on the specific shielding conditions and lessons were

  1. The Challenges to and the Need for International Research in Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Melanie Carol; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss methodological challenges facing US scholars when conducting international research; and to present personal reflections as educational leadership faculty in the USA conducting and publishing on research undertaken in Haiti and Thailand. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study drew from…

  2. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal

    2010-01-01

    As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...

  3. Major Accidents (Gray Swans) Likelihood Modeling Using Accident Precursors and Approximate Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Compared to the remarkable progress in risk analysis of normal accidents, the risk analysis of major accidents has not been so well-established, partly due to the complexity of such accidents and partly due to low probabilities involved. The issue of low probabilities normally arises from the scarcity of major accidents' relevant data since such accidents are few and far between. In this work, knowing that major accidents are frequently preceded by accident precursors, a novel precursor-based methodology has been developed for likelihood modeling of major accidents in critical infrastructures based on a unique combination of accident precursor data, information theory, and approximate reasoning. For this purpose, we have introduced an innovative application of information analysis to identify the most informative near accident of a major accident. The observed data of the near accident were then used to establish predictive scenarios to foresee the occurrence of the major accident. We verified the methodology using offshore blowouts in the Gulf of Mexico, and then demonstrated its application to dam breaches in the United Sates. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  5. Educational Policymaking and the Methodology of Positive Economics: A Theoretical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2014-01-01

    By critically interrogating the methodological foundations of orthodox economic theory, Tal Gilead challenges the growing conviction in educational policymaking quarters that, being more scientific than other forms of educational investigation, inquiries grounded in orthodox economics should provide the basis for educational policymaking. He…

  6. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  7. Biodiversity impact assessment (BIA+) - methodological framework for screening biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Berger, Markus; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    For the past 20 years, the life cycle assessment (LCA) community has sought to integrate impacts on biodiversity into the LCA framework. However, existing impact assessment methods still fail to do so comprehensively because they quantify only a few impacts related to specific species and regions. This paper proposes a methodological framework that will allow LCA practitioners to assess currently missing impacts on biodiversity on a global scale. Building on existing models that seek to quantify the impacts of human activities on biodiversity, the herein proposed methodological framework consists of 2 components: a habitat factor for 14 major habitat types and the impact on the biodiversity status in those major habitat types. The habitat factor is calculated by means of indicators that characterize each habitat. The biodiversity status depends on parameters from impact categories. The impact functions, relating these different parameters to a given response in the biodiversity status, rely on expert judgments. To ensure the applicability for LCA practitioners, the components of the framework can be regionalized on a country scale for which LCA inventory data is more readily available. The weighting factors for the 14 major habitat types range from 0.63 to 1.82. By means of area weighting of the major habitat types in a country, country-specific weighting factors are calculated. In order to demonstrate the main part of the framework, examples of impact functions are given for the categories "freshwater eutrophication" and "freshwater ecotoxicity" in 1 major habitat type. The results confirm suitability of the methodological framework. The major advantages are the framework's user-friendliness, given that data can be used from LCA databases directly, and the complete inclusion of all levels of biodiversity (genetic, species, and ecosystem). It is applicable for the whole world and a wide range of impact categories. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:282-297.

  8. Interventions to Address Parenting and Parental Substance Abuse: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neger, Emily N.; Prinz, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is a serious problem affecting the well-being of children and families. The co-occurrence of parental substance abuse and problematic parenting is recognized as a major public health concern. This review focuses on 21 outcome studies that tested dual treatment of substance abuse and parenting. A summary of theoretical conceptualizations of the connections between substance abuse and parenting provides a backdrop for the review. Outcomes of the dual treatment studies were generally positive with respect to reduction of parental substance use and improvement of parenting. Research in this area varied in methodological rigor and needs to overcome challenges regarding design issues, sampling frame, and complexities inherent in such a high-risk population. This area of work can be strengthened by randomized controlled trials, use of mixed-methods outcome measures, consideration of parent involvement with child protective services, involvement of significant others in treatment, provision of concrete supports for treatment attendance and facilitative public policies. PMID:25939033

  9. Interventions to address parenting and parental substance abuse: conceptual and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neger, Emily N; Prinz, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Parental substance abuse is a serious problem affecting the well-being of children and families. The co-occurrence of parental substance abuse and problematic parenting is recognized as a major public health concern. This review focuses on 21 outcome studies that tested dual treatment of substance abuse and parenting. A summary of theoretical conceptualizations of the connections between substance abuse and parenting provides a backdrop for the review. Outcomes of the dual treatment studies were generally positive with respect to reduction of parental substance use and improvement of parenting. Research in this area varied in methodological rigor and needs to overcome challenges regarding design issues, sampling frame, and complexities inherent in such a high-risk population. This area of work can be strengthened by randomized controlled trials, use of mixed-methods outcome measures, consideration of parent involvement with child protective services, involvement of significant others in treatment, provision of concrete supports for treatment attendance and facilitative public policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  11. Beyond the conventional: meeting the challenges of landscape governance within the European Landscape Convention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alister

    2011-10-01

    Academics and policy makers seeking to deconstruct landscape face major challenges conceptually, methodologically and institutionally. The meaning(s), identity(ies) and management of landscape are controversial and contested. The European Landscape Convention provides an opportunity for action and change set within new governance agendas addressing interdisciplinarity and spatial planning. This paper critically reviews the complex web of conceptual and methodological frameworks that characterise landscape planning and management and then focuses on emerging landscape governance in Scotland within a mixed method approach involving policy analyses, semi-structured interviews and best practice case studies. Using Dower's (2008) criteria from the Articles of the European Landscape Convention, the results show that whilst some progress has been made in landscape policy and practice, largely through the actions of key individuals and champions, there are significant institutional hurdles and resource limitations to overcome. The need to mainstream positive landscape outcomes requires a significant culture change where a one-size-fits-all approach does not work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  13. Developing a Design Methodology for Web 2.0 Mediated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Georgsen, Marianne; Ryberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ed). We describe how this method has been adopted as part of a learning methodology building on concepts and models presented in the other symposium papers, in particular those of active, problem based learning and web 2.0-technologies. The challenge of designing on the basis of an explicit learning...

  14. Framework methodology for increased energy efficiency and renewable feedstock integration in industrial clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Harvey, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Framework methodology for energy efficiency of process plants and total sites. • Identification of suitable biorefinery based on host site future energy systems. • Case study results show large energy savings of site wide heat integration. • Case study on refrigeration systems: 15% shaft work savings potential. • Case study on biorefinery integration: utility savings potential of up to 37%. - Abstract: Energy intensive industries, such as the bulk chemical industry, are facing major challenges and adopting strategies to face these challenges. This paper investigates options for clusters of chemical process plants to decrease their energy and emission footprints. There is a wide range of technologies and process integration opportunities available for achieving these objectives, including (i) decreasing fossil fuel and electricity demand by increasing heat integration within individual processes and across the total cluster site; (ii) replacing fossil feedstocks with renewables and biorefinery integration with the existing cluster; (iii) increasing external utilization of excess process heat wherever possible. This paper presents an overview of the use of process integration methods for development of chemical clusters. Process simulation, pinch analysis, Total Site Analysis (TSA) and exergy concepts are combined in a holistic approach to identify opportunities to improve energy efficiency and integrate renewable feedstocks within such clusters. The methodology is illustrated by application to a chemical cluster in Stenungsund on the West Coast of Sweden consisting of five different companies operating six process plants. The paper emphasizes and quantifies the gains that can be made by adopting a total site approach for targeting energy efficiency measures within the cluster and when investigating integration opportunities for advanced biorefinery concepts compared to restricting the analysis to the individual constituent plants. The

  15. Audit Methodology for IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the new IT technologies was followed up by a rapid integration of them at the organization level. The management of the organizations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organization. These changes have had a great impact on the governance of the IT component. The paper proposes an audit methodology of the IT Governance at the organization level. From this point of view the developed audit strategy is a strategy based on risks to enable IT auditor to study from the best angle efficiency and effectiveness of the IT Governance structure. The evaluation of the risks associated with IT Governance is a key process in planning the audit mission which will allow the identification of the segments with increased risks. With now ambition for completeness, the proposed methodology provides the auditor a useful tool in the accomplishment of his mission.

  16. Scrum of scrums solution for large size teams using scrum methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Qurashi, Saja Al; Qureshi, M. Rizwan Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Scrum is a structured framework to support complex product development. However, Scrum methodology faces a challenge of managing large teams. To address this challenge, in this paper we propose a solution called Scrum of Scrums. In Scrum of Scrums, we divide the Scrum team into teams of the right size, and then organize them hierarchically into a Scrum of Scrums. The main goals of the proposed solution are to optimize communication between teams in Scrum of Scrums; to make the system work aft...

  17. An alternative methodology for teaching English in the first cycle of primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery I. Calvet Valdés

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of English language programs in the first cycle of primary education makes it necessary to implement a methodology that leads enclosed in itself the challenge imposed on us every day to create a man more prepared in communicating in foreign languages. The article proposes a methodology that has as its core concepts characterization of the school, values education, communication and culture in learning conditions that encourage interaction.

  18. The challenges of being an insider in storytelling research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Stacy; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    To describe the challenges related to being an 'insider' researcher in a study that uses a feminist-informed storytelling research design and to discuss practical strategies to manage these challenges. The positioning of the researcher in qualitative research has numerous methodological implications. Often, qualitative researchers share similar experiences or characteristics with their participants. Such an 'insider' position provides challenges for the researcher in conducting the research. Understanding these challenges and planning how to manage them is beneficial for the researcher and for the conduct of the project. This paper is based on the research team's experience of undertaking a feminist-informed storytelling study exploring the experiences of Australian women providing long-term foster care. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology used in the investigation. Four challenges resulting from the insider status of the primary researcher were identified as affecting the research: assumed understanding, ensuring analytic objectivity, dealing with emotions and participants' expectations. Strategies to address these challenges include: 'participant probing', 'researcher reflexivity', review by an 'outsider' researcher, identifying the risk, debriefing, making the aims and use of study outcomes clear, and acknowledging participants' expectations. Methods to implement these strategies are described. The use of an insider researcher was beneficial to our study design and helped with recruitment and rapport, enabling collaboration and the generation of stories rich in content. By identifying the challenges associated with insider research and using strategies to mitigate them, researchers can effectively use an insider position in conjunction with a storytelling research design. ImplicaTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Further investigation of the insider in different qualitative research designs would be useful in identifying challenges and benefits

  19. Educational Leadership: Key Challenges and Ethical Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Educational Leadership" is a major research book on contemporary leadership challenges for educational leaders. In this groundbreaking new work, educational leaders in schools, including teachers, are provided with ways of analysing and resolving common but complex leadership challenges. Ethical tensions inherent in these challenges are…

  20. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  1. Toward methodological emancipation in applied health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally

    2011-04-01

    In this article, I trace the historical groundings of what have become methodological conventions in the use of qualitative approaches to answer questions arising from the applied health disciplines and advocate an alternative logic more strategically grounded in the epistemological orientations of the professional health disciplines. I argue for an increasing emphasis on the modification of conventional qualitative approaches to the particular knowledge demands of the applied practice domain, challenging the merits of what may have become unwarranted attachment to theorizing. Reorienting our methodological toolkits toward the questions arising within an evidence-dominated policy agenda, I encourage my applied health disciplinary colleagues to make themselves useful to that larger project by illuminating that which quantitative research renders invisible, problematizing the assumptions on which it generates conclusions, and filling in the gaps in knowledge needed to make decisions on behalf of people and populations.

  2. Addressing current challenges in cancer immunotherapy with mathematical and computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstorum, Anna; Vella, Anthony T; Adler, Adam J; Laubenbacher, Reinhard C

    2017-06-01

    The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to boost a patient's immune response to a tumour. Yet, the design of an effective immunotherapy is complicated by various factors, including a potentially immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, immune-modulating effects of conventional treatments and therapy-related toxicities. These complexities can be incorporated into mathematical and computational models of cancer immunotherapy that can then be used to aid in rational therapy design. In this review, we survey modelling approaches under the umbrella of the major challenges facing immunotherapy development, which encompass tumour classification, optimal treatment scheduling and combination therapy design. Although overlapping, each challenge has presented unique opportunities for modellers to make contributions using analytical and numerical analysis of model outcomes, as well as optimization algorithms. We discuss several examples of models that have grown in complexity as more biological information has become available, showcasing how model development is a dynamic process interlinked with the rapid advances in tumour-immune biology. We conclude the review with recommendations for modellers both with respect to methodology and biological direction that might help keep modellers at the forefront of cancer immunotherapy development. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Probabilistic Rule Generator: A new methodology of variable-valued logic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.D.; Ray, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    A new methodology to synthesize variable-valued logic formulas from training data events is presented. Probablistic Rule Generator (PRG) employs not only information-theoretic entropy as a heuristic to capture a path expression but also multiple-valued logic to expand a captured complex. PRG is efficient for capturing major clusters in the event space, and is more general than previous methodologies in providing probabilistic features

  4. Methodological triangulation in work life research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    Based on examples from two research projects on preschool teachers' work, the paper will discuss potentials and challenges in methodological triangulation in work life research. Analysis of ethnographic and phenomenological inspired observations of everyday life in day care centers formed the basis...... for individual interviews and informal talks with employees. The interviews and conversations were based on a critical hermeneutic approach. The analysis of observations and interviews constituted a knowledge base as the project went in to the last phase: action research workshops. In the workshops findings from...

  5. Methodological Improvements in Combining TMS and Functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Moisa, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997, when Bohning and colleagues demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of interleaving transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with blood oxygenation level dependency functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI), this combination became a very promising techniques to study brain connectivity. However, the implementation of a reliable setup for interleaved TMS/fMRI is still technically challenging. In this thesis, I intended to further explore and develop methodological i...

  6. Analysing Everyday Online Political Talk in China: Theoretical and Methodological Reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Scott; Graham, Todd; Sun, Yu; Yang Wang, Wilfred; Luo, Xiantian; Carson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical and methodological challenges of collecting and analysing everyday online political talk in China, and our approach to defining and coding such talk. In so doing, the article is designed to encourage further research in this area, taking forward a new agenda for

  7. How is it going? Peformance assessment in major projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylor, Harvey; Johnson, Mark; Turner, Neil

    2017-01-01

    an enhanced service performance model. This was then tested using a survey and a structural equation model derived. Development of this yielded new classifications but most importantly, provided a more meaningful method for measuring the performance of operational transformation projects. Specifically......Determining the performance of a major project is a challenge for both practitioners and scholars. In the context of operational change projects the challenge is exacerbated by the service-intensive nature of the transformation, temporal disconnects between contracting and delivery and lack...... management in major projects from an OM perspective....

  8. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF CLINICAL TRIALS IN THE PEDIATRIC POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Topolyanskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting clinical trials on children population is a challenge both for organizers and pediatricians involved in trials. Difficulties in recruiting patients, a significant heterogenecity of the population, specific side reactions, difficulties in identifying the objective final points warrant the specific nature of designing clinical trials in pediatrics. The article illustrates key issues and methodology aspects: planning, design, control groups, patient recruitment. It stresses the need to carefully consider specific characteristics of a child’s system and multi-disciplinary approach involving a pediatrician at the early stages of planning, preliminary consultations with parent organizations, children and regulators.Key words: clinical trials, methodology, planning, design, patient recruitment, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:6-10

  9. Practice as research in drama and theatre: Introducing narrative supervision methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Aaltonen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For four decades, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU Trondheim, has pioneered the field of drama and theatre in higher education in Norway. This article addresses educational, academic and artistic challenges that emerge when practice as research in the arts enters the academic field of humanities. In particular, the article examines narrative supervision methodology at the master’s level. The first part of the paper identifies the foundations of the contextual and methodological challenges. The main body of the article explores three discussion topics, each illustrated by case examples of practical-theoretical master’s projects. The first example investigates experiential and theoretical borderland tensions; the second addresses onto-epistemic questions; and the third explores the communication of complex narrative construction. Storytelling metaphors are used to advance our emphasis on narrative inquiry as practitioner-researchers and supervisors. The dilemmas outlined are relevant to the Nordic and international community currently navigating this relatively new research area.

  10. Plagiarism challenges at Ukrainian science and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Svyrydenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the types and severity of plagiarism violations at the modern educational and scientific spheres using the philosophic methodological approaches. The author analyzes Ukrainian context as well as global one and tries to formulate "order of the day" of plagiarism challenges. The plagiarism phenomenon is intuitively comprehensible for academicians but in reality it has a very complex nature and a lot of manifestation. Using approaches of ethics, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of science and education author formulates the series of recommendation for overcoming of plagiarism challenges at Ukrainian science and education.

  11. Contextual factors, methodological principles and teacher cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers in various contexts worldwide are sometimes unfairly criticized for not putting teaching methods developed for the well-resourced classrooms of Western countries into practice. Factors such as the teachers’ “misconceptualizations” of “imported” methods, including Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, are often blamed, though the challenges imposed by “contextual demands,” such as large class sizes, are sometimes recognised. Meanwhile, there is sometimes an assumption that in the West there is a happy congruence between policy supportive of CLT or Task-Based Language Teaching, teacher education and supervision, and curriculum design with teachers’ cognitions and their practices. Our case study of three EFL teachers at a UK adult education college is motivated by a wish to question this assumption. Findings from observational and interview data suggest the practices of two teachers were largely consistent with their methodological principles, relating to stronger and weaker forms of CLT respectively, as well as to more general educational principles, such as a concern for learners; the supportive environment seemed to help. The third teacher appeared to put “difficult” contextual factors, for example, tests, ahead of methodological principles without, however, obviously benefiting. Implications highlight the important role of teacher cognition research in challenging cultural assumptions.

  12. Characteristic interviews, different strategies: Methodological challenges in qualitative interviewing among respondents with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2014-06-01

    Conducting qualitative research interviews among individuals with intellectual disabilities, including cognitive limitations and difficulties in communication, presents particular research challenges. One question is whether the difficulties that informants encounter affect interviews to such an extent that the validity of the results is weakened. This article focuses on voluntary informed consent and the specific challenges with the greatest effects on such interviews. The discussion shows that complementary and meaningful descriptions from informants imply the need to employ alternative strategies and methods that may, in other contexts, challenge the traditional understanding of what is acceptable in research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Temperature biofeedback and sleep: limited findings and methodological challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Koninck J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Geneviève Forest,1,2 Cameron van den Heuvel,3 Kurt Lushington,4 Joseph De Koninck21Sleep Laboratory, Département de Psychoéducation et de Psychologie, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Québec, Canada; 2Sleep and Dreams Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Research Branch University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 4School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Given the close link between body temperature and sleep, the perspective of manipulating core and peripheral temperature by self-regulation techniques is very appealing. We report here on a series of attempts conducted independently in two laboratories to use self-regulation (biofeedback of oral (central and hand (peripheral temperature, and measured the impact on sleep-onset latency, sleep architecture, and circadian phase. We found that hand temperature was more successful than oral temperature biofeedback. Moreover, an increase in hand temperature was associated with reduced sleep-onset latency. However, most participants found the procedure difficult to implement. The temperature response to biofeedback was reduced in the aged and weakest at the time of sleep onset, and there was not a systematic relationship between the change in temperature and change in sleep latency. Methodological limitations and individual differences may account for these results. Recommendations for future research are presented.Keywords: biofeedback, core body temperature, sleep, circadian rhythm, sleep onset

  14. Operation for LHC Cryomagnet Tests Concerns, Challenges & Successful Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V

    2007-01-01

    The LHC construction phase is coming to a close, with installation work progressing rapidly and beam start-up foreseen by end 2007. For the testing of the 1706 LHC cryomagnets in cryogenic conditions and its successful completion by early 2007, considerable challenges had to be overcome since 2002 to assure certain semi-routine tests operation at CERN. In particular, the majority of staff for tests and measurement purposes was provided by India on a rotating, one-year-stay basis, as part of the CERN-India Collaboration for LHC. This was complemented by some CERN accelerator Operation staff. While only 95 dipoles were tested till 2003, the efforts and innovative ideas coming from the Operation team contributed significantly to the completion of tests of nearly all 1706 magnets by end-2006. These included the improvements and management of the tests work flow as well as the test rates. Amongst these, certain pivotal ideas to stream-line the tests methodology as proposed and implemented successfully by the India...

