WorldWideScience

Sample records for major long-term shareowners

  1. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  2. Long-term relationships of major macro-variables in a resource-related economic model of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, Charles; Hoa, T. van

    1993-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a simple cointegration analysis applied to bivariate causality models using data on resource output, oil prices, terms of trade, current account and output growth to investigate the long-term relationships among these major macroeconomic aggregates in a resource-related economic model of Australia. For the period 1960-1990, the empirical evidence indicates that these five macro-variables, as formulated in our model, are not random walks. In addition, resource production and oil prices are significantly cointegrated, and they are also significantly cointegrated with the current account, terms of trade and economic growth. These findings provide support to the long-term adjustments foundation of our resource-related model. (author)

  3. Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lim, Youn-Hee; Bae, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myounghee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have associated short-term air pollution exposure with depression. Although an animal study showed an association between long-term exposure to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and depression, epidemiological studies assessing the long-term association are scarce. Objective: We aimed to determine the association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: A total of 27,270 participants 15–79 years of age who maintained an address within the same districts in Seoul, Republic of Korea, throughout the entire study period (between 2002 and 2010) and without a previous MDD diagnosis were analyzed. We used three district-specific exposure indices as measures of long-term PM2.5 exposure. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounding factors and measured at district and individual levels were constructed. We further conducted stratified analyses according to underlying chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results: The risk of MDD during the follow-up period (2008–2010) increased with an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 in 2007 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.78], PM2.5 between 2007 and 2010 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.49), and 12-month moving average of PM2.5 until an event or censor (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.90). The association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and MDD was greater in participants with underlying chronic diseases than in participants without these diseases. Conclusion: Long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of MDD among the general population. Individuals with underlying chronic diseases are more vulnerable to long-term PM2.5 exposure. Citation: Kim KN, Lim YH, Bae HJ, Kim M, Jung K, Hong YC. 2016. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and major depressive disorder in a community-based urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1547–1553; http://dx.doi.org/10

  4. Long-term salinity tolerance is accompanied by major restructuring of the coral bacterial microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2016-02-03

    Scleractinian corals are assumed to be stenohaline osmoconformers, although they are frequently subjected to variations in seawater salinity due to precipitation, freshwater runoff, and other processes. Observed responses to altered salinity levels include differences in photosynthetic performance, respiration, and increased bleaching and mortality of the coral host and its algal symbiont, but a study looking at bacterial community changes is lacking. Here we exposed the coral Fungia granulosa to strongly increased salinity levels in short- and long-term experiments to disentangle temporal and compartment effects of the coral holobiont (i.e. coral host, symbiotic algae, and associated bacteria). Our results show a significant reduction in calcification and photosynthesis, but a stable microbiome after short-term exposure to high salinity levels. By comparison, long-term exposure yielded unchanged photosynthesis levels and visually healthy coral colonies indicating long-term acclimation to high salinity levels that were accompanied by a major coral microbiome restructuring. Importantly, a bacterium in the family Rhodobacteraceae was succeeded by Pseudomonas veronii as the numerically most abundant taxon. Further, taxonomy-based functional profiling indicates a shift in the bacterial community towards increased osmolyte production, sulfur oxidation, and nitrogen fixation. Our study highlights that bacterial community composition in corals can change within days to weeks under altered environmental conditions, where shifts in the microbiome may enable adjustment of the coral to a more advantageous holobiont composition.

  5. Long-term salinity tolerance is accompanied by major restructuring of the coral bacterial microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthig, Till; Ochsenkühn, Michael A; Roik, Anna; van der Merwe, Riaan; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-03-01

    Scleractinian corals are assumed to be stenohaline osmoconformers, although they are frequently subjected to variations in seawater salinity due to precipitation, freshwater run-off and other processes. Observed responses to altered salinity levels include differences in photosynthetic performance, respiration and increased bleaching and mortality of the coral host and its algal symbiont, but a study looking at bacterial community changes is lacking. Here, we exposed the coral Fungia granulosa to strongly increased salinity levels in short- and long-term experiments to disentangle temporal and compartment effects of the coral holobiont (i.e. coral host, symbiotic algae and associated bacteria). Our results show a significant reduction in calcification and photosynthesis, but a stable microbiome after short-term exposure to high-salinity levels. By comparison, long-term exposure yielded unchanged photosynthesis levels and visually healthy coral colonies indicating long-term acclimation to high-salinity levels that were accompanied by a major coral microbiome restructuring. Importantly, a bacterium in the family Rhodobacteraceae was succeeded by Pseudomonas veronii as the numerically most abundant taxon. Further, taxonomy-based functional profiling indicates a shift in the bacterial community towards increased osmolyte production, sulphur oxidation and nitrogen fixation. Our study highlights that bacterial community composition in corals can change within days to weeks under altered environmental conditions, where shifts in the microbiome may enable adjustment of the coral to a more advantageous holobiont composition. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Long-term sequential deferiprone-deferoxamine versus deferiprone alone for thalassaemia major patients: a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Aurelio; Vitrano, Angela; Capra, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    A multicentre randomized open-label trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of long-term sequential deferiprone-deferoxamine (DFO-DFP) versus DFP alone to treat thalassaemia major (TM). DFP at 75 mg/kg, divided into three oral daily doses, for 4 d/week and DFO by subcutaneous infusion (8-1...

  7. Long-term outcome of major depressive disorder in psychiatric patients is variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, K Mikael; Holma, Irina A K; Melartin, Tarja K; Rytsälä, Heikki J; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2008-02-01

    The prevailing view of outcome of major depressive disorder (MDD), based on mostly inpatient cohorts sampled from tertiary centers, emphasizes chronicity and frequent recurrences. We investigated the long-term outcome of a regionally representative psychiatric MDD cohort comprising mainly outpatients. The Vantaa Depression Study included 163 patients with DSM-IV MDD (71.5% of those eligible) diagnosed using structured and semistructured interviews and followed up at 6 months, 18 months, and 5 years with a life chart between February 1, 1997, and April 30, 2004. The effects of comorbid disorders and other predictors on outcome were comprehensively investigated. Over the 5-year follow-up, 98.8% of patients achieved a symptom state below major depressive episode (MDE) criteria, and 88.4% reached full remission, with the median time to full remission being 11.0 months. Nearly one third (29.3%) had no recurrences, whereas 30.0% experienced 1, 12.9% experienced 2, and 27.9% experienced 3 or more recurrences. Preceding dysthymic disorder (p = .028), cluster C personality disorder (p = .041), and longer MDE duration prior to entry (p = .011) were the most significant predictors of longer time in achieving full remission. Severity of MDD and comorbidity, especially social phobia, predicted probability of, shorter time to, and number of recurrences. Previous literature on mostly inpatient MDD may have, by generalizing from patients with the most severe psychopathology, overemphasized chronicity of MDD. The long-term outcome of MDD in psychiatric care is variable, with about one tenth of patients having poor, one third having intermediate, and one half having favorable outcomes. In addition to known predictors, cluster C personality disorders and social phobia warrant further attention as predictors of MDD outcome among outpatients.

  8. The effects of co-morbidity in defining major depression subtypes associated with long-term course and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, K. J.; van Loo, H. M.; Cai, T.; Fava, M.; Gruber, M. J.; Li, J.; de Jonge, P.; Nierenberg, A. A.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rose, S.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoevers, R. A.; Wilcox, M. A.; Alonso, J.; Bromet, E. J.; Bunting, B.; Florescu, S. E.; Fukao, A.; Gureje, O.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y. Q.; Karam, A. N.; Levinson, D.; Medina Mora, M. E.; Posada-Villa, J.; Scott, K. M.; Taib, N. I.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although variation in the long-term course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing symptom subtype distinctions, recent research suggests that prediction can be improved by using machine learning methods. However, it is not known whether these

  9. Long Term Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Gokdag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to conduct systematic review the articles on long term effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for treatment of major depressive disorder. Articles in English and Turkish published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (January were searched in national and international databases. The articles that did not include follow-up studies were excluded. Although the main aim of this study is to evaluate permanent effect of the cognitive behavioral group therapy, 21 articles that met the criteria were examined also in terms of some other variables such as research method, therapy characteristics and post test results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is effective for major depressive disorder and post therapy gains are maintained for a long time. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 23-38

  10. The French program on the spent nuclear fuel long term evolution: Major results, uncertainties and new requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, Cecile; Poinssot, Christophe; Gras, Jean-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The 1991 Radioactive Waste Management Act established a framework in France for research activities on nuclear waste. Within this context, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique initiated a research program in 1999 to investigate the long-term behaviour of commercial spent nuclear fuel under the PRECCI project (from the French acronym for Research Project on Long-Term Evolution of Spent Fuel Packages), supported by the French electrical utility EDF and partially by FRAMATOME ANP. The scientific and technical studies performed within the project aim to address the operational issues of the spent fuel end-of-life. Within the context of the law which ends in 2006, the major part of the studies focused on the behaviour of the spent fuel (SF) in interim long-term dry storage and deep geological disposal. The operational questions initially identified concern (i) the retrievability of spent fuel assemblies at the end of the interim period of storage, (ii) the feasibility of treatment after the period of storage, (iii) the radionuclide source terms for SF in storage and geological disposal and (iv) the compatibility between storage and a subsequent geological disposal. Therefore the long-term evolution of the irradiated fuel is studied under the various boundary conditions encountered during storage and geological disposal: - in a closed system; this condition corresponds to the nominal scenario during storage and to the first confinement phase in disposal conditions (with a duration of 10,000 years in the reference scenario); - it consists in assessing the effects of the residual temperature and high radioactivity on the chemical and physical properties of the spent fuel pellets; - some of the studies are also dedicated to the mechanical behaviour of the cladding and structural materials of the assemblies; - in air, it refers to an incidental loss of confinement during storage or to a breaching of the canister before the site re-saturation in geological disposal

  11. Long-term odor recognition memory in unipolar major depression and Alzheimer׳s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; Mondon, Karl; El-Hage, Wissam; Desmidt, Thomas; Jaafari, Nematollah; Belzung, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Hommet, Caroline; Atanasova, Boriana

    2014-12-30

    Major depression and Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) are often observed in the elderly. The identification of specific markers for these diseases could improve their screening. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term odor recognition memory in depressed and AD patients, with a view to identifying olfactory markers of these diseases. We included 20 patients with unipolar major depressive episodes (MDE), 20 patients with mild to moderate AD and 24 healthy subjects. We investigated the cognitive profile and olfactory memory capacities (ability to recognize familiar and unfamiliar odors) of these subjects. Olfactory memory test results showed that AD and depressed patients were characterized by significantly less correct responses and more wrong responses than healthy controls. Detection index did not differ significantly between patients with major depression and those with AD when the results were analyzed for all odors. However, MDE patients displayed an impairment of olfactory memory for both familiar and unfamiliar odors, whereas AD subjects were impaired only in the recognition of unfamiliar odors, with respect to healthy subjects. If preservation of olfactory memory for familiar stimuli in patients with mild to moderate AD is confirmed, this test could be used in clinical practice as a complementary tool for diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Essays on long-term mortality and interest rate risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation comprises a study of long-term risks which play a major role in actuarial science. In Part I we analyse long-term mortality risk and its impact on consumption and investment decisions of economic agents, while Part II focuses on the mathematical modelling of long-term interest

  13. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  14. The predictive value of mental health for long-term sickness absence: the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjarsbech, Pernille U; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2013-09-17

    Questionnaires are valuable for population surveys of mental health. Different survey instruments may however give different results. The present study compares two mental health instruments, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), in regard to their prediction of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data was collected from N = 4153 Danish employees. The questionnaire included the MDI and the MHI-5. The information of long-term sickness absence was obtained from a register. We used Cox regression to calculate covariance adjusted hazard ratios for long-term sickness absence for both measures. Both the MDI and the MHI-5 had a highly significant prediction of long-term sickness absence. A one standard deviation change in score was associated with an increased risk of long-term sickness absence of 27% for the MDI and 37% for the MHI-5. When both measures were included in the same analysis, the MHI-5 performed best. In general population surveys, the MHI-5 is a better predictor of long-term sickness absence than the MDI.

  15. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  16. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  17. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Gabe; Hees, Hiske L.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Lagerveld, Suzanne E.; Schene, Aart H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians'

  18. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: A concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  19. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  20. Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Helena; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny A

    2013-10-01

    To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades. Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999. Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group. The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.

  1. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  2. Long-term efficacy of reverse pull headgear therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Andrew P; Sarver, David M; Proffit, William R

    2006-11-01

    To add to the data for long-term reverse pull headgear (RPHG) outcomes and further explore possible variables that could be predictors of long-term failure. Cephalometric radiographs of 41 Class III malocclusion children treated with RPHG (face mask) were evaluated before and immediately after treatment; at 5 years posttreatment; and, for 18 patients, at 10 years posttreatment. Patients were assigned to success or failure groups according to positive or negative overjet at the longest available recall. Seventy-five percent of the patients maintained positive overjet, whereas 25% outgrew the correction. In a stepwise discriminant analysis, a large mandible and vertical positioning of the maxilla and mandible so that mandibular growth would be projected more horizontally were the major indicators of unfavorable later mandibular growth. Patients who experienced downward-backward rotation of the mandible during RPHG treatment were more likely to be categorized in the failure group. The age at which treatment began had no effect on long-term success and failure for patients younger than 10 years, but the percentage of successful treatment decreased after that age. When RPHG treatment is used for all but the most obviously prognathic children to correct anterior cross-bite in the early mixed dentition, positive overjet is maintained long-term in 70%-75% of cases, whereas 25%-30% of cases relapse into reverse overjet mainly because of increased horizontally directed and often late mandibular growth. Up to age 10, the time at which RPHG treatment began does not appear to be a major factor in long-term success in maintaining positive overjet.

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE: LONG-TERM TRENDS AND SHORT-TERM OSCILLATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin-quan; ZHANG Xin; QIAN Wei-hong

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature reconstruction and instrumental data for the past 1000 years shows that climate change in the last millennium includes long-term trends and various oscillations. Two long-term trends and the quasi-70-year oscillation were detected in the global temperature series for the last 140 years and the NH millennium series. One important feature was emphasized that temperature decreases slowly but it increases rapidly based on the analysis of different series. Benefits can be obtained of climate change from understanding various long-term trends and oscillations. Millennial temperature proxies from the natural climate system and time series of nonlinear model system are used in understanding the natural climate change and recognizing potential benefits by using the method of wavelet transform analysis. The results from numerical modeling show that major oscillations contained in numerical solutions on the interdecadal timescale are consistent with that of natural proxies. It seems that these oscillations in the climate change are not directly linked with the solar radiation as an external forcing. This investigation may conclude that the climate variability at the interdecadal timescale strongly depends on the internal nonlinear effects in the climate system.

  4. Long-term Consequences of Childhood ADHD on Criminal Activities*

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason; Wolfe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether childhood mental illness has long term consequences in terms of criminal behavior has been little studied, yet it could have major consequences for both the individual and society more generally. In this paper, we focus on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent mental conditions in school-age children, to examine the long-term effects of childhood mental illness on criminal activities, controlling for a rich set of individual, family...

  5. Long-term allocation of power from the Snettisham Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Alaska Power Administration (APA) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0839) evaluating the Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project that establishes long-term allocation and sales of power. The proposed long-term sales contract will replace a 20-year sales agreement that expires at the end of December, 1993. The EA evaluates the proposed alternative and the no action alternative. The proposed alternative replaces the expiring contract with a new 20-year contract with the same terms, conditions and allocation as the previous long-term contract. No other alternatives were developed, as there is only one utility in the Juneau area. The divestiture of this Federal project is expected to be approved by Congress; the present contractor would then assume the ownership and operation of the Snettisham Project. The EA identified no actions associated with the proposal that will cause significant environmental or socioeconomic impacts. The Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project deals with the replacement of an expiring contract. The Final Marketing Plan does not include the addition of any major new resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters. No changes in rates are proposed in the Final Marketing Plan

  6. Customer loyalty in the South African long-term insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon du Plessis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, two-way communication and conflict handling on intentional customer loyalty via Customer Relationship Management (CRM as the intervening variable within the South African long-term insurance environment. Primary data were gathered using a questionnaire, with items referring to Customer Relationship Management, customer loyalty, two-way communication and conflict handling. The sample consisted of 254 customers in four customer walk-in centres of a long-term insurance provider in South Africa. Data were factor-analysed. One independent variable, conflict handling, exerted a statistically significant positive influence on the intervening variable (CRM, whilst two-way communication exerted a statistically significant negative influence on the intervening variable. This variable (CRM positively influenced the dependent variable (customer loyalty. If long-term insurance organisations communicate timeously and accurately, and are skilled in conflict handling, greater loyalty will be created amongst customers. The study revealed that the majority of customers (51.53% strongly agree that two-way communication is an important dimension that underpins Customer Relationship Management and their relationship with a long-term insurance organisation. The empirical results indicate a negative relationship between the perceived two-way communication by a long-term insurance organisation and CRM at the insurance provider in South Africa. In terms of conflict handling, the study revealed that the majority of customers (45.69% strongly agree that conflict handling is an important dimension that underpins Customer Relationship Management and their relationship with a long-term insurance organisation. The empirical results indicate a positive relationship between perceived conflict handling by a long-term insurance provider and CRM at the organisation in South

  7. New Developments in Long-Term Downhole Monitoring Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kück

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term observation of active geological processes is a major research goal in an increasing number of scientific drilling projects. An extended monitoring phase within a potentially hostile environment (e.g., temperature, pressure, salinity requires new long-lasting and robust instrumentation currently unavailable from either industry or academia. Extended exposure of instrument packages to extreme conditions will typically cause seals to weaken and fail,electronic parts to break under permanent load, and sensors to degrade or develop strong drift. In the framework of scientific exploration, there are currently several major research projects targeting fault zone drilling and in situ measurements to monitor physical and chemical conditions before, during, and after seismic events. Planning has now begun for tool development, testing, and continuous long-term monitoring for the San Andreas Fault Zone Observatory at Depth, SAFOD (Parkfi eld, Calif., U.S.A.; See article on page 32..

  8. Fondaparinux in the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Raffaele; Amitrano, Maria; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Mangiacapra, Sara; López-Jiménez, Luciano; Falgá, Conxita; García-Bragado, Fernando; Piovella, Chiara; Prandoni, Paolo; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Even in the absence of evidence on its long-term efficacy and safety, a number of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) receive long-term therapy with fondaparinux alone in everyday practice. We used the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad Tromboembólica (RIETE) registry to compare the rate of VTE recurrences and major bleeding at 10 and 90 days in patients with and without cancer. For long-term therapy, fondaparinux was compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in patients without cancer and with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in those with cancer. Of 47,378 patients recruited, 46,513 were initially treated with heparin, 865 with fondaparinux. Then, 263 patients (78 with cancer) were treated for at least 3 months with fondaparinux. After propensity-score matching, there were no differences between patients receiving initial therapy with heparin or fondaparinux. Among patients with cancer, there were no differences between fondaparinux and LMWH. Among patients without cancer, the long-term use of fondaparinux was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding (3.24 % vs. 0.95 %, p<0.05). An unexpected high rate of major bleeding was observed in non-cancer patients treated with long-term fondaparinux. Our small sample does not allow to derive relevant conclusions on the use of fondaparinux in cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  10. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  11. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  12. Comparison of major depressive disorder and subthreshold depression among older adults in community long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Jin; Hasche, Leslie K; Choi, Sunha; Proctor, Enola K; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study extends existing knowledge regarding the continuum between major depression (MD) and subthreshold depression (SD) by examining differences in symptomology and associative factors for a subpopulation of older adults with functional disability. Our sample consisted of clients age 60 and above entering public community long term care derived from the baseline survey of a longitudinal study (315 non-depressed, 74 MD, and 221 SD). We used the Diagnostic Interview Schedule to establish diagnoses of MD, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess SD, and other self-report measures to explore potential associative factors of demographics, comorbidity, social support, and stressors. No differences in CES-D identified symptoms occurred between the two groups. MD and SD were both associated with lower education, poorer social support, more severe medical conditions, and higher stress when compared to non-depressed older adults. Younger age and being female were associated solely with MD; whereas, worse perceived health and more trouble affording food were associated solely with SD. The only associative factor significantly different between MD and SD was age. Those with MD were more likely to be younger than those with SD. Our findings of symptom profiles and associative factors lend support to the continuum notion of depression. Identification of only older adults within the community long-term care service system who meet criteria for MD would leave many older adults, who also face multiple comorbidities, high levels of stress and social isolation, and substantial depressive symptoms undiagnosed and untreated.

  13. Peripheral arteriovenous fistula as vascular access for long-term chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, Oleksiy O; Kostyuk, Oleksandr G; Tkachuk, Tetyana V

    To provide long-term vascular access in clinical oncology peripheral forearm veins (up to 95% of patients in Ukraine), central venous access and "complete implanted vascular systems" are used most often. Many oncology patients have contraindications to catheterization of superior vena cava. Besides, exploitation of central veins is associated with potential technical and infectious complications. The aim - to study short-term and long-term results of arteriovenous fistula exploitation as vascular access for continuous anticancer therapy. Peripheral venous bed status in 41 oncology patients taking long-term chemotherapy treatment is analyzed in the article. Doppler sonography, morphologic and immune histochemical analyses were used in the study. Doppler sonography found qualitative and quantitative changes in forearm veins at different time periods after initiation of chemotherapy in the majority of patients. The major morphologic manifestations of venous wall damage were chemical phlebitis, local or extended hardening of venous wall, venous thrombosis and extravasations with necrosis and subsequent paravasal tissue sclerosis. Alternative vascular access created in 12 patients completely met the adequacy criteria (safety, multiple use, longevity, realization of the designed therapy program). The conclusion was made about inapplicability of forearm veins for long-term administration of cytostatic agents. If it is impossible to use central veins, arteriovenous fistula can become an alternative vascular access.

  14. Long-term outcome of craniopharyngioma in children. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, Takashi; Okada, Masaki; Miyake, Keisuke; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The treatment for pediatric craniopharyngioma remains challenging and controversial. Although this tumor is histologically benign, the treatments include radical surgery, conservative surgery, radiotherapy, intracystic chemotherapy and multimodality approaches. In addition, the long-term functional outcomes including visual function, endocrine function, cognitive function, hypothalamic function, and quality of life are complex and major problems among survivors. In this paper, we reviewed the recent treatments for pediatric craniopharyngioma and the long-term outcomes after treatment in literatures. (author)

  15. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  16. Ordinary kriging approach to predicting long-term particulate matter concentrations in seven major Korean cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Young Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Cohort studies of associations between air pollution and health have used exposure prediction approaches to estimate individual-level concentrations. A common prediction method used in Korean cohort studies is ordinary kriging. In this study, performance of ordinary kriging models for long-term particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in diameter (PM10 concentrations in seven major Korean cities was investigated with a focus on spatial prediction ability. Methods We obtained hourly PM10 data for 2010 at 226 urban-ambient monitoring sites in South Korea and computed annual average PM10 concentrations at each site. Given the annual averages, we developed ordinary kriging prediction models for each of the seven major cities and for the entire country by using an exponential covariance reference model and a maximum likelihood estimation method. For model evaluation, cross-validation was performed and mean square error and R-squared (R2 statistics were computed. Results Mean annual average PM10 concentrations in the seven major cities ranged between 45.5 and 66.0 μg/m3 (standard deviation=2.40 and 9.51 μg/m3, respectively. Cross-validated R2 values in Seoul and Busan were 0.31 and 0.23, respectively, whereas the other five cities had R2 values of zero. The national model produced a higher crossvalidated R2 (0.36 than those for the city-specific models. Conclusions In general, the ordinary kriging models performed poorly for the seven major cities and the entire country of South Korea, but the model performance was better in the national model. To improve model performance, future studies should examine different prediction approaches that incorporate PM10 source characteristics.

  17. Urbanization accelerates long-term salinization and alkalinization of fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Duan, S.; Doody, T.; Haq, S.; Smith, R. M.; Newcomer Johnson, T. A.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Gorman, J. K.; Bowman, N.; Mayer, P. M.; Wood, K. L.; Belt, K.; Stack, W.

    2017-12-01

    Human dominated land-use increases transport a major ions in streams due to anthropogenic salts and accelerated weathering. We show long-term trends in calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, and hardness over 50 years in the Baltimore metropolitan region and elsewhere. We also examine how major ion concentrations have increased significantly with impervious surface cover in watersheds across land use. Base cations show strong relationships with acid anions, which illustrates the coupling of major biogeochemical cycles in urban watersheds over time. Longitudinal patterns in major ions can also show increasing trends from headwaters to coastal waters, which suggests coupled biogeochemical cycles over space. We present new results from manipulative experiments and long-term monitoring across different urban regions regarding patterns and processes of salinization and alkalinization. Overall, our work demonstrates that urbanization dramatically increases major ions, ionic strength, and pH over decades from headwaters to coastal waters, which impacts the integrity of aquatic life, infrastructure, drinking water, and coastal ocean alkalinization.