  15. Development of Geometry Optimization Methodology with In-house CFD code, and Challenge in Applying to Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. H.; Lee, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    The wire spacer has important roles to avoid collisions between adjacent rods, to mitigate a vortex induced vibration, and to enhance convective heat transfer by wire spacer induced secondary flow. Many experimental and numerical works has been conducted to understand the thermal-hydraulics of the wire-wrapped fuel bundles. There has been enormous growth in computing capability. Recently, a huge increase of computer power allows to three-dimensional simulation of thermal-hydraulics of wire-wrapped fuel bundles. In this study, the geometry optimization methodology with RANS based in-house CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code has been successfully developed in air condition. In order to apply the developed methodology to fuel assembly, GGI (General Grid Interface) function is developed for in-house CFD code. Furthermore, three-dimensional flow fields calculated with in-house CFD code are compared with those calculated with general purpose commercial CFD solver, CFX. The geometry optimization methodology with RANS based in-house CFD code has been successfully developed in air condition. In order to apply the developed methodology to fuel assembly, GGI function is developed for in-house CFD code as same as CFX. Even though both analyses are conducted with same computational meshes, numerical error due to GGI function locally occurred in only CFX solver around rod surface and boundary region between inner fluid region and outer fluid region.

  16. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  17. Life history theory and breast cancer risk: methodological and theoretical challenges: Response to "Is estrogen receptor negative breast cancer risk associated with a fast life history strategy?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    In a meta-analysis published by myself and co-authors, we report differences in the life history risk factors for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Our meta-analysis did not find the association of ER- breast cancer risk with fast life history characteristics that Hidaka and Boddy suggest in their response to our article. There are a number of possible explanations for the differences between their conclusions and the conclusions we drew from our meta-analysis, including limitations of our meta-analysis and methodological challenges in measuring and categorizing estrogen receptor status. These challenges, along with the association of ER+ breast cancer with slow life history characteristics, may make it challenging to find a clear signal of ER- breast cancer with fast life history characteristics, even if that relationship does exist. The contradictory results regarding breast cancer risk and life history characteristics illustrate a more general challenge in evolutionary medicine: often different sub-theories in evolutionary biology make contradictory predictions about disease risk. In this case, life history models predict that breast cancer risk should increase with faster life history characteristics, while the evolutionary mismatch hypothesis predicts that breast cancer risk should increase with delayed reproduction. Whether life history tradeoffs contribute to ER- breast cancer is still an open question, but current models and several lines of evidence suggest that it is a possibility. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  18. Cognitive models of executive functions development: methodological limitations and theoretical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Stelzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF have been defined as a series of higher-order cognitive processes which allow the control of thought, behavior and affection according to the achievement of a goal. Such processes present a lengthy postnatal development which matures completely by the end of adolescence. In this article we make a review of some of the main models of EF development during childhood. The aim of this work is to describe the state of the art related to the topic, identifying the main theoretical difficulties and methodological limitations associated with the different proposed paradigms. Finally, some suggestions are given to cope with such difficulties, emphasizing that the development of an ontology of EF could be a viable alternative to counter them. We believe that futture researches should guide their efforts toward the development of that ontology.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT IN URBAN PLANNING. A CHALLENGE FOR A METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: MONTREAL AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores Lucero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the methodological process for the qualitative evaluation of the concept of sustainability and its application in the island of Montreal. At the same time we present our theoretical approach and the main results issued of the assessment. We take as analytical tools the Montreal Urban Plan of 2004 and the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development 2005. We conclude with two main points, first, that the theoretical and pragmatic aspects of urban sustainability in Montreal have been treated in an organic, complex, dynamic and flexible way, allowing social participation and the inclusion of the values of all stakeholders, which are both key elements to follow the path towards sustainability; and secondly, that the approach to an object with such features requires the construction of complex, organic and methodological processes.

  20. The boomer challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals and the rest of health care will have to make some major adjustments to meet the needs of the aging baby boom generation. The first article in our year-long series inventories the many challenges that lie ahead.

  1. Monitoring challenges and innovative ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.V.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Levine, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring programs are difficult to design even when they focus on specific problems. Ecosystems are complex, and it is often impossible to predetermine what aspects of system structure or dynamics will respond to a specific insult. It is equally difficult to interpret whether a response is a stabilizing compensatory mechanism or a real loss of capacity to maintain the ecosystem. The problems are compounded in a broad monitoring program designed to assess ecosystem health'' at regional and continental scales. It is challenging in the extreme to monitor ecosystem response, at any scale, to past insults as well as an unknown future array of impacts. The present paper will examine some of the fundamental issues and challenges raised by large-scale monitoring efforts. The challenges will serve as a framework and as an excuse to discuss several important topics in more detail. Following the discussion of challenges, we suggest some basic innovations that could be important across a range of monitoring programs. The innovations include integrative measures, innovative methodology, and creative interpretation. 59 refs., 1 tab.

  2. CHALLENGE TESTS WITH LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN SALAMI: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mioni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenge tests are the preferable methodology to study the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes on ready to eat foods, according to Regulation (EC 2073/2005. Challenge testing using L. monocytogenes in seasoned salami from different food business operators showed, after seasoning of the product, a count reduction of the inoculated organisms without any further growth of the pathogen; however differences of L. monocytogenes behaviour could be observed according to different production protocols.

  3. Psychometric challenges and proposed solutions when scoring facial emotion expression codes

    OpenAIRE

    Olderbak, Sally; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Pinkpank, Thomas; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Coding of facial emotion expressions is increasingly performed by automated emotion expression scoring software; however, there is limited discussion on how best to score the resulting codes. We present a discussion of facial emotion expression theories and a review of contemporary emotion expression coding methodology. We highlight methodological challenges pertinent to scoring software-coded facial emotion expression codes and present important psychometric research questions centered on co...

  4. Discovering the Effects-Endstate Linkage: Using Soft Systems Methodology to Perform EBO Mission Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Jr, William E

    2005-01-01

    .... EBO mission analysis is shown to be more problem structuring than problem solving. A new mission analysis process is proposed using a modified version of Soft Systems Methodology to meet these challenges...

  5. Process evaluation of community monitoring under national health mission at Chandigarh, union territory: Methodology and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009-2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes. Methodology: Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions. Health system had trained health system functionaries (nursing students and Village Health Sanitation Committee [VHSC] members to generate village-based scorecards for assessing community needs. Community needs were assessed independently for two villages under the study area to validate the scores generated by the health system. Results: VHSCs were formed in all 22 villages but without a chairperson or convener. The involvement of VHSC members in the community monitoring process was minimal. The conduct of group discussions was below par due to poor moderation and unequal responses from the group. The community monitoring committees at the state level had limited representation from the non-health sector, lower committees, and the nongovernmental organizations/civil societies. Agreement between the report cards generated by the investigator and the health system in the selected villages was found to be to be fair (0.369 whereas weighted kappa (0.504 was moderate. Conclusion: In spite of all these limitations and challenges, the government has taken a valiant step by trying to involve the community in the monitoring of health services. The dynamic nature of the community warrants incorporation of an evaluation framework into the planning of such programs.

  6. Gotta survey somebody : Methodological challenges in population studies of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Kelfve, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Conducting representative surveys of older people is challenging. This thesis aims to analyze a) the characteristics of individuals at risk of being underrepresented in surveys of older people, b) the systematic errors likely to occur as a result of these selections, and c) whether these systematic errors can be minimized by weighting adjustments.   In Study I, we investigated a) who would be missing from a survey that excluded those living in institutions and that did not use indirect interv...

  7. Methodology for Validation of Housing Standards - the Kitchen as an Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Iwarsson, Susanne; Brandt, Åse

    We will present a novel methodology to validate housing standards. Person-environment fit among older persons with different levels of mobility device dependence was investigated during performance of everyday activities in realistic environments. Observational and self-report data were compared...... difficulties in rating accessibility problems. The actual use of mobility devices form part of the activity performance. Some standards are not defined properly to enable activity performance in realistic environments. After attending this activity, participants will be: • Aware of some of the methodological...... challenges concerning sampling and the measurement of accessibility problems among older people with different levels of dependence in mobility device use • Aware of the implications of using observation versus self-report data in research on person-environment fit • Consider the methodological implications...

  8. Value-Creating Networks: Organizational Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allee, Verna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of evaluating value-creating networks and to address the organizational issues and challenges of a network orientation. Design/methodology/approach: Value network analysis was first developed in 1993 and was adapted in 1997 for intangible asset management. It has been applied from shopfloor…

  9. Intelligent systems engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Scott

    1990-01-01

    An added challenge for the designers of large scale systems such as Space Station Freedom is the appropriate incorporation of intelligent system technology (artificial intelligence, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, etc.) into their requirements and design. This presentation will describe a view of systems engineering which successfully addresses several aspects of this complex problem: design of large scale systems, design with requirements that are so complex they only completely unfold during the development of a baseline system and even then continue to evolve throughout the system's life cycle, design that involves the incorporation of new technologies, and design and development that takes place with many players in a distributed manner yet can be easily integrated to meet a single view of the requirements. The first generation of this methodology was developed and evolved jointly by ISX and the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the past five years on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/Air Force Pilot's Associate Program, one of the largest, most complex, and most successful intelligent systems constructed to date. As the methodology has evolved it has also been applied successfully to a number of other projects. Some of the lessons learned from this experience may be applicable to Freedom.

  10. A hierarchical modeling methodology for the definition and selection of requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Stephane

    This dissertation describes the development of a requirements analysis methodology that takes into account the concept of operations and the hierarchical decomposition of aerospace systems. At the core of the methodology, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) is used to ensure the traceability between the qualitative and quantitative information present in the hierarchical model. The proposed methodology is implemented to the requirements definition of a hurricane tracker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Three research objectives are identified in this work; (1) improve the requirements mapping process by matching the stakeholder expectations with the concept of operations, systems and available resources; (2) reduce the epistemic uncertainty surrounding the requirements and requirements mapping; and (3) improve the requirements down-selection process by taking into account the level of importance of the criteria and the available resources. Several challenges are associated with the identification and definition of requirements. The complexity of the system implies that a large number of requirements are needed to define the systems. These requirements are defined early in the conceptual design, where the level of knowledge is relatively low and the level of uncertainty is large. The proposed methodology intends to increase the level of knowledge and reduce the level of uncertainty by guiding the design team through a structured process. To address these challenges, a new methodology is created to flow-down the requirements from the stakeholder expectations to the systems alternatives. A taxonomy of requirements is created to classify the information gathered during the problem definition. Subsequently, the operational and systems functions and measures of effectiveness are integrated to a hierarchical model to allow the traceability of the information. Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the variations of the hierarchical model elements and consequently reduce the

  11. Personality, academic majors and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...

  12. Eco-analytical Methodology in Environmental Problems Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agienko, M. I.; Bondareva, E. P.; Chistyakova, G. V.; Zhironkina, O. V.; Kalinina, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    Among the problems common to all mankind, which solutions influence the prospects of civilization, the problem of ecological situation monitoring takes very important place. Solution of this problem requires specific methodology based on eco-analytical comprehension of global issues. Eco-analytical methodology should help searching for the optimum balance between environmental problems and accelerating scientific and technical progress. The fact that Governments, corporations, scientists and nations focus on the production and consumption of material goods cause great damage to environment. As a result, the activity of environmentalists is developing quite spontaneously, as a complement to productive activities. Therefore, the challenge posed by the environmental problems for the science is the formation of geo-analytical reasoning and the monitoring of global problems common for the whole humanity. So it is expected to find the optimal trajectory of industrial development to prevent irreversible problems in the biosphere that could stop progress of civilization.

  13. Analysis of Challenges for Management Education in India Using Total Interpretive Structural Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ritika; Agrawal, Rajat; Sharma, Vinay; Nangia, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify challenges for management education in India and explain their nature, significance and interrelations using total interpretive structural modelling (TISM), an innovative version of Warfield's interpretive structural modelling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach: The challenges have been drawn from…

  14. Investigating the Molecular Basis of Major Depressive Disorder Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Korf, Jaalp; Ormel, Johan; Kema, Ido P.; den Boer, Johan A.; Kvetnansky, R; Aguilera, G; Goldstein, D; Jezova, D; Krizanova, O; Sabban, EL; Pacak, K

    2008-01-01

    Genes play a major role in behavioral adaptation to challenging environmental stimuli, but the complexity of their contribution remains unclear. There is growing evidence linking disease phenotypes with genes on the one hand, and the genesis of stress-related disorders like major depression, as a

  15. Challenges and Priorities for Pediatric Critical Care Clinician-Researchers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie O. von Saint André-von Arnim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThere is need for more data on critical care outcomes and interventions from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Global research collaborations could help improve health-care delivery for critically ill children in LMIC where child mortality rates remain high.Materials and methodsTo inform the role of collaborative research in health-care delivery for critically ill children in LMIC, an anonymous online survey of pediatric critical care (PCC physicians from LMIC was conducted to assess priorities, major challenges, and potential solutions to PCC research. A convenience sample of 56 clinician-researchers taking care of critically ill children in LMIC was targeted. In addition, the survey was made available on a Latin American PCC website. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis.ResultsThe majority of the 47 survey respondents worked at urban, public teaching hospitals in LMIC. Respondents stated their primary PCC research motivations were to improve clinical care and establish guidelines to standardize care. Top challenges to conducting research were lack of funding, high clinical workload, and limited research support staff. Respondent-proposed solutions to these challenges included increasing research funding options for LMIC, better access to mentors from high-income countries, research training and networks, and higher quality medical record documentation.ConclusionLMIC clinician-researchers must be better empowered and resourced to lead and influence the local and global health research agenda for critically ill children. Increased funding options, access to training and mentorship in research methodology, and improved data collection systems for LMIC PCC researchers were recognized as key needs for success.

  16. ARAMIS project: A comprehensive methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvosalle, Christian; Fievez, Cecile; Pipart, Aurore; Debray, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries (ARAMIS) project, this paper aims at presenting the work carried out in the part of the project devoted to the definition of accident scenarios. This topic is a key-point in risk assessment and serves as basis for the whole risk quantification. The first result of the work is the building of a methodology for the identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), which is carried out with the development of generic fault and event trees based on a typology of equipment and substances. The term 'major accidents' must be understood as the worst accidents likely to occur on the equipment, assuming that no safety systems are installed. A second methodology, called methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios (MIRAS) takes into account the influence of safety systems on both the frequencies and possible consequences of accidents. This methodology leads to identify more realistic accident scenarios. The reference accident scenarios are chosen with the help of a tool called 'risk matrix', crossing the frequency and the consequences of accidents. This paper presents both methodologies and an application on an ethylene oxide storage

  17. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  18. Water Footprint Symposium : where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, Martin R.; Liu, Junguo; Guan, Dabo; Wu, Pute; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, Stephan; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  19. The international gas markets. Of major changes and challenges for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Already in the 2010 edition of its World Energy Outlook the World Energy Agency noted an unprecedented degree of uncertainty surrounding the international energy markets. The rate of change in these markets is indeed stupendous, posing formidable tasks to business companies as well as the political leadership. The European gas markets face new challenges in protecting their security of supply which stem from the combined effects of the shift of LNG trade flows into the Pacific region, decreasing rates of home production and the ongoing transformation process within the EU.

  20. Singing for respiratory health: theory, evidence and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Mary L; Nicol, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    The premise that singing is a health promoting activity for people with respiratory conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma is a growing area of interest being investigated by researchers from various disciplines. The preliminary evidence, a theoretical framework and identification of methodological challenges are discussed in this perspective article with an eye to recommendations for further research to advance knowledge. After a brief summary of main research findings on singing in healthy people to provide background context, research is reviewed on singing in people with COPD and asthma. Studies include published research and as yet unpublished work by the authors. Methodological challenges arising from the reviewed studies are identified such as attrition from singing or control groups based on weak and strong, respectively, beliefs about singing's effectiveness. Potential solutions for these problems are considered with further recommendations made for other singing research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Challenges in data science: a complex systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, Meiko; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    The ability to process and manage large data volumes has been proven to be not enough to tackle the current challenges presented by “Big Data”. Deep insight is required for understanding interactions among connected systems, space- and time- dependent heterogeneous data structures. Emergence of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: “What can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ”. Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking “What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?” These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics.

  2. Open Government Data Publication Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Public sector bodies hold a significant amount of data that might be of potential interest to citizens and businesses. However the re-use potential of this data is still largely untapped because the data is not always published in a way that would allow its easy discovery, understanding and re-use. Open Government Data (OGD initiatives aim at increasing availability of machine-readable data provided under an open license and therefore these initiatives might facilitate re-use of the government data which in turn might lead to increased transparency and economic growth. However the recent studies show that still only a portion of data provided by the public sector bodies is truly open. Public sector bodies face a number of challenges when publishing OGD and they need to address the relevant risks. Therefore there is a need for best practices and methodologies for publication of OGD that would provide the responsible persons with a clear guidance on how the OGD initiatives should be implemented and how the known challenges and risks should be addressed.

  3. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  4. Challenges of Postmodern Thought in Christian Higher Education Institutions: Implications for Ethical Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroux, Dean A.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the question: What is the process that Christian higher education administrators and faculty members used when understanding the challenges of postmodern thought at the institutions, and what are the challenges for ethical leadership? Utilizing a grounded theory methodology, the researcher sought to develop a theory that…

  5. Challenges to the Indicators on Science, Technology and Innovation Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2006-01-01

    The paper attempts to define the challenges to the indicators on science, technology and innovation development which result from the contemporary dynamics of the global knowledge based economy progress and the pursued challenges of identification of the specific national priority dimensions for public funding research and innovation projects on the case of Bulgaria. It is argued that recent the most widespread methodologies of positioning science, technology and innovation indicators do not ...

  6. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Robust Imaging Methodology for Challenging Environments: Wave Equation Dispersion Inversion of Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zeng, Zhaofa

    2017-01-01

    A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method

  8. Challenged assumptions and invisible effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Vitus, Kathrine; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    for the implementation—different from the assumed conditions—not only challenge the implementation of the intervention but also potentially produce unanticipated yet valuable effects. Research implications – Newly arrived immigrants represent a hugely diverse and heterogeneous group of people with differing values......Purpose – The objective of this study was to examine any unanticipated effects of an educational intervention among newly arrived adult immigrants attending a language school in Denmark. Methodology – A qualitative case study was conducted including interviews with nine informants, observations....... In particular, the assumed (power) relations inherent in immigrant-oriented educational health interventions, in which immigrants are in a novice position, are challenged, as the immigrants are experienced adults (and parents) in regard to healthcare. The paper proposes that such unexpected conditions...

  9. The medical leadership challenge in healthcare is an identity challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse the identity challenges that physicians with medical leadership positions face. Four qualitative case studies were performed to address the fact that identity is processual, relational and situational. Physicians with managerial roles were interviewed, as well as their peers, supervisors and subordinates. Furthermore, observations were made to understand how different identities are displayed in action. This study illustrates that medical leadership implies identity struggles when physicians have manager positions, because of the different characteristics of the social identities of managers and physicians. Major differences are related between physicians as autonomous individuals in a system and managers as subordinates to the organizational system. There are psychological mechanisms that evoke the physician identity more often than the managerial identity among physicians who are managers, which explains why physicians who are managers tend to remain foremost physicians. The implications of the findings, that there are major identity challenges by being both a physician and manager, suggest that managerial physicians might not be the best prerequisite for medical leadership, but instead, cooperative relationships between physicians and non-physician managers might be a less difficult way to support medical leadership. Acknowledging and addressing identity challenges can be important both in creating structures in organizations and designing the training for managers in healthcare (both physicians and non-physicians) to support medical leadership. Medical leadership is most often related to organizational structure and/or leadership skills, but this paper discusses identity requirements and challenges related to medical leadership.

  10. Challenges and status of multi-unit PSA development in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalaoui, Smain

    2015-01-01

    Firstly, this paper discusses the issues and challenges related to the development of a Multi-Unit PSA (MU-PSA) and the general recommendations and conclusions from the MU-PSA Workshop organized by the CNSC in Ottawa, November 2014. This includes a discussion regarding the issue related to the methodological challenges in performing MU-PSA, the site-based risk metrics to be adopted, and the issue of risk aggregation across all hazards and all units. The paper also addresses the challenges for establishing site-based safety goals as the current safety goals were established on a per-unit basis. CNSC Staff efforts, both at the national and international level, on developing whole-site safety goals and guidance on MU-PSA and risk aggregation methodologies will also be discussed. Finally, the paper will provide a summary of the industry effort and road map for completing the pilot Whole-site PSA project for the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, as requested by the Commission following to the public hearing for licence renewal in February 20 and May 29-31, 2013. (author)

  11. Large sample NAA facility and methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, C.; Gugiu, D.; Barbos, D.; Datcu, A.; Aioanei, L.; Dobrea, D.; Taroiu, I. E.; Bucsa, A.; Ghinescu, A.

    2013-01-01

    A Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) facility has been developed at the TRIGA- Annular Core Pulsed Reactor (ACPR) operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research in Pitesti, Romania. The central irradiation cavity of the ACPR core can accommodate a large irradiation device. The ACPR neutron flux characteristics are well known and spectrum adjustment techniques have been successfully applied to enhance the thermal component of the neutron flux in the central irradiation cavity. An analysis methodology was developed by using the MCNP code in order to estimate counting efficiency and correction factors for the major perturbing phenomena. Test experiments, comparison with classical instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods and international inter-comparison exercise have been performed to validate the new methodology. (authors)

  12. Organizational Culture and Scale Development: Methodological Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavik Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining and measuring organizational culture (OC is of paramount importance to organizations because a strong culture could potentially increase service quality and yield sustainable competitive advantages. However, such process could be challenging to managers because the scope of OC has been defined differently across disciplines and industries, which has led to the development of various scales for measuring OC. In addition, previously developed OC scales may also not be fully applicable in the hospitality and tourism context. Therefore, by highlighting the key factors affecting the business environment and the unique characteristics of hospitality industry, this paper aims to align the scope of OC closely with the industry and to put forth the need for a new OC scale that accurately responds to the context of the hospitality industry.

  13. Culturally Competent Social Work Research: Methodological Considerations for Research with Language Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Negi, Nalini Junko; Hong, Michin

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of language minorities, foreign-born individuals with limited English proficiency, this population has been largely left out of social work research, often due to methodological challenges involved in conducting research with this population. Whereas the professional standard calls for cultural competence, a discussion…

  14. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  15. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: methodological developments and current tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Chris; Freeman, John; Samdal, Oddrun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodological development of the HBSC survey since its inception and explore methodological tensions that need to be addressed in the ongoing work on this and other large-scale cross-national surveys. METHODS: Using archival data and conversations with members...... of the network, we collaboratively analysed our joint understandings of the survey's methodology. RESULTS: We identified four tensions that are likely to be present in upcoming survey cycles: (1) maintaining quality standards against a background of rapid growth, (2) continuous improvement with limited financial...... in working through such challenges renders it likely that HBSC can provide a model of other similar studies facing these tensions....

  16. European methodology for qualification of NDT as developed by ENIQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champigny, F.; Sandberg, U.; Engl, G.; Crutzen, S.; Lemaitre, P.

    1997-01-01

    The European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) groups the major part of the nuclear power plant operators in the European Union (and Switzerland). The main objective of ENIQ is to co-ordinate and manage at European level expertise and resources for the qualification of NDE inspection systems, primarily for nuclear components. In the framework of ENIQ the European methodology for qualification of NDT has been developed. In this paper the main principles of the European methodology are given besides the main activities and organisation of ENIQ. (orig.)

  17. Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

  18. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  19. THE ASSESSMENT OF CYBERBULLYING: THE PRESENT SITUATION AND FUTURE CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lucas-Molina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been a significant increase in the interest of the educational and scientific community on cyberbullying, a new form of peer abuse and intimidation. Despite the widespread proliferation of studies and assessment tools on the phenomenon, there are still major conceptual and methodological gaps. This paper offers a comprehensive and updated review of the results of research on the definition of the construct, its prevalence and its impact on the people involved. Finally, it focuses specifically on the assessment of the construct and provides a brief review of the general and psychometric characteristics of the instruments used in some of the most relevant national and international studies conducted on the subject. This work places special emphasis on the present and future challenges and concludes with a number of general recommendations intended to guide the correct selection and/or construction of assessment instruments in this field of study.

  20. Methodological challenges and analytic opportunities for modeling and interpreting Big Healthcare Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D

    2016-01-01

    Managing, processing and understanding big healthcare data is challenging, costly and demanding. Without a robust fundamental theory for representation, analysis and inference, a roadmap for uniform handling and analyzing of such complex data remains elusive. In this article, we outline various big data challenges, opportunities, modeling methods and software techniques for blending complex healthcare data, advanced analytic tools, and distributed scientific computing. Using imaging, genetic and healthcare data we provide examples of processing heterogeneous datasets using distributed cloud services, automated and semi-automated classification techniques, and open-science protocols. Despite substantial advances, new innovative technologies need to be developed that enhance, scale and optimize the management and processing of large, complex and heterogeneous data. Stakeholder investments in data acquisition, research and development, computational infrastructure and education will be critical to realize the huge potential of big data, to reap the expected information benefits and to build lasting knowledge assets. Multi-faceted proprietary, open-source, and community developments will be essential to enable broad, reliable, sustainable and efficient data-driven discovery and analytics. Big data will affect every sector of the economy and their hallmark will be 'team science'.

  1. Methodological challenges to multivariate syndromic surveillance: a case study using Swiss animal health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Flavie; Wei, Wei; Held, Leonhard

    2016-12-20

    potential to address more realistic surveillance scenarios through, for example, the inclusion of times series specific parameters, or of covariates known to have an impact on syndrome counts. Nevertheless, many methodological challenges to multivariate surveillance of animal SyS data still remain. Deciding on the amount of corroboration among data streams that is required to escalate into an alert is not a trivial task given the sparse data on the events under consideration (e.g. disease outbreaks).

  2. Transistor challenges - A DRAM perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, Juergen W.; Henke, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Key challenges of the transistor scaling from a DRAM perspective will be reviewed. Both, array transistors as well as DRAM support devices face challenges that differ essentially from high performance logic device scaling. As a major difference, retention time and standby current requirements characterize special boundary conditions in the DRAM device design. Array device scaling is determined by a chip size driven aggressive node scaling. To continue scaling, major innovations need to be introduced into state-of-the-art planar array transistors. Alternatively, non planar device concepts will have to be evaluated. Support device design for DRAMs is driven by today's market demand for increased chip performances at little to no extra cost. Major innovations are required to continue that path. Besides this strive for performance increase, special limitations for 'on pitch' circuits at the array edge will come up due to the aggressive cell size scaling

  3. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  4. Methodological challenges in indirect treatment comparisons: spotlight on a recent comparison of long-acting injectable aripiprazole versus paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Gopal, Srihari; Kim, Edward; Mathews, Maju; Kern-Sliwa, Jennifer; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Wooller, Annette; Berlin, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study, an indirect treatment comparison was performed to examine the relative efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly and paliperidone palmitate once monthly. The authors concluded that the results may suggest relative advantages for aripiprazole once monthly over paliperidone palmitate once monthly in the short-term treatment of schizophrenia. However, the validity of the study is compromised as an indirect treatment comparison using extant data may violate important assumptions. Other methodological issues identified further highlight the challenges of performing indirect treatment comparisons.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  5. Evaluating electronic performance support systems: A methodology focused on future use-in-practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Verwijs, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems, as an emerging type of software environment, present many new challenges in relation to effective evaluation. In this paper, a global approach to a 'usage-orientated' evaluation methodology for software product is presented, followed by a specific example of

  6. Engaging Australian Aboriginal narratives to challenge attitudes and create empathy in health care: a methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Toni; Sim, Moira; Bessarab, Dawn; Mak, Donna; Hayward, Colleen; Rudd, Cobie

    2016-06-02

    Unconscious bias and negative attitudes towards minority groups have detrimental effects on the way health care is, or is not, provided to these groups. Recognition of racist attitudes and behaviours as well as understanding clients' experiences of health and health care are pivotal to developing better health care strategies to positively impact on the quality and safety of care provided to Indigenous people. Indigenous research demands inclusive research processes and the use of culturally appropriate methodologies. This paper presents a methodological account of collecting narratives which accurately and respectfully reflect Aboriginal Australians' experiences with health care in Western Australia. The purpose of these narratives is to provide health students and professionals with an opportunity to 'walk-in the shoes' of Aboriginal people where face-to-face interaction is not feasible. With the incorporation of Indigenous peoples' voices being an important link in cultural safety, the project was led by an Indigenous Reference group, who encouraged active participation of Aboriginal people in all areas of the project. Using a phenomenological approach and guided by the Indigenous Reference group, yarning data collection was implemented to collect stories focusing on Aboriginal people's experiences with health care services. An open-access, on-line website was established to host education resources developed from these "yarns". Yarning provided a rich source of information on personal experiences and encouraged the story provider to recognise their facilitative role in the research process. While the methodology used in this project was lengthy and labour-intensive it afforded a respectful manner for story collection and highlighted several innate flaws when Western methods are applied to an Indigenous context. Engagement of an Indigenous Reference Group was pivotal to designing an appropriate methodology that incorporated the voices of Aboriginal people in a

  7. The Marihuana Dilemma: Challenge to Commanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The marihuana dilemma poses a major challenge to commanders in the US Army today. The problem was analyzed as to the characteristics of the drug...available to commanders to meet the challenge. The essay concludes that marihuana should not be legalized; drug users or former drug users should not be

  8. Challenges and Ideas from a Research Program on High Quality, Evidence-Based Practice in School Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Stephan, Sharon; Lever, Nancy; Fowler, Johnathan; Taylor, Leslie; McDaniel, Heather; Chappelle, Lori; Paggeot, Samantha; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Objective Reviews the progression of a research program designed to develop, implement and study the implementation of “achievable” evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools. Reviews challenges encountered and ideas to overcome them to enhance this avenue of research. Method Presents two federally funded randomized controlled trials involving comparison of a four-component targeted intervention (Quality Assessment and Improvement, Family Engagement and Empowerment, Modular Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation Support) versus a comparison intervention focused on Personal Wellness. In both studies primary aims focused on changes in clinician attitudes and behavior, including the delivery of high quality, evidence-based practices and secondary aims focused on student level impacts. Results A number of challenges, many not reported in the literature are reviewed, and ideas for overcoming them are presented. Conclusions Given the reality that the majority of youth mental health services are delivered in schools and the potential of school mental health (SMH) services to provide a continuum of mental health care from promotion to intervention, it is critical that the field consider and address the logistical and methodological challenges associated with implementing and studying EBP implementation by clinicians. PMID:24063310

  9. Challenges and ideas from a research program on high-quality, evidence-based practice in school mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Mark D; Youngstrom, Eric A; Stephan, Sharon; Lever, Nancy; Fowler, Johnathan; Taylor, Leslie; McDaniel, Heather; Chappelle, Lori; Paggeot, Samantha; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the progression of a research program designed to develop, implement, and study the implementation of "achievable" evidence-based practices (EBPs) in schools. We review challenges encountered and ideas to overcome them to enhance this avenue of research. The article presents two federally funded randomized controlled trials involving comparison of a four-component targeted intervention (Quality Assessment and Improvement, Family Engagement and Empowerment, Modular Evidence-Based Practice, Implementation Support) versus a comparison intervention focused on personal wellness. In both studies, primary aims focused on changes in clinician attitudes and behavior, including the delivery of high-quality EBPs and secondary aims focused on student-level impacts. A number of challenges, many not reported in the literature, are reviewed, and ideas for overcoming them are presented. Given the reality that the majority of youth mental health services are delivered in schools and the potential of school mental health services to provide a continuum of mental health care from promotion to intervention, it is critical that the field consider and address the logistical and methodological challenges associated with implementing and studying EBP implementation by clinicians.

  10. Summary of the IAEA's BIOMASS reference biosphere methodology for Environment Agency staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.

    2001-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) was launched in October 1996, and will complete during 2001. The BIOMASS programme aimed to develop and apply a methodology for defining biospheres for practical radiological assessment of releases from radioactive waste disposal. This report provides a summary description of the BIOMASS methodology. The BIOMASS methodology has been developed through international collaboration and represents a major milestone in biosphere modelling. It provides an approach supported by a wide range of developers, regulators, biosphere experts and safety assessment specialists. The Environment Agency participated actively in the BIOMASS programme

  11. Challenges and benefits of digital workflow implementation in aerospace manufacturing engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Abollado, Jaime; Shehab, Essam; Bamforth, P.

    2017-01-01

    Companies who operate in highly regulated industries have further challenges to the usual competition, continuous cost reduction and product development challenges. To address these requirements companies optimise their business processes and change their applications and information systems to support their evolving way of doing business. Workflow management technology eases the achievement of these necessities by providing methodologies, software and tools to support business process mo...

  12. Methodological quality and descriptive characteristics of prosthodontic-related systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, T; Compton, S; Nassar, U; Matthews, D; Ansari, K; Flores-Mir, C

    2013-04-01

    Ideally, healthcare systematic reviews (SRs) should be beneficial to practicing professionals in making evidence-based clinical decisions. However, the conclusions drawn from SRs are directly related to the quality of the SR and of the included studies. The aim was to investigate the methodological quality and key descriptive characteristics of SRs published in prosthodontics. Methodological quality was analysed using the Assessment of Multiple Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Several electronic resources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and American Dental Association's Evidence-based Dentistry website) were searched. In total 106 SRs were located. Key descriptive characteristics and methodological quality features were gathered and assessed, and descriptive and inferential statistical testing performed. Most SRs in this sample originated from the European continent followed by North America. Two to five authors conducted most SRs; the majority was affiliated with academic institutions and had prior experience publishing SRs. The majority of SRs were published in specialty dentistry journals, with implant or implant-related topics, the primary topics of interest for most. According to AMSTAR, most quality aspects were adequately fulfilled by less than half of the reviews. Publication bias and grey literature searches were the most poorly adhered components. Overall, the methodological quality of the prosthodontic-related systematic was deemed limited. Future recommendations would include authors to have prior training in conducting SRs and for journals to include a universal checklist that should be adhered to address all key characteristics of an unbiased SR process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.

  14. BALB/c Mice Vaccinated with Leishmania major Ribosomal Proteins Extracts Combined with CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Become Resistant to Disease Caused by a Secondary Parasite Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem and effective vaccines are not currently available. We have previously demonstrated that vaccination with ribosomal proteins extracts administered in combination of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides protects susceptible BALB/c mice against primary Leishmania major infection. Here, we evaluate the long-term immunity to secondary infection conferred by this vaccine. We show that vaccinated and infected BALB/c mice were able to control a secondary Leishmania major challenge, since no inflammation and very low number of parasites were observed in the site of reinfection. In addition, although an increment in the parasite burden was observed in the draining lymph nodes of the primary site of infection we did not detected inflammatory lesions at that site. Resistance against reinfection correlated to a predominant Th1 response against parasite antigens. Thus, cell cultures established from spleens and the draining lymph node of the secondary site of infection produced high levels of parasite specific IFN-γ in the absence of IL-4 and IL-10 cytokine production. In addition, reinfected mice showed a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio for anti-Leishmania antibodies. Our results suggest that ribosomal vaccine, which prevents pathology in a primary challenge, in combination with parasite persistence might be effective for long-term maintenance of immunity.

  15. Effectiveness of infrastructure asset management: challenges for public agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraven, Daan; Hartmann, Andreas; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to better understand the decisions in infrastructure asset management at public agencies and the challenges of these agencies to improve the effectiveness of their decision making. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review on asset management at

  16. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability.

  17. Methodologies for rapid evaluation of seismic demand levels in nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, M.; Asfura, A.; Mukhim, G.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for rapid assessment of both acceleration spectral peak and 'zero period acceleration' (ZPA) values for virtually any major structure in a nuclear power plant is presented. The methodology is based on spectral peak and ZPA amplification factors, developed from regression analyses of an analytical database. The developed amplification factors are applied to the plant's design ground spectrum to obtain amplified response parameters. A practical application of the methodology is presented. This paper also presents a methodology for calculating acceleration response spectrum curves at any number of desired damping ratios directly from a single known damping ratio spectrum. The methodology presented is particularly useful and directly applicable to older vintage nuclear power plant facilities (i.e. such as those affected by USI A-46). The methodology is based on principles of random vibration theory. The methodology has been implemented in a computer program (SPECGEN). SPECGEN results are compared with results obtained from time history analyses. (orig.)

  18. Human resource management and technological challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the challenges and changes that new technologies bring to human resources (HR) of modern organizations. It examines the technological implications of the last changes taking place and how they affect the management and motivation of human resources belonging to these organizations. It looks for ways to understand and perceive how organizational HR, individually and as a team, conceptualize, invent, adapt, define and use organizational technology, as well as how they are constrained by features of it. The book provides discussion and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications of human resources management and technological challenges and changes in the field of industry, commerce and services.

  19. The success factors and the major challenges that Tal-Massar Winery in Gozo needs to address to develop the full potential of wine tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Jesmond

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the concept of wine tourism as a growing niche on the island of Gozo. Over the last decade, Gozo has seen a synergy between wine and the tourism indus-try which has led to the development of what is commonly known as wine tourism. As in other countries, wine tourism on this small island is leaving an impact on the social and economic aspects. This research aims to portray the success factors and the major challenges that Gozo needs to address to develop the full pot...

  20. Inclusion and exclusion in nutrigenetics clinical research: ethical and scientific challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, T; Stenne, R; Menuz, V; Godard, B

    2011-01-01

    There are compelling reasons to ensure the participation of ethnic minorities and populations of all ages worldwide in nutrigenetics clinical research. If findings in such research are valid for some individuals, groups, or communities, and not for others, then ethical questions of justice--and not only issues of methodology and external validity--arise. This paper aims to examine inclusion in nutrigenetics clinical research and its scientific and ethical challenges. In total, 173 publications were identified through a systematic review of clinical studies in nutrigenetics published between 1998 and 2007. Data such as participants' demographics as well as eligibility criteria were extracted. There is no consistency in the way participants' origins (ancestry, ethnicity, or race) and ages are described in publications. A vast majority of the studies identified was conducted in North America and Europe and focused on 'white' participants. Our results show that pregnant women (and fetuses), minors, and the elderly (≥ 75 years old) remain underrepresented. Representativeness in nutrigenetics research is a challenging ethical and scientific issue. Yet, if nutrigenetics is to benefit whole populations and be used in public and global health agendas, fair representation as well as clear descriptions of participants in publications are crucial. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Commodity Systems Assessment Methodology of Postharvest Losses in Vegetable Amaranths: The Case of Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Osei-Kwarteng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A semistructured questionnaire based on the commodity system assessment methodology (CSAM was used to determine postharvest losses in vegetable amaranths (VA. Fifty producers and retailers were randomly selected from five and four major VA producing areas and markets, respectively, and interviewed. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. The survey revealed that absence of laws, regulation, incentives, and inadequate technical information affected the production of VA. The utmost preproduction challenge was poor quality seeds with poor seed yield (35%, low viability (19%, and nontrueness (46%. It was noted that some cultural practices including planting pattern and density, irrigation, and fertiliser use had effects on postharvest losses. Some postharvest practices used were cleaning with water, trimming, sorting, and grading. Usually the produce was transported to marketing centers by cars and motor cycle trailers. Generally poor temperature management after harvest was a big challenge for the postharvest handling of VA. The potential of vegetable amaranths as a commodity in the study area can be enhanced by providing the necessary institutional support, incentives, and use of good management practices along the value chain. An interdisciplinary approach and quantification of losses along the chain are recommended for any future study.

  2. A pragmatic trial in the Rio de Janeiro subway to capture smokers for a quitline: methodological challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; da Silva Freire Coutinho, Evandro; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, smoking is an important cause of death worldwide. To encourage smoking cessation, persuasive messages can be used to raise smokers' risk perception. This article discusses challenges and solutions in designing a study to evaluate the effect of two different communication strategies ("gains from quitting" vs. "losses from continuing smoking") in encouraging calls to a quitline. The authors conducted an intervention study in two subway stations for 4 weeks, considering only 1 strategy per station. Large posters containing non-age-specific images and texts, on the basis of the theme"shortness of breath," were displayed on central dividing columns on the boarding platforms. Call rates from the selected stations, and respective rate ratios, overall and per study week, were calculated. Passengers who were smokers, exposed to the positive-content message, called on average 1.7 times more often than did those exposed to the negative-content message (p = .01). Moreover, call rate ratios did not decline over the 4 weeks of the study (p = .40). The effectiveness findings suggest that antismoking campaigns could use positive-content messages in order to recruit a larger smoker population. The proposed methodology can also be used to evaluate effectiveness of messages for "capturing" individuals with other health problems (e.g., alcohol abuse), thereby increasing its potential impact.