  18. Long term contracts signed in Slovak timber business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The Slovak timber business is changing. The state-owned company, SR Forests, which cuts more then 50% of Slovak timber has signed long term agreements with major domestic timber processing companies - Smrecina, the Rettenmeier Tatra Timber saw mill in Liptovsky Mikulas and two paper mills - Mondi SCP Ruzomberok and Kappa Sturovo. In the past, only quarterly contracts were signed. Now, for the first time, two-year contracts have been signed that should help the timber processing industry and the forestry sector. The General Director of Lesy SR (SR Forests), Karol Vins, hopes for better sale prices. Company headquarters wants to maintain better control of prices than under the old system of timber sales by its branches. In the opinion of the General Director of the Forestry Section at the Ministry of Agriculture, long term contracts will guarantee a stable delivery of timber to processing companies, giving investors in new production capacity a better position in negotiations with banks regarding financing. According to K. Vins, long term contracts have so far only been negotiated with major timber processing companies which are mostly controlled by foreign capital and therefore have good payment discipline. The Association of the Timber Processing Industry is unhappy regarding developments and Lesy SR has not invited domestic companies to these negotiations

  19. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  20. A Comparison of the Long Term Interdependence of Southeast Asian Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisul Islam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the equity market crisis contagion in major Asian economic markets. A comparative assessment of Asian markets during the Asian Financial Crisis and Global Financial crisis may clearly identify the changing nature of long term integration of major Asian markets. The selection criteria of specific Asian markets of different peripheries depend particularly on the roles and structure of these markets. The impact of the global financial contagion and the lingering financial linkage in the aftermath of crisis will explain the reaction of the majority of Asian markets to global linkage. While majority of the studies focused on dynamic short term association in European and MENA contagions in the post global financial crisis period; after the global financial crisis, attention paid to long term Asian contagion adds new perspective to hitherto disorganized theories.

  1. Long-term complications in Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Barista, Ibrahim; Ulger, Sukran; Celik, Ismail; Selek, Ugur; Güllü, Ibrahim; Yildiz, Ferah; Kars, Ayse; Ozisik, Yavuz; Tekuzman, Gülten

    2012-01-01

    Background. Although patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) achieve prolonged survival, long-term complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among long-term survivors of HL. Methods. We retrospectively evaluated long-term complications in 336 HL survivors treated between January 1990 and January 2006 at the Department of Medical Oncology of the Hacettepe University Institute of Oncology who were >16 years old at presentation. All patients were regularly followed up every 3 months for the first 2 years after complete response, biannually for 3 years, and annually after 5 years. Results. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. The mean age (±SD) of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 35.7 ± 13.1 years. The male to female ratio was 61%/39%. During follow-up, 29 second malignancies (8.6%) were diagnosed in 28 patients with HL; 22 were solid tumors and 7 were hematological malignancies. Forty-seven (14.0%) of all patients with HL were found to have thyroid abnormalities. During follow-up, 54 (16.1%) patients developed cardiovascular complications. Overall, 29 (8.6%) patients developed late pulmonary toxicities. The cumulative number of chronic viral infections was 13 (3.9%). Conclusions. Long-term survivors of HL need to be properly followed up not only for disease control but also for evaluation of possible late morbidities to minimize the consequences.

  2. Comparative analysis of the long-term results of treatment in patients with Stages I-IIa breast cancer in relation to major prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Efimkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the long-term results of treatment in patients with Stages I-IIa breast cancer in relation to major prognostic factors re- vealed poor morphological factors that greatly influenced the lifespan of female patients, such as tumor invasion along the neural fibers, tumor necrosis, cancer emboli in the lymph gaps and vessels, vascular tumor invasion.

  3. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  4. Long-Term Effects of the Family Check-Up in Public Secondary School on Diagnosed Major Depressive Disorder in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Arin M; Dishion, Thomas J

    2017-03-01

    Given the public health importance of depression, the identification of prevention programs with long-term effects on reducing the rate of depression is of critical importance, as is the examination of factors that may moderate the magnitude of such prevention effects. This study examines the impact of the Family Check-Up, delivered in public secondary schools beginning in sixth grade, on the development of major depression in adulthood (aged 28-30). The multilevel intervention program included (a) a universal classroom-based intervention focused on problem solving and peer relationship skills, (b) the Family Check-Up (selected), a brief assessment-based intervention designed to motivate parents to improve aspects of family functioning when warranted, and (c) family management treatment (indicated), focused on improving parenting skills. Demographic (gender and ethnicity) and baseline risk factors (family conflict, academic problems, antisocial behavior, and peer deviance) were examined as possible moderators in logistic regression analyses. Intervention effects on depression were moderated by baseline family conflict and academic performance, with stronger intervention effects for youth with low grade point averages and from low-conflict families at baseline. Such findings extend the emerging literature on prevention programs with long-term effects on depression, and highlight directions for future research to enhance such effects.

  5. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  6. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  7. Designing indicators of long-term energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van Arkel, W.G.; Boots, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, so far amazingly little research work has been undertaken to construct meaningful indicators of long-run energy supply security for a particular nation or region. Currently, in addressing energy supply security, policy makers tend to emphasise short-term supply disruptions. In contrast, this pre-study accords with the broader Sustainability Outlook in considering the long-term perspective. This report starts with taking stock, in a concise way, of the official EU energy outlook and issues related to the opportunities to administer changes in the energy mix at the level of major energy use categories. Then a brief survey of relevant literature is made on long-term strategies to ensure survival of systems - be it biological, social, etc. - in an environment largely characterised by high uncertainty and a lot of unchartered territory. We found the work of Andrew Stirling very inspiring in this context. Based on his work and considering the limitations of the present research activity, we retained the Shannon index as the best 'simple' indicator of diversity. In the core of the report, the Shannon index is elaborated into four indicators of long-term energy supply security. Stepwise, additional aspects of long-term energy supply security are introduced. These aspects are: Diversification of energy sources in energy supply; Diversification of imports with respect to imported energy sources; Long-term political stability in regions of origin; The resource base in regions of origin, including the home region/country itself. After small adjustments to allow for data availability, these indicators were applied to the reference year 2030 of four long-term scenarios with data of base year 1995 and projections for underlying variables provided by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). Preliminary interpretation of the results suggests the usefulness of the indicators presented in this report. A second activity undertaken in this report was

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder increases sensitivity to long term losses among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Maciuba, Britta; Vaughan, Christopher; Paulus, Martin P; Dunlop, Boadie W

    2013-01-01

    Decisions under risk and with outcomes that are delayed in time are ubiquitous in real life and can have a significant impact on the health and wealth of the decision-maker. Despite its potential relevance for real-world choices, the degree of aberrant risky and intertemporal decision-making in patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little attention to date. We used a case-control design to compare decision-making in healthy control subjects (N=16) versus untreated depressed subjects in a current major depressive episode (N=20). In order to examine how major depressive disorder (MDD) may impact decision-making, subjects made decisions over (1) risky outcomes and (2) delayed outcomes in the domain of gains and losses using choice paradigms from neuroeconomics. In a pre-planned analysis, depressed subjects were subdivided into those with primary PTSD along with comorbid MDD (MDD+PTSD) versus those with primary MDD without PTSD (MDD-only). Choice behavior was modeled via a standard econometric model of intertemporal choice, a quasi-hyperbolic temporal discounting function, which was estimated for each subject group separately. Under conditions of potential gain, depressed subjects demonstrated greater discounting for gains across all time frames compared to controls. In the realm of losses, both subgroups of depressed subjects discounted more steeply than controls for short time frames. However, for delayed losses ranging from >1-10 years, MDD+PTSD subjects showed shallower discounting rates relative to MDD-only subjects, who continued to discount future losses steeply. Risk attitudes did not contribute to differences in intertemporal choice. Depressed patients make choices that minimize current pain and maximize current reward, despite severe later consequences or lost opportunities. Anxiety associated with PTSD may serve as a partially protective factor in decision-making about long-term

  9. Chemistry indices for long term plant health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, K.J.; Cerisier, S.D.M.; Caris, N.B.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom's Koeberg Nuclear Power Station has maintained and reported on the WANO Chemistry Performance Index for a number of years. Because of the masking effects of multiple averaging, the value of the Index was questionable. The modified WANO Chemistry Performance Indicator, introduced recently, was considered an improvement. However, it was felt that it is too general to adequately address the long-term plant health management needs of a specific plant; a more tailored, plant-specific indicator is needed. A system of indices for measuring and managing long-term plant health at Eskom's 10 large fossil-fired power stations had been developed in 1996. The major success of these indices in improving plant performance management lay in their inclusion in station performance contracts. The Fossil Chemistry Index was based on the original WANO Chemistry Performance Index and suffered from the same shortcomings. Consequently, a major revision of this index was initiated to address these deficiencies. The objectives set for the revised common indicator were that target and limit values from Eskom Chemistry Standards should be incorporated, that the masking effect of multiple averaging be minimised or eliminated, that weighting factors be introduced to reflect the relative importance of selected parameters, that conditioning chemical effectiveness be monitored, and that ranges of values be accommodated. In tandem with this revision, there was requirement to include Koeberg in the reporting of long term plant health indicators. Instead of developing completely separate chemistry indicators for fossil and nuclear plant. A commonality of approach to Long Term Plant Health indicators was sought. This has resulted in a single indicator determination, with parameter selection, limit values, and target values providing the required plant specificity. (J.P.N.)

  10. An empirical analysis of the German long-term interest rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Butter, F.A.G.; Jansen, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The short run and long run influences of the main determinants of the German long-term interest rate are estimated using quarterly data for the period 1982-2001. A major reason for the focus on the German interest rate is that this rate, and hence its determinants, will be dominant in explaining the

  11. Near-Term Actions to Address Long-Term Climate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Addressing climate change requires effective long-term policy making, which occurs when reflecting on potential events decades or more in the future causes policy makers to choose near-term actions different than those they would otherwise pursue. Contrary to some expectations, policy makers do sometimes make such long-term decisions, but not as commonly and successfully as climate change may require. In recent years however, the new capabilities of analytic decision support tools, combined with improved understanding of cognitive and organizational behaviors, has significantly improved the methods available for organizations to manage longer-term climate risks. In particular, these tools allow decision makers to understand what near-term actions consistently contribute to achieving both short- and long-term societal goals, even in the face of deep uncertainty regarding the long-term future. This talk will describe applications of these approaches for infrastructure, water, and flood risk management planning, as well as studies of how near-term choices about policy architectures can affect long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction pathways.

  12. [Long-term digitalis therapy of elderly patients. Is digitalization unnecessary in the majority of cases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcki, M A; Angehrn, W; Cavegn, H R; Brändli, O

    1982-12-18

    More than 40% of patients hospitalized in the Wald Altitude Clinic of Zürich are already on long-term digitalis therapy upon admission. During a 6 month period long-term digoxin therapy was discontinued in 97 patients (age 74 +/- 9 years) with stable cardiac insufficiency (NYHA class I-III) and sinus rhythm. During the hospitalization (37 +/- 20 days), clinical signs and symptoms, body weight, radiological heart size, and systolic time intervals were monitored. After an observation period of one week, digoxin was discontinued in all patients. Body weight, cardio-thoracic ratio and left ventricular ejection time remained unchanged after cessation of digoxin therapy during hospitalization. The pre-ejection period showed a significant increase from 89 +/- 17 to 95 +/- 19 msec. Six patients were re-instituted on digoxin therapy, 3 due to progressive cardiac insufficiency, 2 due to atrial fibrillation, and 1 at his own request. After telephone follow-up six months later with the family physician an additional 20 patients were put back on digitalis. Among the total of 26 patients requiring further digitalization an absolute indication was found only in 12 (14%), 8 due to progressive cardiac insufficiency and 4 due to atrial fibrillation. In this study digitalis therapy could be discontinued without ill effects in 86% of elderly clinically stable patients in sinus rhythm. The authors therefore recommend a more cautious use of long-term digitalis therapy and, in already digitalized patients in sinus rhythm, a controlled trial period of discontinuation.

  13. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  14. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  16. Mothers with HIP - the short term and long-term impact, what is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Federico; Ottanelli, Serena; Petraglia, Felice

    2018-05-03

    Hyperglycemia is one of the most common medical conditions that women encounter during pregnancy and it is due to gestational diabetes (GDM) in the majority of cases [1]. GDM is associated with a higher incidence of maternal morbidity in pregnancy in term of hypertensive disorders/preclampsia and higher rate of cesarean delivery but also with long-term risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Pregnancy can therefore be considered a stress test; diagnosis of HIP can unmask a preexisting susceptibility and consequently a future risk for type 2 diabetes and can be a useful marker of future cardiovascular risk. Postpartum follow up provides an excellent opportunity to implement healthy lifestyle behaviors to prevent or delay the development of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current review is to focus on short and long term maternal morbidity of HIP. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  18. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  19. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe de Vries

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD.Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors.Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon, Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician. All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment.In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  20. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gabe; Hees, Hiske L; Koeter, Maarten W J; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Schene, Aart H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health) problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon), Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work) and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician). All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  1. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and

  2. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are (1) rock cover, (2) soil and revegetation, or (3) a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%. For these steeper slopes, the use of rock talus or riprap will be necessary to maximize the probability of long-term stability. The use of vegetation to control erosion on the flatter portions of the site may be practicable in regions of the USA with sufficient rainfall and suitable soil types, but revegetation practices must be carefully evaluated to ensure that long-term

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder increases sensitivity to long term losses among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Engelmann

    protective factor in decision-making about long-term potential losses compared to MDD patients without PTSD.

  4. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  5. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  6. Murine model of long-term obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-11-01

    With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of three murine models of obstructive jaundice. C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Overall, 70% (7 of 10) of tCL mice died by day 7, whereas majority 67% (10 of 15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. A total of 19% (3 of 16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 d after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension and severe fibrosis by day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice, but long-term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-Term Prediction of Satellite Orbit Using Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Cheol Yoon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term prediction algorithm of geostationary orbit was developed using the analytical method. The perturbation force models include geopotential upto fifth order and degree and luni-solar gravitation, and solar radiation pressure. All of the perturbation effects were analyzed by secular variations, short-period variations, and long-period variations for equinoctial elements such as the semi-major axis, eccentricity vector, inclination vector, and mean longitude of the satellite. Result of the analytical orbit propagator was compared with that of the cowell orbit propagator for the KOREASAT. The comparison indicated that the analytical solution could predict the semi-major axis with an accuarcy of better than ~35meters over a period of 3 month.

  8. Alteration in certain enzymological parameters of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to short- and long-term exposure of clofibric acid and diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Manoharan; Ramesh, Mathan; Petkam, Rakpong

    2013-12-01

    The extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine may enter the aquatic environment and pose a serious threat to non-target aquatic organisms like fish. In this study, Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala was exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 μg L⁻¹) of most commonly used pharmaceutical drugs clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) to evaluate its impacts on certain enzymological parameters during short- and long-term exposures. During short-term (96 h) exposure period, plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and gill Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity were significantly altered at all concentrations of both the CA- and DCF-treated fish. In long-term exposure (35 days), gill Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity was found to be significantly increased at all concentration of CA and DCF exposures throughout the study period (except at the end of 7th day in 10 and 100 µg L⁻¹) . However, a biphasic trend was observed in plasma GOT and GPT activity when compared to the control groups. In both short- and long-term exposure, a significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) changes were observed in all enzymological parameters of fish C. mrigala exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. The alterations of these enzymological parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of pharmaceutical toxicity in aquatic environment and organisms.

  9. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2018-02-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.

  10. Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    The major potential environmental impacts related to landfill leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can be categorized into four groups (dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xenobiotic organic compounds...... are observed. In contrast, the concentration of ammonia does not decrease, and often constitutes a major long-term pollutant in leachate. A broad range of xenobiotic organic compounds is observed in landfill leachate. The long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status...... is discussed based on theory and model simulations. It seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years. This is supported by a few laboratory investigations. The existing data and model evaluations indicate...

  11. Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchheim

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV unmedicated outpatients (N = 16 and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17 before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

  12. Changes in Prefrontal-Limbic Function in Major Depression after 15 Months of Long-Term Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Anna; Viviani, Roberto; Kessler, Henrik; Kächele, Horst; Cierpka, Manfred; Roth, Gerhard; George, Carol; Kernberg, Otto F.; Bruns, Georg; Taubner, Svenja

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. Here, we investigated recurrently depressed (DSM-IV) unmedicated outpatients (N = 16) and control participants matched for sex, age, and education (N = 17) before and after 15 months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Participants were scanned at two time points, during which presentations of attachment-related scenes with neutral descriptions alternated with descriptions containing personal core sentences previously extracted from an attachment interview. Outcome measure was the interaction of the signal difference between personal and neutral presentations with group and time, and its association with symptom improvement during therapy. Signal associated with processing personalized attachment material varied in patients from baseline to endpoint, but not in healthy controls. Patients showed a higher activation in the left anterior hippocampus/amygdala, subgenual cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex before treatment and a reduction in these areas after 15 months. This reduction was associated with improvement in depressiveness specifically, and in the medial prefrontal cortex with symptom improvement more generally. This is the first study documenting neurobiological changes in circuits implicated in emotional reactivity and control after long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. PMID:22470470

  13. Proposal of a molten-salt system for long-term energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of nuclear waste management studies, the 'ose-composent' concept is considered to be an attractive option for the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE ('Thorium-based Accelerator-drives System with Simplified fuel cycle for long-term Energy production') destined for the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front end and the back end of the fuel cycle. Its major goal is to provide electricity with low waste production and economical competitiveness. (author)

  14. Long-term effects of chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osanto, S.; Bukman, A.; van Hoek, F.; Sterk, P. J.; de Laat, J. A.; Hermans, J.

    1992-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy regimens that include cisplatin (CDDP) and bleomycin (BLE) result in the cure of the majority of patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the testis. We investigated the long-term damage of such chemotherapy to renal, pulmonary, and hearing function. Forty-three patients

  15. CD40-CD40 Ligand Pathway is a Major Component of Acute Neuroinflammation and Contributes to Long-term Cognitive Dysfunction after Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Monique; Danieslki, Lucinéia Gainski; Vieira, Andriele; Florentino, Drielly; Dall'Igna, Dhébora; Galant, Letícia; Sonai, Beatriz; Vuolo, Francieli; Mina, Franciele; Pescador, Bruna; Dominguini, Diogo; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Petronilho, Fabrícia

    2015-03-26

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. It is not understood what the exact mechanism is for the brain dysfunction that occurs in septic patients, but brain inflammation and oxidative stress are a possible theory. Such events can occur through the alteration of molecules that perpetuate the inflammatory response. Thus, it is possible to postulate that CD40 may be involved in this process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of CD40-CD40L pathway activation in brain dysfunction associated with sepsis in an animal model. Microglia activation induces the upregulation of CD40-CD40L, both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of microglia activation decreases levels of CD40-CD40L in the brain and decreases brain inflammation, oxidative damage and blood brain barrier dysfunction. Despite this, anti-CD40 treatment does not improve mortality in this model. However, it is able to improve long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors. In conclusion, there is a major involvement of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in long-term brain dysfunction in an animal model of sepsis.

  16. Synthesis on the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.1,2; Synthese sur l'evolution a long terme des colis de combustibles irradies. Tome 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Toulhoat, P.; Grouiller, J.P.; Pavageau, J.; Piron, J.P.; Pelletier, M.; Dehaudt, Ph.; Cappelaere, Ch.; Limon, R.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, Ch.; Corbel, C.; Maillard, S.; Faure, M.H.; Cicariello, J.C.; Masson, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DDIN/DPRGD, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this report is to present the major objectives, the key scientific issues, and the preliminary results of the research conducted in France in the framework of the third line of the 1991 Law, on the topic of the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel in view of long term storage or geological disposal. Indeed, CEA launched in 1998 the Research Program on the Long Term Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel (abbreviated and referred to as PRECCI in French; Poinssot, 1998) the aim of which is to study and assess the ability of spent nuclear fuel packages to keep their initially allocated functions in interim storage and geological disposal: total containment and recovery functions for duration up to hundreds of years (long term or short-term interim storage and/or first reversible stages of geological disposal) and partial confinement function (controlled fluxes of RN) for thousands of years in geological disposal. This program has to allow to obtain relevant and reliable data concerning the long term behavior of the spent fuel packages so that feasibility of interim storage and/or geological disposal can be assessed and demonstrated as well as optimized. Within this framework, this report presents for every possible scenario of evolution (closed system, in Presence of water in presence of gases) what are estimated to be the most relevant evolution mechanism. For the most relevant scientific issues hence defined, a complete scientific review of the best state of knowledge is subsequently here given thus allowing to draw a clear guideline of the major R and D issues for the next years. (authors)

  17. Intergranular Cracking as a Major Cause of Long-Term Capacity Fading of Layered Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wolf, Mark; Karki, Khim; Yu, Young-Sang; Stach, Eric A; Cabana, Jordi; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J

    2017-06-14

    Capacity fading has limited commercial layered Li-ion battery electrodes to NCA) electrode change after capacity fade following months of slow charge-discharge. The changes in the reactions that underpin energy storage after long-term cycling directly correlate to the capacity loss; heterogeneous reaction kinetics observed during extended cycles quantitatively account for the capacity loss. This reaction heterogeneity is ultimately attributed to intergranular fracturing that degrades the connectivity of subsurface grains within the polycrystalline NCA aggregate.

  18. Long-term consequences of and prospects for recovery from nuclear war: Two views. View II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The author comments on the information presented in this volume and speculates on the long-term consequences of nuclear war and the prospects for recovery. In order to do that, it might be useful to define long term. To him this means time frames of years to perhaps even hundreds of years in terms of the ultimate response and recovery of large-scale ecosystems. Such long time frames may seem excessive, but if some of the speculated efforts of nuclear war are actually realized, it may indeed take centuries before native ecosystems restabilize. Also, when referring to long-term effects of the magnitude required to have a major impact on entire ecosystems, it is clear that the driving force would not be the direct effects of nuclear war. Of potentially greater significance would be the secondary effects mediated by the intermediate-term impacts on global climate. Specifically, he refers to the speculative impacts of major decreases in the heat and light fluxes reaching the Earth's surface. Such changes are commonly referred to as ''nuclear winter.''

  19. Assessment of short- and long-term memory in trends of major climatic variables over Iran: 1966-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianabadi, Ameneh; Shirazi, Pooya; Ghahraman, Bijan; Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J.; Alizadeh, Amin; Davary, Kamran

    2018-02-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, water scarcity is the crucial issue for crop production. Identifying the spatial and temporal trends in aridity, especially during the crop-growing season, is important for farmers to manage their agricultural practices. This will become especially relevant when considering climate change projections. To reliably determine the actual trends, the influence of short- and long-term memory should be removed from the trend analysis. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of short- and long-term memory on estimates of trends in two aridity indicators—the inverted De Martonne (ϕ IDM ) and Budyko (ϕ B ) indices. The analysis is done using precipitation and temperature data over Iran for a 50-year period (1966-2015) at three temporal scales: annual, wheat-growing season (October-June), and maize-growing season (May-November). For this purpose, the original and the modified Mann-Kendall tests (i.e., modified by three methods of trend free pre-whitening (TFPT), effective sample size (ESS), and long-term persistence (LTP)) are used to investigate the temporal trends in aridity indices, precipitation, and temperature by taking into account the effect of short- and long-term memory. Precipitation and temperature data were provided by the Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO). The temporal trend analysis showed that aridity increased from 1966 to 2015 at the annual and wheat-growing season scales, which is due to a decreasing trend in precipitation and an increasing trend in mean temperature at these two timescales. The trend in aridity indices was decreasing in the maize-growing season, since precipitation has an increasing trend for most parts of Iran in that season. The increasing trend in aridity indices is significant in Western Iran, which can be related to the significantly more negative trend in precipitation in the West. This increasing trend in aridity could result in an increasing crop water

  20. Coal investment and long term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia's coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia

  1. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÔNICA R.M. VIANNA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Since William James (1890 first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

  2. Health effects of long-term exposure to air pollution: An overview of major respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic-Andersen Zorana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large number of studies provided convincing evidence for adverse effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution on human health, and served as basis for current USA and EU Air Quality Standards and limit values. Still, new knowledge is emerging, expanding our understanding of vast effects of exposure to air pollution on human health of this ubiquitous exposure affecting millions of people in urban setting. This paper focuses on the studies of health effects of long-term (chronic exposures to air pollution, and includes major chronic and acute diseases in adults and especially elderly, which will present increasing public health burden, due to improving longevity and projected increasing numbers of elderly. The paper gives overview over the most relevant and latest literature presented by different health outcomes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

  3. Computer Simulations of Developmental Change: The Contributions of Working Memory Capacity and Long-Term Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing working memory (WM) capacity is often cited as a major influence on children's development and yet WM capacity is difficult to examine independently of long-term knowledge. A computational model of children's nonword repetition (NWR) performance is presented that independently manipulates long-term knowledge and WM capacity to determine…

  4. Long-term management of GERD in the elderly with pantoprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Calabrese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Calabrese, Anna Fabbri, Giulio Di FeboDepartment of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, ItalyAbstract: The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD increases with age and elderly are more likely to develop severe disease. Older patients often complain of less severe or frequent heartburn than younger patients and they may present with atypical symptoms such as dysphagia, weight loss, or extraesophageal symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are central in the management of GERD and are unchallenged with regards to their efficacy. They are considered safe and more effective than histamine receptor antagonists for healing esophagitis and for preventing its recurrence using a long term maintenance treatment. PPI have minimal side effects and few slight drug interactions and are considered safe for long term treatment. Pantoprazole is significantly effective both for acute and long-term treatment with excellent control of relapse and symptoms. It is well tolerated even for long-term therapy and its tolerability is optimal. Pantoprazole shows to have minimal interactions with other drugs because of a lower affinity for cytocrome P450 than older PPIs. Although the majority of elderly has concomitant illnesses and receive other drugs, this does not adversely effect the efficacy of pantoprazole because of its pharmacokinetics, which are independent of patient age. Clinical practice suggests that a low dose maintenance of PPIs should be used in older patients with GERD.Keywords: GERD, long-term management, pantoprazole, safety, efficacy, tolerability

  5. Long-term Studies of Marine Halogen Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschritter, J.; Holla, R.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2009-04-01

    Institute of Enviromental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Long term measurements of atmospheric trace gases using multi-axis DOAS instruments are pursued at the new SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). This research is part of the SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the ANthropocene) project (Fördernummer:03F0462F). Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine- and iodine- containing species play major roles in the chemistry of ozone in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere and thus possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In addition iodine-species emitted from the ocean surface have been shown to be responsible for the production of new atmospheric particles in the marine boundary layer. This may have an effect on cloud formation and radiation transfer on local and global scales. Long term measurements of RHS abundances will help to identify their key regions and processes for formation. A new long term Multi-MAX-DOAS instrument has been installed at the SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). The main focus of these unique measurements is the investigation of reactive halogen chemistry in the subtropical marine boundary layer based on measurements of BrO, IO, and possibly OIO. Because of its wide spectral range also the use for O4-retrievals to gain aerosol profiles is possible. IO has been detected with mixing ratios up to 1.3 ppt. For BrO an upper limit of 2 ppt could be determined.