  3. A methodology to measure the degre of managerial innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Batuhan Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this study is to introduce the concept of managerial innovation and to propose a quantitative methodology to measure the degree of managerial innovation capability by analyzing the evolution of the techniques used for management functions.Design/methodology/approach: The methodology mainly focuses on the different techniques used for each management functions namely; Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling and Coordinating. These functions are studied and the different techniques used for them are listed. Since the techniques used for these management functions evolve in time due to technological and social changes, a methodology is required to measure the degree of managerial innovation capability. This competency is measured through an analysis performed to point out which techniques used for each of these functions.Findings: To check the validity and applicability of this methodology, it is implemented to a manufacturing company. Depending on the results of the implementation, enhancements are suggested to the company for each function to survive in the changing managerial conditionsResearch limitations/implications: The primary limitation of this study is the implementation area. Although the study is implemented in just a single manufacturing company, it is welcomed to apply the same methodology to measure the managerial innovation capabilities of other manufacturing companies. Moreover, the model is ready to be adapted to different sectors although it is mainly prepared for manufacturing sector.Originality/value: Although innovation management is widely studied, managerial innovation is a new concept and introduced to measure the capability to challenge the changes occur in managerial functions. As a brief this methodology aims to be a pioneer in the field of managerial innovation regarding the evolution of management functions. Therefore it is expected to lead more studies to inspect the progress of

  4. The Use of Kanban to Alleviate Collaboration and Communication Challenges of Global Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Tanner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper aims to describe how various Kanban elements can help alleviate two prominent types of challenges, communication and collaboration in Global Software Development (GSD. Background: Iterative and Lean development methodologies like Kanban have gained significance in the software development industry, both in the co-located and globally distributed contexts. However, little is known on how such methodologies can help mitigate various challenges in that occur in a globally distributed software development context. Methodology: The study was conducted using a single-case study based on a general inductive approach to analysis and theory development. Through the literature review, collaboration and communication challenges that GSD teams face were identified. Data collected through semi-structured interviews was then inductively analyzed to describe how the case-study teams employed various Kanban elements to mitigate communication and collaboration challenges they face during GSD. Findings: The study found that some Kanban elements, when properly employed, can help alleviate collaboration and communication challenges that occur within GSD teams. These relate to Inclusion Criteria, Reverse Items, Kanban Board, Policies, Avatars, and Backlog. Contribution: The paper contributes to knowledge by proposing two simple concept maps that detail the specific types of communication and collaboration challenges which can be alleviated by the aforementioned Kanban elements in GSD. Recommendations for Practitioners: This paper is relevant to GSD teams who are seeking ways to enhance their team collaboration and communication as these are the most important elements that contribute to GSD project success. It is recommended that relevant Kanban elements be used to that effect, depending on the challenges that they aim to alleviate. Future Research: Future research can investigate the same research questions (or similar ones using a

  5. Challenges to the Learning Organization in the Context of Generational Diversity and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Renata; Borzillo, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the challenges to the emergence of a learning organization (LO) posed by a context of generational diversity and an enterprise social networking system (ESNS). Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a qualitative methodology based on an analysis of 20 semi-structured…

  6. Corporate Universities in China: Processes, Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, June Xuejun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study is intended to investigate the current status of corporate universities in China. It aims to explore the processes and practices of corporate universities in China, and discover the issues and challenges involved in building and running a corporate university in China. Design/methodology/approach: The heads of 11 well-known…

  7. Key Methodological Aspects of Translators' Training in Ukraine and in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of international relations in the globalized world has influenced the role of a translator that is becoming more and more important. Translators' training institutions today are to work out and to implement the best teaching methodology taking into consideration the new challenges of modern multinational and multicultural society.…

  8. Using Six Sigma and Lean methodologies to improve OR throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Catharine B

    2007-07-01

    Improving patient flow in the perioperative environment is challenging, but it has positive implications for both staff members and for the facility. One facility in vermont improved patient throughput by incorporating Six Sigma and Lean methodologies for patients undergoing elective procedures. The results of the project were significantly improved patient flow and increased teamwork and pride among perioperative staff members. (c) AORN, Inc, 2007.

  9. New challenges and opportunities in the eddy-covariance methodology for long-term monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Dario; Fratini, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    Eddy-covariance is the most direct and most commonly applied methodology for measuring exchange fluxes of mass and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere. In recent years, the number of environmental monitoring stations deploying eddy-covariance systems increased dramatically at the global level, exceeding 500 sites worldwide and covering most climatic and ecological regions. Several long-term environmental research infrastructures such as ICOS, NEON and AmeriFlux selected the eddy-covariance as a method to monitor GHG fluxes and are currently collaboratively working towards defining common measurements standards, data processing approaches, QA/QC procedures and uncertainty estimation strategies, to the aim of increasing defensibility of resulting fluxes and intra and inter-comparability of flux databases. In the meanwhile, the eddy-covariance research community keeps identifying technical and methodological flaws that, in some cases, can introduce - and can have introduced to date - significant biases in measured fluxes or increase their uncertainty. Among those, we identify three issues of presumably greater concern, namely: (1) strong underestimation of water vapour fluxes in closed-path systems, and its dependency on relative humidity; (2) flux biases induced by erroneous measurement of absolute gas concentrations; (3) and systematic errors due to underestimation of vertical wind variance in non-orthogonal anemometers. If not properly addressed, these issues can reduce the quality and reliability of the method, especially as a standard methodology in long-term monitoring networks. In this work, we review the status of the art regarding such problems, and propose new evidences based on field experiments as well as numerical simulations. Our analyses confirm the potential relevance of these issues but also hint at possible coping approaches, to minimize problems during setup design, data collection and post-field flux correction. Corrections are under

  10. The role of beta-endorphin in the pathophysiology of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegadoren, K M; O'Donnell, T; Lanius, R; Coupland, N J; Lacaze-Masmonteil, N

    2009-10-01

    A role for beta-endorphin (beta-END) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is suggested by both animal research and studies examining clinical populations. The major etiological theories of depression include brain regions and neural systems that interact with opioid systems and beta-END. Recent preclinical data have demonstrated multiple roles for beta-END in the regulation of complex homeostatic and behavioural processes that are affected during a depressive episode. Additionally, beta-END inputs to regulatory pathways involving feeding behaviours, motivation, and specific types of motor activity have important implications in defining the biological foundations for specific depressive symptoms. Early research linking beta-END to MDD did so in the context of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, where it was suggested that HPA axis dysregulation may account for depressive symptoms in some individuals. The primary aims of this paper are to use both preclinical and clinical research (a) to critically review data that explores potential roles for beta-END in the pathophysiology of MDD and (b) to highlight gaps in the literature that limit further development of etiological theories of depression and testable hypotheses. In addition to examining methodological and theoretical challenges of past clinical studies, we summarize studies that have investigated basal beta-END levels in MDD and that have used challenge tests to examine beta-END responses to a variety of experimental paradigms. A brief description of the synthesis, location in the CNS and behavioural pharmacology of this neuropeptide is also provided to frame this discussion. Given the lack of clinical improvement observed with currently available antidepressants in a significant proportion of depressed individuals, it is imperative that novel mechanisms be investigated for antidepressant potential. We conclude that the renewed interest in elucidating the role of beta

  11. Structural health monitoring methodology for aircraft condition-based maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniger, Jordi; Reithler, Livier; Guedra-Degeorges, Didier; Takeda, Nobuo; Dupuis, Jean Pierre

    2001-06-01

    Reducing maintenance costs while keeping a constant level of safety is a major issue for Air Forces and airlines. The long term perspective is to implement condition based maintenance to guarantee a constant safety level while decreasing maintenance costs. On this purpose, the development of a generalized Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) is needed. The objective of such a system is to localize the damages and to assess their severity, with enough accuracy to allow low cost corrective actions. The present paper describes a SHMS based on acoustic emission technology. This choice was driven by its reliability and wide use in the aerospace industry. The described SHMS uses a new learning methodology which relies on the generation of artificial acoustic emission events on the structure and an acoustic emission sensor network. The calibrated acoustic emission events picked up by the sensors constitute the knowledge set that the system relies on. With this methodology, the anisotropy of composite structures is taken into account, thus avoiding the major cause of errors of classical localization methods. Moreover, it is adaptive to different structures as it does not rely on any particular model but on measured data. The acquired data is processed and the event's location and corrected amplitude are computed. The methodology has been demonstrated and experimental tests on elementary samples presented a degree of accuracy of 1cm.

  12. Status of the Gen-IV Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PRPP) Evaluation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Padoani, F.; Cojazzi, G.G.M.; Renda, G.; ); Cazalet, J.; Haas, E.; Hori, K.; Kawakubo, Y.; Chang, S.; Kim, H.; Kwon, E.-H.; Yoo, H.; Chebeskov, A.; Pshakin, G.; Pilat, J.F.; Therios, I.; Bertel, E.

    2015-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed within the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) to support the assessment and improvement of system performance in the areas safeguards, security, economics and safety. Of these four areas, safeguards and security are the subjects of the GIF working group on Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PRPP). Since the PRPP methodology (now at Revision 6) represents a mature, generic, and comprehensive evaluation approach, and is freely available on the GIF public website, several non-GIF technical groups have chosen to utilize the PRPP methodology for their own goals. Indeed, the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology are intended for three types of generic users: system designers, programme policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PRPP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. In addition, over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to inform nuclear energy system designs, as well as to support the development of approaches to advanced safeguards. A number of international workshops have also been held which have introduced the methodology to design groups and other stakeholders. In this paper we summarize the technical progress and accomplishments of the PRPP evaluation methodology, including applications outside GIF, and we outline the PRPP methodology's relationship with the IAEA's INPRO methodology. Current challenges with the efficient implementation of the methodology are outlined, along with our path forward for increasing its accessibility to a broader stakeholder audience - including supporting the next generation of skilled professionals in the nuclear non-proliferation field. (author)

  13. Scalable Multi-core Architectures Design Methodologies and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jantsch, Axel

    2012-01-01

    As Moore’s law continues to unfold, two important trends have recently emerged. First, the growth of chip capacity is translated into a corresponding increase of number of cores. Second, the parallalization of the computation and 3D integration technologies lead to distributed memory architectures. This book provides a current snapshot of industrial and academic research, conducted as part of the European FP7 MOSART project, addressing urgent challenges in many-core architectures and application mapping.  It addresses the architectural design of many core chips, memory and data management, power management, design and programming methodologies. It also describes how new techniques have been applied in various industrial case studies. Describes trends towards distributed memory architectures and distributed power management; Integrates Network on Chip with distributed, shared memory architectures; Demonstrates novel design methodologies and frameworks for multi-core design space exploration; Shows how midll...

  14. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  15. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio; Batista Camargo Junior, Joao

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  16. Effectiveness of the Nursing Methodology in Pain Management after Major Ambulatory Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-González, María Helena; Barón-López, Francisco Javier; García-Luque, María José; Morales-Gil, Isabel María

    2015-08-01

    Patients undergoing a surgical intervention for the first time are unfamiliar with the perioperative context, and they usually have no knowledge of postoperative pain management. In the preoperative circuit, there is no time to educate the patient in these terms. The professional profile of nurses allows this need to be addressed, and provides a regulated language to evaluate their effectiveness. This study evaluates the effectiveness of nursing counseling during a preoperative consultation for the management of postoperative pain and its effects on patient satisfaction at hospital discharge. This quasi-experimental study assesses the efficacy of preoperative nursing intervention in two groups, control (n = 185) and intervention (n = 195). Those in the intervention group attended a preoperative session during which they received information from nursing staff and took part in activities to learn about postoperative pain management and the perioperative circuit. Control group patients underwent the standard preoperative protocol. Data were compiled from January to December 2009. Statistically significant differences existed between the two groups regarding postoperative pain (visual analogue scale >3, 20.5% versus 11.5%; p = .023), patient satisfaction (87.1% versus 78.7%; p = .041), and surgical wound complications (13.9% versus 5.5%; p = .010). The results confirm the benefits of applying the nursing methodology in preoperative clinics. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Science and the major racket sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Adrian

    2003-09-01

    The major racket sports include badminton, squash, table tennis and tennis. The growth of sports science and the commercialization of racket sports in recent years have focused attention on improved performance and this has led to a more detailed study and understanding of all aspects of racket sports. The aim here, therefore, is to review recent developments of the application of science to racket sports. The scientific disciplines of sports physiology and nutrition, notational analysis, sports biomechanics, sports medicine, sports engineering, sports psychology and motor skills are briefly considered in turn. It is evident from these reviews that a great deal of scientific endeavour has been applied to racket sports, but this is variable across both the racket sports and the scientific disciplines. A scientific approach has helped to: implement training programmes to improve players' fitness; guide players in nutritional and psychological preparation for play; inform players of the strategy and tactics used by themselves and their opponents; provide insight into the technical performance of skills; understand the effect of equipment on play; and accelerate the recovery from racket-arm injuries. Racket sports have also posed a unique challenge to scientists and have provided vehicles for developing scientific methodology. Racket sports provide a good model for investigating the interplay between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and the effect of nutrition, heat and fatigue on performance. They have driven the development of mathematical solutions for multi-segment interactions within the racket arm during the performance of shots, which have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of both performance and injury. They have provided a unique challenge to sports engineers in relation to equipment performance and interaction with the player. Racket sports have encouraged developments in notational analysis both in terms of analytical procedures and the

  18. KLIMAT 'Best practice' methodology; KLIMAT 'Best practice' metodikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanes, Erik; Moeller, Hanne

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the main lessons learned from the research The climate challenge of food products in a holistic environmental and life cycle perspective, abbreviated KLIMAT. This was a research project in the period 2009-2012, conducted by Oestfoldforskning with the assistance of researchers from UMB, SIK (Sweden), MTT (Finland) and Aalborg University (Denmark). The project was funded by the Norwegian Research Council and its partners BAMA, Coop Norway, Norway Group, Nortura and Tine. The main objective of the project was to develop a uniform and scientifically based methodology to quantify the carbon footprint of food products to allow a fair comparison of food crops climate performance. This report summarizes a number of recommendations with regard to methodological choices in the implementation of greenhouse trace analysis of foodstuffs. The recommendations are divided into system boundaries, functional unit, allocation, and data quality and data variability. During the project period, a number of national and international initiatives have been launched to develop the calculation methodology. Therefore the objective of creating a standardized methodology was adjusted to prepare input to the methodology in the form of articles and reports.(Author)

  19. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    technique involve model structure, system representation and the degree of validity, coupled with the simplicity, of the overall model. ABM is best suited... system representation of the air combat system . We feel that a simulation model that combines ABM with equation-based representation of weapons and...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Casey D. Connors, Major, USA

  20. Piecing Together—A Methodological Bricolage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainslie Yardley

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of narrative, reflective, and creative processes as interpretive tools has been considered by many critics to be naïvely humanistic and even romantically impulsive. This contribution challenges those views by putting performative research methods into practice—using the method to test the methodology. The meta-text, in which embedded texts (visual, audio-visual and literary challenge, inform and enhance each other's meaning, has at its heart a digital mapping system that acts as a guiding link that provides alternative interpretive angles and mediating possibilities. The inclusion here of many kinds of text acknowledges that there are multiple ways in which human cognitive networks process information and make creative leaps. This contribution directly presents the case for multi-layered narrative inquiry as a paradigm of ethical activity. The researcher is seen here as a bricoleur, a maker of patchwork, a weaver of stories; one who assembles a theoretical montage through which meaning is constructed and conveyed according to a narrative ethic that is neither naïvely humanistic, nor romantically impulsive—but rather one that stimulates an inclusive and dynamic dialogue between the researcher and her audience. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802315

  1. Risks and challenges associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebana Martinez, B.; Armas Garcia, A.; Martinez Gozalo, I.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant project, considering the period prior to the operation of the plant, requires a very strict risk control to ensure compliance with a series of challenges. The present paper identifying the most important challenges facing the construct ability and license requirements of the process, identifying the interfaces and proposing a methodology of construction to meet the challenge of a construction process in 5 years.

  2. A multidisciplinary systematic literature review on frailty: Overview of the methodology used by the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Howard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial growth in the body of literature on frailty in older persons. However, there is no consensus on its definition or the criteria used to identify frailty. In response to this lack of consensus, the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging carried out a set of systematic reviews of the literature in ten areas of frailty research: biological basis; social basis; prevalence; risk factors; impact; identification; prevention and management; environment and technology; health services; health and social policy. This paper describes the methodology that was developed for the systematic reviews. Methods A Central Coordination Group (CCG was responsible for developing the methodology. This involved the development of search strategies and keywords, article selection processes, quality assessment tools, and guidelines for the synthesis of results. Each review was conducted by two experts in the content area, with the assistance of methodologists and statisticians from the CCG. Results Conducting a series of systematic literature reviews involving a range of disciplines on a concept that does not have a universally accepted definition posed several conceptual and methodological challenges. The most important conceptual challenge was determining what would qualify as literature on frailty. The methodological challenges arose from our goal of structuring a consistent methodology for reviewing literature from diverse fields of research. At the outset, certain methodological guidelines were deemed essential to ensure the validity of all the reviews. Nevertheless, it was equally important to permit flexibility in the application of the proposed methodology to capture the essence of frailty research within the given fields. Conclusion The results of these reviews allowed us to establish the status of current knowledge on frailty and promote collaboration between disciplines. Conducting

  3. Challenges in Evaluating Psychosocial Interventions for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Catherine; Wagner, Ann; Rogers, Sally; Szatmari, Peter; Aman, Michael; Charman, Tony; Dawson, Geraldine; Durand, V. Mark; Grossman, Lee; Guthrie, Donald; Harris, Sandra; Kasanri, Connie; Marcus, Lee; Murphy, Susan; Odom, Samuel; Pickles, Andrew; Scahill, Lawrence; Shaw, Evelyn; Siegel, Bryna; Sigman, Marian; Stone, Wendy; Smith, Tristram; Yoder, Paul

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, the National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting concerning methodological challenges of research in psychosocial interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders. This paper provides a summary of the presentations and the discussions that occurred during this meeting. Recommendations to federal and private agencies included the need for…

  4. Application and licensing requirements of the Framatome ANP RLBLOCA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.P.; Dunn, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Framatome ANP Realistic Large-Break LOCA methodology (FANP RLBLOCA) is an analysis approach approved by the US NRC for supporting the licensing basis of 3- and 4-loop Westinghouse PWRs and CE 2x4 PWRs. It was developed consistent with the NRC's Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology for performing best-estimate large-break LOCAs. The CSAU methodology consists of three key elements with the second and third element addressing uncertainty identification and application. Unique to the CSAU methodology is the use of engineering judgment and the Process Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) defined in the first element to lay the groundwork for achieving the ultimate goal of quantifying the total uncertainty in predicted measures of interest associated with the large-break LOCA. It is the PIRT that not only directs the methodology development, but also directs the methodology review. While the FANP RLBLOCA methodology was generically approved, a plant-specific application is customized in two ways addressing how the unique plant characterization 1) is translated to code input and 2) relates to the unique methodology licensing requirements. Related to the former, plants are required by 10 CFR 50.36 to define a technical specification limiting condition for operation based on the following criteria: 1. Installed instrumentation that is used in the control room to detect, and indicate, a significant abnormal degradation of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. 2. A process variable, design feature, or operating restriction that is an initial condition of a design basis accident or transient analysis that either assumes the failure of or presents a challenge to the integrity of a fission product barrier. 3. A structure, system, or component that is part of the primary success path and which functions or actuates to mitigate a design basis accident or transient that either assumes the failure of or presents a challenge to the integrity of a

  5. Tap and trill clusters in typical and protracted phonological development: Challenging segments in complex phonological environments. Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemberger, Joseph Paul; Bernhardt, Barbara May

    2018-01-01

    The papers in this crosslinguistic issue address children's acquisition of word-initial rhotic clusters in languages with taps/trills, that is, the acquisition of challenging segments in complex environments. Several papers also include comparisons with singleton rhotics and/or /l/ as a singleton or in clusters. The studies are part of a larger investigation that uses similar methodologies across languages in order to enhance crosslinguistic comparability (Bernhardt and Stemberger, 2012, 2015). Participants for the current studies were monolingual preschoolers with typical or protracted phonological development who speak one of the following languages: Germanic (Icelandic/Swedish); Romance (Portuguese/Spanish); Slavic (Bulgarian/Slovenian) and Finno-Ugric (Hungarian). This introductory paper describes characteristics of taps/trills and general methodology across the studies, concluding with predicted patterns of acquisition. The seven papers that follow are in a sense the 'results' for this introduction. A concluding paper discusses major findings and their implications for theory, research and clinical practice.