  6. On the very long term delayed behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrenti, J.M.; Benboudjema, F.; Barre, F.; Gallitre, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of very long-term deformation of prestressed concrete structures is a major challenge considering the service life of these structures. It is therefore necessary to correctly model the delayed behavior of these structures. Using a review of laboratory tests and observations of the delayed behavior of structures (bridges and nuclear power plants), the main conclusions of this work are the following ones. First, very long term creep in laboratory or of real structures seems to be non asymptotic. In the actual Eurocode-2, creep is calculated by means of an asymptotic hyperbolic function while in the recent Model Code 2010 creep is expressed as a combination of an asymptotic and a logarithmic functions. In the latter case the logarithmic function corresponds to basic creep while drying creep is asymptotic. Secondly, using a long test (3 years) in a laboratory is not enough to assess the long term behaviour of a massive structure. We need physical relations for creep in codes in order to predict the delayed behavior of massive structures. Thirdly, the biaxial creep of nuclear power plant could be modelled but using data of the structure itself. This would allow to predict the delayed behavior of these structures. Further work is needed to improve the prediction in the design phase

  7. Reforming Long-Term Care Funding in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, R Trafford; Repin, Nadya; Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Like many provinces across Canada, Alberta is facing growing demand for long-term care. Issues with the mixed funding model used to pay long-term care providers had Alberta Health Services concerned that it was not efficiently meeting the demand for long-term care. Consequently, in 2010, Alberta Health Services introduced the patient/care-based funding (PCBF) model. PCBF is similar to activity-based funding in that it directly ties the complexity and care needs of long-term care residents to the payment received by long-term care providers. This review describes PCBF and discusses some of its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, this review is intended to inform other provinces faced with similar long-term care challenges and contemplating their own funding reforms.

  8. Adjuvant psychological therapy in long-term endocrine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J; Turner-Cobb, J M

    2017-06-01

    Consideration of psychological distress in long-term endocrine conditions is of vital importance given the prevalence of anxiety and depression in such disorders. Poor mental health can lead to compromised self-care, higher utilization of health services, lower rates of adherence, reduced quality of life and ultimately poorer outcomes. Adjuvant psychological therapy offers an effective resource to reduce distress in endocrine conditions. While the vast majority of work in this area has focused on psychological screening and intervention in diabetes, identification and recognition of psychological distress are equally important in other endocrinological conditions, with supportive evidence in polycystic ovary syndrome and Addison's disease. Referral pathways and recommendations set out by UK guidelines and the Department of Health mandate requires greater attention across a wider range of long-term endocrine conditions to facilitate improved quality of life and health outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Long term preservation of scientific data: Lessons from jet and other domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layne, R.; Capel, A.; Cook, N.; Wheatley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Data from a fusion experiment must be preserved for decades, and will be required beyond the lifetime of the experiment. ► General principles of long-term data preservation have been identified in domains outside fusion. ► Key challenges are media obsolescence, data organisation, and file format obsolescence. ► Data from JET has to date been preserved for almost three decades: the steps taken to achieve this are discussed. ► Recommendations for new devices in planning for the long-term preservation of their data are made. - Abstract: All fusion devices generate large amounts of data, which must remain accessible throughout and beyond the lifetime of the device. This need for long-term data preservation creates major software and hardware challenges. Issues surrounding long-term data preservation will be discussed, and the main challenges in data curation will be outlined. The paper will then review the approaches taken at JET to ensure accessibility of all of JET's data over almost three decades. Using the JET experience and the wider context, the paper will then suggest how new experiments should plan for the long-term preservation of their data.

  10. An overview of Ontario's 2013 long term energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ontario's 2013 Long Term Energy /Plan (LTEP) takes a pragmatic approach. The plan is designed to balance the following five principles namely: Cost effectiveness, Reliability, Clean energy, Community engagement, and Emphasis on conservation and demand management before building new generation. By taking a pragmatic and flexible approach and balancing these principles, Ontario's 2013 Long Term Energy Plan builds on the foundation laid by the 2010 LTEP while also lowering the projected total system costs. The key elements of the 2013 LTEP are described in this paper by highlighting the major features of these elements. (author)

  11. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  12. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term...

  13. Long-term follow-up on health-related quality of life in major depressive disorder: a 2-year European cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoussi, Delphine; Christensen, Michael Cronquist; Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Rive, Benoît; Touya, Maëlys; Haro, Josep Maria

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and everyday functioning. This cohort study investigated the long-term development of HRQoL in patients with MDD and its association with patient characteristics, including depressive symptom severity and cognitive symptoms. The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major depressive disorder (PERFORM) study was a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 1,159 outpatients aged 18-65 years with MDD in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. The patients were either initiating antidepressant monotherapy or undergoing their first switch of antidepressant. HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12-item Health Survey (SF-12) up to month 12 and the EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire up to month 24 (UK only). Depressive symptom severity was assessed up to month 24 by the patient-reported Patient Health Questionnaire and cognitive symptoms by the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient characteristics associated with HRQoL. Mental HRQoL was severely impaired at baseline versus normative data (mean [SD] SF-12 mental component summary [MCS], 26.5 [9.2]); mean (SD) physical component summary (PCS) total score was 45.2 (12.1). SF-12 MCS improved over 12 months of follow-up (38.7 [11.6] at month 12), while SF-12 PCS remained stable (45.3 [11.1]). At each assessment time point, there was a clear pattern of lower SF-12 MCS and PCS total score in patients experiencing greater cognitive problems. The mean EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire utility index score generally decreased (i.e., worsened) with increasing severity of cognitive and depressive symptoms at all time points up to 24 months. Multivariate analyses identified both depression severity and cognitive symptoms as strongly and significantly associated with poor HRQoL. These findings highlight

  14. Oil use and oil dependency: Long-term issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serot, D.E.; Belzer, D.B.; Guthrie, S.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1989-06-01

    The continued dependence of the United States on imported oil is a matter of increasing concern. Under the direction of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy Integration, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study which was to examine long-term issues related to oil dependence. Major issues addressed are (1) energy efficiency and the role of new technologies, (2) fuel switching, and (3) regional factors affecting fuel use. The study examines all major end-use sectors in the economy, covering the industrial, commercial, residential, transportation, and electric utility sectors. The potential impacts of efficiency improvements in oil- using equipment are assessed through the year 2000. 107 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Memory Reactivation Enables Long-Term Prevention of Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herszage, Jasmine; Censor, Nitzan

    2017-05-22

    The ability of the human brain to successively learn or perform two competing tasks constitutes a major challenge in daily function. Indeed, exposing the brain to two different competing memories within a short temporal offset can induce interference, resulting in deteriorated performance in at least one of the learned memories [1-4]. Although previous studies have investigated online interference and its effects on performance [5-13], whether the human brain can enable long-term prevention of future interference is unknown. To address this question, we utilized the memory reactivation-reconsolidation framework [2, 12] stemming from studies at the synaptic level [14-17], according to which reactivation of a memory enables its update. In a set of experiments, using the motor sequence learning task [18] we report that a unique pairing of reactivating the original memory (right hand) in synchrony with novel memory trials (left hand) prevented future interference between the two memories. Strikingly, these effects were long-term and observed a month following reactivation. Further experiments showed that preventing future interference was not due to practice per se, but rather specifically depended on a limited time window induced by reactivation of the original memory. These results suggest a mechanism according to which memory reactivation enables long-term prevention of interference, possibly by creating an updated memory trace integrating original and novel memories during the reconsolidation time window. The opportunity to induce a long-term preventive effect on memories may enable the utilization of strategies optimizing normal human learning, as well as recovery following neurological insults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Employee experience of workplace supervisor contact and support during long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Nicholas J; Selander, John; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-07

    Workplace support is an important factor in promoting successful return to work. The purpose of this article is to examine relationships between supervisor contact, perceived workplace support and demographic variables among employees on long-term sickness absence. Data were collected from 204 public employees at a municipality in Sweden who had been on long term sickness absence (60 days or more) using a 23 question survey instrument that collected information on demographic variables, supervisor contact and perceived workplace support. Most injured employees (97%) reported having contact with their supervisors during their sickness absence, with a majority (56%) reporting high levels of support, including early (58.6%) and multiple (70.7%) contacts. Most were pleased with amount of contact (68.9%) and the majority had discussed workplace accommodations (68.1%). Employees who self-initiated contact, felt the amount of contact was appropriate, had a personal meeting with their supervisors and discussed workplace adjustments reported experiencing higher levels of support from supervisors. Employees on long-term sickness absence appreciate contact from their supervisors and this is associated with perceived workplace support. However, the amount and employee experience of this contact is important. It needs to be perceived by employees as supportive, which includes a focus on strategies (e.g., work adjustment) to facilitate a return to work. Supervisor training is required in this area to support the return to work process. Implications for Rehabilitation Contact and support from workplace supervisors is important to workers on long-term sickness absence. Employees appreciate frequent contact from supervisors during long-terms sickness absence. Employees appreciate a personal meeting with supervisors and the opportunity to discuss issues related to return to work such as work adjustment. Employers should provide training to supervisors on how to communicate and

  17. Interactions between lithology and biology drive the long-term response of stream chemistry to major hurricanes in a tropical landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.H. McDowell; R.L. Brereton; F.N. Scatena; J.B. Shanley; N.V. Brokaw; A.E. Lugo

    2013-01-01

    Humid tropical forests play a dominant role in many global biogeochemical cycles, yet long-term records of tropical stream chemistry and its response to disturbance events such as severe storms and droughts are rare. Here we document the long-term variability in chemistry of two streams in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico over a period of 27 years. Our two focal...

  18. Long-term acute care hospitals and Georgia Medicaid: Utilization, outcomes, and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan S. Cole

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because most research on long-term acute care hospitals has focused on Medicare, the objective of this research is to describe the Georgia Medicaid population who received care at a long-term acute care hospital, the type and volume of services provided by these long-term acute care hospitals, and the costs and outcomes of these services. For those with select respiratory conditions, we descriptively compare costs and outcomes to those of patients who received care for the same services in acute care hospitals. Methods: We describe Georgia Medicaid recipients admitted to a long-term acute care hospital between 2011 and 2012. We compare them to a population of Georgia Medicaid recipients admitted to an acute care hospital for one of five respiratory diagnosis-related groups. Measurements used include patient descriptive information, admissions, diagnosis-related groups, length of stay, place of discharge, 90-day episode costs, readmissions, and patient risk scores. Results: We found that long-term acute care hospital admissions for Medicaid patients were fairly low (470 90-day episodes and restricted to complex cases. We also found that the majority of long-term acute care hospital patients were blind or disabled (71.2%. Compared to patients who stayed at an acute care hospital, long-term acute care hospital patients had higher average risk scores (13.1 versus 9.0, lengths of stay (61 versus 38 days, costs (US$143,898 versus US$115,056, but fewer discharges to the community (28.4% versus 51.8%. Conclusion: We found that the Medicaid population seeking care at long-term acute care hospitals is markedly different than the Medicare populations described in other long-term acute care hospital studies. In addition, our study revealed that Medicaid patients receiving select respiratory care at a long-term acute care hospital were distinct from Medicaid patients receiving similar care at an acute care hospital. Our findings suggest that

  19. Synthesis on the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Toulhoat, P.; Grouiller, J.P.; Pavageau, J.; Piron, J.P.; Pelletier, M.; Dehaudt, Ph.; Cappelaere, Ch.; Limon, R.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, Ch.; Corbel, C.; Maillard, S.; Faure, M.H.; Cicariello, J.C.; Masson, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the major objectives, the key scientific issues, and the preliminary results of the research conducted in France in the framework of the third line of the 1991 Law, on the topic of the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel in view of long term storage or geological disposal. Indeed, CEA launched in 1998 the Research Program on the Long Term Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel (abbreviated and referred to as PRECCI in French; Poinssot, 1998) the aim of which is to study and assess the ability of spent nuclear fuel packages to keep their initially allocated functions in interim storage and geological disposal: total containment and recovery functions for duration up to hundreds of years (long term or short-term interim storage and/or first reversible stages of geological disposal) and partial confinement function (controlled fluxes of RN) for thousands of years in geological disposal. This program has to allow to obtain relevant and reliable data concerning the long term behavior of the spent fuel packages so that feasibility of interim storage and/or geological disposal can be assessed and demonstrated as well as optimized. Within this framework, this report presents for every possible scenario of evolution (closed system, in Presence of water in presence of gases) what are estimated to be the most relevant evolution mechanism. For the most relevant scientific issues hence defined, a complete scientific review of the best state of knowledge is subsequently here given thus allowing to draw a clear guideline of the major R and D issues for the next years. (authors)

  20. Toxicological effects of clofibric acid and diclofenac on plasma thyroid hormones of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala during short and long-term exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Manoharan; Hur, Jang-Hyun; Arul, Narayanasamy; Ramesh, Mathan

    2014-11-01

    In the present investigation, the toxicity of most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment namely clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) was investigated in an Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala. Fingerlings of C. mrigala were exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100μgL(-1)) of CA and DCF for a period of 96h (short term) and 35 days (long term). The toxic effects of CA and DCF on thyroid hormones (THs) such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were evaluated. During the short and long-term exposure period TSH level was found to be decreased at all concentrations of CA (except at the end of 14(th) day in 1 and 10μgL(-l) and 21(st) day in 1μgL(-l)) whereas in DCF exposed fish TSH level was found to be increased when compared to control groups. T4 level was found to be decreased at 1 and 100μgL(-l) of CA exposure at the end of 96h. However, T4 level was decreased at all concentrations of CA and DCF during long-term (35 days) exposure period. Fish exposed to all concentrations of CA and DCF had lower level of T3 in both the treatments. These results suggest that both CA and DCF drugs induced significant changes (P<0.01 and P<0.05) on thyroid hormonal levels of C. mrigala. The alterations of these hormonal levels can be used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  2. Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Olsen, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems

  3. The long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon; Nicolson, Andrew; Biswas, Shubhabrata; Smith, David; Osman Farah, Jibril; Eldridge, Paul; Wieshmann, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Objective Despite modern anti-epileptic drug treatment, approximately 30% of epilepsies remain medically refractory and for these patients, epilepsy surgery may be a treatment option. There have been numerous studies demonstrating good outcome of epilepsy surgery in the short to median term however, there are a limited number of studies looking at the long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term outcome of resective epilepsy surgery in a large neurosurgery hospital in the U.K. Methods This a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. We used the 2001 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification system to classify seizure freedom and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to estimate the probability of seizure freedom. Results We included 284 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery (178 anterior temporal lobe resections, 37 selective amygdalohippocampectomies, 33 temporal lesionectomies, 36 extratemporal lesionectomies), and had a prospective median follow-up of 5 years (range 1–27). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that 47% (95% CI 40–58) remained seizure free (apart from simple partial seizures) at 5 years and 38% (95% CI 31–45) at 10 years after surgery. 74% (95% CI 69–80) had a greater than 50% seizure reduction at 5 years and 70% (95% CI 64–77) at 10 years. Patients who had an amygdalohippocampectomy were more likely to have seizure recurrence than patients who had an anterior temporal lobe resection (p = 0.006) and temporal lesionectomy (p = 0.029). There was no significant difference between extra temporal and temporal lesionectomies. Hippocampal sclerosis was associated with a good outcome but declined in relative frequency over the years. Conclusion The vast majority of patients who were not seizure free experienced at least a substantial and long-lasting reduction in seizure frequency. A positive long-term outcome after epilepsy surgery is possible for many patients and especially those with

  4. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-05-17

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice.

  5. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  6. Changes in the skeleton after long-term treatment with retinoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, M.; Reiser, M.; Hamm, H.; Traupe, H.; Vogt, H.J.

    1988-07-01

    The synthetic retinoids, the vitamin-A-derivatives ethretinate and isotretinoin, have substantially enlarged the therapeutic arsenal in dermatology. They are primarily used in severe cases of acne and cornification disorders. In the majority of cases, long-term treatment is necessary. Certain side effects in the skeletal system can occur, e.g., osteoporosis, premature epiphyseal closure, and changes similar to DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis). We discuss the reports in the literature and our own observations in 31 patients treated at the Westphalian Wilhelms University in Muenster, as well as at the Technical University in Munich. In 3 out of 31 patients treated by retinoids on a long-term basis, skeletal changes were found radiologically as a result of the retinoid medication.

  7. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  8. Differences in health status between long-term and short-term benzodiazepine users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, S.M.; Furer, J.W.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Bor, J.H.J.; Zitman, F.G.; Weel, C. van

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite generally accepted advice to keep treatment short, benzodiazepines are often prescibed for more than six months. Prevention of long-term benzodiazepine use could be facilitated by the utilisation of risk indicators for long-term use. However, the characteristics of long-term

  9. Analysis of long-term trends (1950–2009) in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velpuri, N M; Senay, G B

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term trends in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States. The seasonal Mann–Kendall trend test was performed on monthly precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient data from 1950 to 2009 obtained from 62 urban watersheds covering 21 major urban centers in the United States. The results indicate that only five out of 21 urban centers in the United States showed an uptrend in precipitation. Twelve urban centers showed an uptrend in runoff coefficient. However, six urban centers did not show any trend in runoff coefficient, and three urban centers showed a significant downtrend. The highest rate of change in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient was observed in the Houston urban watershed. Based on the results obtained, we also attributed plausible causes for the trends. Our analysis indicated that while a human only influence is observed in most of the urban watersheds, a combined climate and human influence is observed in the central United States. (letter)

  10. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  11. Can home care services achieve cost savings in long-term care for older people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, V L; Ondrich, J; Laditka, S

    1998-07-01

    To determine whether efficient allocation of home care services can produce net long-term care cost savings. Hazard function analysis and nonlinear mathematical programming. Optimal allocation of home care services resulted in a 10% net reduction in overall long-term care costs for the frail older population served by the National Long-Term Care (Channeling) Demonstration, in contrast to the 12% net cost increase produced by the demonstration intervention itself. Our findings suggest that the long-sought goal of overall cost-neutrality or even cost-savings through reducing nursing home use sufficiently to more than offset home care costs is technically feasible, but requires tighter targeting of services and a more medically oriented service mix than major home care demonstrations have implemented to date.

  12. Hanford long-term high-level waste management program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reep, I.E.

    1978-05-01

    The objective is the long-term disposition of the defense high-level radioactive waste which will remain upon completion of the interim waste management program in the mid-1980s, plus any additional high-level defense waste resulting from the future operation of N Reactor and the Purex Plant. The high-level radioactive waste which will exist in the mid-1980s and is addressed by this plan consists of approximately 3,300,000 ft 3 of damp salt cake stored in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks, 1,500,000 ft 3 of damp sludge stored in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks, 11,000,000 gallons of residual liquor stored in double-shell waste tanks, 3,000,000 gallons of liquid wastes stored in double-shell waste tanks awaiting solidification, and 2,900 capsules of 90 SR and 137 Cs compounds stored in water basins. Final quantities of waste may be 5 to 10% greater, depending on the future operation of N Reactor and the Purex Plant and the application of waste treatment techniques currently under study to reduce the inventory of residual liquor. In this report, the high-level radioactive waste addressed by this plan is briefly described, the major alternatives and strategies for long-term waste management are discussed, and a description of the long-term high-level waste management program is presented. Separate plans are being prepared for the long-term management of radioactive wastes which exist in other forms. 14 figures

  13. Analysis on long-term perspectives of sustainable nuclear energy towards global warming protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, M.; Ichimura, E.; Shibata, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Wajima, T.

    1998-01-01

    Study of long-term perspectives of the nuclear power generation was made from the point of views of both CO 2 emission constraints and sustainability of nuclear energy. To this end, STREAM (Semi-empirical TRiple E Analysis Model) program, as a social model, has been developed by Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Hitachi, Ltd. Using this program, long-term world demands of primary and nuclear energy were deduced, in view of the protection against the global warming due to the CO 2 gas accumulation. The inevitable conclusion has been drawn that nuclear energy plays an indispensable role in the reduction of green house effect. Evaluations were then made on conditions that the nuclear power system would be the long-term major sustainable energy source. (author)

  14. The emerging dental workforce: long-term career expectations and influences. A quantitative study of final year dental students' views on their long-term career from one London Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Patel, Resmi; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2009-12-23

    Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce and their short-term expectations has already been reported with a view to informing professional and policy decisions. The objective of this component of the research programme was to examine the long-term goals and perceived influences on final year dental students' professional careers. Univariate analysis of a self completed questionnaire survey of all final year dental students from King's College London, comprising questions on demography, long-term career goals and influences, proposed commitment to dentistry, commitment to healthcare systems and the influences thereon. Statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association. Ninety per cent of students responded to this survey (n = 126), the majority of whom were aged 23 years (59%), female (58%) and Asian (70%). Long-term career goals were fairly evenly split between 'dentist with a special interest' (27%), 'primary dental care practitioner' (26%) and 'specialist' (25%), with 19% not certain. Only 60% of total respondents anticipated working full-time in the long-term (79% males cf 52% females; p = 0.00). The vast majority of respondents (> or =80%) identified 'work-life balance', 'financial stability' and 'professional development' as 'important' or 'very important' influences on the number of future sessions. Females were significantly more likely to rate childcare commitments as an important influence on their future working capacity compared with males (p = 0.00). A wide range of factors were considered important or very important in making the NHS attractive, led by support for professional development (88%) and feeling valued by patients (88%), as well as funding, time with patients, rewards for prevention and practical issues such as dental materials and premises. Females were significantly more likely than males to be attracted to work within the NHS by 'childcare support' (p = 0.02), 'retraining facilities after

  15. Long-term outcomes of patients receiving a massive transfusion after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Biswadev; Gabbe, Belinda J; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Olaussen, Alexander; Cooper, David J; Cameron, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    Resuscitation of patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock after major trauma has evolved to incorporate multiple strategies to maintain tissue perfusion and oxygenation while managing coagulation disorders. We aimed to study changes across time in long-term outcomes in patients with major trauma. A retrospective observational study in a single major trauma center in Australia was conducted. We included all patients with major trauma and massive blood transfusion within the first 24 h during a 6-year period (from 2006 to 2011). The main outcome measures were Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended (GOSE) and work capacity at 6 and 12 months. There were 5,915 patients with major trauma of which 365 (6.2%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.6 - 6.8) received a massive transfusion. The proportion of major trauma patients receiving a massive transfusion decreased across time from 8.2% to 4.4% (P GOSE at 6 months, and 44% unfavorable GOSE at 12 months. Massive transfusion was independently associated with unfavorable outcomes at 6 months after injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.05 - 2.31) but not at 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 - 1.01). A significant reduction in massive transfusion rates was observed. Unfavorable long-term outcomes among patients receiving a massive transfusion after trauma were frequent with a substantial proportion of survivors experiencing poor functional status 1 year after injury.

  16. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  17. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  18. Long-term leaching behavior of vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Sonobe, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Noriaki; Kashihara, Hidechiyo

    1985-01-01

    A long-term Soxhlet leaching test, long-term static leaching test, solubility evaluation test and actual-scale glass solid leaching test were carried out for simulated vitrified wastes. Under high flow-rate leachate conditions, the leaching of high-solubility substances such as B and Na increases almost linearly with time while that of Fe, Ni and rare earth metals strongly depends on their solubility. The overall leaching rate changes (tends to decrease) with time under static conditions. The elution or diffusion is the rate determining step in the earlier region of the leaching process while the solubilities of major components have greater effects in the latter region. The change of the dominant leaching mechanism is delayed more largely as the surface-area to leachate-volume (SA/V) ratio decreases. Actual-scale glass specimens showed almost the same leaching behaviors as small-scale ones. If cracks exist in glass solid, the leaching in them is slow causing little effects on the overall leaching rate. This may be due to the fact that solubility-dependent leaching is occuring in the cracks. The long-term static leaching observations were not satisfactorily explained by the MCC-3 type solubility test results. It is important to clarify the solubility-dependent leaching behaviors at large SA/V ratios. (Nogami, K.)