  6. PASSCAL Instrument Center Support for Cryoseismology: Methodologies, Challenges, Development and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Anderson, K. R.; Bilek, S. L.; Carpenter, P.; Childs, D.; Chung, P.; Huerta, A. D.; Lingutla, N.; Nikolaus, K.; Winberry, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Remote portable seismic stations are, in most cases, constrained by logistics and cost. High latitude operations introduce environmental, technical and logistical challenges that require substantially more engineering work to ensure robust, high quality data return. Since 2006, IRIS PASSCAL has been funded by NSF to develop, deploy, and maintain a pool of polar specific seismic stations. At roughly the same time, PASSCAL began supporting experiments specifically targeting glacier dynamics such as the mechanisms of subglacial hydrology, basal shear stress, ice stream stick slip mechanisms, and glacier seismicity. Although much of the development for high-latitude deployments was directly applicable to cryoseismology, these new experiments introduced a unique series of challenges including high ablation, standing water, and moving stations. Our polar development objectives have focused on: Reducing station power requirements, size and weight; Extending the operational temperature of a station; Simplifying logistics; Engineering solutions that are cost effective, manufacturable, serviceable and reusable; And, developing high-latitude communications for both state-of-health and data transmission. To these ends, PASSCAL continues testing new power storage technology, refining established power systems for lighter and smaller power banks, and exploring telemetry solutions to increase high-bandwidth communication options and abilities for remote seismic stations. Further enhancing PASSCAL's ability to support cryoseismology is a recent NSF funded collaborative effort lead by Central Washing University joined by IRIS and New Mexico Tech to build a Geophysical Earth Observatory for Ice Covered Environments (GEOICE). The GEOICE instrument, power system and other integrated ancillary components are designed to require minimal installation time and logistical load (i.e., size and weight), while maximizing ease-of-use in the field and optimizing costs of instrumentation and

  7. Drug-targeting methodologies with applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu; Childress, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to solid tumors is a very active research area, focusing mainly on improved drug formulation and associated best delivery methods/devices. Drug-targeting has the potential to greatly improve drug-delivery efficacy, reduce side effects, and lower the treatment costs. However, the vast majority of drug-targeting studies assume that the drug-particles are already at the target site or at least in its direct vicinity. In this review, drug-delivery methodologies, drug types and drug-delivery devices are discussed with examples in two major application areas: (1) inhaled drug-aerosol delivery into human lung-airways; and (2) intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting. The major problem addressed is how to deliver efficiently the drug-particles from the entry/infusion point to the target site. So far, most experimental results are based on animal studies. Concerning pulmonary drug delivery, the focus is on the pros and cons of three inhaler types, i.e., pressurized metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler and nebulizer, in addition to drug-aerosol formulations. Computational fluid-particle dynamics techniques and the underlying methodology for a smart inhaler system are discussed as well. Concerning intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting, passive and active targeting are reviewed as well as direct drug-targeting, using optimal delivery of radioactive microspheres to liver tumors as an example. The review concludes with suggestions for future work, considereing both pulmonary drug targeting and direct drug delivery to solid tumors in the vascular system. PMID:25516850

  8. Managing nuclear liabilities: 'hospital pass' or major opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper sets out to start changing the perception that liabilities management is an unattractive part of the UK Nuclear Industry. The paper describes BNFL's successes and long term challenges in this area and concludes that liabilities management presents a major opportunity to:-Remove an Achilles heel of the industry; Create value for the companies concerned by successfully driving down costs; Sustain and exploit internationally a major UK competitive edge. (Author)

  9. Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245

  10. Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply...... chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development...... of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business...

  11. Challenges in radon management at uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulka, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Radon and its radioactive decay products are present some unique challenges to radiation protection professionals working at the uranium mining operations. This paper will detail some examples of these challenges and methods that can be employed to ensure doses to workers and members of the public are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Examples will be presented for conventional open pit and underground mining and In Situ recovery operations. One of the challenges facing new operations seeking approval is the demonstration that radon and its radioactive decay products sourced from the operations will not adversely impact local populations, Methodologies recently employed in the most recent environmental impact statements from uranium mining companies seeking approval are reviewed. The International Commission of Radiological Protection are currently reviewing the dose conversion factors used radon and its decay products. The challenges this change will present to uranium mining operators are presented.

  12. Modeling Acute Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Injury: Challenges and Guidelines for Preclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoleda, Jordi L; Watts, Sarah A; Reynolds, Penny S; Thiemermann, Christoph; Brohi, Karim

    2017-12-01

    Trauma is responsible for a large proportion of the world's burden of disease, and is by far the biggest killer of young adults. Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death and its effects are directly correlated with the incidence multi-organ failure in survivors. Trauma research is challenging due to patient heterogeneity, limited randomized controlled trials, and in vitro studies that fail to mimic the systemic injury response. Preclinical research remains essential for mechanistic and therapeutic discovery. Yet modeling the multifaceted nature of traumatic injury poses important experimental and welfare challenges associated with the onset of injury and prehospital and intra-operative care, the limited inter-species validation of coagulation profiles, the use of anesthesia/analgesia, and its impact on the systemic response to trauma; and the challenge of sustaining intensive care in recovery models. Proper model selection depends on the purpose of a given model and the criteria by which the experimental readouts will be clinically relevant. Such complexity warrants further refinement of experimental methodology and outcome measures to improve its clinical efficacy, while ensuring animal well-being. We review the experimental methodologies currently used for modeling traumatic hemorrhagic shock and addressing their impact on clinical translation. The aim of the review is to improve transparency and form a consensus when reporting methodology in trauma modeling.

  13. Review of PRA methodology for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. E.

    1999-02-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been widely used as a tool to evaluate the safety of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants), which are in the design stage as well as in operation. Recently, PRA becomes one of the licensing requirements for many existing and new NPPs. KALIMER is a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) being developed by KAERI. Since the design concept of KALIMER is similar to that of the PRISM plant developed by GE, it would be appropriate to review the PRA methodology of PRISM as the first step of KALIMER PRA. Hence, in this report summarizes the PRA methodology of PRISM plant, and the required works for the PSA of KALIMER based on the reviewed results. The PRA technology of PRISM plant consists of following five major tasks: (1) development of initiating event list, (2) development of system event tree, (3) development of core response event tree, (4) development of containment response event tree, and (5) consequences and risk estimation. The estimated individual and societal risk measures show that the risk from a PRISM module is substantially less than the NRC goal. Each task is compared to the PRA methodology of Light Water Reactor (LWR)/Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). In the report, each task of PRISM PRA methodology is reviewed and compared to the corresponding part of LWR/PHWR PSA performed in Korea. The parts that are not modeled appropriately in PRISM PRA are identified, and the recommendations for KALIMER PRA are stated. (author). 14 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs

  14. The challenges of introducing internal social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges associated with introducing internal social media (ISM) into organizations in order to help them reap the benefits of coworker communication on ISM. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on an exploratory study in ten...... facilitators and sense-givers. Keywords Organizational communication, Internal communication, Coworker, Internal social media Paper type Research paper...

  15. Conceptualising and measuring collaborative critical thinking on asynchronous discussion forums: Challenges and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Ghodrati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of asynchronous discussion forums (ADFs is thought to assist in enhancing students’ collaborative learning and critical thinking throughout higher education. However, previous research has mainly focused on individual critical thinking while the investigation of critical thinking during group work has been generally overlooked. Furthermore, few studies have investigated critical thinking processes of the individual and of the group in a single study to present a comprehensive picture of collaborative critical thinking (CCT. To address these gaps, I examined the demonstration of CCT on ADFs in a graduate subject at an Australian university over two academic semesters as students discussed topics online. In this paper, I discuss the ontological and methodological challenges in conducting the above research and present possible solutions to these challenges. At the ontological level, I discuss challenges in conceptualising and defining CCT. At the methodological level, I present challenges in constructing a coding scheme to measure the demonstration of CCT on ADFs. I then discuss ways to tackle the above challenges, propose an operational definition of CCT and present a synthetic coding scheme for measuring CCT in computer-supported collaborative learning contexts such as on ADFs.

  16. Challenges and Prospects of Traditional Food Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on challenges and prospects of traditional food processing technologies and their products in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to identify the challenges confronting traditional food processing technologies as well as the potentials the traditional food processing technologies has in boosting the ...

  17. Do systematic reviews on pediatric topics need special methodological considerations?

    OpenAIRE

    Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child ...

  18. Don't fear 'fear conditioning': Methodological considerations for the design and analysis of studies on human fear acquisition, extinction, and return of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Menz, Mareike M; Andreatta, Marta; Fullana, Miguel A; Golkar, Armita; Haaker, Jan; Heitland, Ivo; Hermann, Andrea; Kuhn, Manuel; Kruse, Onno; Meir Drexler, Shira; Meulders, Ann; Nees, Frauke; Pittig, Andre; Richter, Jan; Römer, Sonja; Shiban, Youssef; Schmitz, Anja; Straube, Benjamin; Vervliet, Bram; Wendt, Julia; Baas, Johanna M P; Merz, Christian J

    2017-06-01

    The so-called 'replicability crisis' has sparked methodological discussions in many areas of science in general, and in psychology in particular. This has led to recent endeavours to promote the transparency, rigour, and ultimately, replicability of research. Originating from this zeitgeist, the challenge to discuss critical issues on terminology, design, methods, and analysis considerations in fear conditioning research is taken up by this work, which involved representatives from fourteen of the major human fear conditioning laboratories in Europe. This compendium is intended to provide a basis for the development of a common procedural and terminology framework for the field of human fear conditioning. Whenever possible, we give general recommendations. When this is not feasible, we provide evidence-based guidance for methodological decisions on study design, outcome measures, and analyses. Importantly, this work is also intended to raise awareness and initiate discussions on crucial questions with respect to data collection, processing, statistical analyses, the impact of subtle procedural changes, and data reporting specifically tailored to the research on fear conditioning. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenges of Measuring Performance of the Sales and Operations Planning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hulthén, Hana; Näslund, Dag; Norrman, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and structure challenges of measuring performance of the Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) process. A multiple case study methodology was applied. Qualitative data was collected via 22 structured interviews with managers from six case companies in various industries. A process oriented framework was proposed by structuring the challenges based on two key areas of process performance (effectiveness and efficiency) and different maturity levels of the...

  20. On Methodology and (PostColonialism in Tourism Promotional Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crăciunescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The greatest challenge of the present paper is the research paradox that tourism imbeds within its economic and historical realities. Whilst tributary to Western research methodologies, we realized that an impartial analysis of tourism studies, which is essentially postcolonial, presupposes a pertinent review of ''marginal'' state of the art in the field. As scholars argue, tourism has developed a language of its own in order to promote cultural patterns of authenticity. This universal lexicon is largely rooted in myth and otherness, which lead us to the exemplification from a semio-linguistic perspective of a paradisiacal destination −Jamaica − included in the categories of such by the normative Westerner. We also touch upon gender issues on the larger colonialist background that the relation Self-Other, Orient-Occident, Colonizer-Colonized raises even at a methodological level in recent literature.

  1. Ireland’s Competitiveness Challenge 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ireland’s Competitiveness Challenge 2014, which is produced under the Action Plan for Jobs 2014, outlines the National Competitiveness Council’s view of the main competitiveness issues confronting the business sector in Ireland over the medium term, and sets out a series of policy responses required to address these challenges. Building on their earlier benchmarking of Irish competitiveness, the Council focus on six major themes in the 2014 report: addressing cost competitiveness; broadening ...

  2. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  3. Software Innovation - Values for a Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation is a recurrent theme in public as well as academic debate, and software development plays a major role for innovation in about every sector of our economy. As a consequence, software innovation will play an increasingly important role in software development. The focus in this paper is...... for experimentation, learning, and flexibility in software projects, but how can this change be used to facilitate software innovation? This paper proposes a set of values to guide the development of a methodology to facilitate software innovation....

  4. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  5. Fire risk analysis for nuclear power plants: Methodological developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, M.; Apostolakis, G.; Siv, N.O.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology to quantify the risk from fires in nuclear power plants is described. This methodology combines engineering judgment, statistical evidence, fire phenomenology, and plant system analysis. It can be divided into two major parts: (1) fire scenario identification and quantification, and (2) analysis of the impact on plant safety. This article primarily concentrates on the first part. Statistical analysis of fire occurrence data is used to establish the likelihood of ignition. The temporal behaviors of the two competing phenomena, fire propagation and fire detection and suppression, are studied and their characteristic times are compared. Severity measures are used to further specialize the frequency of the fire scenario. The methodology is applied to a switchgear room of a nuclear power plant

  6. Methodologic assessment of radiation epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the late effects of ionizing radiation have utilized the entire spectrum of situations in which man has been exposed. These studies have provided insights into the dependence of human effects upon not only dose to target tissues but also other dimensions of exposure, host characteristics, and time following exposure. Over the past three decades studies have progressed from the mere identification of effects to their measurement. Because investigators of human effects have no control over the exposure situation, validity must be sought in the consistency of findings among independent studies and with accepted biologic principles. Because exposure may be confounded with factors that are hidden from view, bias may enter into any study of human exposure. Avoidance of bias and attainment of sufficient power to detect relationships that are real are methodologic challenges. Many methodologic issues, e.g., those associated with the definition and measurement of specific end-points, or with the selection of appropriate controls, permeate epidemiologic work in all fields. Others, especially those concerned with the measurement of exposure, the patterning of events in time after exposure, and the prediction of events beyond the scope of existing observations give radiation epidemiology its distinctive character

  7. Sensor-based activity recognition using extended belief rule-based inference methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, A; Liu, J; Nugent, C D; Wang, H; Martinez, L

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed extended belief rule-based inference methodology (RIMER+) recognizes the need of modeling different types of information and uncertainty that usually coexist in real environments. A home setting with sensors located in different rooms and on different appliances can be considered as a particularly relevant example of such an environment, which brings a range of challenges for sensor-based activity recognition. Although RIMER+ has been designed as a generic decision model that could be applied in a wide range of situations, this paper discusses how this methodology can be adapted to recognize human activities using binary sensors within smart environments. The evaluation of RIMER+ against other state-of-the-art classifiers in terms of accuracy, efficiency and applicability was found to be significantly relevant, specially in situations of input data incompleteness, and it demonstrates the potential of this methodology and underpins the basis to develop further research on the topic.

  8. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  9. A novel fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages for land vehicle positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xu; Song, Xiang; Xu, Qimin; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui

    2015-01-01

    Many intelligent transportation system applications require accurate, reliable, and continuous vehicle position information whether in open-sky environments or in Global Positioning System (GPS) denied environments. However, there remains a challenging task for land vehicles to achieve such positioning performance using low-cost sensors, especially microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors. In this paper, a novel and cost-effective fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages is proposed and applied in the Inertial Navigation System (INS)/GPS/ compass integrated positioning system. In the implementation of the proposed methodology, a key data preprocessing algorithm is first developed to eliminate the noise in inertial sensors in order to provide more accurate information for subsequent modeling. Then, a novel hybrid strategy incorporating the designed autoregressive model (AR model)-based forward estimator (ARFE) with Kalman filter (KF) is presented to predict the INS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology, real road tests with various scenarios were performed. The proposed methodology illustrates significant improvement in positioning accuracy during GPS outages. (paper)

  10. Accomplishments and challenges in development of an autonomous operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, A.; Saiki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Okusa, K.; Suda, K.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are studying an autonomous operation system for nuclear power plants in which AI plays key roles as an alternative of plant operators and traditional controllers. In contrast with past studies dedicated to assist the operators, the ultimate target of development of the autonomous operation system is to operate the nuclear plants by AI. To realize humanlike decision-making process by means of AI, the authors used a model-based approach from multiple viewpoints and methodology diversity. A hierarchical distributed cooperative multi-agent system configuration is adopted to allow to incorporate diversified methodologies and to dynamically reorganize system functions. In the present paper, accomplishments to date in the course of the development are described. Challenges for developing methodologies to attain dynamic reorganization are also addressed. (author)

  11. Investigating DMOs through the Lens of Social Network Analysis: Theoretical Gaps, Methodological Challenges and Practitioner Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean HRISTOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature on networks in tourism management research has traditionally acknowledged destinations as the primary unit of analysis. This paper takes an alternative perspective and positions Destination Management Organisations (DMOs at the forefront of today’s tourism management research agenda. Whilst providing a relatively structured approach to generating enquiry, network research vis-à-vis Social Network Analysis (SNA in DMOs is often surrounded by serious impediments. Embedded in the network literature, this conceptual article aims to provide a practitioner perspective on addressing the obstacles to undertaking network studies in DMO organisations. A simple, three-step methodological framework for investigating DMOs as interorganisational networks of member organisations is proposed in response to complexities in network research. The rationale behind introducing such framework lies in the opportunity to trigger discussions and encourage further academic contributions embedded in both theory and practice. Academic and practitioner contributions are likely to yield insights into the importance of network methodologies applied to DMO organisations.

  12. Qualitative Approaches to Research in Counselling and Psychotherapy: Issues and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, John

    1996-01-01

    Discusses key issues which address the distinctive dilemmas and challenges associated with qualitative approaches to evaluating counseling. Investigates such concerns as relationships with research participants, ethics, reflexivity, methodological choice, communicability, perspective, and obviousness. Makes some suggestions regarding the link…

  13. Orbital Cellulitis: Clinical Course and Management Challenges. The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orbital Cellulitis: Clinical Course and Management Challenges. The Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Experience. ... The major management challenges were poor financial status of patients precluding necessary diagnostic laboratory and imaging studies. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ...

  14. Applying global cost-benefit analysis methods to indoor air pollution mitigation interventions in Nepal, Kenya and Sudan: Insights and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malla, Min Bikram; Bruce, Nigel; Bates, Elizabeth; Rehfuess, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from burning solid fuels for cooking is a major environmental health problem in developing countries, predominantly affecting children and women. Traditional household energy practices also contribute to substantial time loss and drudgery among households. While effective interventions exist, levels of investment to date have been very low, in part due to lack of evidence on economic viability. Between 2004 and 2007, different combinations of interventions – improved stoves, smoke hoods and a switch to liquefied petroleum gas – were implemented in poor communities in Nepal, Sudan and Kenya. The impacts were extensively evaluated and provided the basis for a household-level cost-benefit analysis, which essentially followed the methodology proposed by the World Health Organization. The results suggest that interventions are justified on economic grounds with estimated internal rates of return of 19%, 429% and 62% in Nepal, Kenya and Sudan, respectively. Time savings constituted by far the most important benefit followed by fuel cost savings; direct health improvements were a small component of the overall benefit. This paper describes the methodology applied, discusses the findings and highlights the methodological challenges that arise when a global approach is applied to a local programme. - Highlights: ► A project to alleviate indoor smoke from cooking fires in Sudan, Kenya and Nepal was evaluated. ► Investments for improving indoor air quality are shown to be justifiable on economic grounds. ► Savings in time and fuel costs, as well as health improvements are key benefits. ► The challenges of applying a global cost-benefit approach to a local programme are examined.

  15. Practicing the Four Seasons of Ethnography Methodology while Searching for Identity in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Margaret Jane

    2012-01-01

    This narrative is an account of my field experiences and challenges practicing Gonzalez's (2000) Four Seasons of Ethnography methodology in Mexico City. I describe the complexities and tensions inherent in managing two scientific paradigms: Western scientific logic vs. a more organic ontology. The experiential knowledge produced in this text is…

  16. The Visual Object Tracking VOT2015 Challenge Results

    KAUST Repository

    Kristan, Matej; Matas, Jiri; Leonardis, Ale; Felsberg, Michael; Cehovin, Luka; Fernandez, Gustavo; Vojir, Toma; Hager, Gustav; Nebehay, Georg; Pflugfelder, Roman; Gupta, Abhinav; Bibi, Adel Aamer; Lukezic, Alan; Garcia-Martin, Alvaro; Saffari, Amir; Petrosino, Alfredo; Montero, Andres Solıs; Varfolomieiev, Anton; Baskurt, Atilla; Zhao, Baojun; Ghanem, Bernard; Martinez, Brais; Lee, ByeongJu; Han, Bohyung; Wang, Chaohui; Garcia, Christophe; Zhang, Chunyuan; Schmid, Cordelia; Tao, Dacheng; Kim, Daijin; Huang, Dafei; Prokhorov, Danil; Du, Dawei; Yeung, Dit-Yan; Ribeiro, Eraldo; Khan, Fahad Shahbaz; Porikli, Fatih; Bunyak, Filiz; Zhu, Gao; Seetharaman, Guna; Kieritz, Hilke; Yau, Hing Tuen; Li, Hongdong; Qi, Honggang; Bischof, Horst; Possegger, Horst; Lee, Hyemin; Nam, Hyeonseob; Bogun, Ivan; Jeong, Jae-chan; Cho, Jae-il; Lee, Jae-Yeong; Zhu, Jianke; Shi, Jianping; Li, Jiatong; Jia, Jiaya; Feng, Jiayi; Gao, Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Ji-Wan; Lang, Jochen; Martinez, Jose M.; Choi, Jongwon; Xing, Junliang; Xue, Kai; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Lebeda, Karel; Alahari, Karteek; Gao, Ke; Yun, Kimin; Wong, Kin Hong; Luo, Lei; Ma, Liang; Ke, Lipeng; Wen, Longyin; Bertinetto, Luca; Pootschi, Mahdieh; Maresca, Mario; Danelljan, Martin; Wen, Mei; Zhang, Mengdan; Arens, Michael; Valstar, Michel; Tang, Ming; Chang, Ming-Ching; Khan, Muhammad Haris; Fan, Nana; Wang, Naiyan; Miksik, Ondrej; Torr, Philip H S; Wang, Qiang; Martin-Nieto, Rafael; Pelapur, Rengarajan; Bowden, Richard; Laganiere, Robert; Moujtahid, Salma; Hare, Sam; Hadfield, Simon; Lyu, Siwei; Li, Siyi; Zhu, Song-Chun; Becker, Stefan; Duffner, Stefan; Hicks, Stephen L; Golodetz, Stuart; Choi, Sunglok; Wu, Tianfu; Mauthner, Thomas; Pridmore, Tony; Hu, Weiming; Hubner, Wolfgang; Wang, Xiaomeng; Li, Xin; Shi, Xinchu; Zhao, Xu; Mei, Xue; Shizeng, Yao; Hua, Yang; Li, Yang; Lu, Yang; Li, Yuezun; Chen, Zhaoyun; Huang, Zehua; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Zhe; He, Zhenyu; Hong, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    The Visual Object Tracking challenge 2015, VOT2015, aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 62 trackers are presented. The number of tested trackers makes VOT 2015 the largest benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the appendix. Features of the VOT2015 challenge that go beyond its VOT2014 predecessor are: (i) a new VOT2015 dataset twice as large as in VOT2014 with full annotation of targets by rotated bounding boxes and per-frame attribute, (ii) extensions of the VOT2014 evaluation methodology by introduction of a new performance measure. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website.

  17. The Visual Object Tracking VOT2015 Challenge Results

    KAUST Repository

    Kristan, Matej

    2015-12-07

    The Visual Object Tracking challenge 2015, VOT2015, aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 62 trackers are presented. The number of tested trackers makes VOT 2015 the largest benchmark on short-term tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description is provided in the appendix. Features of the VOT2015 challenge that go beyond its VOT2014 predecessor are: (i) a new VOT2015 dataset twice as large as in VOT2014 with full annotation of targets by rotated bounding boxes and per-frame attribute, (ii) extensions of the VOT2014 evaluation methodology by introduction of a new performance measure. The dataset, the evaluation kit as well as the results are publicly available at the challenge website.

  18. A Practical Methodology for Disaggregating the Drivers of Drug Costs Using Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Elena R; Manti, Orlando J; Levine, Mitchell A H; Clark, Douglas A; Potashnik, Tanya M; McKinley, Carol I

    2017-09-01

    Prescription drug expenditures represent a significant component of health care costs in Canada, with estimates of $28.8 billion spent in 2014. Identifying the major cost drivers and the effect they have on prescription drug expenditures allows policy makers and researchers to interpret current cost pressures and anticipate future expenditure levels. To identify the major drivers of prescription drug costs and to develop a methodology to disaggregate the impact of each of the individual drivers. The methodology proposed in this study uses the Laspeyres approach for cost decomposition. This approach isolates the effect of the change in a specific factor (e.g., price) by holding the other factor(s) (e.g., quantity) constant at the base-period value. The Laspeyres approach is expanded to a multi-factorial framework to isolate and quantify several factors that drive prescription drug cost. Three broad categories of effects are considered: volume, price and drug-mix effects. For each category, important sub-effects are quantified. This study presents a new and comprehensive methodology for decomposing the change in prescription drug costs over time including step-by-step demonstrations of how the formulas were derived. This methodology has practical applications for health policy decision makers and can aid researchers in conducting cost driver analyses. The methodology can be adjusted depending on the purpose and analytical depth of the research and data availability. © 2017 Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology. All rights reserved.

  19. Brief report on a systematic review of youth violence prevention through media campaigns: Does the limited yield of strong evidence imply methodological challenges or absence of effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Bowman, Brett; McGrath, Chloe; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We present a brief report on a systematic review which identified, assessed and synthesized the existing evidence of the effectiveness of media campaigns in reducing youth violence. Search strategies made use of terms for youth, violence and a range of terms relating to the intervention. An array of academic databases and websites were searched. Although media campaigns to reduce violence are widespread, only six studies met the inclusion criteria. There is little strong evidence to support a direct link between media campaigns and a reduction in youth violence. Several studies measure proxies for violence such as empathy or opinions related to violence, but the link between these measures and violence perpetration is unclear. Nonetheless, some evidence suggests that a targeted and context-specific campaign, especially when combined with other measures, can reduce violence. However, such campaigns are less cost-effective to replicate over large populations than generalised campaigns. It is unclear whether the paucity of evidence represents a null effect or methodological challenges with evaluating media campaigns. Future studies need to be carefully planned to accommodate for methodological difficulties as well as to identify the specific elements of campaigns that work, especially in lower and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methodology applied to develop the DHIE: applied methodology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, Marlien

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This section will address the methodology that was applied to develop the South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem (DHIE). Each chapter under Section B represents a specific phase in the methodology....

  1. Baseline integrated behavioural and biological assessment among most at-risk populations in six high-prevalence states of India: design and implementation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidel, Tobi; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar; Dale, Jayesh; Loo, Virginia; Rahman, Motiur; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents key methodological approaches and challenges in implementing and analysing the first round of the integrated biobehavioural assessment of most-at-risk populations, conducted in conjunction with evaluation of Avahan, the India AIDS initiative. The survey collected data on HIV risk behaviours, sexually transmitted infections and HIV prevalence in 29 districts in six high-prevalence states of India. Groups included female sex workers and clients, men who have sex with men, injecting drug users and truck drivers. Strategies for overcoming some challenges of the large-scale surveys among vulnerable populations, including sampling hidden populations, involvement of the communities targeted by the survey, laboratory and quality control in remote, non-clinic field settings, and data analysis and data use are presented. Satisfying the need for protocols, guidelines and tools that allowed for sufficient standardization, while being tailored enough to fit diverse local situations on such a large scale, with so many implementing partners, emerged as a major management challenge. A major lesson from the first round is the vital importance of investing upfront time in tailoring the sampling methods, data collection instruments, and analysis plan to match measurement objectives. Despite the challenges, the integrated biobehavioural assessment was a huge achievement, and was largely successful in providing previously unavailable information about the HIV situation among populations that are critical to the curtailment of HIV spread in India. Lessons from the first round will be used to evolve the second round into an exercise with increased evaluative capability for Avahan.

  2. DNA Modification Study of Major Depressive Disorder: Beyond Locus-by-Locus Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, G.; Wang, S.C.; Pal, M.; Chen, Z.F.; Khare, T.; Tochigi, M.; Ng, C.; Yang, Y.A.; Kwan, A.; Kaminsky, Z.A.; Mill, Jonathan; Gunasinghe, C.; Tackett, J.L.; Gottesman, I.I.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Vink, J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Wray, N.R.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Turecki, G.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; McGuffin, P.; Kustra, R.; Petronis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined.

  3. DNA modification study of major depressive disorder: Beyond locus-by-locus comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, G.; Wang, S.C.; Pal, M.; Chen, Z.F.; Khare, T.; Tochigi, M.; Ng, C.; Yang, Y.A.; Kwan, A.; Kaminsky, Z.A.; Mill, J.; Gunasinghe, C.; Tackett, J.L.; Gottesman, I.I.; Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Vink, J.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Wray, N.R.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Turecki, G.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; McGuffin, P.; Kustra, R.; Petronis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined.

  4. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W; Smoller, Jordan W; Perlis, Roy H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder, derived from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, was generated for each subject of European–American ancestry (n = 1,274) in the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study (STAR*D) outpatient major depressive disorder cohort. A hypothesis-driven approach was used to test for association between bipolar disorder risk score and features of depression associated with bipolar disorder in the literature. Follow-up analyses were performed in two additional cohorts. Results A generalized linear mixed model including seven features hypothesized to be associated with bipolar spectrum illness was significantly associated with bipolar polygenic risk score [F = 2.07, degrees of freedom (df) = 7, p = 0.04). Features included early onset, suicide attempt, recurrent depression, atypical depression, subclinical mania, subclinical psychosis, and severity. Post-hoc univariate analyses demonstrated that the major contributors to this omnibus association were onset of illness at age ≤ 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, p = 0.003], history of suicide attempt (OR = 1.21, p = 0.03), and presence of at least one manic symptom (OR = 1.16, p = 0.02). The maximal variance in these traits explained by polygenic score ranged from 0.8–1.1%. However, analyses in two replication cohorts testing a five feature model did not support this association. Conclusions Bipolar genetic loading appeared to be associated with bipolar-like presentation in major depressive disorder in the primary analysis. However, results are at most inconclusive because of lack of replication. Replication efforts are challenged by different ascertainment and assessment strategies in the different cohorts

  5. Quantifying Averted Disability-Adjusted Life Years as a Performance Indicator for Water Quality Interventions: A Review of Current Methodologies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy M. Anderson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable access to safe drinking water protects against infectious disease and promotes overall health. Despite considerable progress toward increasing water access, safe water quality and reliable service delivery remain a challenge. Traditional financing strategies pay implementers based on inputs and activities, with minimal incentives for water quality monitoring and sustained service operation. Pay-for-performance offers an alternative financing strategy that delivers all or a portion of payment based on performance indicators of desired outputs or outcomes. A pay-for-performance approach in the water sector could quantify and incentivize health impact. Averted disability-adjusted life years (ADALYs have been used as a performance indicator to measure the burden of disease averted due to environmental health interventions. Water-related disease burden can be measured for application as an ADALYs performance indicator following either comparative risk assessment or quantitative microbial risk assessment. Comparative risk assessment models disease burden using water source type as a proxy indicator of microbial water quality, while quantitative microbial risk assessment models disease burden using concentrations of indicator pathogens. This paper compares these risk assessment methodologies, and summarizes the limitations of applying these approaches toward quantifying ADALYs as a performance indicator for water quality interventions.

  6. Indigenous Methodology in Understanding Indigenous Nurse Graduate Transition to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L. M. Kurtz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing Indigenous health care professional presence in health care aims to reduce health inequities of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Nurses are the largest health professional group and nurse graduates the main source of recruitment. The quality of graduate transition to practice is evident in the literature; however, little is reported about Indigenous new graduates. We describe using Indigenous methodology and two-eyed seeing (Indigenous and Western perspectives in exploring Indigenous transition experiences. Talking circles provided a safe environment for nurses, nurse educators and students, health managers, and policy makers to discuss Indigenous new graduate case scenarios. The methodology was critical in identifying challenges faced, recommendations for change, and a new collective commitment for cultural safety education, and ethical and respectful relationships within education, practice, and policy.

  7. Methodology, Algorithms, and Emerging Tool for Automated Design of Intelligent Integrated Multi-Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas König

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel sensing elements, computing nodes, wireless communication and integration technology provides unprecedented possibilities for the design and application of intelligent systems. Each new application system must be designed from scratch, employing sophisticated methods ranging from conventional signal processing to computational intelligence. Currently, a significant part of this overall algorithmic chain of the computational system model still has to be assembled manually by experienced designers in a time and labor consuming process. In this research work, this challenge is picked up and a methodology and algorithms for automated design of intelligent integrated and resource-aware multi-sensor systems employing multi-objective evolutionary computation are introduced. The proposed methodology tackles the challenge of rapid-prototyping of such systems under realization constraints and, additionally, includes features of system instance specific self-correction for sustained operation of a large volume and in a dynamically changing environment. The extension of these concepts to the reconfigurable hardware platform renders so called self-x sensor systems, which stands, e.g., for self-monitoring, -calibrating, -trimming, and -repairing/-healing systems. Selected experimental results prove the applicability and effectiveness of our proposed methodology and emerging tool. By our approach, competitive results were achieved with regard to classification accuracy, flexibility, and design speed under additional design constraints.

  8. Challenges in the estimation of Net SURvival: The CENSUR working survival group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, R

    2016-10-01

    Net survival, the survival probability that would be observed, in a hypothetical world, where the cancer of interest would be the only possible cause of death, is a key indicator in population-based cancer studies. Accounting for mortality due to other causes, it allows cross-country comparisons or trends analysis and provides a useful indicator for public health decision-making. The objective of this study was to show how the creation and formalization of a network comprising established research teams, which already had substantial and complementary experience in both cancer survival analysis and methodological development, make it possible to meet challenges and thus provide more adequate tools, to improve the quality and the comparability of cancer survival data, and to promote methodological transfers in areas of emerging interest. The Challenges in the Estimation of Net SURvival (CENSUR) working survival group is composed of international researchers highly skilled in biostatistics, methodology, and epidemiology, from different research organizations in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Slovenia, and Canada, and involved in French (FRANCIM) and European (EUROCARE) cancer registry networks. The expected advantages are an interdisciplinary, international, synergistic network capable of addressing problems in public health, for decision-makers at different levels; tools for those in charge of net survival analyses; a common methodology that makes unbiased cross-national comparisons of cancer survival feasible; transfer of methods for net survival estimations to other specific applications (clinical research, occupational epidemiology); and dissemination of results during an international training course. The formalization of the international CENSUR working survival group was motivated by a need felt by scientists conducting population-based cancer research to discuss, develop, and monitor implementation of a common methodology to analyze net survival in order

  9. Urban mental health: Challenges and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review: To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. Recent findings: The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban...... services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric...

  10. A Comparative Study of Spatial Aggregation Methodologies under the BioEarth Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, B.; Rajagopalan, K.; Malek, K.; Stockle, C. O.; Adam, J. C.; Brady, M.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing probability of water resource scarcity due to climate change has highlighted the need for adopting an economic focus in modelling water resource uses. Hydro-economic models, developed by integrating economic optimization with biophysical crop models, are driven by the economic value of water, revealing it's most efficient uses and helping policymakers evaluate different water management strategies. One of the challenges in integrating biophysical models with economic models is the difference in the spatial scales in which they operate. Biophysical models that provide crop production functions typically run at smaller scale than economic models, and substantial spatial aggregation is required. However, any aggregation introduces a bias, i.e., a discrepancy between the functional value at the higher spatial scale and the value at the spatial scale of the aggregated units. The objective of this work is to study the sensitivity of net economic benefits in the Yakima River basin (YRB) to different spatial aggregation methods for crop production functions. The spatial aggregation methodologies that we compare involve agro-ecological zones (AEZs) and aggregation levels that reflect water management regimes (e.g. irrigation districts). Aggregation bias can distort the underlying data and result in extreme solutions. In order to avoid this we use an economic optimization model that incorporates the synthetic and historical crop mixes approach (Onal & Chen, 2012). This restricts the solutions between the weighted averages of historical and simulated feasible planting decisions, with the weights associated with crop mixes being treated as endogenous variables. This study is focused on 5 major irrigation districts of the YRB in the Pacific Northwest US. The biophysical modeling framework we use, BioEarth, includes the coupled hydrology and crop growth model, VIC-Cropsyst and an economic optimization model. Preliminary findings indicate that the standard approach

  11. Methodological developments in searching for studies for systematic reviews: past, present and future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L

    2013-09-25

    The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training

  12. Cold air challenge and specific airway resistance in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    prognosis in preschool children. Cold air challenge and plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) are feasible candidate methods for diagnosis, clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of lung growth and development. Methodology and practical aspects of cold air...... challenge and assessment of sRaw in preschool children are reviewed. Reference values are provided for sRaw and have allowed discrimination between health and respiratory disease, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be determined with acceptable repeatability...

  13. The Challenges of Managing Transnational Education Partnerships: The Views of "Home-Based" Managers vs "In-Country" Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Nigel Martin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the challenges of managing transnational education (TNE) partnerships from the perspective of the home university managers. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopts a qualitative, "insider researcher" methodology. It uses a sample set of eight mangers who operate from the home…

  14. Evolving Intelligent Systems Methodology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, Plamen; Kasabov, Nik

    2010-01-01

    From theory to techniques, the first all-in-one resource for EIS. There is a clear demand in advanced process industries, defense, and Internet and communication (VoIP) applications for intelligent yet adaptive/evolving systems. Evolving Intelligent Systems is the first self- contained volume that covers this newly established concept in its entirety, from a systematic methodology to case studies to industrial applications. Featuring chapters written by leading world experts, it addresses the progress, trends, and major achievements in this emerging research field, with a strong emphasis on th

  15. Challenges of local water governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Ravnborg, Helle; Bustamante, Rocio; Cissé, Abdoulaye

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of comprehensive inventories made of water-related conflict and cooperation occurring in five districts in Africa, Asia and Latin America between 1997 and 2007. Following a description of the conceptual and methodological framework developed for undertaking...... these inventories, the article documents the extent, nature and intensity of water-related conflict and cooperation in the five districts. The article concludes by identifying three challenges relating to the magnitude, complexity and invisibility of local-level conflict and cooperation about water, which efforts...... to improve local water governance would have to address....

  16. New scoring methodology improves the sensitivity of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nishant; Beretvas, S Natasha; Pascual, Belen; Masdeu, Joseph C; Markey, Mia K

    2015-11-12

    As currently used, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) has low sensitivity for measuring Alzheimer's disease progression in clinical trials. A major reason behind the low sensitivity is its sub-optimal scoring methodology, which can be improved to obtain better sensitivity. Using item response theory, we developed a new scoring methodology (ADAS-CogIRT) for the ADAS-Cog, which addresses several major limitations of the current scoring methodology. The sensitivity of the ADAS-CogIRT methodology was evaluated using clinical trial simulations as well as a negative clinical trial, which had shown an evidence of a treatment effect. The ADAS-Cog was found to measure impairment in three cognitive domains of memory, language, and praxis. The ADAS-CogIRT methodology required significantly fewer patients and shorter trial durations as compared to the current scoring methodology when both were evaluated in simulated clinical trials. When validated on data from a real clinical trial, the ADAS-CogIRT methodology had higher sensitivity than the current scoring methodology in detecting the treatment effect. The proposed scoring methodology significantly improves the sensitivity of the ADAS-Cog in measuring progression of cognitive impairment in clinical trials focused in the mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease stage. This provides a boost to the efficiency of clinical trials requiring fewer patients and shorter durations for investigating disease-modifying treatments.

  17. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a systematic and thorough survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order...... to investigate if the challenges can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during...

  18. Addressing the challenges in using qualitative data in qualitative comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Block, Debora; Vis, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue that so far has received relatively little attention in methodological discussions about Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), namely the challenges researchers face when using qualitative data in QCA analyses. Building on a literature review of 22 empirical studies

  19. Story-Making as Methodology: Disrupting Dominant Stories through Multimedia Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Carla; Mündel, Ingrid

    2018-05-01

    In this essay, we discuss multimedia story-making methodologies developed through Re•Vision: The Centre for Art and Social Justice that investigates the power of the arts, especially story, to positively influence decision makers in diverse sectors. Our story-making methodology brings together majority and minoritized creators to represent previously unattended experiences (e.g., around mind-body differences, queer sexuality, urban Indigenous identity, and Inuit cultural voice) with an aim to building understanding and shifting policies/practices that create barriers to social inclusion and justice. We analyze our ongoing efforts to rework our storytelling methodology, spotlighting acts of revising carried out by facilitators and researchers as they/we redefine methodological terms for each storytelling context, by researcher-storytellers as they/we rework material from our lives, and by receivers of the stories as we revise our assumptions about particular embodied histories and how they are defined within dominant cultural narratives and institutional structures. This methodology, we argue, contributes to the existing qualitative lexicon by providing innovative new approaches not only for chronicling marginalized/misrepresented experiences and critically researching selves, but also for scaffolding intersectional alliances and for imagining more just futures. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  20. A Global Sensitivity Analysis Methodology for Multi-physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, C H; Graziani, F R

    2007-02-02

    Experiments are conducted to draw inferences about an entire ensemble based on a selected number of observations. This applies to both physical experiments as well as computer experiments, the latter of which are performed by running the simulation models at different input configurations and analyzing the output responses. Computer experiments are instrumental in enabling model analyses such as uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. This report focuses on a global sensitivity analysis methodology that relies on a divide-and-conquer strategy and uses intelligent computer experiments. The objective is to assess qualitatively and/or quantitatively how the variabilities of simulation output responses can be accounted for by input variabilities. We address global sensitivity analysis in three aspects: methodology, sampling/analysis strategies, and an implementation framework. The methodology consists of three major steps: (1) construct credible input ranges; (2) perform a parameter screening study; and (3) perform a quantitative sensitivity analysis on a reduced set of parameters. Once identified, research effort should be directed to the most sensitive parameters to reduce their uncertainty bounds. This process is repeated with tightened uncertainty bounds for the sensitive parameters until the output uncertainties become acceptable. To accommodate the needs of multi-physics application, this methodology should be recursively applied to individual physics modules. The methodology is also distinguished by an efficient technique for computing parameter interactions. Details for each step will be given using simple examples. Numerical results on large scale multi-physics applications will be available in another report. Computational techniques targeted for this methodology have been implemented in a software package called PSUADE.

  1. Collaboration challenges in systematic reviews: a survey of health sciences librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Nicholson

    2017-10-01

    Results: Of the 17 challenges listed in the survey, 8 were reported as common by over 40% of respondents. These included methodological issues around having too broad or narrow research questions, lacking eligibility criteria, having unclear research questions, and not following established methods. The remaining challenges were interpersonal, including issues around student-led projects and the size of the research team. Of the top 8 most frequent challenges, 5 were also ranked as most difficult to handle. Open-ended responses underscored many of the challenges included in the survey and revealed several additional challenges. Conclusions: These results suggest that the most frequent and challenging issues relate to development of the research question and general communication with team members. Clear protocols for collaboration on systematic reviews, as well as a culture of mentorship, can help librarians prevent and address these challenges.  This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.