  19. Competitive short-term and long-term memory processes in spatial habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, David J; Bannerman, David M

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to a spatial location leads to habituation of exploration such that, in a novelty preference test, rodents subsequently prefer exploring a novel location to the familiar location. According to Wagner's (1981) theory of memory, short-term and long-term habituation are caused by separate and sometimes opponent processes. In the present study, this dual-process account of memory was tested. Mice received a series of exposure training trials to a location before receiving a novelty preference test. The novelty preference was greater when tested after a short, rather than a long, interval. In contrast, the novelty preference was weaker when exposure training trials were separated by a short, rather than a long interval. Furthermore, it was found that long-term habituation was determined by the independent effects of the amount of exposure training and the number of exposure training trials when factors such as the intertrial interval and the cumulative intertrial interval were controlled. A final experiment demonstrated that a long-term reduction of exploration could be caused by a negative priming effect due to associations formed during exploration. These results provide evidence against a single-process account of habituation and suggest that spatial habituation is determined by both short-term, recency-based memory and long-term, incrementally strengthened memory.

  20. Study on mid and long-term strategic plan formulation for newly-constructed NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lin

    2014-01-01

    Mid and Long-term strategic plan plays a key role for the management of a newly constructed nuclear power company. Among others, process, goals, and risk management, are the primary concerns during plan preparing. The article analyzed these three areas for Fuqing NPP, including the formulating process for the plan, the mid and long-term goal setting of the company, the major risk analysis and countermeasure selection therefore. Through that solutions and suggestions for strategic plan formulation were concluded for newly-constructed NPP. (author)

  1. Toward the Long-Term Scientific Study of Encounter Group Phenomena: I. Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael Jay; Shapiro, Jerrold Lee

    This paper proposes a model for the long-term scientific study of encounter, T-, and sensitivity groups. The authors see the need for overcoming major methodological and design inadequacies of such research. They discuss major methodological flaws in group outcome research as including: (1) lack of adequate base rate or pretraining measures; (2)…

  2. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  3. 20 year long term air quality trends in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Israeli air monitoring network was established in the mid 1990's with dozens of measuring sites near most populated areas. During these past 20 years the Israel economy has increased significantly. The population grew by 30%, energy consumption and power generation by more than 40% and the number of motor vehicles increased by nearly 50%. Most of the fossil energy is consumed by the electric power industry that has changed immensely during this period. Until the early 2000's the vast majority of the electricity was generated from coal and heavy oil. However, during the last ten years natural gas has gradually becomes the major source for power generation and for most of the heavy industry. In the present study we examined the impact of these economic trends on the major criteria air pollution parameters; O3, NOx, SO2 and PM10. The analyses was based on the long term trend of median value (50th percentile) and the 90th percentile. The results revealed that SO2 levels throughout the country decreased to very low levels, with the 90th percentile near the detection limit. The levels of PM10, that are relatively high compare with other global regions, did not show any trend during the 20 year period. This is consistent with the fact that most particulate matter results from long range transport of dust from the surrounding deserts. The long term trend of NOx indicates a gradual and steady increase at most measuring sites, which is consistent with the increase of fossil fuel consumption. The increase in NOx levels is most likely the cause for the significant increase in O3 levels found at most sites in a few of them to levels that are considered as an environmental hazard.

  4. LONG-TERM OUTCOMES OF DECEASED DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate patient and graft survival after liver transplantation (LT and to determine if primary disease diagnosis, early graft dysfunction or other factors affect it. Furthermore, we analyzed the reasonsof short-term and long-term deaths or retransplantations.Materials and methods. 192 LTs from donors with brain death were performed from December 2004 until June 2014. Recipient age varied from 5 to 71 years. Most frequent diagnosis was liver cirrhosis (mainly due to hepatitis C, then hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, liver graft dysfunction, etc.Results and discussion. 1-year patient survival is 89.5%, graft survival is 87.7%, 3-year –87% and 84.6%, respectively, and 5-year – 83.5% and 83.0%, respectively. Early mortality (in fi rst 30 days after transplantation was 8%, long-term mortality – 5.9%. Primary non-function graft (PNF was the reason of 66.7% early deaths. In the long term, infections and oncology were the reasons of death with the same frequency – 36.4%. Early graft dysfunction including primary non-function signifi cantly decreases short term survival (p = 0.0002. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases graft function improves and doesn’t affect survival. Donor factors play role in outcomes: early dysfunction is higher (40.6% in extended criteria donor group than in standard donor group (р = 0.0431. PNF has the same trend – 8.5% and 0.0%, respectively, but without signifi cance (р =0.0835. 5-year survival is remarkably lower in HCC group 40.8% (p = 0.003 than in other groups.Conclusion: survival after liver transplantation in our Center is comparable with the results of the world’s centers.

  5. CD40–CD40 Ligand Pathway Is a Major Component of Acute Neuroinflammation and Contributes to Long-term Cognitive Dysfunction after Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Monique; Danieslki, Lucinéia Gainski; Vieira, Andriele; Florentino, Drielly; Dall’Igna, Dhébora; Galant, Letícia; Sonai, Beatriz; Vuolo, Francieli; Mina, Franciele; Pescador, Bruna; Dominguini, Diogo; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Petronilho, Fabrícia

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. It is not understood what the exact mechanism is for the brain dysfunction that occurs in septic patients, but brain inflammation and oxidative stress are a possible theory. Such events can occur through the alteration of molecules that perpetuate the inflammatory response. Thus, it is possible to postulate that CD40 may be involved in this process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of CD40–CD40L pathway activation in brain dysfunction associated with sepsis in an animal model. Microglia activation induces the upregulation of CD40–CD40L, both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of microglia activation decreases levels of CD40–CD40L in the brain and decreases brain inflammation, oxidative damage and blood brain barrier dysfunction. Despite this, anti-CD40 treatment does not improve mortality in this model. However, it is able to improve long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors. In conclusion, there is a major involvement of the CD40–CD40L signaling pathway in long-term brain dysfunction in an animal model of sepsis. PMID:25822797

  6. A New Group-Training Procedure for Habituation Demonstrates That Presynaptic Glutamate Release Contributes to Long-Term Memory in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Jacqueline K.; Kaun, Karla R.; Rankin, Catharine H.

    2002-01-01

    In the experiments reported here we have developed a new group-training protocol for assessing long-term memory for habituation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We have replicated all of the major findings of the original single-worm protocol using the new protocol: (1) distributed training produced long-term retention of training, massed training did not; (2) distributed training at long interstimulus intervals (ISIs) produced long-term retention, short ISIs did not; and (3) long-term memory for d...

  7. Long-term and short-term action-effect links and their impact on effect monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Robert; Steinhauser, Robert; Janczyk, Markus; Steinhauser, Marco; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-04-23

    People aim to produce effects in the environment, and according to ideomotor theory, actions are selected and executed via anticipations of their effects. Further, to ensure that an action has been successful and an effect has been realized, we must be able to monitor the consequences of our actions. However, action-effect links might vary between situations, some might apply for a majority of situations, while others might only apply to special occasions. With a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological markers, we show that monitoring of self-produced action effects interferes with other tasks, and that the length of effect monitoring is determined by both, long-term action-effect links that hold for most situations, and short-term action-effect links that emerge from a current setting. Effect monitoring is fast and frugal when these action-effect links allow for valid anticipation of action effects, but otherwise effect monitoring takes longer and delays a subsequent task. Specific influences of long-term and short-term links on the P1/N1 and P3a further allow to dissect the temporal dynamics of when these links interact for the purpose of effect monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Reliable in the long run? Petroleum policy and long-term oil supplier reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating oil import dependence in energy consuming nations highlights the importance of having energy supplies at sufficient levels and at stable and reasonable prices. Consequently, it is crucial that oil exporters realize their full production potential. Current debates on energy security are often focused on short-term risks e.g. sudden disruptions due to wars, domestic instability, etc. However, when it comes to assessing oil supplier reliability it is equally important to assess their longer term ability and willingness to deliver oil to the global market. This study analyzes the effects of petroleum investment policies on crude oil production trends in 14 major oil producing countries (2000-2010) by focusing on the political-institutional frameworks that shape the investment conditions for the upstream oil sector. Our findings indicate that countries with less favorable oil sector frameworks systematically performed worse than countries with investor friendly and privatized sectors. The findings indicate that assessments based on remaining reserves and planned production capacities alone could inflate expectations about future oil supplies in a world where remaining crude reserves are located in countries with unfavorable investment frameworks. - Highlights: → We explore if policies favoring state-ownership in upstream oil undermine output expectations. → We compare petroleum policies of 14 major oil producers vis-a-vis production trends 2000-2010. → We find major differences between countries favorable to state-owned or private investors. → Substantial private investment seems needed for oil production to meet long-term demand growth.

  9. Long-term contracts vs. short-term trade of natural gas - a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Hirschhausen, Christian von

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the economics of long-term gas contracts under changing institutional conditions, mainly gas sector liberalisation. The paper is motivated by the increasingly tense debate in continental Europe, UK and the US on the security of long-term gas supply. We discuss the main issues regarding long-term contracts, i.e. the changing role of the flexibility clause, the effect of abandoning the destination clause, and the strategic behaviour of producers between long-term sales and spot-sales. The literature suggests consumers and producers benefit from risk hedging through long-term contracts. Furthermore long-term contracts may reduce exercise of market power. Our analysis adds an additional benefit if the long-run demand elasticity is significantly lower than the short-run elasticity, both strategic producers and consumers benefit from lower prices and larger market volume. Some policy implications of the findings are also discussed. (Author)

  10. The uranium industry: long-term planning for short-term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.; Georges Capus, G.

    2001-01-01

    Long term planning for short term competition Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. Firstly, the risk of investing in new mining projects in western countries is growing because, on the one hand, of very erratic market conditions and, on the other hand, of increasingly lengthy, complex and unpredictable regulatory conditions. Secondly, the supply of other sources of uranium (uranium derived from nuclear weapons, uranium produced in CIS countries, ...) involve other risks, mainly related to politics and commercial restrictions. Consequently, competitive uranium supply requires not only technical competence but also financial strength and good marketing capabilities in order to anticipate long-term market trends, in terms of both demand and supply. It also requires taking into account new parameters such as politics, environment, regulations, etc. Today, a supplier dedicated to the sustainable production of nuclear electricity must manage a broad range of long-term risks inherent to the procurement of uranium. Taking into account all these parameters in a context of short-term, fast-changing market is a great challenge for the future generation. World Uranium Civilian Supply and Demand. (authors)

  11. Paris and its long-term temperature goal: First steps on a long road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a means to achieve its long-term temperature goal, the Paris Agreement put in place a system of regularly updated country pledges alternating with global stocktaking exercises that assess progress towards achieving the Paris goals. By now, the vast majority of countries have submitted their intended actions (also known as Nationally Determined Contributions - NDCs). This begs the question what these amount to and whether they are in line with the agreement`s long-term temperature goal. A structured sensitivity analysis of the emissions implications of the Paris pledges has been carried out, showing that the ambiguity and imprecision of the NDCs leaves open a wide range of possible outcomes by 2030. This range has important implications for the feasibility and cost of pathways that attempt to limit warming to the temperature goals of the Agreement. We identify salient steps to reduce the overall uncertainty, and explore the minimum requirements that have to be met for integrated energy-economy-land models to still find options to stay within the temperature limits of the Paris Agreement. These requirements come under the form of near-term emissions reductions, and assumptions about the deployment of carbon-dioxide removal technologies in the second half of the century.

  12. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  13. Long-term-consequence analysis of no action alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Staven, L.H.; Serne, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Disposal-Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Data and information is described which pertains to estimated impacts from postulated long-term release of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from alpha-bearing wastes stored at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control (no action alternative 2). Under this alternative, wastes would remain at the generator sites and not be emplaced at WIPP

  14. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  15. The Impact of EuroSCORE II Risk Factors on Prediction of Long-Term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, Fabio; Pacini, Davide; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; Dang, Nicholas C; Alamanni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Grossi, Claudio; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo; Parolari, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operation Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II has not been tested yet for predicting long-term mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between EuroSCORE II and long-term mortality and to develop a new algorithm based on EuroSCORE II factors to predict long-term survival after cardiac surgery. Complete data on 10,033 patients who underwent major cardiac surgery during a 7-year period were retrieved from three prospective institutional databases and linked with the Italian Tax Register Information System. Mortality at follow-up was analyzed with time-to-event analysis. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival at 1 and 5 were, respectively, 95.0% ± 0.2% and 84.7% ± 0.4%. Both discrimination and calibration of EuroSCORE II decreased in the prediction of 1-year and 5-year mortality. Nonetheless, EuroSCORE II was confirmed to be an independent predictor of long-term mortality with a nonlinear trend. Several EuroSCORE II variables were independent risk factors for long-term mortality in a regression model, most of all very low ejection fraction (less than 20%), salvage operation, and dialysis. In the final model, isolated mitral valve surgery and isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery were associated with improved long-term survival. The EuroSCORE II cannot be considered a direct estimator of long-term risk of death, as its performance fades for mortality at follow-up longer than 30 days. Nonetheless, it is nonlinearly associated with long-term mortality, and most of its variables are risk factors for long-term mortality. Hence, they can be used in a different algorithm to stratify the risk of long-term mortality after surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  17. Numerical simulation of gender differences in a long-term microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairment which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular architecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electricallike model of this control system, using inexpensive software development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobical exercise, and also thermal stress simulating an extra-vehicular activity. Results show

  18. Short-term memory and long-term memory are still different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    A commonly expressed view is that short-term memory (STM) is nothing more than activated long-term memory. If true, this would overturn a central tenet of cognitive psychology-the idea that there are functionally and neurobiologically distinct short- and long-term stores. Here I present an updated case for a separation between short- and long-term stores, focusing on the computational demands placed on any STM system. STM must support memory for previously unencountered information, the storage of multiple tokens of the same type, and variable binding. None of these can be achieved simply by activating long-term memory. For example, even a simple sequence of digits such as "1, 3, 1" where there are 2 tokens of the digit "1" cannot be stored in the correct order simply by activating the representations of the digits "1" and "3" in LTM. I also review recent neuroimaging data that has been presented as evidence that STM is activated LTM and show that these data are exactly what one would expect to see based on a conventional 2-store view. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  20. Short-term influences and long-term fundamentals: stabilizing and destabilizing effects in the energy industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Silvan [Royal Inst. of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-10-01

    The ideology of the market economy has become dominant in all walks of economic life and the energy industries are no exception. In the oil business, the stabilizing structures of the international majors and of long-term prices have been replaced by industrial fragmentation and market price mechanisms. Monopolies in other energy industries are being progressively dismantled. This live experiment is being conducted on an industry which historically has suffered from feast and famine economics and has tried to protect itself through various forms of cartelization. The short-term effects of this open market have so far tended to improve flexibility and consumer choice. The price instability has proved manageable. The danger is that cash flow compression will reduced investments in the future and an ability to make very long lead time shifts in the energy mix. For this some government intervention in markets is necessary. (author).

  1. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  2. Major nutrients, heavy metals and PBDEs in soils after long-term sewage sludge application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Ren, Jing; Shen, Libo; Wang, Songfeng; Luo, Yongming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Cheng, Miaomiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate School; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Two contrasting soils receiving long-term application of commercial sewage sludge fertilizers in China were investigated to determine the concentrations of selected nutrients, heavy metals (HMs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) present to evaluate the impact of sewage sludge fertilizer on soil fertility and environmental risk. Materials and methods: Soil samples were collected from Tangshan City, Hebei province and Ningbo City, Zhejiang province and divided into two portions, one of which was air-dried and sieved through 2-, 0.25- and 0.149-mm nylon mesh for determination of nutrients and heavy metals. The other portion was frozen at -20 C, freeze-dried and sieved through 2-mm nylon mesh for PBDE analysis. The concentrations of nutrients, heavy metals and PBDEs were determined in all samples. Results and discussion: Concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in soils amended with low rates of sewage sludge fertilizer (SSF) and conventional fertilizer were compared. After long-term excessive amendment with SSF from Ningbo City (SSF-N), the concentrations of soil total N, P, aqua regia-extractable HMs and DTPA extractable HMs were higher than the control, especially in the arable layer. Moreover, the concentration of aqua regia-extractable Zn (457 mg kg{sup -1}) exceeded the recommended China Environmental Quality Standard for soils (GB15618-1995). All 8 target PBDE congeners were found in fertilizer SSF-N and soil with excessive amendment with SSF-N for 12 years, but the concentrations of 8 different PBDEs in SSF-N-amended soil were not significantly different from control soil. Conclusions: Both economic and environmental benefits can be obtained by careful application of sewage sludge fertilizer to recycle plant nutrients. Repeated and excessive application rates of sewage sludge fertilizer may pose environmental risk, especially in respect of soil heavy metal and PBDE contamination, and high concentrations of phosphorus may also be

  3. Long-Term Memory Performance in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodzik, Timo; Holling, Heinz; Pedersen, Anya

    2017-02-01

    Memory problems are a frequently reported symptom in adult ADHD, and it is well-documented that adults with ADHD perform poorly on long-term memory tests. However, the cause of this effect is still controversial. The present meta-analysis examined underlying mechanisms that may lead to long-term memory impairments in adult ADHD. We performed separate meta-analyses of measures of memory acquisition and long-term memory using both verbal and visual memory tests. In addition, the influence of potential moderator variables was examined. Adults with ADHD performed significantly worse than controls on verbal but not on visual long-term memory and memory acquisition subtests. The long-term memory deficit was strongly statistically related to the memory acquisition deficit. In contrast, no retrieval problems were observable. Our results suggest that memory deficits in adult ADHD reflect a learning deficit induced at the stage of encoding. Implications for clinical and research settings are presented.

  4. Challenges in long-term operation of nuclear power plants - Implications for regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa; Van Wonterghem, Frederik; Khouaja, Hatem; Vilpas, Martti; Osouf, Nicolas; Harikumar, S.; Ishigaki, Hiroki; Osaki, Toru; Yamada, Tomoho; Carlsson, Lennart; Shepherd, David; Galloway, Melanie; Liszka, Ervin; Svab, Miroslav; Pereira, Ken; Huerta, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors have become a major source of electricity supply in many countries in the past half a century. Based on this experience, many operators have sought and have received authorisation for long-term operation, whereby plant operation continues beyond the period considered in the design of the plant. Acceptance of a nuclear power plant for extended service should be based on assurance of the fitness of the plant and the operator for safe and reliable operation over the entire period considered for long-term operation. This assurance may be obtained by establishment of appropriate regulatory requirements, specification of goals and safety levels and regulatory assessment and oversight of the operator's programme for long-term operation. The operators and regulators should ensure that operating experience continues to be evaluated during long-term operation to ensure that any relevant lessons are effectively applied. Other considerations for assurance of safe operation are effective management of ageing, possible need for safety improvements, application of lessons learnt from operating experience, evaluation of environmental impacts, adequate staff resources and performance, review of security at the plant, action in response to emerging issues, and openness and transparency in the transition to long-term operation. Even though most of these considerations are addressed under the regulatory framework that applies to the initial operating period, additional regulatory activities in these areas may be necessary for long-term operation. Although there can be significant differences in regulatory approaches used by different countries for evaluating acceptability of long-term operation, there is general agreement on the purposes and goals of the regulatory reviews. An authorisation of long-term operation could involve a licence renewal or a periodic safety review or an approach that melds elements of both. This report presents guidance that is intended

  5. Remaining uncertainties in predicting long-term performance of nuclear waste glass from experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1994-01-01

    The current knowledge on the glass dissolution mechanism and the representation of glass dissolution concepts within overall repository performance assessment models are briefly summarized and uncertainties related to mechanism, radionuclide chemistry and parameters are discussed. Understanding of the major glass dissolution processes has been significantly increased in recent years. Long-term glass stability is related to the long-term maintenance of silica saturated conditions. The behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass has not been sufficiently and results do no yet allow meaningful predictions. Conserving long-term predictions of glass matrix dissolution as upper limit for radionuclide release can be made with sufficient confidence, however these estimations generally result in a situation where the barrier function of the glass is masked by the efficiency of the geologic barrier. Realistic long-term predictions may show that the borosilicate waste glass contributes to overall repository safety to a much larger extent than indicated by overconservatism. Today realistic predictions remain highly uncertain and much more research work is necessary. In particular, the long-term rate under silica saturated conditions needs to be understood and the behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass deserves more systematic investigations

  6. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...

  7. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  8. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  9. Long-term efficacy of rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Mark F; Hauser, Robert A; Hurtig, Howard I; Ondo, William G; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Goren, Tamar; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl J

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to follow the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of rasagiline for Parkinson's disease (PD) with data collected from all patients who had ever taken rasagiline during the 12-month TEMPO monotherapy trial (N = 398) and subsequent open-label extension. Patients were followed for up to 6.5 years with a mean of 3.5 +/- 2.1 years. After 12 months, additional PD medications were added as required. Of patients remaining in the trial at 2 years, 46% were maintained on rasagiline monotherapy. The majority of patients received a dopamine agonist prior to levodopa as the first additional dopaminergic agent. Analysis using a Kaplan-Meier method indicated that by 5.4 years only 25% of patients progressed to Hoehn & Yahr stage III. Rasagiline was well tolerated, with 11.3% of patients (45/398) withdrawing because of an adverse event. Rasagiline therapy for PD was effective, well tolerated, and safe in this long-term trial.

  10. Use of pulmonary artery catheter in coronary artery bypass graft. Costs and long-term outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery catheters (PAC are used widely to monitor hemodynamics in patients undergoing coronary bypass graft (CABG surgery. However, recent studies have raised concerns regarding both the effectiveness and safety of PAC. Therefore, our aim was to determine the effects of the use of PAC on the short- and long-term health and economic outcomes of patients undergoing CABG.1361 Chinese patients who consecutively underwent isolated, primary CABG at the Cardiovascular Institute of Fuwai Hospital from June 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 were included in this study. Of all the patients, 453 received PAC during operation (PAC group and 908 received no PAC therapy (control group. Short-term and long-term mortality and major complications were analyzed with multivariate regression analysis and propensity score matched-pair analysis was used to yield two well-matched groups for further comparison.The patients who were managed with PAC more often received intraoperative vasoactive drugs dopamine (70.9% vs. 45.5%; P<0.001 and epinephrine (7.7% vs. 2.6%; P<0.001. In addition, costs for initial hospitalization were higher for PAC patients ($14,535 vs. $13,873, respectively, p = 0.004. PAC use was neither associated with the perioperative mortality or major complications, nor was it associated with long-term mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. In addition, comparison between two well-matched groups showed no significant differences either in baseline characteristics or in short-term and long-term outcomes.There is no clear indication of any benefit or harm in managing CABG patients with PAC. However, use of PAC in CABG is more expensive. That is, PAC use increased costs without benefit and thus appears unjustified for routine use in CABG surgery.