  2. The multi-copy simultaneous search methodology: a fundamental tool for structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian R; Stultz, Collin M

    2009-08-01

    Fragment-based ligand design approaches, such as the multi-copy simultaneous search (MCSS) methodology, have proven to be useful tools in the search for novel therapeutic compounds that bind pre-specified targets of known structure. MCSS offers a variety of advantages over more traditional high-throughput screening methods, and has been applied successfully to challenging targets. The methodology is quite general and can be used to construct functionality maps for proteins, DNA, and RNA. In this review, we describe the main aspects of the MCSS method and outline the general use of the methodology as a fundamental tool to guide the design of de novo lead compounds. We focus our discussion on the evaluation of MCSS results and the incorporation of protein flexibility into the methodology. In addition, we demonstrate on several specific examples how the information arising from the MCSS functionality maps has been successfully used to predict ligand binding to protein targets and RNA.

  3. Reactor analysis support package (RASP). Volume 7. PWR set-point methodology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temple, S.M.; Robbins, T.R.

    1986-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the basis and methodology requirements for determining Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) technical specifications related setpoints and focuses on development of the methodology for a reload core. Additionally, the report documents the implementation and typical methods of analysis used by PWR vendors during the 1970's to develop Protection System Trip Limits (or Limiting Safety System Settings) and Limiting Conditions for Operation. The descriptions of the typical setpoint methodologies are provided for Nuclear Steam Supply Systems as designed and supplied by Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, and Westinghouse. The description of the methods of analysis includes the discussion of the computer codes used in the setpoint methodology. Next, the report addresses the treatment of calculational and measurement uncertainties based on the extent to which such information was available for each of the three types of PWR. Finally, the major features of the setpoint methodologies are compared, and the principal effects of each particular methodology on plant operation are summarized for each of the three types of PWR

  4. Selecting Health Care Improvement Projects: A Methodology Integrating Cause-and-Effect Diagram and Analytical Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testik, Özlem Müge; Shaygan, Amir; Dasdemir, Erdi; Soydan, Guray

    It is often vital to identify, prioritize, and select quality improvement projects in a hospital. Yet, a methodology, which utilizes experts' opinions with different points of view, is needed for better decision making. The proposed methodology utilizes the cause-and-effect diagram to identify improvement projects and construct a project hierarchy for a problem. The right improvement projects are then prioritized and selected using a weighting scheme of analytical hierarchy process by aggregating experts' opinions. An approach for collecting data from experts and a graphical display for summarizing the obtained information are also provided. The methodology is implemented for improving a hospital appointment system. The top-ranked 2 major project categories for improvements were identified to be system- and accessibility-related causes (45%) and capacity-related causes (28%), respectively. For each of the major project category, subprojects were then ranked for selecting the improvement needs. The methodology is useful in cases where an aggregate decision based on experts' opinions is expected. Some suggestions for practical implementations are provided.

  5. Assessment of methodologies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoos, I.R.

    1978-01-01

    No quantitative methodology is adequate to encompass and assess all the risks, no risk/benefit calculation is fine-tuned enough to supply decision-makers with the full range and all of the dimensions. Quality assurance cannot be conceived in terms of systems design alone, but must be maintained vigilantly and with integrity throughout the process. The responsibility of the NRC is fairly well established with respect to overall reactor safety. With respect to the management of radioactive wastes, its mission is not yet so clearly delineated. Herein lies a challenge and an opportunity. Where the known quantitative methodologies are restrictive and likely to have negative feedback effect on authority and public support, the broader lens and the bolder thrust are called for. The cozy cocoon of figures ultimately protects no one. The Commission, having acknowledged that the management of radioactive wastes is not merely a technological matter can now take the socially responsible position of exploring as fully and confronting as candidly as possible the total range of dimensions involved. Paradoxically, it is Charles J. Hitch, intellectual progenitor of the methodology, who observes that we may be missing the meaning of his message by relying too heavily on quantitative analysis and thus defining our task too narrowly. We live in a closed system, in which science and technology, politics and economics, and, above all, social and human elements interact, sometimes to create the problems, sometimes to articulate the questions, and sometimes to find viable solutions

  6. Taipower's transient analysis methodology for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Pinghue

    1998-01-01

    The methodology presented in this paper is a part of the 'Taipower's Reload Design and Transient Analysis Methodologies for Light Water Reactors' developed by the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. This methodology utilizes four computer codes developed or sponsored by Electric Power Research institute: system transient analysis code RETRAN-02, core thermal-hydraulic analysis code COBRAIIIC, three-dimensional spatial kinetics code ARROTTA, and fuel rod evaluation code FREY. Each of the computer codes was extensively validated. Analysis methods and modeling techniques were conservatively established for each application using a systematic evaluation with the assistance of sensitivity studies. The qualification results and analysis methods were documented in detail in TPC topical reports. The topical reports for COBRAIIIC, ARROTTA. and FREY have been reviewed and approved by the Atomic Energy Council (ABC). TPC 's in-house transient methodology have been successfully applied to provide valuable support for many operational issues and plant improvements for TPC's Maanshan Units I and 2. Major applications include the removal of the resistance temperature detector bypass system, the relaxation of the hot-full-power moderator temperature coefficient design criteria imposed by the ROCAEC due to a concern on Anticipated Transient Without Scram, the reduction of boron injection tank concentration and the elimination of the heat tracing, and the reduction of' reactor coolant system flow. (author)

  7. Engaging Non-Science Majors Through Citizen Science Projects In Inquiry-Based Introductory Geoscience Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, R. R.; Hall, C.; Colgan, M. W.; Rhodes, E.

    2010-12-01

    Although inquiry-based/problem-based methods have been successfully incorporated in undergraduate lecture classes, a survey of commonly used laboratory manuals indicates that few non-major geoscience laboratory classes use these strategies. The Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences faculty members have developed a successful introductory Environmental Geology Laboratory course for undergraduate non-majors that challenges traditional teaching methodology as illustrated in most laboratory manuals. The Environmental Geology lab activities employ active learning methods to engage and challenge students. Crucial to establishing an open learning environment is capturing the attention of non-science majors from the moment they enter the classroom. We use catastrophic ‘gloom and doom’ current events to pique the imagination with images, news stories, and videos. Once our students are hooked, we can further the learning process with use of other teaching methods: an inquiry-based approach that requires students take control of their own learning, a cooperative learning approach that requires the participation of all team members in peer learning, and a problem/case study learning approach that primarily relies on activities distilled from current events. The final outcome is focused on creating innovative methods to communicate the findings to the general public. With the general public being the audience for their communiqué, students are less intimated, more focused, and more involved in solving the problem. During lab sessions, teams of students actively engage in mastering course content and develop essential communication skills while exploring real-world scenarios. These activities allow students to use scientific reasoning and concepts to develop solutions for scenarios such as volcanic eruptions, coastal erosion/sea level rise, flooding or landslide hazards, and then creatively communicate their solutions to the public. For example, during a two

  8. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Hudson, J.; Stephansson, O.

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  9. Do systematic reviews on pediatric topics need special methodological considerations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child health. In this paper, we identify methodological challenges specific to the design, conduct and reporting of pediatric systematic reviews, and propose a process to address these challenges. One fundamental decision at the outset of a systematic review is whether to focus on a pediatric population only, or to include both adult and pediatric populations. Both from the policy and patient care point of view, the appropriateness of interventions and comparators administered to pre-defined pediatric age subgroup is critical. Decisions need to be based on the biological plausibility of differences in treatment effects across the developmental trajectory in children. Synthesis of evidence from different trials is often impaired by the use of outcomes and measurement instruments that differ between trials and are neither relevant nor validated in the pediatric population. Other issues specific to pediatric systematic reviews include lack of pediatric-sensitive search strategies and inconsistent choices of pediatric age subgroups in meta-analyses. In addition to these methodological issues generic to all pediatric systematic reviews, special considerations are required for reviews of health care interventions' safety and efficacy in neonatology, global health, comparative effectiveness interventions and individual participant data meta-analyses. To date, there is no standard approach available to overcome this problem. We propose to develop a consensus-based checklist of essential items which

  10. Spatial agent-based models for socio-ecological systems: challenges and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Filatova, T.; Verburg, P.H.; Parker, D.C.; Stannard, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Departing from the comprehensive reviews carried out in the field, we identify the key challenges that agent-based methodology faces when modeling coupled socio-ecological systems. Focusing primarily on the papers presented in this thematic issue, we review progress in spatial agent-based models

  11. Conceptual and Methodological Problems with Comparative Work on Artificial Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Watumull; Marc D. Hauser; Robert C. Berwick

    2014-01-01

    Several theoretical proposals for the evolution of language have sparked a renewed search for comparative data on human and non-human animal computational capacities. However, conceptual confusions still hinder the field, leading to experimental evidence that fails to test for comparable human competences. Here we focus on two conceptual and methodological challenges that affect the field generally: 1) properly characterizing the computational features of the faculty of language in the narrow...

  12. Methodologies for assessment of power plant ecological effects in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Various types of models or methodologies relevant to the assessment of entrainment, thermal, and impingement impacts of power plant operation in the marine environment are presented. The majority of methodologies available for assessing power plant effects are focused at the organism or population level. The most widely applied approaches for estimating entrainment effects on fish populations are the equivalent adult and trophic-conversion methodologies. Current methods to predict the number of fish and distribution of species impinged consider physical factors of the environment but not the biological or behavorial characteristics of fish. With proper validation, ecosystem-level models that consider aggregate responses of biological components to stress may prove to be a viable approach for investigating power plant ecological effects

  13. Challenges in Using Mix Methods in Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan COJOCARU

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the debates between quantitative and qualitative methods in the evaluation process, analyzes the challenges about methodological mix in terms of credibility and validity of data and tools, and the evaluation findings. Beyond the epistemological contradictions, it seems that, in terms of usefulness, the mixing of methods is a practical solution, along with hybrids theories, able to provide information to improve the sufficiency of the program. Mixing methods is also a wa...

  14. Challenges of characterization of radioactive waste with High composition variability and their consequences measurement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lexa, D.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste characterization is a key step in every nuclear decommissioning project. It normally relies on a combination of facility operational history with results of destructive and non-destructive analysis. A particularly challenging situation arises when historical waste from a nuclear research facility is to be characterized, meaning little or no radiological information is available and the composition of the waste is highly variable. The nuclide vector concept is of limited utility, resulting in increased requirements placed on both the extent and performance of destructive and non-destructive analysis. Specific challenges are illustrated on an example of the decommissioning project underway at the Joint Research Center of the European Commission in Ispra. (author)

  15. Methodologies for Verification and Validation of Space Launch System (SLS) Structural Dynamic Models: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Robert N.

    2018-01-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) is a highly challenging undertaking for SLS structural dynamics models due to the magnitude and complexity of SLS subassemblies and subassemblies. Responses to challenges associated with V&V of Space Launch System (SLS) structural dynamics models are presented in Volume I of this paper. Four methodologies addressing specific requirements for V&V are discussed. (1) Residual Mode Augmentation (RMA). (2) Modified Guyan Reduction (MGR) and Harmonic Reduction (HR, introduced in 1976). (3) Mode Consolidation (MC). Finally, (4) Experimental Mode Verification (EMV). This document contains the appendices to Volume I.

  16. The Adverse Drug Reactions from Patient Reports in Social Media Project: Five Major Challenges to Overcome to Operationalize Analysis and Efficiently Support Pharmacovigilance Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Cedric; Dahamna, Badisse; Guillemin-Lanne, Sylvie; Darmoni, Stefan J; Faviez, Carole; Huot, Charles; Katsahian, Sandrine; Leroux, Vincent; Pereira, Suzanne; Richard, Christophe; Schück, Stéphane; Souvignet, Julien; Lillo-Le Louët, Agnès; Texier, Nathalie

    2017-09-21

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Classical Pharmacovigilance process is limited by underreporting which justifies the current interest in new knowledge sources such as social media. The Adverse Drug Reactions from Patient Reports in Social Media (ADR-PRISM) project aims to extract ADRs reported by patients in these media. We identified 5 major challenges to overcome to operationalize the analysis of patient posts: (1) variable quality of information on social media, (2) guarantee of data privacy, (3) response to pharmacovigilance expert expectations, (4) identification of relevant information within Web pages, and (5) robust and evolutive architecture. This article aims to describe the current state of advancement of the ADR-PRISM project by focusing on the solutions we have chosen to address these 5 major challenges. In this article, we propose methods and describe the advancement of this project on several aspects: (1) a quality driven approach for selecting relevant social media for the extraction of knowledge on potential ADRs, (2) an assessment of ethical issues and French regulation for the analysis of data on social media, (3) an analysis of pharmacovigilance expert requirements when reviewing patient posts on the Internet, (4) an extraction method based on natural language processing, pattern based matching, and selection of relevant medical concepts in reference terminologies, and (5) specifications of a component-based architecture for the monitoring system. Considering the 5 major challenges, we (1) selected a set of 21 validated criteria for selecting social media to support the extraction of potential ADRs, (2) proposed solutions to guarantee data privacy of patients posting on Internet, (3) took into account pharmacovigilance expert requirements with use case diagrams and scenarios, (4) built domain-specific knowledge resources embeding a lexicon, morphological rules, context rules, semantic rules

  17. Developing a Design Methodology for Web 2.0 Mediated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Georgsen, Marianne; Ryberg, Thomas

    In this paper we discuss the notion of a learning methodology and situate this within the wider frame of learning design or ?Designing for Learning?. We discuss existing work within this broad area by trying to categorize different approaches and interpretations and we present our development...... of particular ?mediating design artefacts?. We discuss what can be viewed as a lack of attention paid to integrating the preferred teaching styles and learning philosophies of practitioners into design tools, and present a particular method for learning design; the COllaborative E-learning Design method (Co......Ed). We describe how this method has been adopted as part of a learning methodology building on concepts and models presented in the other symposium papers, in particular those of active, problem based learning and web 2.0-technologies. The challenge of designing on the basis of an explicit learning...

  18. Developing a Design Methodology for Web 2.0 Mediated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Georgsen, Marianne; Ryberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the notion of a learning methodology and situate this within the wider frame of learning design or ?Designing for Learning?. We discuss existing work within this broad area by trying to categorize different approaches and interpretations and we present our development...... of particular ?mediating design artefacts?. We discuss what can be viewed as a lack of attention paid to integrating the preferred teaching styles and learning philosophies of practitioners into design tools, and present a particular method for learning design; the COllaborative E-learning Design method (Co......Ed). We describe how this method has been adopted as part of a learning methodology building on concepts and models presented in the other symposium papers, in particular those of active, problem based learning and web 2.0-technologies. The challenge of designing on the basis of an explicit learning...

  19. D3R Grand Challenge 2: blind prediction of protein-ligand poses, affinity rankings, and relative binding free energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieb, Zied; Liu, Shuai; Gathiaka, Symon; Chiu, Michael; Yang, Huanwang; Shao, Chenghua; Feher, Victoria A.; Walters, W. Patrick; Kuhn, Bernd; Rudolph, Markus G.; Burley, Stephen K.; Gilson, Michael K.; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2018-01-01

    The Drug Design Data Resource (D3R) ran Grand Challenge 2 (GC2) from September 2016 through February 2017. This challenge was based on a dataset of structures and affinities for the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), contributed by F. Hoffmann-La Roche. The dataset contained 102 IC50 values, spanning six orders of magnitude, and 36 high-resolution co-crystal structures with representatives of four major ligand classes. Strong global participation was evident, with 49 participants submitting 262 prediction submission packages in total. Procedurally, GC2 mimicked Grand Challenge 2015 (GC2015), with a Stage 1 subchallenge testing ligand pose prediction methods and ranking and scoring methods, and a Stage 2 subchallenge testing only ligand ranking and scoring methods after the release of all blinded co-crystal structures. Two smaller curated sets of 18 and 15 ligands were developed to test alchemical free energy methods. This overview summarizes all aspects of GC2, including the dataset details, challenge procedures, and participant results. We also consider implications for progress in the field, while highlighting methodological areas that merit continued development. Similar to GC2015, the outcome of GC2 underscores the pressing need for methods development in pose prediction, particularly for ligand scaffolds not currently represented in the Protein Data Bank (http://www.pdb.org), and in affinity ranking and scoring of bound ligands.

  20. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portell, Mariona; Anguera, M Teresa; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Jonsson, Gudberg K

    2015-01-01

    Contextual factors are crucial for evaluative research in psychology, as they provide insights into what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects, and why. Studying behavior in context, however, poses numerous methodological challenges. Although a comprehensive framework for classifying methods seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts was recently proposed, this framework does not contemplate contributions from observational methodology. The aim of this paper is to justify and propose a more general framework that includes observational methodology approaches. Our analysis is rooted in two general concepts: ecological validity and methodological complementarity. We performed a narrative review of the literature on research methods and techniques for studying daily life and describe their shared properties and requirements (collection of data in real time, on repeated occasions, and in natural settings) and classification criteria (eg, variables of interest and level of participant involvement in the data collection process). We provide several examples that illustrate why, despite their higher costs, studies of behavior and experience in everyday contexts offer insights that complement findings provided by other methodological approaches. We urge that observational methodology be included in classifications of research methods and techniques for studying everyday behavior and advocate a renewed commitment to prioritizing ecological validity in behavioral research seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects. PMID:26089708

  1. Archetype modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat

    2018-03-01

    Clinical Information Models (CIMs) expressed as archetypes play an essential role in the design and development of current Electronic Health Record (EHR) information structures. Although there exist many experiences about using archetypes in the literature, a comprehensive and formal methodology for archetype modeling does not exist. Having a modeling methodology is essential to develop quality archetypes, in order to guide the development of EHR systems and to allow the semantic interoperability of health data. In this work, an archetype modeling methodology is proposed. This paper describes its phases, the inputs and outputs of each phase, and the involved participants and tools. It also includes the description of the possible strategies to organize the modeling process. The proposed methodology is inspired by existing best practices of CIMs, software and ontology development. The methodology has been applied and evaluated in regional and national EHR projects. The application of the methodology provided useful feedback and improvements, and confirmed its advantages. The conclusion of this work is that having a formal methodology for archetype development facilitates the definition and adoption of interoperable archetypes, improves their quality, and facilitates their reuse among different information systems and EHR projects. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be also a reference for CIMs development using any other formalism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. God, design, and naturalism: Implications of methodological naturalism in science for science-religion relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bylica

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the implications flowing from adopting methodological naturalism in science, with special emphasis on the relation between science and religion. Methodological naturalism, denying supernatural and teleological explanations, influences the content of scientific theories, and in practice leads to vision of science as compatible with ontological naturalism and in opposition to theism. Ontological naturalism in turn justifies the acceptance of methodological naturalism as the best method to know the reality. If we accept realistic interpretation of scientific theories, then methodological naturalism conflicts science with religion. Theistic evolution does not seem to be a proper way to reconcile Darwinism and methodological naturalism with theism. Many of such propositions are boiled down to deism. Although evolution can be interpreted theistically, it is not the way in which majority of modern scientists and respectable scientific institutions understand it.

  3. Philippine Classroom Teachers as Researchers: Teachers' Perceptions, Motivations, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Mark B.; Barrera, Kenneth Ian B.; Acompanado, Meller M.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores teachers' perceptions and motivations, challenges, and needs of 50 teachers in Agusan del Norte, Philippines with regards to doing research. Methodologies used were survey questionnaire, and group and individual interviews. Findings revealed that teacher-respondents had a positive perceptions towards doing research and its…

  4. Challenges in Distributed Leadership: Evidence from the Perspective of Headteachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Lee, Sui Liang; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden; Jaffri, Hadijah; Said, Mohd Nihra Haruzuan Mohamad; Yasin, Mohd Hanafi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the issues and challenges faced by headteachers in practicing the suggested distributed leadership (DL) approach in three primary schools to their middle layer leaders. Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a case study design and data were collected through semi-structured interviews.…

  5. Organizational information assets classification model and security architecture methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Tamtaji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today's, Organizations are exposed with huge and diversity of information and information assets that are produced in different systems shuch as KMS, financial and accounting systems, official and industrial automation sysytems and so on and protection of these information is necessary. Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released.several benefits of this model cuses that organization has a great trend to implementing Cloud computing. Maintaining and management of information security is the main challenges in developing and accepting of this model. In this paper, at first, according to "design science research methodology" and compatible with "design process at information systems research", a complete categorization of organizational assets, including 355 different types of information assets in 7 groups and 3 level, is presented to managers be able to plan corresponding security controls according to importance of each groups. Then, for directing of organization to architect it’s information security in cloud computing environment, appropriate methodology is presented. Presented cloud computing security architecture , resulted proposed methodology, and presented classification model according to Delphi method and expers comments discussed and verified.