  11. Prevalence of Long-Term Opioid Use in Long-Stay Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Chrysanthopoulou, Stavroula A; Ulbricht, Christine M; Hume, Anne L; Tjia, Jennifer; Lapane, Kate L

    2018-01-01

    Overall and long-term opioid use among older adults have increased since 1999. Less is known about opioid use in older adults in nursing homes (NHs). Cross-sectional. U.S. NHs (N = 13,522). Long-stay NH resident Medicare beneficiaries with a Minimum Data Set 3.0 (MDS) assessment between April 1, 2012, and June 30, 2012, and 120 days of follow-up (N = 315,949). We used Medicare Part D claims to measure length of opioid use in the 120 days from the index assessment (short-term: ≤30 days, medium-term: >30-89 days, long-term: ≥90 days), adjuvants (e.g., anticonvulsants), and other pain medications (e.g., corticosteroids). MDS assessments in the follow-up period were used to measure nonpharmacological pain management use. Modified Poisson models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for age, gender, race and ethnicity, cognitive and physical impairment, and long-term opioid use. Of all long-stay residents, 32.4% were prescribed any opioid, and 15.5% were prescribed opioids long-term. Opioid users (versus nonusers) were more commonly prescribed pain adjuvants (32.9% vs 14.9%), other pain medications (25.5% vs 11.0%), and nonpharmacological pain management (24.5% vs 9.3%). Long-term opioid use was higher in women (aPR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.18-1.23) and lower in racial and ethnic minorities (non-Hispanic blacks vs whites: APR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.90-0.94) and those with severe cognitive impairment (vs no or mild impairment, aPR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.79-0.83). One in seven NH residents was prescribed opioids long-term. Recent guidelines on opioid prescribing for pain recommend reducing long-term opioid use, but this is challenging in NHs because residents may not benefit from nonpharmacological and nonopioid interventions. Studies to address concerns about opioid safety and effectiveness (e.g., on pain and functional status) in NHs are needed. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics

  12. The emerging dental workforce: long-term career expectations and influences. A quantitative study of final year dental students' views on their long-term career from one London Dental School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nairn HF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce and their short-term expectations has already been reported with a view to informing professional and policy decisions. The objective of this component of the research programme was to examine the long-term goals and perceived influences on final year dental students' professional careers. Methods Univariate analysis of a self completed questionnaire survey of all final year dental students from King's College London, comprising questions on demography, long-term career goals and influences, proposed commitment to dentistry, commitment to healthcare systems and the influences thereon. Statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association. Results Ninety per cent of students responded to this survey (n = 126, the majority of whom were aged 23 years (59%, female (58% and Asian (70%. Long-term career goals were fairly evenly split between 'dentist with a special interest' (27%, 'primary dental care practitioner' (26% and 'specialist' (25%, with 19% not certain. Only 60% of total respondents anticipated working full-time in the long-term (79% males cf 52% females; p = 0.00. The vast majority of respondents (≥80% identified 'work-life balance', 'financial stability' and 'professional development' as 'important' or 'very important' influences on the number of future sessions. Females were significantly more likely to rate childcare commitments as an important influence on their future working capacity compared with males (p = 0.00. A wide range of factors were considered important or very important in making the NHS attractive, led by support for professional development (88% and feeling valued by patients (88%, as well as funding, time with patients, rewards for prevention and practical issues such as dental materials and premises. Females were significantly more likely than males to be attracted to work within the NHS by 'childcare support

  13. Potentially inappropriate prescriptions for older patients in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurin Danielle

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate medication use is a major healthcare issue for the elderly population. This study explored the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs in long-term care in metropolitan Quebec. Methods A cross sectional chart review of 2,633 long-term care older patients of the Quebec City area was performed. An explicit criteria list for PIPs was developed based on the literature and validated by a modified Delphi method. Medication orders were reviewed to describe prescribing patterns and to determine the prevalence of PIPs. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of PIPs. Results Almost all residents (94.0% were receiving one or more prescribed medication; on average patients had 4.8 prescribed medications. A majority (54.7% of treated patients had a potentially inappropriate prescription (PIP. Most common PIPs were drug interactions (33.9% of treated patients, followed by potentially inappropriate duration (23.6%, potentially inappropriate medication (14.7% and potentially inappropriate dosage (9.6%. PIPs were most frequent for medications of the central nervous system (10.8% of prescribed medication. The likelihood of PIP increased significantly as the number of drugs prescribed increased (odds ratio [OR]: 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 – 1.43 and with the length of stay (OR: 1.78, CI: 1.43 – 2.20. On the other hand, the risk of receiving a PIP decreased with age. Conclusion Potentially inappropriate prescribing is a serious problem in the highly medicated long-term care population in metropolitan Quebec. Use of explicit criteria lists may help identify the most critical issues and prioritize interventions to improve quality of care and patient safety.

  14. The long term storage of advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standring, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The approach being taken by BNFL in managing the AGR lifetime spent fuel arisings from British Energy reactors is given. Interim storage for up to 80 years is envisaged for fuel delivered beyond the life of the Thorp reprocessing plant. Adopting a policy of using existing facilities, to comply with the principles of waste minimisation, has defined the development requirements to demonstrate that this approach can be undertaken safely and business issues can be addressed. The major safety issues are the long term integrity of both the fuel being stored and structure it is being stored in. Business related issues reflect long term interactions with the rest of the Sellafield site and storage optimisation. Examples of the development programme in each of these areas is given. (author)

  15. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  16. High-level Waste Long-term management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long-term management system(A-KRS) which deals with spent fuels from domestic nuclear power stations, HLW from advanced fuel cycle and other wastes that are not admitted to LILW disposal site. Also, this project demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the key technologies applied in the A-KRS by evaluating them under in-situ condition such as underground research laboratory and provide important information to establish the safety assessment and long-term management plan. To develop the technologies for the high level radioactive wastes disposal, demonstrate their reliability under in-situ condition and establish safety assessment of disposal system, The major objects of this project are the following: Ο An advanced disposal system including waste containers for HLW from advanced fuel cycle and pyroprocess has been developed. Ο Quantitative assessment tools for long-term safety and performance assessment of a radwaste disposal system has been developed. Ο Hydrological and geochemical investigation and interpretation methods has been developed to evaluate deep geological environments. Ο The THMC characteristics of the engineered barrier system and near-field has been evaluated by in-situ experiments. Ο The migration and retardation of radionuclides and colloid materials in a deep geological environment has been investigated. The results from this project will provide important information to show HLW disposal plan safe and reliable. The knowledge from this project can also contribute to environmental conservation by applying them to the field of oil and gas industries to store their wastes safe

  17. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P heel...... regardless of symptoms and had no impact on prognosis, and neither did the presence of a heel spur. Only 24% of asymptomatic patients had a normal fascia on US at long-term follow-up. A US-guided corticosteroid injection did not cause atrophy of the heel fat pad. Our observational study did not allow us...

  18. Short-term versus long-term contracting for uranium enrichment services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is the world's largest and most experienced supplier of uranium enrichment services. Through the late 1970s and early 1980s, emerging market forces transformed what was once a monopoly into a highly competitive industry. In the early 1980's the DOE lost market share. But as we enter the 1990s, new market forces have emerged. The US DOE believes a responsible balance between long-term and short-term contracting will be the key to success and the key to assuring the long-term health and reliability of the nuclear fuel industry. The US DOE intends to be in this nuclear business for a long time and will continue to offer reliable and responsive services second to none

  19. Termite and earthworm abundance and taxonomic richness under long-term conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zida, Z.; Ouedraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Unsustainable crop and soil management practices are major causes of soil degradation and declining soil biodiversity in West Africa. Identifying soil management practices that favor macrofauna abundance is highly desirable for long-term soil health. This study investigates the effects of long-term

  20. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  1. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  2. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'')

  3. Mathematical models of human paralyzed muscle after long-term training

    OpenAIRE

    Frey Law, L.A.; Shields, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in major musculoskeletal adaptations, including muscle atrophy, faster contractile properties, increased fatigability, and bone loss. The use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides a method to prevent paralyzed muscle adaptations in order to sustain force-generating capacity. Mathematical muscle models may be able to predict optimal activation strategies during FES, however muscle properties further adapt with long-term training. The purpose of th...

  4. Long-term orbit prediction for Tiangong-1 spacecraft using the mean atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingshi; Liu, Lin; Cheng, Haowen; Hu, Songjie; Duan, Jianfeng

    2015-03-01

    China is planning to complete its first space station by 2020. For the long-term management and maintenance, the orbit of the space station needs to be predicted for a long period of time. Since the space station is expected to work in a low-Earth orbit, the error in the a priori atmosphere model contributes significantly to the rapid increase of the predicted orbit error. When the orbit is predicted for 20 days, the error in the a priori atmosphere model, if not properly corrected, could induce a semi-major axis error of up to a few kilometers and an overall position error of several thousand kilometers respectively. In this work, we use a mean atmosphere model averaged from NRLMSISE00. The a priori reference mean density can be corrected during the orbit determination. For the long-term orbit prediction, we use sufficiently long period of observations and obtain a series of the diurnal mean densities. This series contains the recent variation of the atmosphere density and can be analyzed for various periodic components. After being properly fitted, the mean density can be predicted and then applied in the orbit prediction. Here we carry out the test with China's Tiangong-1 spacecraft at the altitude of about 340 km and we show that this method is simple and flexible. The densities predicted with this approach can serve in the long-term orbit prediction. In several 20-day prediction tests, most predicted orbits show semi-major axis errors better than 700 m and overall position errors better than 400 km.

  5. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  6. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  7. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  8. Pension system in Romania. Long term imbalances and inconsistent policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Associate Professor Razvan Papuc

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Public policies on retirement, both in Romania and in other EU countries, have been and still are conditioned by numerous short-term budgetary constaints and by long term major sustainability problems. Alongside objective, demographic developments known in all European countries , support systems for the elderly are facing numerous constraints, both due to government policies marked by fiscal indiscipline and lack of consistency of decisions and, hence, credibility phenomena caused by the phenomenon "the captive politician of a redistributive policy model". Modeling support institutions for pensioners by political actors was most of the times the expression of elections marked by Weberian instrumental rationality and not by wertrationalitat, using the axiom- guide for the behaviour of decision markers to "meet social interests in order to come to power" and not by the concern for a more long term efficient trans-redistributive approach. This paper aims to pursue the most important imbalances that chartacterize the public pension system in Romania, expression of decisions determined by aggregating in group individual preferences and noy by both rational and ethical analysis without redistribution centres.

  9. Changing incentives for long-term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    There is much concern about the absence of long-term gas contracts with fixed price and quantity conditions, which until recent years was the standard way of doing business in the gas industry. These types of contracts performed a valuable service in the development of the gas industry, and there comparative absence today is sometimes thought to be one reason for the current malaise in the industry. One hears the argument that there must be some kind of 'market failure' that prevents buyers and sellers from entering into these long term arrangements, and recent changes in state and federal regulations are often cited as the cause of the problem. The purpose of the author's remarks is to argue that what is taken as a breakdown in the market may be simply a reaction to a decline in economic incentives to enter into long-term contracts with rigid price and quantity terms. This is, in other words, simply one more aspect of change in the gas business that Frank Heintz referred to in his opening remarks this morning. The author starts by giving a brief description of the motives for engaging in long-term contracts, and then describes how incentives to use long-term contracts have declined for both gas buyers and gas sellers. He concludes that the decline in the use of long-term contracts is not cause for regulatory concern, but a result of the continuing transformation of the gas business to one that more closely resembles other commodity markets

  10. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  11. Opening remarks for a panel discussion on short-term vs long-term procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtenay, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term contracting in the late 1970's and early 1980's is blamed for some of the inequities that plague the uranium industry today. Utilities are obliged to pay prices far above prevailing levels and relatively low cost producers are forced to shut down while watching less efficient suppliers stay in business thanks to their long term supply agreements. Furthermore, it is argued that long-term contracts have contributed to supply instability by forcing the buildup of surplus inventories and by supporting excess incremental production by suppliers who have a baseload of long-term contracts. The depressed prices resulting from this oversupply are in turn jeopardizing future resource development and damaging supply reliability. In summary, the author's argument is that supply reliability will be greatly enhanced by the assurance of adequate primary supply from traditional sources such as Canada. This will not happen without long-term contracts. This conclusion may not be expected coming from a representative of Canada's largest uranium producer. But the final comment is less self serving. Many of the critics of long term contracts apparently expect a continuing and plentiful supply of East Bloc uranium to the spot market. A further question is to what extent East Bloc suppliers will eventually require long-term contracts in order to maintain production facilitates in economies that are no longer centrally planned, and where there is open competition for capital. Ultimately, reliability of supply from the non-traditional suppliers may also depend on long-term contracts

  12. Long-term risks of kidney living donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science...... and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information...... to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors...

  13. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  14. Long-term leaching of nutrients and contaminants from wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Hyks, J.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    With increasing amounts of woody biomass being combusted for energy purposes worldwide, more wood ash is being generated and needs management. As an alternative to landfilling, residues may be utilised for liming and fertilising purposes on forest soils. Comprehensive evaluations of long-term lea......With increasing amounts of woody biomass being combusted for energy purposes worldwide, more wood ash is being generated and needs management. As an alternative to landfilling, residues may be utilised for liming and fertilising purposes on forest soils. Comprehensive evaluations of long......-term leaching from these residues are needed in order to assess potential environmental impacts associated with their utilisation. Two Danish wood ash samples, one fly ash and one mixed ash (a combination of fly ash and bottom ash), were evaluated in long-term percolation column tests (up to L/S ∼2000 L....../kg), in order to quantify the release of major, minor and trace metal(loid)s. While columns of three different lengths were used, the leaching of individual elements could be described as a function of the L/S ratio – irrespective of the column length. At L/S 1000 L/kg, the cumulative releases of K, S, Na, Ca...

  15. Long-term effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that sources of long-term damage from radiation are two-fold. People who have been exposed to doses of radiation from initial early fallout but have recovered from the acute effects may still suffer long-term damage from their exposure. Those who have not been exposed to early fallout may be exposed to delayed fallout, the hazards from which are almost exclusively from ingesting strontium, caesium and carbon isotopes present in food; the damage caused is relatively unimportant compared with that caused by the brief doses from initial radiation and early fallout. A brief discussion is presented of the distribution of delayed long-lived isotope fallout, and an outline is sketched of late biological effects, such as malignant disease, cataracts, retarded development, infertility and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  16. Parents' Faith and Hope during the Pediatric Palliative Phase and the Association with Long-Term Parental Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Falkenburg, Nette; Michiels, Erna M C; van Vliet, Liesbeth; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E

    2015-05-01

    The loss of a child is associated with an increased risk for developing psychological problems. However, studies investigating the impact of parents' faith and hope for a cure during the palliative phase on long-term parental psychological functioning are limited. The study's objective was to explore the role of faith and hope as a source of coping and indicator of long-term parental adjustment. Eighty-nine parents of 57 children who died of cancer completed questionnaires retrospectively, exploring faith, hope, and sources of coping, and measuring parents' current level of grief and depression. For 19 parents (21%) faith was very important during the palliative phase. The majority of parents remained hopeful for a meaningful time with their child (n=68, 76%); a pain-free death (n=58, 65%); and a cure (n=30, 34%). Their child (n=70, 79%) was parents' main source of coping. Twelve parents (14%) suffered from traumatic grief, and 22 parents (25%) showed symptoms of depression. Parents' faith was not associated with less long-term traumatic grief (OR=0.86, p=0.51) or symptoms of depression (OR=0.95, p=0.74), and parents' hope for a cure was not related to more long-term traumatic grief (OR=1.07, p=0.71) or symptoms of depression (OR=1.12, p=0.47). Faith was important for a minority of parents and was not associated with less long-term traumatic grief or symptoms of depression. The majority of parents remained hopeful. Hope for a cure was not associated with more long-term traumatic grief or symptoms of depression.

  17. Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD: A Systematic Review of Self-Esteem and Social Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V; Mazzone, L; Raynaud, J P; Kahle, J; Hodgkins, P

    2016-04-01

    To compare the long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes of individuals with untreated and treated ADHD across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A systematic search of 12 databases was performed to identify peer-reviewed, primary research articles, published January 1980 to December 2011, reporting long-term self-esteem and/or social function outcomes (≥2 years; life consequences distinct from symptoms) of individuals with untreated or treated ADHD. Overall, 127 studies reported 150 outcomes. Most outcomes were poorer in individuals with untreated ADHD versus non-ADHD controls (57% [13/23] for self-esteem; 73% [52/71] for social function). A beneficial response to treatment (pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and multimodal treatments) was reported for the majority of self-esteem (89% [8/9]) and social function (77% [17/22]) outcomes. Untreated ADHD was associated with poorer long-term self-esteem and social function outcomes compared with non-ADHD controls. Treatment for ADHD was associated with improvement in outcomes; however, further long-term outcome studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Long-term prophylaxis in severe factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, S M; Biguzzi, E; Mistretta, C; Garagiola, I; Peyvandi, F

    2015-11-01

    The spectrum of bleeding problems in FVII deficiency is highly variable and FVII levels and causative genetic mutations correlate poorly with the bleeding risk. Long-term prophylaxis is generally initiated in order to prevent subsequent CNS bleeding after a first event or in patients with other major/ life threatening/ frequent bleeding symptoms as gastrointestinal bleeding or hemarthrosis. However few data are available in the literature regarding FVII prophylaxis and clinical decisions cannot be based on evidence. We report the data available in the literature on FVII prophylaxis and our personal experience regarding three patients affected by severe FVII deficiency. Specific papers on long-term prophylaxis in severe FVII deficiency were identified using the database, PUBMED. The most frequent indications for long-term prophylaxis were CNS bleeding (58%), hemartrosis (15%) and GI bleeding (9%). Patients were treated with various dosages and frequency. Prophylactic treatment with 10-30U/kg (pdFVII) or 20-30mcg/kg (rFVIIa) twice or three times/weeks was described to be effective. In the literature and in our experience, prophylaxis can be considered in patients with severe FVII deficiency and severe bleeding phenotype. A dose of 10-30U/kg (pdFVII) or 20-30 microg/kg (rFVIIa) twice or three times/week is usually administrated, but dose and frequency can be tailored based on the clinical follow-up of the patients. Since hemarthrosis is a frequent manifestation, a suggestion to improve the outcomes of patients with severe FVII deficiency is to monitor joint condition in order to identify early arthropathy that could be another indication to start secondary prophylaxis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  20. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations......What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...

  1. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  2. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rath...

  3. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  4. Long-term outcomes of nasopharyngectomy using partial maxillectomy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Li Shia; Lim, Chwee Ming; Loh, Kwok Seng

    2016-05-01

    To determine the long-term outcomes of a prospective cohort of 20 patients who had nasopharyngectomy using an open partial-maxillectomy approach. A prospective cohort study of the surgical outcomes of patients with recurrent T1 (rT1) and rT2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence. There were 14 male and six female patients. The mean age was 49 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 60.4 months. All of the surgical margins were free of malignancy. Ten patients (50%) developed recurrences. The 5-year local control rate, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survivals were 70%, 48.9%, 70.2%, and 66.7%, respectively. There were no major intraoperative complications. The most common morbidity was pain. The median length of hospitalization was 4 days. Early local recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma can be treated surgically using a partial maxillectomy approach. The long-term outcomes are similar to nasopharyngectomy performed using the more common approaches. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1103-1107, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. The Electrification of Energy: Long-Term Trends and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fouquet, Roger [London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom); Schubert, E. Fred [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Here, we present and analyze three powerful long-term historical trends in energy, particularly electrical energy, as well as the opportunities and challenges associated with these trends. The first trend is from a world containing a diversity of energy currencies to one whose predominant currency is electricity, driven by electricity’s transportability, exchangeability, and steadily decreasing cost. The second trend is from electricity generated from a diversity of sources to electricity generated predominantly by free-fuel sources, driven by their steadily decreasing cost and long-term abundance. These trends necessitate a just-emerging third trend: from a grid in which electricity is transported uni-directionally, traded at near-static prices, and consumed under direct human control; to a grid in which electricity is transported bi-directionally, traded at dynamic prices, and consumed under human-tailored agential control. Early acceptance and appreciation of these trends will accelerate their remaking of humanity’s energy landscape into one in which energy is much more affordable, abundant and efficiently deployed than it is today; with major economic, geo-political, and environmental benefits to human society.

  6. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    2003-01-01

    This research program is a broadly based effort to understand the long-term behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and its alteration products in a geologic repository. We have established by experiments and field studies that natural uraninite, UO2+x, and its alteration products are excellent ''natural analogues'' for the study of the corrosion of UO2 in SNF. This on-going research program has addressed the following major issues: (1) What are the long-term corrosion products of natural UO2+x, uraninite, under oxidizing and reducing conditions? (2) What is the paragenesis or the reaction path for the phases that form during alteration? (3) What is the radionuclide content in the corrosion products as compared with the original UO2+x? Do the trace element contents substantiate models developed to predict radionuclide incorporation into the secondary phases? Are the corrosion products accurately predicted from geochemical codes (e.g., EQ3/6 or Geochemist's Workbench) that are used in performance assessments? Can these codes be tested by studies of natural analogue sites (e.g., Oklo, Cigar Lake or Pena Blanca)

  7. Long-Term Patency of Lymphovenous Anastomoses: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    With advancements in technology and microsurgical techniques, lymphovenous anastomosis has become a popular reconstructive procedure in the treatment of chronic lymphedema. However, the long-term patency of these anastomoses is not clear in the literature. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to assess the reported long-term patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. A total of eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooled data from four similar experiments in normal dogs showed an average long-term (≥5 months) patency of 52 percent. The only experiment in dogs with chronic lymphedema failed to show any long-term patency. The creation of peripheral lymphovenous anastomoses with a moderate long-term patency rate has become technically possible. However, the long-term results in chronic lymphedema are limited.

  8. Long-Term Orientation in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trust does not work in the same way across cultures. This paper presents an agent model of behavior in trade across Hofstedes cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term orientation. The situation is based on a gaming simulation, the Trust and Tracing game. The paper investigates the

  9. Family Structure and Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B.; Konetzka, R. Tamara

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one’s own generation, particularly about one’s spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that LTC planning has not occurred yet, or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase. PMID:25760583

  10. Hydrothermal behaviors and long-term stability of bentonitic buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin

    2007-01-01

    In hydrothermal reaction tests, smectite-to-illite conversion was identified using a domestic bentonite which is favorably considered as a buffer material, and its dependency on various hydrothermal conditions was investigated. The analysis results of the XRD and Si concentration indicated that the smectite-to- illite conversion was a major process of bentonite alteration under the hydrothermal conditions. The temperature, potassium concentration in solution, and pH were observed to significantly affect the smectite-to illite conversion. A model of conversion reaction rate was suggested evaluate the long-term stability of smectite composing a major constituent of bentonitic buffer. It was expected from the evaluation results that the smectite would keep its integrity for very long disposal time under a normal condition, while as it might be converted to illite by 50 percent after over 5 x 10 4 year of disposal time under a conservative condition and consequently lose its swelling capacity as a buffer material of a repository

  11. Long-term effects of childbirth in MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M.B.; Nagels, G.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The uncertainty about long-term effects of childbirth presents MS patients with dilemmas. Methods: Based on clinical data of 330 female MS patients, the long-term effects of childbirth were analysed, using a cross-sectional study design. Four groups of patients were distinguished: (1)

  12. Periprocedural and long-term outcomes of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in cardiology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basoor, Abhijeet; Patel, Kiritkumar C; Halabi, Abdul R; Todorov, Mina; Senthilvadivel, Prashanth; Choksi, Nishit; Phan, Thanh; LaLonde, Thomas; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; DeGregorio, Michele

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has recently been made a class I indication in the treatment of AAA. In comparison to the conventional open surgical treatment, endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is associated with equivalent long-term morbidity and mortality rates. Vascular surgeons perform majority of EVAR. There are no reports for the long-term results of this intervention performed by interventional cardiologists. We present one of the first reports of periprocedural and long-term outcomes of EVAR performed by interventional cardiologists. Retrospective chart review on patients with attempted EVAR between September 2005 and January 2011 was performed. Included cases were all consecutive patients who had attempted EVAR by interventional cardiologists. During the study period EVAR was attempted in 170 patients, with 27% being women. The mean age was 74 years (range 52-93). The endovascular graft placement was successful in 96% (163/170) of patients. Procedure failures were more common in women (6 of 46 vs 1 of 124, P = 0.003). The 30-day mortality was 1.8 % (3 of 170). In patients with successful EVAR the mean follow-up was 30 months and mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 ± 3.2 days. Major periprocedural complications were noted in 9% patients (15 of 167). During follow-up, six patients (3.5%) required re-intervention and additional 16 patients died with no aneurysm related deaths. EVAR primarily performed by interventional cardiologists demonstrates high periprocedural and long-term success rates. A higher EVAR failure rate has been observed in women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Short and long-term mortality of patients presenting with bleeding events to the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alberto; Renzi, Noemi; Molesti, Daniele; Bianchi, Simone; Bogazzi, Irene; Bongini, Giada; Pepe, Giuseppe; Frosini, Fabiana; Bertini, Alessio; Santini, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    Death of patients presenting with bleeding events to the Emergency Department still represent a major problem. We sought to analyze clinical characteristics associated with worse outcomes including short- and long-term death, beyond antithombotic treatment strategy. Patients presenting with any bleeding events during 2016-2017years were enrolled. Clinical parameters, site of bleeding, major bleeding, ongoing anti-thrombotic treatment strategy and death were collected. Hard 5:1 propensity score matching was performed to adjust dead patients in baseline characteristics. Endpoints were one-month and one-year death. Out of 166,000 visits to the Emergency Department, 3.050 patients (1.8%) were enrolled and eventually 429 were analyzed after propensity. Overall, anticoagulants or antiplatelets were given to 234(54%). Major bleeding account for 111(26%) patients, without differences between those taking anticoagulants or antiplatelets versus others. Death at one-month and one-year was 26(6%) and 72(17%), respectively. Independent predictors of one-month death were major bleeding (Odds Ratio, OR 26, pbleeding (OR 7, pbleeding where higher than others (pbleeding and age (0.75 and 0.72, respectively) over others; pbleeding events, death rate was driven by major bleeding on short-term and older age on long-term. Among dead patients mortality was approximately 40% on one-month; 60% in older patients, and 80% in female gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  15. Neurologic long term outcome after drowning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suominen Pertti K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drowning is a major source of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. Neurocognitive outcome of children after drowning incidents cannot be accurately predicted in the early course of treatment. Therefore, aggressive out-of-hospital and in-hospital treatment is emphasized. There are "miracle" cases after long submersion times that have been reported in the medical literature, which mostly concern small children. However, many of the survivors will remain severely neurologically compromised after remarkably shorter submersion times and will consequently be a great burden to their family and society for the rest of their lives. The duration of submersion, the need of advanced life support at the site of the accident, the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whether spontaneous breathing and circulation are present on arrival at the emergency room are important factors related to survival with mild neurological deficits or intact function in drowned children. Data on long-term outcome are scarce. The used outcome measurement methods and the duration of follow-up have not been optimal in most of the existing studies. Proper neurological and neurophysiological examinations for drowned children are superior to outcome scales based chart reviews. There is evidence that gross neurological examination at the time of discharge from the hospital in young children does not reveal all the possible sequelae related to hypoxic brain injury and thus long-term follow-up of drowned resuscitated children is strongly recommended.

  16. [Psychosocial issues of long-term cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, J; Faller, H

    2012-04-01

    Although cancer incidence rates are increasing, recent statistical studies suggest that cancer patients are showing higher cure rates as well as improved overall survival rates for most cancer locations. These advances are explained by improved strategies in early diagnoses as well as improved cancer therapies. Therefore, the number of long-term cancer survivors has also increased, but only few studies, especially within the last years, have focused on psychosocial issues of this subgroup. Some studies show that overall quality of life of long-term cancer survivors is quite high and comparable to that of the normal population. Nevertheless, a substantial percentage of former patients shows reduced quality of life and suffers from various sequelae of cancer and its treatment. This review focuses on the most common psychosocial issue of long-term survivors such as reduced psychological wellbeing, neuropsychological deficits and cancer-related fatigue syndrome. Finally, recommendations for problem-oriented interventions as well as improvement of psychosocial care of long-term survivors are given.

  17. Are long-term bisphosphonate users a reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of long-term bisphosphonate use may be low due to low refill compliance and gaps in treatment. An analysis of the prescription history of 58,674 bisphosphonate users in Denmark found that only 2.8 % had received ten dose years of treatment or above. INTRODUCTION: This study aims...... to describe the demographics of present bisphosphonate (BP) users, to determine the prevalence of long-term BP use, and to establish if long-term use (a 10-year history of osteoporosis treatment) translated to ten dose years of bisphosphonate prescriptions filled, given the propensity for treatment gaps...... more than ten dose years of a BP. For any osteoporosis drug, 3.0 % had received ten dose years or more, while 23.2 % had received between 5 and 10 years of treatment. CONCLUSION: Long-term users with ten dose years or more of a BP are rare due to periods of low compliance and gaps, with a discrepancy...

  18. The Structure and Content of Long-Term and Short-Term Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses two limitations in the mate preferences literature. First, research all-too-often relies on single-item assessments of mate preferences precluding more advanced statistical techniques like factor analysis. Second, when factor analysis could be done, it exclusively has done for long-term mate preferences, at the exclusion of short-term mate preferences. In this study (N = 401, we subjected 20 items designed to measure short- and long-term mate preferences to both principle components (n = 200 and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 201. In the long-term context, we replicated previous findings that there are three different categories of preferences: physical attractiveness, interpersonal warmth, and social status. In the short-term context, physical attractiveness occupied two parts of the structure, social status dropped out, and interpersonal warmth remained. Across short- and long-term contexts, there were slight changes in what defined the shared dimensions (i.e., physical attractiveness and interpersonal warmth, suggesting prior work that applies the same inventory to each context might be flawed. We also replicated sex differences and similarities in mate preferences and correlates with sociosexuality and mate value. We adopt an evolutionary paradigm to understand our results.

  19. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  20. Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Zaetta, Cristina; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few studies to date investigated the long-term consequences of disasters on physical health. Objective: The aim of the present report was to study the consequence on physical health of exposure to the Vajont disaster after 40 years. We also explored the effects of severity of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression disorder on physical health and health-related quality of life. Method: Sixty survivors of the Vajont disaster and 48 control subjects of sim...

  1. A least squares approach for efficient and reliable short-term versus long-term optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainties related to long-term forecasts of oil prices impose significant financial risk on ventures of oil production. To minimize risk, oil companies are inclined to maximize profit over short-term horizons ranging from months to a few years. In contrast, conventional production...... optimization maximizes long-term profits over horizons that span more than a decade. To address this challenge, the oil literature has introduced short-term versus long-term optimization. Ideally, this problem is solved by a posteriori multi-objective optimization methods that generate an approximation...... the balance between the objectives, leaving an unfulfilled potential to increase profits. To promote efficient and reliable short-term versus long-term optimization, this paper introduces a natural way to characterize desirable Pareto points and proposes a novel least squares (LS) method. Unlike hierarchical...

  2. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose : The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods : Between January 1990 and ...

  3. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  4. Modelling the long-term deployment of electricity storage in the global energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The current development of wind and solar power sources calls for an improvement of long-term energy models. Indeed, high shares of variable wind and solar productions have short- and long-term impacts on the power system, requiring the development of flexibility options: fast-reacting power plants, demand response, grid enhancement or electricity storage. Our first main contribution is the modelling of electricity storage and grid expansion in the POLES model (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). We set up new investment mechanisms, where storage development is based on several combined economic values. After categorising the long-term energy models and the power sector modelling tools in a common typology, we showed the need for a better integration of both approaches. Therefore, the second major contribution of our work is the yearly coupling of POLES to a short-term optimisation of the power sector operation, with the European Unit Commitment and Dispatch model (EUCAD). The two-way data exchange allows the long-term coherent scenarios of POLES to be directly backed by the short-term technical detail of EUCAD. Our results forecast a strong and rather quick development of the cheapest flexibility options: grid interconnections, pumped hydro storage and demand response programs, including electric vehicle charging optimisation and vehicle-to-grid storage. The more expensive battery storage presumably finds enough system value in the second half of the century. A sensitivity analysis shows that improving the fixed costs of batteries impacts more the investments than improving their efficiency. We also show the explicit dependency between storage and variable renewable energy sources. (author) [fr

  5. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  6. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  7. Impact of long-term and short-term therapies on seminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Elia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was: i to evaluate the prevalence of male partners of subfertile couples being treated with long/short term therapies for non andrological diseases; ii to study their seminal profile for the possible effects of their treatments on spermatogenesis and/or epididymal maturation. Methods: The study group was made up of 723 subjects, aged between 25 and 47 years. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines (1999. The Superimposed Image Analysis System (SIAS, which is based on the computerized superimposition of spermatozoa images, was used to assess sperm motility parameters. Results: The prevalence of subjects taking pharmacological treatments was 22.7% (164/723. The prevalence was 3.7% (27/723 for the Short-Term Group and 18.9% (137/723 for the Long-Term Group. The subjects of each group were also subdivided into subgroups according to the treatments being received. Regarding the seminal profile, we did not observe a significant difference between the Long-Term, Short-Term or the Control Group. However, regarding the subgroups, we found a significant decrease in sperm number and progressive motility percentage in the subjects receiving treatment with antihypertensive drugs compared with the other subgroups and the Control Group. Conclusions: In the management of infertile couples, the potential negative impact on seminal parameters of any drugs being taken as Long-Term Therapy should be considered. The pathogenic mechanism needs to be clarified.

  8. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  9. Long vs. short-term energy storage:sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA); Hassenzahl, William V. (,Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2007-07-01

    This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology--asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors--has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

  10. A study of the long-term effect of malar fat repositioning in face lift surgery: short-term success but long-term failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Sam T

    2002-09-01

    In 1990, the author reported on a series of 403 cases of deep plane face lifts, the first published technique describing the repositioning of the cheek fat, known as malar fat, in face lift surgery. This study examines the long-term results of 20 of the original series in an attempt to determine what areas of the rejuvenated face (specifically, the malar fat) showed long-term improvement. The results were judged by comparing the preoperative and long-term postoperative views in a half-and-half same-side hemiface photograph. The anatomy of the jawline (superficial musculoaponeurotic system [SMAS]), the nasolabial fold (malar fat), and the periorbital diameter were evaluated. The results confirmed that repositioning of the SMAS remained for longer than improvement in the nasolabial fold and that the vertical diameter of the periorbit did not change at all. The early results of malar fat repositioning shown at 1 to 2 years were successful, but the long-term results showed failure of the early improvement, manifested by recurrence of the nasolabial folds. There was, however, continuation of the improved results of the forehead lift and SMAS maneuvers of the original procedure. The conclusion is that only a direct excision will produce a permanent correction of the aging nasolabial fold.

  11. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving the long-term sustainability of health aid: are Global Health Partnerships leading the way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Rebecca; Lane, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade development assistance for health has more than doubled. This increase provides an unprecedented opportunity to scale up health services, and in doing so, achieve the health Millennium Development Goals. However, sustaining scaling up will in turn require sustainable donor support until domestic health financing can substitute for it. The provision of long-term predictable finance is of particular concern in health because the bulk of costs are recurrent and many interventions require sustained, multi-year support to be successful. This is also true for health systems strengthening efforts. As the bulk of new aid resources flow through Global Health Partnerships (GHPs), their ability to make long-term commitments is critical to health systems development. In order to better understand the constraints that prevent development partners from making long-term commitments of health aid, the World Health Organization reviewed the practices of seven major health partners in committing development assistance funds over the long term. The review found increasing evidence of long-term commitments of aid for health in each of the seven agencies. The GHPs and their funders have been at the forefront of this trend, pioneering many of the new approaches. The study concludes that all partners have scope to improve the duration of aid within existing rules and regulations, and that the main constraints to doing so are political. Predictability is even more of a concern in current global economic circumstances, as access to resources begins to be squeezed. In this context it is important that we learn from GHPs, which have successfully tested innovative approaches to both raising and disbursing health funds. The prospects for change associated with the new administration in the United States-the largest health donor and the most unpredictable, but also a major supporter of GHPs-make this task even more urgent.

  13. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  14. Long-term risks of inadequate management practices on the sustainability of agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Murányi, A.; Curlík, J.; Sefcík, P.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bril, J.; Modin, A.K.; Sverdrup, H.U.; Alloway, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the major result of a research project funded by the INCO-Copernicus programma of European Commission under Contract number ERB-IC15-CT98-0133. The study focused on the long-term environmental risk of soil acidification on: (i) mobilisation and leaching and (ii) plant uptake of

  15. Advancing an ethical framework for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary Whelan

    2002-02-01

    This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced.

  16. Long-term memory, sleep, and the spacing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Kawadri, Nader; Simone, Patricia M; Wiseheart, Melody

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that memory is enhanced when study sessions are spaced apart rather than massed. This spacing effect has been shown to have a lasting benefit to long-term memory when the study phase session follows the encoding session by 24 hours. Using a spacing paradigm we examined the impact of sleep and spacing gaps on long-term declarative memory for Swahili-English word pairs by including four spacing delay gaps (massed, 12 hours same-day, 12 hours overnight, and 24 hours). Results showed that a 12-hour spacing gap that includes sleep promotes long-term memory retention similar to the 24-hour gap. The findings support the importance of sleep to the long-term benefit of the spacing effect.

  17. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  18. Long-Term Clock Behavior of GPS IIR Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Marvin; Dass, Todd; Rajan, John; Gilmour, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Rubidium clocks, as opposed to cesium clocks, have significant long-term drift. The current literature describes an initial model of drift aging for rubidium atomic clocks followed by a long-term characteristic...

  19. Prediction method of long-term reliability in improving residual stresses by means of surface finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Takehiko; Hirano, Shinro; Chigusa, Naoki; Okano, Shigetaka; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Surface finishing methods, such as Water Jet Peening (WJP), have been applied to welds in some major components of nuclear power plants as a counter measure to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). In addition, the methods of surface finishing (buffing treatment) is being standardized, and thus the buffing treatment has been also recognized as the well-established method of improving stress. On the other hand, the long-term stability of peening techniques has been confirmed by accelerated test. However, the effectiveness of stress improvement by surface treatment is limited to thin layers and the effect of complicated residual stress distribution in the weld metal beneath the surface is not strictly taken into account for long-term stability. This paper, therefore, describes the accelerated tests, which confirmed that the long-term stability of the layer subjected to buffing treatment was equal to that subjected to WJP. The long-term reliability of very thin stress improved layer was also confirmed through a trial evaluation by thermal elastic-plastic creep analysis, even if the effect of complicated residual stress distribution in the weld metal was excessively taken into account. Considering the above findings, an approach is proposed for constructing the prediction method of the long-term reliability of stress improvement by surface finishing. (author)

  20. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  1. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  2. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  3. EFFICACY AND LONG-TERM CLINICAL OUTCOME OF COMORBID POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER AFTER ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Naser; Moss, Lori; Simon, Edwin; Nemeroff, Charles B; Atre-Vaidya, Nutan

    2016-07-01

    Many patients fulfill criteria for both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is generally acknowledged to be the most-effective treatment for refractory MDD. This study investigated the efficacy of ECT on long-term clinical outcome of comorbid PTSD and MDD. This retrospective nested matched case-control study is inclusive of 22,164 subjects [3,485 with comorbid MDD and PTSD (92 with ECT and 3,393 without ECT) and 18,679 without MDD and PTSD]. Using the clinical global impression scale (CGI) to assess efficacy, more-robust improvement of PTSD and MDD symptoms was observed with ECT (90%), compared to antidepressant-treatment alone(50%) (P = 0.001). During the median of 8 years of follow-up, the death-rate was 8% in subjects without PTSD and MDD, 9.7% in PTSD and MDD treated with ECT and 18% in PTSD and MDD without ECT (P 0.05). The relative risk of suicidality, all-cause, and cardiovascular mortality was reduced 64, 65, and 46% in MDD and PTSD patients treated with ECT, compared to those without ECT (P < 0.05). ECT is associated with a significant reduction of symptoms of PTSD and MDD, as well as reduction in risk of suicidality, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in MDD and PTSD, an effect more robust than antidepressant-therapy alone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence: results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA...

  5. Short-term and long-term sick-leave in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to analyse similarities and differences between repeated spells of short-term sick-leave (more than 3 spells of less than 7 days' duration in a 12-month period) and long-term absence through sickness (at least 1 spell of more than 59 days' duration in a 12-month p...

  6. Dopamine Modulation of Reunion Behavior in Short and Long Term Marmoset Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B. Carp

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One major neurobiological substrate regulating social processes is dopamine (DA. DA is implicated in social behavior in species as diverse as fish and birds, and has an established role in regulating relationships between mates in socially monogamous rodents. Marmoset monkeys display traits associated with social monogamy including high rates of affiliation, biparental care, distress upon separation, and aggression toward strangers; several of these behavioral patterns change throughout the development of relationships. This temporal change may represent changing demands, as pairs are likely to jointly face new experiences (e.g., parenthood throughout pairing. We investigated the role of DA and pairing length on social behavior during reunion after separation from the mate. Marmosets were removed from their home environment and treated with agonists and antagonists for the D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. They were exposed to a novel environment containing an opposite-sex stranger and their pair mate, and then reunited with their mate in the home enclosure. Marmosets in long term pairs exhibited higher levels of food sharing during reunion than marmosets in short term pairs, with females in long term pairs sharing food more than males; no sex difference was observed in short term pairs. Subjects in short term pairs spent more time grooming their mate than receiving grooming during reunion, while marmosets in long term pairs displayed similar amounts of both initiated and received grooming. DA treatment altered pair-level behavior. When females received either a D2 agonist or antagonist, short term pairs spent less time in proximity, compared to when males received the same treatments. In long term pairs, treatment of females with either a D1 agonist or antagonist resulted in pairs spending less time in social proximity than when males were treated. These findings suggest that the function of the DA system in mate behavior may be similar between

  7. Experimental Researches on Long-Term Strength of Granite Gneiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to confirm the long-term strength of rock materials for the purpose of evaluating the long-term stability of rock engineering. In this study, a series of triaxial creep tests were conducted on granite gneiss under different pore pressures. Based on the test data, we proposed two new quantitative methods, tangent method and intersection method, to confirm the long-term strength of rock. Meanwhile, the isochronous stress-strain curve method was adopted to make sure of the accuracy and operability of the two new methods. It is concluded that the new methods are suitable for the study of the long-term strength of rock. The effect of pore pressure on the long-term strength of rock in triaxial creep tests is also discussed.

  8. Radiosurgery of craniopharyngiomas. Results of long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshihisa; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Yoshimoto, Masayuki; Koike, Johzi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    Long-term follow-up results of craniopharyngiomas after radiosurgery are reported. Among 125 cases of craniopharyngioma, long-term follow-up more than 6 months is obtained in 108 cases. Majority of the cases have had surgical excision before radiosurgery. The tumors, 19 mm in mean diameter were treated with the mean maximum dose of 22.1 Gy and with the marginal dose of 11.6 Gy. The final radiological outcomes during 63 months of mean follow-up showed 9 complete responses (CRs), 61 partial responses (PRs), 1 minor response (MR), 19 no changes (NCs) and 18 PGs, indicating the response rate of 65% and the control rate of 83% respectively. Neurological and endocrinological signs were improved in 18%, unchanged in 53% and worsened in 15% of cases, meanwhile 8% of the patients were dead. Small and solid tumors were the best indication for radiosurgery due to excellent tumor control as well as no adverse effects. They may have a good chance for complete remission. In conclusion a sufficient tumor resection with microsurgery is required and subsequent radiosurgery is most adequate for treating craniopharyngiomas. (author)

  9. Long-term skeletal findings in Menkes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Eva; Domene, Ruth; Fuentes, Cristian; Carreno, Juan-Carlos; Enriquez, Goya

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal findings in infants with Menkes disease, the most characteristic of which are metaphyseal spurs, long-bone fractures and wormian bones, have been widely reported. However, the changes in skeletal features over time are not well known. The long-term findings differ completely from those initially observed and consist of undertubulation and metaphyseal flaring, similar to the findings seen in some types of bone dysplasia. The initial and long-term radiological features in an 8-year-old boy with Menkes disease are illustrated. (orig.)

  10. The interaction of short-term and long-term memory in phonetic category formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsberger, James D.

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the role that short-term memory capacity plays in the relationship between novel stimuli (e.g., non-native speech sounds, native nonsense words) and phonetic categories in long-term memory. Thirty native speakers of American English were administered five tests: categorial AXB discrimination using nasal consonants from Malayalam; categorial identification, also using Malayalam nasals, which measured the influence of phonetic categories in long-term memory; digit span; nonword span, a short-term memory measure mediated by phonetic categories in long-term memory; and paired-associate word learning (word-word and word-nonword pairs). The results showed that almost all measures were significantly correlated with one another. The strongest predictor for the discrimination and word-nonword learning results was nonword (r=+0.62) and digit span (r=+0.51), respectively. When the identification test results were partialed out, only nonword span significantly correlated with discrimination. The results show a strong influence of short-term memory capacity on the encoding of phonetic detail within phonetic categories and suggest that long-term memory representations regulate the capacity of short-term memory to preserve information for subsequent encoding. The results of this study will also be discussed with regards to resolving the tension between episodic and abstract models of phonetic category structure.

  11. mTORC2 controls actin polymerization required for consolidation of long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhu, Ping Jun; Zhang, Shixing; Zhou, Hongyi; Stoica, Loredana; Galiano, Mauricio; Krnjević, Krešimir; Roman, Gregg; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of biomedical research has been the identification of molecular mechanisms that can enhance memory. Here we report a novel signaling pathway that regulates the conversion from short- to long-term memory. The mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which contains the key regulatory protein Rictor (Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR), was discovered only recently, and little is known about its physiological role. We show that conditional deletion of rictor in the postnatal murine forebrain greatly reduces mTORC2 activity and selectively impairs both long-term memory (LTM) and the late (but not the early) phase of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Actin polymerization is reduced in the hippocampus of mTORC2-deficient mice and its restoration rescues both L-LTP and LTM. More importantly, a compound that selectively promotes mTORC2 activity converts early-LTP into late-LTP and enhances LTM. These findings indicate that mTORC2 could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23455608

  12. Long term outlook for gas supply and demand 2007-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Given the economic crisis and the even greater focus of energy policy in recent years on energy efficiency and renewables, earlier expectations in respect of gas demand have to be lowered. Nonetheless, there are still good prospects for gas expanding its position in the EU energy market in the medium to long term. Environmental friendliness and highly efficient technologies in all areas of energy supply give gas a key role in a realistic EU climate policy, the goals of which cannot be achieved solely through increased use of renewables. Its green qualities make gas attractive in direct utilisation in homes and businesses, in centralised power generation, in local CHP plant (including micro-CHP), and - in some member states - in the transport sector too. The current slump in demand is accompanied by strong supply pressure on European procurement markets. Experts do not predict that the present excess supply situation will continue in the long term. It is expected that imports to Europe will rise in order to compensate for the impending fall in domestic European production and to supply additional gas. The procurement challenge cannot be considered in isolation from global developments. The increasing demand for gas worldwide will intensify the competition for global gas reserves on international markets. The European gas industry emphasises the importance of fostering long-term relationships with major suppliers, transit countries and key partners in the EU as well as with multilateral organisations and structures.

  13. Long term mortality in critically ill burn survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, Stephanie; Offodile, Anaeze C; Cauley, Ryan P; Frankel, Jason E; Beam, Andrew; Elias, Kevin M; Gibbons, Fiona K; Salim, Ali; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about long term survival risk factors in critically ill burn patients who survive hospitalization. We hypothesized that patients with major burns who survive hospitalization would have favorable long term outcomes. We performed a two center observational cohort study in 365 critically ill adult burn patients who survived to hospital discharge. The exposure of interest was major burn defined a priori as >20% total body surface area burned [TBSA]. The modified Baux score was determined by age + %TBSA+ 17(inhalational injury). The primary outcome was all-cause 5year mortality based on the US Social Security Administration Death Master File. Adjusted associations were estimated through fitting of multivariable logistic regression models. Our final model included adjustment for inhalational injury, presence of 3rd degree burn, gender and the acute organ failure score, a validated ICU risk-prediction score derived from age, ethnicity, surgery vs. medical patient type, comorbidity, sepsis and acute organ failure covariates. Time-to-event analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard regression. Of the cohort patients studied, 76% were male, 29% were non white, 14% were over 65, 32% had TBSA >20%, and 45% had inhalational injury. The mean age was 45, 92% had 2nd degree burns, 60% had 3rd degree burns, 21% received vasopressors, and 26% had sepsis. The mean TBSA was 20.1%. The mean modified Baux score was 72.8. Post hospital discharge 5year mortality rate was 9.0%. The 30day hospital readmission rate was 4%. Patients with major burns were significantly younger (41 vs. 47 years) had a significantly higher modified Baux score (89 vs. 62), and had significantly higher comorbidity, acute organ failure, inhalational injury and sepsis (all Pburns. In the multivariable logistic regression model, major burn was associated with a 3 fold decreased odds of 5year post-discharge mortality compared to patients with TBSAburn, gender and the acute organ failure score

  14. Control of neglected tropical diseases needs a long-term commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubila Likezo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases are widespread, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting over 2 billion individuals. Control of these diseases has gathered pace in recent years, with increased levels of funding from a number of governmental or non-governmental donors. Focus has currently been on five major 'tool-ready' neglected tropical diseases (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and trachoma, using a package of integrated drug delivery according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy. Discussion Success in controlling these neglected tropical diseases has been achieved in a number of countries in recent history. Experience from these successes suggests that long-term sustainable control of these diseases requires: (1 a long-term commitment from a wider range of donors and from governments of endemic countries; (2 close partnerships of donors, World Health Organization, pharmaceutical industries, governments of endemic countries, communities, and non-governmental developmental organisations; (3 concerted action from more donor countries to provide the necessary funds, and from the endemic countries to work together to prevent cross-border disease transmission; (4 comprehensive control measures for certain diseases; and (5 strengthened primary healthcare systems as platforms for the national control programmes and capacity building through implementation of the programmes. Conclusions The current level of funding for the control of neglected tropical diseases has never been seen before, but it is still not enough to scale up to the 2 billion people in all endemic countries. While more donors are sought, the stakeholders must work in a coordinated and harmonised way to identify the priority areas and the best delivery approaches to use the current funds to the maximum effect. Case management and other necessary control measures should be

  15. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  16. The impact of health behaviour on long term sickness absence : Results from DWECS/DREAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Karl B.; Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Bultmann, Ute; Villadsen, Ebbe

    Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA. This was

  17. A new image for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Richard; Creelman, William

    2004-04-01

    To counter widely held negative images of long-term care, managers in the industry should implement quality-improvement initiatives that include six key strategies: Manage the expectations of residents and their families. Address customers' concerns early. Build long-term customer satisfaction. Allocate resources to achieve exceptional outcomes in key areas. Respond to adverse events with compassion. Reinforce the facility's credibility.

  18. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-01-01

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield

  19. Long-Term Follow-up of Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, A. J.; Nijenhuis, R. J.; Boekkooi, P. F.; Vervest, H. A. M.; Rooij, W. J. van; Lohle, P. N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Long-term results of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for adenomyosis are largely unknown. We assess long-term outcome of UAE in 40 women with adenomyosis. Materials and methods: Between March 1999 and October 2006, 40 consecutive women with adenomyosis (22 in combination with fibroids) were treated with UAE. Changes in junction zone thickness were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and again at 3 months. After a mean clinical follow-up of 65 months (median 58 [range 38–129]), women filled out the uterine fibroid symptom and quality of life (UFS-QoL) questionnaire, which had additional questions on the long-term evolution of baseline symptoms and adverse events. Results: During follow-up, 7 of 40 women (18%) underwent hysterectomy. Among these 7 women, the junction zones were significantly thicker, both at baseline (mean 23 vs. 16 mm, P = 0.028) and at 3-month follow-up (mean 15 vs. 9 mm, P = 0.034). Of 33 women with preserved uterus, 29 were asymptomatic. Four patients had symptom severity scores of 50 to 85 and overall QoL scores of 60 to 66, indicating substantial clinical symptoms. There was no relation between clinical outcome and the initial presence of fibroids in addition to adenomyosis. Conclusion: In women with therapy-resistant adenomyosis, UAE resulted in long-term preservation of the uterus in the majority. Most patients with preserved uterus were asymptomatic. The only predictor for hysterectomy during follow-up was initial thickness of the junction zone. The presence or absence of fibroids in addition to adenomyosis had no relation with the need for hysterectomy or clinical outcome.