  6. Smart Industry Research in the Field of HRM : Resetting Job Design as an Example of Upcoming Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, Milou Maria Petronella; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruel, Huub; Parry, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter aims to encourage and guide Smart Industry HRM-related research by addressing upcoming challenges developed using a Job Design lens. Methodology/approach – The challenges are constructed based on a developed overview of the existing body of work related to Job Design and a

  7. Methodological challenges in collecting social and behavioural data regarding the HIV epidemic among gay and other men who have sex with men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Frankland, Andrew; Holt, Martin; de Wit, John; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce; Fairley, Christopher; Prestage, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural surveillance and research among gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) commonly relies on non-random recruitment approaches. Methodological challenges limit their ability to accurately represent the population of adult GMSM. We compared the social and behavioural profiles of GMSM recruited via venue-based, online, and respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and discussed their utility for behavioural surveillance. Data from four studies were selected to reflect each recruitment method. We compared demographic characteristics and the prevalence of key indicators including sexual and HIV testing practices obtained from samples recruited through different methods, and population estimates from respondent-driven sampling partition analysis. Overall, the socio-demographic profile of GMSM was similar across samples, with some differences observed in age and sexual identification. Men recruited through time-location sampling appeared more connected to the gay community, reported a greater number of sexual partners, but engaged in less unprotected anal intercourse with regular (UAIR) or casual partners (UAIC). The RDS sample overestimated the proportion of HIV-positive men and appeared to recruit men with an overall higher number of sexual partners. A single-website survey recruited a sample with characteristics which differed considerably from the population estimates with regards to age, ethnically diversity and behaviour. Data acquired through time-location sampling underestimated the rates of UAIR and UAIC, while RDS and online sampling both generated samples that underestimated UAIR. Simulated composite samples combining recruits from time-location and multi-website online sampling may produce characteristics more consistent with the population estimates, particularly with regards to sexual practices. Respondent-driven sampling produced the sample that was most consistent to population estimates, but this methodology is complex and logistically demanding

  8. Interoperability in healthcare: major challenges in the creation of the enterprise environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsköld, L.; Wintell, M.; Lundberg, N.

    2009-02-01

    There is today a lack of interoperability in healthcare although the need for it is obvious. A new healthcare enterprise environment has been deployed for secure healthcare interoperability in the Western Region in Sweden (WRS). This paper is an empirical overview of the new enterprise environment supporting regional shared and transparent radiology domain information in the WRS. The enterprise environment compromises 17 radiology departments, 1,5 million inhabitants, using different RIS and PACS in a joint work-oriented network and additional cardiology, dentistry and clinical physiology departments. More than 160 terabytes of information are stored in the enterprise repository. Interoperability is developed according to the IHE mission, i.e. applying standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level 7 (HL7) to address specific clinical communication needs and support optimal patient care. The entire enterprise environment is implemented and used daily in WRS. The central prerequisites in the development of the enterprise environment in western region of Sweden were: 1) information harmonization, 2) reuse of standardized messages e.g. HL7 v2.x and v3.x, 3) development of a holistic information domain including both text and images, and 4) to create a continuous and dynamic update functionality. The central challenges in this project were: 1) the many different vendors acting in the region and the negotiations with them to apply communication roles/profiles such as HL7 (CDA, CCR), DICOM, and XML, 2) the question of whom owns the data, and 3) incomplete technical standards. This study concludes that to create a workflow that runs within an enterprise environment there are a number of central prerequisites and challenges that needs to be in place. This calls for negotiations on an international, national and regional level with standardization organizations, vendors, health management and health personnel.

  9. A methodology for Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Rajesri; Putra, Krisna

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing execution system is information systems (IS) application that bridges the gap between IS at the top level, namely enterprise resource planning (ERP), and IS at the lower levels, namely the automation systems. MES provides a media for optimizing the manufacturing process as a whole in a real time basis. By the use of MES in combination with the implementation of ERP and other automation systems, a manufacturing company is expected to have high competitiveness. In implementing MES, functional integration -making all the components of the manufacturing system able to work well together, is the most difficult challenge. For this, there has been an industry standard that specifies the sub-systems of a manufacturing execution systems and defines the boundaries between ERP systems, MES, and other automation systems. The standard is known as ISA-95. Although the advantages from the use of MES have been stated in some studies, not much research being done on how to implement MES effectively. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology describing how MES implementation project should be managed, utilising the support of ISA- 95 reference model in the system development process. A proposed methodology was developed based on a general IS development methodology. The developed methodology were then revisited based on the understanding about the specific charateristics of MES implementation project found in an Indonesian steel manufacturing company implementation case. The case study highlighted the importance of applying an effective requirement elicitation method during innitial system assessment process, managing system interfaces and labor division in the design process, and performing a pilot deployment before putting the whole system into operation.

  10. Machine Learning wins the Higgs Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2014-01-01

    The winner of the four-month-long Higgs Machine Learning Challenge, launched on 12 May, is Gábor Melis from Hungary, followed closely by Tim Salimans from the Netherlands and Pierre Courtiol from France. The challenge explored the potential of advanced machine learning methods to improve the significance of the Higgs discovery.   Winners of the Higgs Machine Learning Challenge: Gábor Melis and Tim Salimans (top row), Tianqi Chen and Tong He (bottom row). Participants in the Higgs Machine Learning Challenge were tasked with developing an algorithm to improve the detection of Higgs boson signal events decaying into two tau particles in a sample of simulated ATLAS data* that contains few signal and a majority of non-Higgs boson “background” events. No knowledge of particle physics was required for the challenge but skills in machine learning - the training of computers to recognise patterns in data – were essential. The Challenge, hosted by Ka...

  11. Vaccine prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa: Major advances, remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Harrison, Lee H

    2017-12-06

    Africa historically has had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease with high endemic rates and periodic epidemics. The meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa extending from Senegal to Ethiopia, has experienced large, devastating epidemics. However, dramatic shifts in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease have occurred recently. For instance, meningococcal capsular group A (NmA) epidemics in the meningitis belt have essentially been eliminated by use of conjugate vaccine. However, NmW epidemics have emerged and spread across the continent since 2000; NmX epidemics have occurred sporadically, and NmC recently emerged in Nigeria and Niger. Outside the meningitis belt, NmB predominates in North Africa, while NmW followed by NmB predominate in South Africa. Improved surveillance is necessary to address the challenges of this changing epidemiologic picture. A low-cost, multivalent conjugate vaccine covering NmA and the emergent and prevalent meningococcal capsular groups C, W, and X in the meningitis belt is a pressing need.

  12. Perseverative thought: a robust predictor of response to emotional challenge in generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Seitchik, Allison E; Gentes, Emily L; Jones, Jason D; Hallion, Lauren S

    2011-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, yet the reasons for their comorbidity remain poorly understood. In the present experiment, we tested whether a tendency to engage in negative, repetitive thinking constitutes a common risk process for the two disorders. A mixed sample of adults with comorbid GAD-MDD (n=50), GAD only (n=35), MDD only (n=34), or no lifetime psychopathology (n=35) was administered noncontingent failure and success feedback on consecutive performance tasks. Perseverative thought (PT), measured by negative thought intrusions during a baseline period of focused breathing, emerged as a powerful prospective predictor of responses to this experimental challenge. Participants reporting more frequent negative thought intrusions at baseline, irrespective of thought content or diagnostic status, exhibited a stronger negative response to failure that persisted even after subsequent success. Higher PT over the course of the experiment was associated with later behavioral avoidance, with negative affect and other traits closely linked to anxiety and depression, and with the presence and severity of GAD and MDD. These findings provide evidence for a broadly-defined PT trait that is shared by GAD and MDD and contributes to adverse outcomes in these disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Common methodologies in the evaluation of food allergy: pitfalls and prospects of food allergy prevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC.

  14. Reported challenges in nurse-led randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang Vedelø, Tina; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this integrative literature review was to explore and discuss the methodological challenges nurse researchers report after conducting nurse-led randomised controlled trials in clinical hospital settings. Our research questions were (i) what are the most commonly experienced...... and the clinical nursing staff. Two lessons learned from this integrative review can be highlighted. First, we recommend researchers openly to share their experiences of barriers and challenges. They should describe factors that may have inhibited the desired outcome. Second, efforts to improve the collaboration...... between nurse researchers and clinicians, including education, training and support may increase the success rate and quality of nurse-led studies using the randomised controlled trial....

  15. ManAGEment: the challenges of global age diversity for corporations and governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahon, John F.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the challenges, worldwide of managing an aging workforce. The paper offers suggestions for public policy and for individual organizational approaches to developing, managing and motivating an aging workforce. Design/methodology/approach – The

  16. Integrating Ethics into International Business Teaching: Challenges and Methodologies in the Greater China Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitla, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the process of integrating ethics into the teaching of international business within the Greater China region. An example of how ethics is integrated into a required undergraduate international business course at a Hong Kong based university is presented. The contextual challenges of developing a course for use in the Greater…

  17. The Management of Managers: Challenges in a Small Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John; Boxall, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a study of the management of senior managers. The aim is to describe the ways in which firms in a small economy, such as New Zealand, manage their managers and analyse how they deal with the strategic challenges that are involved. Design/methodology/approach: The study applies the…

  18. The challenges and possibilities of public access defibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringh, Mattias; Hollenberg, Jacob; Palsgaard-Moeller, Thea; Svensson, Leif; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Lippert, Freddy K.; Wissenberg, Mads; Malta Hansen, Carolina; Claesson, Andreas; Viereck, Soren; Zijlstra, Jolande A.; Koster, Rudolph W.; Herlitz, Johan; Blom, Marieke T.; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Tan, Hanno L.; Beesems, Steffie; Hulleman, Michiel; Olasveengen, Theresa M.; Folke, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major health problem that affects approximately four hundred and thousand patients annually in the United States alone. It is a major challenge for the emergency medical system as decreased survival rates are directly proportional to the time delay from

  19. Knowledge and challenges of serodiscordant couples living among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression (51.4%) was the major challenge outlined by respondents followed by social isolation (37.1%). Despite these challenges the respondents exhibited relatively good knowledge on prevention measures as 69.2% resorted to the use of condoms and 92.3% did not share sharp objects. It was also revealed that there ...

  20. Clinical trials: the challenge of recruitment and retention of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Raisa B; Ali, Parveen A

    2010-01-01

    This article, based on the available literature, attempts to discuss the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. The inability to recruit and retain the required participants in a research project poses serious threats to both the internal and the external validity of a research study. Despite serious implications, the issues of recruitment and retention do not receive due attention in research and publications. Literature suggests a lack of coordinated efforts to collect information on the outcomes of recruitment experiences in clinical trials and population studies. Studies often mention the number of participants who refuse to participate; however, the majority of the studies often fail to mention the specific reasons insufficient recruitment or retention of the participants. A methodological paper. Various participant-, context-, environment- and research-related factors are examined that affect the phenomenon of recruitment and retention of the participants in a study. Delayed or inefficient recruitment also has financial and ethical implications. Although there are many pieces of information scattered throughout academic journals on recruitment and retention of participants in research, few authors have dealt with the issue holistically. It is imperative for researchers to understand the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. Appropriate recording and reporting of the problems faced while recruiting and retaining the participants in research studies can help not only in understating the challenge, but will also help in devising the strategies to overcome this problem. This article was an attempt to synthesise and review the available literature on recruitment and retention issues, which demand extensive theoretical and

  1. Equipment Replacement Decision Making: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei (David); Gemar, Mason D.; Machemehl, Randy

    2012-01-01

    The primary function of equipment managers is to replace the right equipment at the right time and at the lowest overall cost. In this paper, the opportunities and challenges associated with equipment replacement optimization (ERO) are discussed in detail. First, a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art and state-of-the practice literature for the ERO problem is conducted. Second, a dynamic programming (DP) based optimization solution methodology is presented to solve the ERO problem. T...

  2. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  3. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherukuru N. W.

    2016-01-01

    As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  4. A methodological framework to determine optimum durations for the construction of soil water characteristic curves using centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vero, Sara E.; Healy, Mark G.; Henry, Tiernan; Creamer, Rachel E.; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; Forrestal, Patrick J.; Richards, Karl G.; Fenton, Owen

    2016-01-01

    During laboratory assessment of the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC), determining equilibrium at various pressures is challenging. This study establishes a methodological framework to identify appropriate experimental duration at each pressure step for the construction of SWCCs via

  5. From Study to Work: Methodological Challenges of a Graduate Destination Survey in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Jacques; Kraak, Andre; Favish, Judy; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2014-01-01

    Current literature proposes several strategies for improving response rates to student evaluation surveys. Graduate destination surveys pose the difficulty of tracing graduates years later when their contact details may have changed. This article discusses the methodology of one such a survey to maximise response rates. Compiling a sample frame…

  6. INTEGRATION CHALLENGES OF UNIVERSITY AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (UIMS TO MOODLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyldyzbek J. Jakshylykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in 2006 an International Ataturk Ala-Too University (IAAU began to adopt internationally recognised Bologna system, which was initiated by the Ministry of Science and Education of Kyrgyz Republic because of problems of managerial and educational problems at universities in Kyrgyzstan. Consequently, IAAU had to improve its information and grading system and created University Information and Manage¬ment System (UIMS, which was developed by the university professional team including the author. At the same time, the university began to apply a Moodle software, which delivers open source management system programs, in order to appropriately manage teaching proc esses and manage courses online. Materials and Methods: the methodological basis of the research are descriptive method, analysis, and comparison. Results: however, the IAAU faced some challenged issues in the application of the two innovation, which was the integration challenges of those Moodle and UIMS. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to demonstrate benefits of Moodle and UIMS linking challenges. at first, this paper informs Moodle functions, features, advantages and disadvantages in a shortly manner and UIMS management features and primary functions, which included six fundamentally crucial processes with some graphical representations. In addition, the analysis and methodologies of two systems through identifying advantages and disadvantages for the possible integ ration. Discussion and Conclusions: at the end, some challenged issues were identified from analysis results, also Moodle and UIMS benefits were demonstrated in the International Ataturk Ala-Too University.

  7. Ising Processing Units: Potential and Challenges for Discrete Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffrin, Carleton James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nagarajan, Harsha [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-05

    The recent emergence of novel computational devices, such as adiabatic quantum computers, CMOS annealers, and optical parametric oscillators, presents new opportunities for hybrid-optimization algorithms that leverage these kinds of specialized hardware. In this work, we propose the idea of an Ising processing unit as a computational abstraction for these emerging tools. Challenges involved in using and bench- marking these devices are presented, and open-source software tools are proposed to address some of these challenges. The proposed benchmarking tools and methodology are demonstrated by conducting a baseline study of established solution methods to a D-Wave 2X adiabatic quantum computer, one example of a commercially available Ising processing unit.

  8. Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

  9. AREVA main steam line break fully coupled methodology based on CATHARE-ARTEMIS - 15496

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Jasserand, L.; Tomatis, D.; Segond, M.; Royere, C.; Sauvage, J.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The CATHARE code developed since 1979 by AREVA, CEA, EDF and IRSN is one of the major thermal-hydraulic system codes worldwide. In order to have at disposal realistic methodologies based on CATHARE for the whole transient and accident analysis in Chapter 15 of Safety Reports, a coupling with the code ARTEMIS was developed. ARTEMIS is the core code in AREVA's new reactor simulator system ARCADIA, using COBRA-FLX to model the thermal-hydraulics in the core. The Fully Coupled Methodology was adapted to the CATHARE-ARTEMIS coupling to perform Main Steam Line Break studies. This methodology, originally applied to the MANTA-SMART-FLICA coupling, is dedicated to Main Steam Line Break transients at zero power. The aim of this paper is to present the coupling between CATHARE and ARTEMIS and the application of the Fully Coupled Methodology in a different code environment. (authors)

  10. Soviet-designed pressurized water reactor symptomatic emergency operating instruction analytical procedure: approach, methodology, development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A symptom approach to the analytical validation of symptom-based EOPs includes: (1) Identification of critical safety functions to the maintenance of fission product barrier integrity; (2) Identification of the symptoms which manifest an impending challenge to critical safety function maintenance; (3) Development of a symptomatic methodology to delineate bounding plant transient response modes; (4) Specification of bounding scenarios; (5) Development of a systematic calculational approach consistent with the objectives of the methodology; (6) Performance of thermal-hydraulic computer code calculations implementing the analytical methodology; (7) Interpretation of the analytical results on the basis of information available to the operator; (8) Application of the results to the validation of the proposed operator actions; (9) Production of a technical basis document justifying the proposed operator actions. (author)

  11. Development and Current Status of Skull-Image Superimposition - Methodology and Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y

    1992-12-01

    This article presents a review of the literature and an evaluation on the development and application of skull-image superimposition technology - both instrumentation and methodology - contributed by a number of scholars since 1935. Along with a comparison of the methodologies involved in the two superimposition techniques - photographic and video - the author characterized the techniques in action and the recent advances in computer image superimposition processing technology. The major disadvantage of conventional approaches is its relying on subjective interpretation. Through painstaking comparison and analysis, computer image processing technology can make more conclusive identifications by direct testing and evaluating the various programmed indices. Copyright © 1992 Central Police University.

  12. Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keqin

    1999-11-01

    The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and

  13. Prospects and Challenges for the Conservation of Farm Animal Genomic Resources, 2015-2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Bruford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy, climate change and market demands. The last decade saw a step change in technological and analytical approaches to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR. These changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and the methodologies needed to exploit new, multidimensional data. The ESF Genomic Resources program final conference addressed these problems attempting to contribute to the development of the research and policy agenda for the next decade. We broadly identified four areas related to methodological and analytical challenges, data management and conservation. The overall conclusion is that there is a need for the use of current state-of-the-art tools to characterise the state of genomic resources in non-commercial and local breeds. The livestock genomic sector, which has been relatively well-organised in applying such methodologies so far, needs to make a concerted effort in the coming decade to enable to the democratisation of the powerful tools that are now at its disposal, and to ensure that they are applied in the context of breed conservation as well as development.

  14. Oral food challenge outcomes in a pediatric tertiary care center

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Elissa M.; Becker, Allan B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral food challenges are the clinical standard for diagnosis of food allergy. Little data exist on predictors of oral challenge failure and reaction severity. Methods A retrospective chart review was done on all pediatric patients who had oral food challenges in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic from 2008 to 2010. Results 313 oral challenges were performed, of which the majority were to peanut (105), egg (71), milk (41) and tree nuts (29). There were 104 (33%) oral challenge...

  15. Methodological challenges in following up patients of a hospital child protection team: is there a recruitment bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lips Ulrich

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study are to describe the methodological challenges in recruiting a follow-up sample of children referred to an interdisciplinary hospital child protection team (CPT and to compare participating versus non-participating groups on several demographic variables and maltreatment characteristics. Methods Of the 319 in- and outpatients referred to the CPT at University Children's Hospital Zurich from 2005–2006 a sample of 180 children was drawn to contact for a follow-up. The children and their parents were asked to participate in a face-to-face interview at the hospital; in 42 cases the children and parents consented to do so. Alternatively, the parents could take part in a telephone interview (n = 39. Non-participation resulted because no contact or adequate communication in German, French, or English could be established (n = 49 or because the parents or children refused to participate (n = 50. Results Participants and non-participants did not differ significantly in mean child age at follow-up, gender, family status, place of residence, certainty and type of maltreatment, and type of perpetrator. However, the child's nationality had a significant impact: Percentages of foreign nationals were higher in the fully participating group (45%; n = 19 and the non-contactable group (53%; n = 26 and significantly lower in the refusal (26%; n = 10 and the telephone interview group (18%; n = 9. Although a high percentage of families had moved in the few years since the CPT intervention (32%; n = 57, the percentage of moves was not significantly higher in non-participants compared to participants. Conclusions Further research is needed to support these results in different national backgrounds and to test for biases in variables not included – especially socioeconomic status. This includes gathering more detailed information on non-participants, while respecting ethical boundaries. Overall, the fact that only child

  16. Plain language and organisational challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Changing the language in an organization is a major organizational change. In this article, I discuss some of the organizational challenges for one specific language change implementation, taking the stance that language change must be treated as any other organizational change for it to have an ...

  17. Sustainable Supply of Resources and Energy is a Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Michael; Ask, Maria; Bruckman, Viktor; Hangx, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483579X; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The European Geosciences Union brings together geoscientists from all over Europe and the rest of the world, covering all disciplines of the earth sciences. This geoscientific inter- and multi-disciplinarity is needed to tackle the challenges of the future. A major challenge for humankind is to

  18. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Implementing Competency-Based Education: Challenges, Strategies, and a Decision-Making Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoo, Amie; Barrows, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The number of competency-based education (CBE) degree programs has increased rapidly over the past five years, yet there is little research on CBE program development. This study utilized conceptual models of higher education change and a qualitative methodology to analyze the strategies and challenges in implementing CBE business degree programs…

  20. Mechatronic Design - Still a Considerable Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2011-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order to investigate, if the challenges...... can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during the design task...