  20. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2015-06-01

    This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behaviour and depressive mood). We included healthy controls, subjects with a history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders with a paid job (n=1632). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose anxiety and depressive disorders and to assess course trajectories at baseline, over 2 and 4 years. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the Health and Labour Questionnaire Short Form were used to measure work disability and absenteeism. Symptom dimensions were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology. A history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders were associated with increasing work disability and absenteeism over 4 years, compared to healthy controls. Long-term work disability and absenteeism were most prominent in comorbid anxiety-depressive disorder, followed by depressive disorders, and lowest in anxiety disorders. A chronic course, anxiety arousal and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work disability while baseline psychiatric status, a chronic course and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work absenteeism. Results cannot be generalized to other anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. Self-reported measures of work disability and absenteeism were used. Our results demonstrate that depressive syndromes and symptoms have more impact on future work disability and absenteeism than anxiety, implying that prevention of depression is of major importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Impact of Long-Term Climate Change on Nitrogen Runoff at the Watershed Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorley, J.; Duffy, C.; Arenas Amado, A.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of agricultural runoff is a major concern for water quality of mid-western streams. This concern is largely due to excessive use of agricultural fertilizer, a major source of nutrients in many Midwestern watersheds. In order to improve water quality in these watersheds, understanding the long-term trends in nutrient concentration and discharge is an important water quality problem. This study attempts to analyze the role of long-term temperature and precipitation on nitrate runoff in an agriculturally dominated watershed in Iowa. The approach attempts to establish the concentration-discharge (C-Q) signature for the watershed using time series analysis, frequency analysis and model simulation. The climate data is from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), model GFDL-CM3 (Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory Coupled Model 3). The historical water quality data was made available by the IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering at the University of Iowa for the clear creek watershed (CCW). The CCW is located in east-central Iowa. The CCW is representative of many Midwestern watersheds with humid-continental climate with predominantly agricultural land use. The study shows how long-term climate changes in temperature and precipitation affects the C-Q dynamics and how a relatively simple approach to data analysis and model projections can be applied to best management practices at the site.

  2. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  3. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  4. In search of the elusive long-term price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.; Combs, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Institute, WNFM, and past USCEA sessions described and compared existing price reporting systems. The McGraw-Hill conference led to a rather heated discussion as to the propriety of spot prices having the influence they do on amounts paid in long-term contracts. The Ux representative proposed a future's market as a way that producers could hedge against some of the uncertainty of volatile spot market. In discussing the search for the elusive long-term price, there are two interrelated issues. The first is obvious-the search for a starting or initializing price that is representative of recently-signed or pending long-term contracts. The second is less obvious, but perhaps more important-the search for a successful mechanism for determining later delivery values in long-term contracts. This paper addresses the question of pricing mechanisms first

  5. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: are their influences cumulative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmore, Suzanne C; Shevell, Steven K

    2011-02-09

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R.; Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A.; Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M.; Smith, Barry H.; Gazda, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  7. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R., E-mail: pdumpala@rixd.org [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Smith, Barry H. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Gazda, Lawrence S. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  8. Long-term Outcomes of Paclitaxel-Eluting Versus Sirolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, J.; Liu, P.; Fan, X.; Wen, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhen, Y.; Li, J.; Cui, Y.; Zheng, X.; Ye, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The relative long-term efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in multiple comparative studies remains controversial. This report evaluates 29 randomized trials with 18,379 patients in whom long-term (more than 1 year) outcomes were evaluated. The primary outcomes were target lesion revascularization (TLR) and the secondary end points were death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), target vessel revascularization (TVR)and stent thrombosis (ST). In comparison with PES, SES significantly reduced the long-term risk of TLR (RR=0.68; 95% CI=0.57 to 0.80, p<0.001), TVR (RR=0.69; 95% CI= 0.60 to 0.79, p<0.001) and MACE (RR=0.82; 95% CI= 0.77 to 0.88, p<0.001), while there were no significant difference with respect to death, cardiac death, MI and ST between the two groups. SES performance was significantly better for reducing the former three outcomes and comparable for the majority of the secondary end points when compared against PES. (author)

  9. Marketing in the long-term care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A

    2010-04-01

    Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities.

  10. Two-part pricing structure in long-term gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, J.C.; Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Although the incremental electricity generation market has the potential to be a major growth area for natural gas demand in the U.S., it may never live up to such promise unless gas suppliers are more willing to enter into long-term gas sales agreements necessary to nurture this segment of the industry. The authors submit that producer reluctance to enter into such long-term sales agreements can be traced, at least in part to the differing contract price requirements between gas producers and buyers. This paper will address an evolving solution to this contracting dilemma - the development of a two-part pricing structure for the gas commodity. A two-part pricing structure includes a usage or throughput charge established in a way to yield a marginal gas cost competitive with electric utility avoided costs, and a reservation charge established to guarantee a minimum cash flow to the producer. Moreover, the combined effect of the two charges may yield total revenues that better reflect the producer's replacement cost of the reserves committed under the contract. 2 tabs

  11. Long-term outcomes of septal reduction for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedehi, Daniel; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Tibayan, Yen; Chi, Jeffrey; Pavlovic, Aleksandra; Kim, Young M; Tibayan, Frederick A; Reitz, Bruce A; Robbins, Robert C; Woo, Joseph; Ha, Richard; Lee, David P; Ashley, Euan A

    2015-07-01

    Surgical myectomy and alcohol septal ablation (ASA) aim to decrease left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Outcome of myectomy beyond 10 years has rarely been described. We describe 20 years of follow-up of surgical myectomy and 5 years of follow-up for ASA performed for obstructive HCM. We studied 171 patients who underwent myectomy for symptomatic LVOT obstruction between 1972 and 2006. In addition, we studied 52 patients who underwent ASA for the same indication and who declined surgery. Follow-up of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, echocardiographic data, and vital status were obtained from patient records. Mortality rates were compared with expected mortality rates of age- and sex-matched populations. Surgical myectomy improved NYHA class (2.74±0.65 to 1.54±0.74, phistorical data from non-operated HCM patients. Survival after ASA at 2 and 5 years was 97.8% and 94.7%, respectively. Short-term (5 year) survival after ASA (SMR=0.61, p=0.48) was comparable to that of the general population. Long-term follow-up of septal reduction strategies in obstructive HCM reveals that surgical myectomy and ASA are effective for symptom relief and LVOT gradient reduction and are associated with favorable survival. While overall prognosis for the community HCM population is similar to the general population, the need for surgical myectomy may identify a sub-group with poorer long-term prognosis. We await long-term outcomes of more extensive myectomy approaches adopted in the past 10 years at major institutions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Significance of actinide chemistry for the long-term safety of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Il

    2006-01-01

    A geochemical approach to the long-term safety of waste disposal is discussed in connection with the significance of actinides, which shall deliver the major radioactivity inventory subsequent to the relatively short-term decay of fission products. Every power reactor generates transuranic (TRU) elements: plutonium and minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), which consist chiefly of long-lived nuclides emitting alpha radiation. The amount of TRU actinides generated in a fuel life period is found to be relatively small (about 1 wt% or less in spent fuel) but their radioactivity persists many hundred thousands years. Geological confinement of waste containing TRU actinides demands, as a result, fundamental knowledge on the geochemical behavior of actinides in the repository environment for a long period of time. Appraisal of the scientific progress in this subject area is the main objective of the present paper. Following the introductory discussion on natural radioactivities, the nuclear fuel cycle is briefly brought up with reference to actinide generation and waste disposal. As the long-term disposal safety concerns inevitably with actinides, the significance of the aquatic actinide chemistry is summarized in two parts: the fundamental properties relevant to their aquatic behavior and the geochemical reactions in nanoscopic scale. The constrained space of writing allows discussion on some examples only, for which topics of the primary concern are selected, e.g. apparent solubility and colloid generation, colloid-facilitated migration, notable speciation of such processes, etc. Discussion is summed up to end with how to make a geochemical approach available for the long-term disposal safety of nuclear waste or for the Performance Assessment (PA) as known generally

  13. Sleep Quality, Short-Term and Long-Term CPAP Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiah, Manya; Taxin, Zachary; Keating, Joseph; Mooney, Anne M.; Norman, Robert G.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adherence to CPAP therapy is low in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of measures of sleep architecture and sleep continuity on the CPAP titration study as predictors of both short- and long-term CPAP adherence. Methods: 93 patients with OSAHS (RDI 42.8 ± 34.3/h) underwent in-laboratory diagnostic polysomnography, CPAP titration, and follow-up polysomnography (NPSG) on CPAP. Adherence to CPAP was objectively monitored. Short-term (ST) CPAP adherence was averaged over 14 days immediately following the titration study. Long-term (LT) CPAP adherence was obtained in 56/93 patients after approximately 2 months of CPAP use. Patients were grouped into CPAP adherence groups for ST ( 4 h) and LT adherence ( 4 h). Sleep architecture, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) indices, and daytime outcome variables from the diagnostic and titration NPSGs were compared between CPAP adherence groups. Results: There was a significant relationship between ST and LT CPAP adherence (r = 0.81, p CPAP adherence groups had significantly lower %N2 and greater %REM on the titration NPSG. A model combining change in sleep efficiency and change in sleep continuity between the diagnostic and titration NPSGs predicted 17% of the variance in LT adherence (p = 0.006). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that characteristics of sleep architecture, even on the titration NPSG, may predict some of the variance in CPAP adherence. Better sleep quality on the titration night was related to better CPAP adherence, suggesting that interventions to improve sleep on/prior to the CPAP titration study might be used as a therapeutic intervention to improve CPAP adherence. Citation: Somiah M; Taxin Z; Keating J; Mooney AM; Norman RG; Rapoport DM; Ayappa I. Sleep quality, short-term and long-term CPAP adherence. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):489-500. PMID:23066359

  14. Facilitating long-term changes in student approaches to learning science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Brian J; Beyer, Catharine H; Peterson, Jon E; Pitre, Emile; Lalic, Nevena; Sampson, Paul D; Wakimoto, Barbara T

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduates entering science curricula differ greatly in individual starting points and learning needs. The fast pace, high enrollment, and high stakes of introductory science courses, however, limit students' opportunities to self-assess and modify learning strategies. The University of Washington's Biology Fellows Program (BFP) intervenes through a 20-session, premajors course that introduces students to the rigor expected of bioscience majors and assists their development as science learners. This study uses quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess whether the 2007-2009 BFP achieved its desired short- and long-term impacts on student learning. Adjusting for differences in students' high school grade point average and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, we found that participation in the BFP was associated with higher grades in two subsequent gateway biology courses, across multiple quarters and instructors. Two to 4 yr after participating in the program, students attributed changes in how they approached learning science to BFP participation. They reported having learned to "think like a scientist" and to value active-learning strategies and learning communities. In addition, they reported having developed a sense of belonging in bioscience communities. The achievement of long-term impacts for a short-term instructional investment suggests a practical means to prepare diverse students for the rigors of science curricula.

  15. On the relationship between short- and long-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    James (1890) divided memory into separate stores; primary and secondary – or short-term and long-term memory. The interaction between the two stores often assumes that information initially is represented in volatile short-term store before entering and consolidating in the more durable long-term......, accepted). Counter to popular beliefs this suggest that long-term memory precedes short-term memory and not vice versa....... memory system (e.g. Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Short-term memory seems to provide a surprising processing bottleneck where only a very limited amount of information can be represented at any given moment (Miller, 1956; Cowan, 2001). A number of studies have investigated the nature of this processing...

  16. Long-Term Health of Dopaminergic Neuron Transplants in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope J. Hallett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the long-term health and function of transplanted dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients, the expression of dopamine transporters (DATs and mitochondrial morphology were examined in human fetal midbrain cellular transplants. DAT was robustly expressed in transplanted dopamine neuron terminals in the reinnervated host putamen and caudate for at least 14 years after transplantation. The transplanted dopamine neurons showed a healthy and nonatrophied morphology at all time points. Labeling of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Tom20 and α-synuclein showed a typical cellular pathology in the patients’ own substantia nigra, which was not observed in transplanted dopamine neurons. These results show that the vast majority of transplanted neurons remain healthy for the long term in PD patients, consistent with clinical findings that fetal dopamine neuron transplants maintain function for up to 15–18 years in patients. These findings are critically important for the rational development of stem-cell-based dopamine neuronal replacement therapies for PD.

  17. [Perioperative management of long-term medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel Kahmann, I; Ruppen, W; Lurati Buse, G; Tsakiris, D A; Bruggisser, M

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesiologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with patients who are under long-term medication. Some of these drugs can interact with anaesthetics or anaesthesia and/or surgical interventions. As a result, patients may experience complications such as bleeding, ischemia, infection or severe circulatory reactions. On the other hand, perioperative discontinuation of medication is often more dangerous. The proportion of outpatient operations has increased dramatically in recent years and will probably continue to increase. Since the implementation of DRGs (pending in Switzerland, introduced in Germany for some time), the patient enters the hospital the day before operation. This means that the referring physician as well as anesthesiologists and surgeons at an early stage must deal with issues of perioperative pharmacotherapy. This review article is about the management of the major drug classes during the perioperative period. In addition to cardiac and centrally acting drugs and drugs that act on hemostasis and the endocrine system, special cases such as immunosuppressants and herbal remedies are mentioned.

  18. PSA modeling of long-term accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois; Lanore, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the extension of PSA scope to include external hazards, in France, both operator (EDF) and IRSN work for the improvement of methods to better take into account in the PSA the accident sequences induced by initiators which affect a whole site containing several nuclear units (reactors, fuel pools,...). These methodological improvements represent an essential prerequisite for the development of external hazards PSA. However, it has to be noted that in French PSA, even before Fukushima, long term accident sequences were taken into account: many insight were therefore used, as complementary information, to enhance the safety level of the plants. IRSN proposed an external events PSA development program. One of the first steps of the program is the development of methods to model in the PSA the long term accident sequences, based on the experience gained. At short term IRSN intends to enhance the modeling of the 'long term' accident sequences induced by the loss of the heat sink or/and the loss of external power supply. The experience gained by IRSN and EDF from the development of several probabilistic studies treating long term accident sequences shows that the simple extension of the mission time of the mitigation systems from 24 hours to longer times is not sufficient to realistically quantify the risk and to obtain a correct ranking of the risk contributions and that treatment of recoveries is also necessary. IRSN intends to develop a generic study which can be used as a general methodology for the assessment of the long term accident sequences, mainly generated by external hazards and their combinations. This first attempt to develop this generic study allowed identifying some aspects, which may be hazard (or combinations of hazards) or related to initial boundary conditions, which should be taken into account for further developments. (authors)

  19. Long-term care financing: lessons from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: France's model of third-party coverage for long-term services and supports (LTSS) combines a steeply income-adjusted universal public program for people 60 or older with voluntary supplemental private insurance. French and US policies differ: the former pay cash; premiums are lower; and take-up rates are higher, in part because employer sponsorship, with and without subsidization, is more common-but also because coverage targets higher levels of need and pays a smaller proportion of costs. Such inexpensive, bare-bones private coverage, especially if marketed as a supplement to a limited public benefit, would be more affordable to those Americans currently most at risk of "spending down" to Medicaid. An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States' long-term care financing reform efforts. We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income

  20. What Legislators Need to Know about Long-Term Care Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, David

    This booklet discusses the potential importance to states of long-term care insurance, describes general policy characteristics, and summarizes state actions to both regulate and promote long-term care insurance. It is intended as a resource for legislators and others involved in long-term care financing and public policy formulation. Long-term…

  1. Private long-term care insurance and state tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Frank, Richard G; Tau, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    To increase the role of private insurance in financing long-term care, tax incentives for long-term care insurance have been implemented at both the federal and state levels. To date, there has been surprisingly little study of these initiatives. Using a panel of national data, we find that market take-up for long-term care insurance increased over the last decade, but state tax incentives were responsible for only a small portion of this growth. Ultimately, the modest ability of state tax incentives to lower premiums implies that they should be viewed as a small piece of the long-term care financing puzzle.

  2. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%

  3. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A'Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey.

  4. The long term effects of early analysis of a trauma registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashour Mazen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We established a trauma registry in 2003 to collect data on trauma patients, which is a major cause of death in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The aim of this paper is to report on the long term effects of our early analysis of this registry. Methods Data in the early stages of this trauma registry were collected for 503 patients during a period of 6 months in 2003. Data was collected on a paper form and then entered into the trauma registry using a self-developed Access database. Descriptive analysis was performed. Results Most were males (87%, the mean age (SD was 30.5 (14.9. UAE citizens formed 18.5%. Road traffic collisions caused an overwhelming 34.2% of injuries with 29.7% of those involving UAE citizens while work-related injuries were 26.2%. The early analysis of this registry had two major impacts. Firstly, the alarmingly high rate of UAE nationals in road traffic collisions standardized to the population led to major concerns and to the development of a specialized road traffic collision registry three years later. Second, the equally alarming high rate of work-related injuries led to collaboration with a Preventive Medicine team who helped with refining data elements of the trauma registry to include data important for research in trauma prevention. Conclusion Analysis of a trauma registry as early as six months can lead to useful information which has long term effects on the progress of trauma research and prevention.

  5. Characteristics of asthma attack with long-term management for bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Noriko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Hashimoto, Kunio; Matsubara, Tomoyo; Ichiyama, Takashi; Furukawa, Susumu

    2009-10-01

    There have been no reports on the evaluation of the usefulness of long-term asthma management based on the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Bronchial Asthma 2005 (JPGL 2005). The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the records of 350 patients admitted to Yamaguchi University Hospital who had asthma attacks from January 2006 to June 2008. There were 149 patients who were treated for more than 3 months in accordance with the guideline (long-term management group) and 201 who were not (non-long-term management group). The patients were divided into three age groups: 100 infants, 159 toddlers, and 91 schoolchildren. The onset age of asthma in the long-term management group was earlier than that in the non-long-term management group in toddlers and schoolchildren. The white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were higher in the non-long-term management group in schoolchildren, suggesting the complication of some infections. The severity of asthma in the long-term management group was greater than that in the non-long-term management group among all three age groups. There were no significant differences, however, in the severity of asthma attack at admission between the long-term and non-long-term management groups in the three age groups. Patients who had severe asthma tended to be treated with long-term management, which suggests that long-term asthma management according to JPGL 2005 may reduce the severity of asthma attack at that admission, because the severity of asthma in patients undergoing long-term management correlates with the severity of asthma attack.

  6. Effects of Experience and Reminding on Long-Term Recall in Infancy: Remembering Not to Forget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments examined factors of recall in one- to two-year olds. Results suggest that the strength of organization of an event representation, rather than retention interval, is a major factor in long-term recall between one and two years old. (ETB)

  7. ORACLE--antibiotics for preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes: short-term and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S; Taylor, D J; Tarnow-Mordi, W O

    2002-01-01

    Preterm prelabour rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM) is the most common antecedent of preterm birth and can lead to death, neonatal disease and long-term disability. Previous small trials of antibiotics for pPROM suggested some health benefits for the neonate, but the results were inconclusive. A large, randomized, multicentre trial was undertaken to try to resolve this issue. In total, 4826 women with pPROM were randomized to one of four treatments: 325 mg co-amoxiclav plus 250 mg erythromycin, co-amoxiclav plus erythromycin placebo, erythromycin plus co-amoxiclav placebo, or co-amoxiclav placebo plus erythromycin placebo, four times daily for 10 d or until delivery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of neonatal death, chronic lung disease or major cerebral abnormality on ultrasonography before discharge from hospital. The analysis was undertaken by intention to treat. Indications of short-term respiratory function, chronic lung disease and major neonatal cerebral abnormality were reduced with the prescription of erythromycin. In contrast, the use of co-amoxiclav was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Prophylactic antibiotics can play a role in preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes in reducing infant morbidity.

  8. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  9. Long-term care financing through Federal tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D W; Weingart, J M

    1988-12-01

    Congress and the Administration are currently exploring various methods of promoting access to long-term care. In this article, an inventory of recent legislative proposals for using the Federal tax code to expand access to long-term care services is provided. Proposals are arrayed along a functional typology that includes tax mechanisms to encourage accumulation of funds, promote purchase of long-term care insurance, or induce the diversion of funds accumulated for another purpose (such as individual retirement accounts). The proposals are evaluated against the public policy objective of encouraging risk pooling to minimize social cost.

  10. Evaluation of long term leaching of borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.; Parnisari, E.

    1978-01-01

    For the evaluation of long term hazard of glass, data on long term glass leaching are needed. Moreover for long term leaching a model of homogeneous dissolution seems reasonable and ask for confirmation. Tests were performed at 30 0 , 80 0 , 100 0 , using an apparatus of the Soxhlet type, to 3.600 hours. Results were obtained as a weight loss and analysed following a relation with time composed by a parabolic and a linear part. Analysis of the surface layer using energy dispersion X ray spectrometry were performed. A critical analysis of the results and of the apparatus is presented

  11. Long-term agricultural experiments inform the development of climate-smart agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Wolf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available California's Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are a major source of U.S. fruits and vegetables, and vulnerable to future extremes of precipitation and temperature brought on by climate change, including increased drought and flooding, and more intense and longer heat waves. To develop resilience to these threats, strategies are necessary for climate-smart management of soil and water. Long-term, large-scale, replicated ecological experiments provide unique testbeds for studying such questions. At the UC Davis Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility (RRSAF, the 100-year Century Experiment, initiated in 1992, is investigating the effects of multiple farming practices in a farm-scale replicated study of 10 row crop cropping systems. It includes different fertility management systems: organic, conventional and hybrid (conventional plus winter cover crop systems; different crops: wheat, tomatoes, corn, alfalfa, cover crops and grasslands; and different irrigation systems: rainfed, flood irrigated and drip irrigated. We briefly describe and report on a selection of long-term experiments conducted at RRSAF investigating soil management and irrigation practices, which are an important focus for developing climate-smart strategies in Mediterranean systems. For example, long-term monitoring of soil carbon content revealed that most crop systems have experienced a small increase in soil carbon since 1993, and increases in organically managed plots were substantially higher. As RRSAF continues to build upon this rich dataset from one of a very few long-term row crop experiments in Mediterranean ecosystems, it provides a testbed for identifying climate-smart solutions for these agronomically important ecosystems.

  12. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  13. Long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2017-10-01

    Surgical congenital malformations often represent years of treatment, large number of hospital stays, treatment procedures, and long-term functional sequels affecting patients' psychosocial functioning. Both functional defects and psychosocial difficulties that occur commonly in childhood may pass through adolescence on to adulthood. This overview presents reports published over the past 3 decades to elucidate the long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations. Literature searches conducted on PubMed database revealed that less than 1% of all the records of surgical congenital malformations described long-term psychosocial consequences, but with diverse findings. This inconsistency may be due to methodological differences or deficiencies; especially in study design, patient sampling, and methods. Most of the studies revealed that the functional deficits may have great impact on patients' mental health, psychosocial functioning, and QoL; both short- and long-term negative consequences. Factors other than functional problems, e.g., repeated anesthesia, multiple hospitalization, traumatic treatment procedures, and parental dysfunctioning, may also predict long-term mental health and psychosocial functioning. Through multidisciplinary approach, pediatric surgeons should also be aware of deficits in emotional and psychosocial functioning. To achieve overall optimal psychosocial functioning, the challenge is to find a compromise between physically optimal treatment procedures and procedures that are not psychologically detrimental. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on different methods of analysis that are currently used by design codes to predict the short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced concrete slab systems and compares the predicted deflections with measured deflections. The experimental work to measure deflections involved the testing of ...

  15. Drosophila Neprilysins Are Involved in Middle-Term and Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrel, Oriane; Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Aurélie; Préat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2016-09-14

    Neprilysins are type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides. Neprilysins in particular are the major amyloid-β peptide-degrading enzymes. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, neprilysin overexpression improves learning and memory deficits, whereas neprilysin deficiency aggravates the behavioral phenotypes. However, whether these enzymes are involved in memory in nonpathological conditions is an open question. Drosophila melanogaster is a well suited model system with which to address this issue. Several memory phases have been characterized in this organism and the neuronal circuits involved are well described. The fly genome contains five neprilysin-encoding genes, four of which are expressed in the adult. Using conditional RNA interference, we show here that all four neprilysins are involved in middle-term and long-term memory. Strikingly, all four are required in a single pair of neurons, the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons that broadly innervate the mushroom bodies (MBs), the center of olfactory memory. Neprilysins are also required in the MB, reflecting the functional relationship between the DPM neurons and the MB, a circuit believed to stabilize memories. Together, our data establish a role for neprilysins in two specific memory phases and further show that DPM neurons play a critical role in the proper targeting of neuropeptides involved in these processes. Neprilysins are endopeptidases known to degrade a number of small peptides. Neprilysin research has essentially focused on their role in Alzheimer's disease and heart failure. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to study whether neprilysins are involved in memory. Drosophila can form several types of olfactory memory and the neuronal structures involved are well described. Four neprilysin genes are expressed in adult Drosophila Using conditional RNA interference, we show that all four are specifically involved in middle-term memory (MTM) and long-term

  16. Do Short-Term Managerial Objectives Lead to Under- or Over-Investment in Long-Term Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk; Lars A. Stole

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies managerial decisions about investment in long-run projects in the presence of imperfect information (the market knows less about such investments than the firm's managers) and short-term managerial objectives (the managers are concerned about the short-term stock price as well as the long-term stock price). Prior work has suggested that imperfect information and short-term managerial objectives induce managers to underinvest in long-run projects. We show that either underin...

  17. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.; Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Mallik, Sandipan B.; Maì ti, Chinmay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the 'learning' processes.

  18. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the \\'learning\\' processes.

  19. Long-term results of golimumab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Therapy compliance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Chichasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA is to suppress inflammation, to prevent or delay destructive changes in the joints, and to normalize functions during the longest monitoring of the course of RA. The data of randomized controlled trials and national registries are of great importance to a clinician. The paper reviews the literature data characterizing the long-term results of RA therapy with the tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor golimumab (GLM and patient compliance with the therapy. Treatment with GLM at the registered subcutaneous dose of 50 mg once every 4 weeks gives rise to an effect in the vast majority of patients regardless of the type of previous ineffective therapy, the dose of concurrently administered methotrexate, the number of previous ineffective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and the use and nonuse of glucocorticoids. GLM is characterized by a long-term (as long as 5 years effect with suppressed progression of destruction, functional recovery, and satisfactory tolerability with no additional risk for adverse events as the therapy is continued.

  20. Modeling Wettability Variation during Long-Term Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface property of rock affects oil recovery during water flooding. Oil-wet polar substances adsorbed on the surface of the rock will gradually be desorbed during water flooding, and original reservoir wettability will change towards water-wet, and the change will reduce the residual oil saturation and improve the oil displacement efficiency. However there is a lack of an accurate description of wettability alternation model during long-term water flooding and it will lead to difficulties in history match and unreliable forecasts using reservoir simulators. This paper summarizes the mechanism of wettability variation and characterizes the adsorption of polar substance during long-term water flooding from injecting water or aquifer and relates the residual oil saturation and relative permeability to the polar substance adsorbed on clay and pore volumes of flooding water. A mathematical model is presented to simulate the long-term water flooding and the model is validated with experimental results. The simulation results of long-term water flooding are also discussed.

  1. Group long-term care insurance: decision-making factors and implications for financing long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stum, Marlene S

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes and tests a systemic family decision-making framework to understand group long-term care insurance (LTCI) enrollment decisions. A random sample of public employees who were offered group LTCI as a workplace benefit were examined. Findings reveal very good predictive efficacy for the overall conceptual framework with a pseudo R2 value of .687, and reinforced the contributions of factors within the family system. Enrollees were more likely to have discussed the decision with others, used information sources, and had prior experience when compared to non-enrollees. Perceived health status, financial knowledge, attitudes regarding the role of private insurance, risk taking, and coverage features were additional factors related to enrollment decisions. The findings help to inform policymakers about the potential of LTCI as one strategy for financing long-term care.

  2. Rehabilitation Using High-Intensity Physical Training and Long-Term Return-to-Work in Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Karin M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; van de Wouw, Agnès J.; Houterman, Saskia; Schep, Goof

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Due to large and increasing numbers of cancer survivors, long-term cancer-related health issues have become a major focus of attention. This study examined the relation between a high-intensity physical rehabilitation program and return-to-work in cancer survivors who had received

  3. Adverse event reporting in Czech long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hěib, Zdenřk; Vychytil, Pavel; Marx, David

    2013-04-01

    To describe adverse event reporting processes in long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic. Prospective cohort study involving a written questionnaire followed by in-person structured interviews with selected respondents. Long-term care facilities located in the Czech Republic. Staff of 111 long-term care facilities (87% of long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic). None. Sixty-three percent of long-term health-care facilities in the Czech Republic have adverse event-reporting processes already established, but these were frequently very immature programs sometimes consisting only of paper recording of incidents. Compared to questionnaire responses, in-person interview responses only partially tended to confirm the results of the written survey. Twenty-one facilities (33%) had at most 1 unconfirmed response, 31 facilities (49%) had 2 or 3 unconfirmed responses and the remaining 11 facilities (17%) had 4 or more unconfirmed responses. In-person interviews suggest that use of a written questionnaire to assess the adverse event-reporting process may have limited validity. Staff of the facilities we studied expressed an understanding of the importance of adverse event reporting and prevention, but interviews also suggested a lack of knowledge necessary for establishing a good institutional reporting system in long-term care.

  4. Present state and long term planning on nuclear power plants in principal countries in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Junichi

    1978-01-01

    The situation of nuclear power stations and the long term planning in each major country in the world were summarized, but the situation is changing from time to time, therefore it is difficult to make the long term prediction. The advanced countries in terms of nuclear power established the long term plans to adopt nuclear power generation largely owing to the oil crisis, but thereafter the revision was carried out again and again in respective countries. The developing countries already started the operation of nuclear power generation occupy only 2 to 3% of the total installed capacity in the world, but the countries constructing or planning nuclear power generation are many, and if the operation will be started as scheduled, their capacity will reach 30 million kW by 1985, and occupy about 10% of the total installed capacity of nuclear power generation in the world. As for the range of investigation of this report, the countries where the long term plans are unknown or the number of construction is small, Japan, Great Britain, USA and communist countries are excluded. As a rule, the light water reactors with power output of more than 200,000 kW are listed. The number of nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and in planning stage, national situation, long term plan, and others in each country are described. (Kako, I.)

  5. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  6. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  7. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the

  8. Impact of short-term severe accident management actions in a long-term perspective. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The present systems for severe accident management are focused on mitigating the consequences of special severe accident phenomena and to reach a safe plant state. However, in the development of strategies and procedures for severe accident management, it is also important to consider the long-term perspective of accident management and especially to secure the safe state of the plant. The main reason for this is that certain short-term actions have an impact on the long-term scenario. Both positive and negative effects from short-term actions on the accident management in the long-term perspective have been included in this paper. Short-term actions are accident management measures taken within about 24 hours after the initiating event. The purpose of short-term actions is to reach a stable status of the plant. The main goal in the long-term perspective is to maintain the reactor in a stable state and prevent uncontrolled releases of activity. The purpose of this short Technical Note, deliberately limited in scope, is to draw attention to potential long-term problems, important to utilities and regulatory authorities, arising from the way a severe accident would be managed during the first hours. Its objective is to encourage discussions on the safest - and maybe also most economical - way to manage a severe accident in the long term by not making the situation worse through inappropriate short-term actions, and on the identification of short-term actions likely to make long-term management easier and safer. The Note is intended as a contribution to the knowledge base put at the disposal of Member countries through international collaboration. The scope of the work has been limited to a literature search. Useful further activities have been identified. However, there is no proposal, at this stage, for more detailed work to be undertaken under the auspices of the CSNI. Plant-specific applications would need to be developed by utilities

  9. Design and validation of a clinical-scale bioreactor for long-term isolated lung culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Jonathan M; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Kitano, Kentaro; Yasuda, Atsushi; Gilpin, Sarah E; Mathisen, Douglas J; Ott, Harald C

    2015-06-01

    The primary treatment for end-stage lung disease is lung transplantation. However, donor organ shortage remains a major barrier for many patients. In recent years, techniques for maintaining lungs ex vivo for evaluation and short-term (advance to more complex interventions for lung repair and regeneration, the need for a long-term organ culture system becomes apparent. Herein we describe a novel clinical scale bioreactor capable of maintaining functional porcine and human lungs for at least 72 h in isolated lung culture (ILC). The fully automated, computer controlled, sterile, closed circuit system enables physiologic pulsatile perfusion and negative pressure ventilation, while gas exchange function, and metabolism can be evaluated. Creation of this stable, biomimetic long-term culture environment will enable advanced interventions in both donor lungs and engineered grafts of human scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term EEG in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  12. Meditating Mothers And Fathers: Long-Term Meditators' Perceptions Of The Influences Of Mindfulness On Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Hornstein, Eve

    2011-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research to expand our theoretical and conceptual understanding of the multi-faceted construct mindfulness, the majority of studies have thus far focused on the efficacy of short-term mindfulness-based interventions to mitigate symptoms associated with myriad physiological and psychological conditions. Research investigating the relational effects of mindfulness within families is limited. This qualitative study examined eight long-term meditators' perceptions...

  13. Assessing the market for long-term care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J A; Taylor, S

    1984-02-01

    Traditionally, long-term care services have been used by a diverse marketplace. The chronically ill, developmentally disabled, mentally ill and aging population has looked to long-term care support services as a means of physical and emotional support. Much of the time these services were housed together for the sake of efficiency. The enormous burden these services are creating on the economy, and the growing aging population, have forced the recognition that long-term care service delivery systems must change. Alternate programming for long-term care services that reach out into the community and into individual homes is becoming an attractive approach to meeting the growing demands of the marketplace. Home health, specialized housing and creative funding mechanisms such as HMOs, are examples of initiatives undertaken by healthcare organizations that view diversification as a vehicle for survival. Market research techniques that have been used in other industries are being adapted to the healthcare industry to ensure the proper mix of services that are demanded by older, more knowledgeable consumers. The programs of the future will be market driven, with the ability of the individual to pay for such services playing a significant role. The healthcare provider of today is in a position to serve the community in new ways. By becoming an integral link in the long-term care system and by developing new programs, the organization can serve as a catalyst for change. It is up to the governing bodies and managers of these facilities to become visionaries and to accept responsibility for assessing the market for long-term care services and to guide their organization into the future.

  14. Long term mass balance of the Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Fitzner, Antje; Kjær, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Observations over the past decade show huge ice loss associated with speeding up of glaciers in southeast Greenland in 2003, followed by a deceleration in 2006. These short-term episodic dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance at decadal scale. However, to improve the projec......Observations over the past decade show huge ice loss associated with speeding up of glaciers in southeast Greenland in 2003, followed by a deceleration in 2006. These short-term episodic dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance at decadal scale. However, to improve...... the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance between episodic events is required. Here, we extend the observational record of marginal thinning of Helheim glacier (HG) and Kangerdlugssuaq glacier (KG) from 7 to 30 years. Our measurements reveal that, although...... in air temperature suggest that both outlet glaciers respond immediately to small fluctuations in both the SST and air temperature. Furthermore, we compare our observations of ice flow speed and elevation changes with predictions based on the The Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) software....

  15. Short-term versus long-term market opportunities and financial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Angelo

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses gas developments in Europe, the European Gas Directive, short term vs. long term, and Snam's new challenges. The European gas market is characterized by (1) The role of gas in meeting the demand for energy, which varies greatly from one country to another, (2) A growing market, (3) Decreasing role of domestic production, and (4) Increasing imports. Within the European Union, the Gas Directive aims to transform single national markets into one integrated European market by introducing third party access to the network for eligible clients as a means of increasing the competition between operators. The Gas Directive would appear to modify the form of the market rather than its size, and in particular the sharing of responsibility and risk among operators. The market in the future will offer operators the possibility to exploit opportunities deriving mainly from demands for increased flexibility. Opportunities linked to entrepreneurial initiatives require long-term investments characteristic of the gas business. Risks and opportunities must be balanced evenly between different operators. If everyone takes on their own risks and responsibilities, this means a wider distribution of the risks of long-term vs. short-term, currently borne by the gas companies that are integrated, into a market that tends to favour the short-term. A gradual liberalization process should allow incumbent operators to gradually diversify their activities in new gas market areas or enter new business activities. They could move beyond their local and European boundaries in pursuit of an international dimension. The market will have to make the transition from the national to the European dimension: as an example, Snam covers 90% of the Italian market, but its share of an integrated European market will be about 15%

  16. A basic strategy for financing long term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J A; Leutz, W N

    1984-02-01

    As pressure mounts to contain Medicaid long term care spending, short-range "quick fixes" must be avoided. Three such false solutions in particular have shortcomings that may actually exacerbate long term care's financial dilemma because they are based on inadequate definitions of the problem. Two of these proposals--legislation to broaden family responsibility toward institutionalized elders on Medicaid and expanded state power to put liens on such elders' real property--err by trying to mandate "caring" and are predicated on a misunderstanding of the "spend-down" problem. The other proposal--to provide tax incentives to family members who care for elders--requires a large administrative apparatus, assumes an elasticity of supply that may not exist, and could disrupt the "gift relationship" on which family exchanges are often based. What is needed is a strategy with short term, intermediate, and long term objectives that move toward an insurance approach. The short term plan should lay the groundwork for intermediate strategy and control costs by changing rate-setting methods and putting limits on facility construction. The intermediate plan should change the problem's definition from one of merely controlling Medicaid long term care expenditures to one of efficiently managing state resources for the elderly through the development of state financing and local delivery systems that target older persons in greatest need. An effective means of doing this is through the creation of social/HMOs, which have five key features: integration of service responsibility and authority; flexibility in organizational design; balanced clientele; pooled prepaid funding; and financial risk for the provider organization. Finally, the long term strategy should transfer much of the long term care financial burden from individuals and state Medicaid agencies to insurance mechanisms. Many individuals would thus avoid impoverishment caused by health care spending and Medicaid would

  17. When palliative treatment achieves more than palliation: Instances of long-term survival after palliative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhup Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Palliative radiotherapy aims at symptom alleviation and improvement of quality of life. It may be effective in conferring a reasonable quantum of local control, as well as possibly prolonging survival on the short term. However, there can be rare instances where long-term survival, or even cure, results from palliative radiotherapy, which mostly uses sub-therapeutic doses. Aim: To categorize and characterize the patients with long-term survival and/or cure after palliative radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of hospital records of patients treated with palliative radiotherapy from 2001 to 2006 at the Regional Cancer Centre, Shimla. Results: Of the analyzed 963 patients who received palliative radiotherapy, 2.4% (n = 23 survived at least 5 years, with a large majority of these surviving patients (73.9%, n = 17 being free of disease. Conclusions: In addition to providing valuable symptom relief, palliative radiotherapy utilizing sub-therapeutic doses may, in a small proportion of patients, bestow long-term survival, and possibly cure. Rationally, such a favorable, but rare outcome cannot be expected with supportive care alone.

  18. The effects of co-morbidity in defining major depression subtypes associated with long-term course and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, K J; van Loo, H M; Cai, T; Fava, M; Gruber, M J; Li, J; de Jonge, P; Nierenberg, A A; Petukhova, M V; Rose, S; Sampson, N A; Schoevers, R A; Wilcox, M A; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Bunting, B; Florescu, S E; Fukao, A; Gureje, O; Hu, C; Huang, Y Q; Karam, A N; Levinson, D; Medina Mora, M E; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Taib, N I; Viana, M C; Xavier, M; Zarkov, Z; Kessler, R C

    2014-11-01

    Although variation in the long-term course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing symptom subtype distinctions, recent research suggests that prediction can be improved by using machine learning methods. However, it is not known whether these distinctions can be refined by added information about co-morbid conditions. The current report presents results on this question. Data came from 8261 respondents with lifetime DSM-IV MDD in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Outcomes included four retrospectively reported measures of persistence/severity of course (years in episode; years in chronic episodes; hospitalization for MDD; disability due to MDD). Machine learning methods (regression tree analysis; lasso, ridge and elastic net penalized regression) followed by k-means cluster analysis were used to augment previously detected subtypes with information about prior co-morbidity to predict these outcomes. Predicted values were strongly correlated across outcomes. Cluster analysis of predicted values found three clusters with consistently high, intermediate or low values. The high-risk cluster (32.4% of cases) accounted for 56.6-72.9% of high persistence, high chronicity, hospitalization and disability. This high-risk cluster had both higher sensitivity and likelihood ratio positive (LR+; relative proportions of cases in the high-risk cluster versus other clusters having the adverse outcomes) than in a parallel analysis that excluded measures of co-morbidity as predictors. Although the results using the retrospective data reported here suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made with machine learning and clustering across multiple indicators of illness persistence/severity, replication with prospective data is needed to confirm this preliminary conclusion.

  19. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study.

  20. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  1. Long-term visual outcomes of craniopharyngioma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Michael J; Zapotocky, Michal; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Drake, James M

    2018-05-01

    Visual function is a critical factor in the diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis of craniopharyngiomas in children. The aim of this study was to report the long-term visual outcomes in a cohort of pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma. The study design is a retrospective chart review of craniopharyngioma patients from a single tertiary-care pediatric hospital. 59 patients were included in the study. Mean age at presentation was 9.4 years old (range 0.7-18.0 years old). The most common presenting features were headache (76%), nausea/vomiting (32%), and vision loss (31%). Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range 1.0-17.2 years). During follow-up, visual decline occurred in 17 patients (29%). On Kaplan Meier survival analysis, 47% of the cases of visual decline occurred within 4 months of diagnosis, with the remaining cases occurring sporadically during follow-up (up to 8 years after diagnosis). In terms of risk factors, younger age at diagnosis, optic nerve edema at presentation, and tumor recurrence were found to have statistically significant associations with visual decline. At final follow-up, 58% of the patients had visual impairment in at least one eye but only 10% were legally blind in both eyes (visual acuity 20/200 or worse or < 20° of visual field). Vision loss is a common presenting symptom of craniopharyngiomas in children. After diagnosis, monitoring vision is important as about 30% of patients will experience significant visual decline. Long-term vision loss occurs in the majority of patients, but severe binocular visual impairment is uncommon.

  2. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Near term and long term materials issues and development needs for plasma interactive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma interactive components (PICs), including the first wall, limiter blades, divertor collector plates, halo scrapers, and RF launchers, are exposed to high particle fluxes that can result in high sputtering erosion rates and high heat fluxes. In addition, the materials in reactors are exposed to high neutron fluxes which will degrade the bulk properties. This severe environment will limit the materials and designs which can be used in fusion devices. In order to provide a reasonable degree of confidence that plasma interactive components will operate successfully, a comprehensive development program is needed. Materials research and development plays a key role in the successful development of PICs. The range of operating conditions along with a summary of the major issues for materials development is described. The areas covered include plasma/materials interactions, erosion/redeposition, baseline materials properties, fabrication, and irradiation damage effects. Candidate materials and materials development needs in the near term and long term are identified

  4. Intermediate-term and long-term mortality among acute medical patients hospitalized with community-acquired sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel P; Pottegård, Anton; Laursen, Christian B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Admission with severe sepsis is associated with an increased short-term mortality, but it is unestablished whether sepsis severity has an impact on intermediate-term and long-term mortality following admission to an acute medical admission unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a populat......OBJECTIVE: Admission with severe sepsis is associated with an increased short-term mortality, but it is unestablished whether sepsis severity has an impact on intermediate-term and long-term mortality following admission to an acute medical admission unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS......: This was a population-based study of all adults admitted to an acute medical admission unit, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, from September 2010 to August 2011, identified by symptoms and clinical findings. We categorized the mortality periods into intermediate-term (31-180 days) and long-term (181-365, 366...

  5. Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N L

    2011-06-01

    When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a grayscale version of a known traffic sign. On each trial, a distractor sign was drawn in full color. This color could either be related or unrelated to the target sign. Distractors interfered more with search when their color was related (e.g. red when the target was a stop sign), implying that long-term color associations resulted in inadvertent attentional guidance, even though color was irrelevant to the task. The results add to the growing body of evidence that long-term memory representations automatically affect attentional orienting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Strategic Planning and the Long-term R&D Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency implements a structured strategic planning process to ensure that safeguards will continue to be both effective and efficient in the future. This process provides the Department with a comprehensive and coherent planning framework for the short (2 years), medium (6 years) and long (12 years) term. The Department's suite of planning documents includes a long-term strategic plan and an associated long-term research and development plan as well as a biennial development and implementation support programme. The Department's Long-Term Strategic Plan 2012-2023 addresses the conceptual framework for safeguards implementation, legal authority, technical capabilities (expertise, equipment and infrastructure) and the human and financial resources necessary for Agency verification activities. As research and development (R&D) are essential to meet the safeguards needs of the future, the Department-s Long-Term R&D Plan 2012-2023 is designed to support the Long-Term Strategic Plan 2012-2023 by setting out the capabilities that the Department needs to achieve its strategic objectives, and key milestones towards achieving those capabilities for which Member State R&D support is needed. The Long-Term R&D Plan 2012-2023 addresses the Department's R&D requirements in areas such as safeguards concepts and approaches; detection of undeclared nuclear material and activities; safeguards equipment and communication; information technology, collection, analysis and security; analytical services; new mandates; and training. Long-term capabilities discussed in the presentation include deployed systems (e.g., equipment at facilities); analytical (e.g., sample analysis), operational (e.g., staff expertise and skills) and readiness (e.g., safeguarding new types of facilities) capabilities. To address near-term development objectives and support the implementation of its verification activities as well as to

  7. Long-term memory and volatility clustering in high-frequency price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2008-02-01

    We studied the long-term memory in diverse stock market indices and foreign exchange rates using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). For all high-frequency market data studied, no significant long-term memory property was detected in the return series, while a strong long-term memory property was found in the volatility time series. The possible causes of the long-term memory property were investigated using the return data filtered by the AR(1) model, reflecting the short-term memory property, the GARCH(1,1) model, reflecting the volatility clustering property, and the FIGARCH model, reflecting the long-term memory property of the volatility time series. The memory effect in the AR(1) filtered return and volatility time series remained unchanged, while the long-term memory property diminished significantly in the volatility series of the GARCH(1,1) filtered data. Notably, there is no long-term memory property, when we eliminate the long-term memory property of volatility by the FIGARCH model. For all data used, although the Hurst exponents of the volatility time series changed considerably over time, those of the time series with the volatility clustering effect removed diminish significantly. Our results imply that the long-term memory property of the volatility time series can be attributed to the volatility clustering observed in the financial time series.

  8. Natural gas market assessment: Long-term Canadian natural gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A descriptive analysis is presented of the changes which have occurred and the developing trends in the long-term Canadian contracts governing the sale of western Canadian gas into the domestic and export markets from 1985 to 1991. The report is limited to domestic and export contracts for Canadian gas and does not include imported gas under contract. Contract structures prior to deregulation, the changing role of long-term contracts, size and duration of long-term contracts, and terms and conditions of long-term contracts are discussed. Important changes since the mid-1980s include: increased flexibility in long-term contracts enabling the parties to respond more readily to changing supply and demand conditions; greater balance between the buyer's obligation to purchase and the seller's obligation to deliver; flexible and increasingly simple pricing terms that track competitive market conditions; shorter contract terms; reduced contract volumes as smaller end-users and producer/marketers enter the market; and unbundling of gas sales and transportation service providing a wider range of contracting choices and options. 36 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Long-term use of short- and long-acting nitrates in stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmicki, Marek Antoni

    2009-05-01

    Long-acting nitrates are effective antianginal drugs during initial treatment. However, their therapeutic value is compromised by the rapid development of tolerance during sustained therapy, which means that their clinical efficacy is decreased during long-term use. Sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG), a short-acting nitrate, is suitable for the immediate relief of angina. In patients with stable angina treated with oral long-acting nitrates, NTG maintains its full anti-ischemic effect both after initial oral ingestion and after intermittent long-term oral administration. However, NTG attenuates this effect during continuous treatment, when tolerance to oral nitrates occurs, and this is called cross-tolerance. In stable angina long-acting nitrates are considered third-line therapy because a nitrate-free interval is required to avoid the development of tolerance. Nitrates vary in their potential to induce the development of tolerance. During long-lasting nitrate therapy, except pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), one can observe the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the muscular cell of a vessel wall, and these bind with nitric oxide (NO). This leads to decreased NO activity, thus, nitrate tolerance. PETN has no tendency to form ROS, and therefore during long-term PETN therapy, there is probably no tolerance or cross-tolerance, as during treatment with other nitrates.

  10. EVAHEART: an implantable centrifugal blood pump for long-term circulatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kenji; Kihara, Shinichiro; Akimoto, Takehide; Tagusari, Osamu; Kawai, Akihiko; Umezu, Mitsuo; Tomioka, Jun; Kormos, Robert L; Griffith, Bartley P; Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2002-11-01

    We developed "EVAHEART": a compact centrifugal blood pump system as an implantable left ventricular assist device for long-term circulatory support. The 55 x 64 mm pump is made from pure titanium, and weighs 370 g. The entire blood-contacting surface is covered with an anti-thrombogenic coating of diamond like carbon (DLC) or 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) to improve blood compatibility. Flows exceeding 12 L/min against 100 mmHg pressure at 2600 rpm was measured. A low-temperature mechanical seal with recirculating cooling system is used to seal the shaft. EVAHEART demonstrated an acceptably low hemolysis rate with normalized index of hemolysis of 0.005 +/- 0.002 g/100L. We evaluated the pump in long-term in-vivo experiments with seven calves. Via left thoracotomy, we conducted left ventricular apex-descending aorta bypass, placing the pump in the left thoracic cavity. Pump flow rates was maintained at 5-9 L/min, pump power consumption remained stable at 9-10 W in all cases, plasma free Hb levels were less than 15 mg/dl, and the seal system showed good seal capability throughout the experiments. The calves were sacrificed on schedule on postoperative day 200, 222, 142, 90, 151, 155, and 133. No thrombi formed on the blood contacting surface with either the DLC or MPC coating, and no major organ thromboembolisms occurred except for a few small renal infarcts. EVAHEART centrifugal blood pump demonstrated excellent performance in long-term in-vivo experiments.

  11. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term "working memory") that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1.

  12. Long-term outcomes of children undergoing video-assisted gastrostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Sal?, Martin; Santimano, Ana; Helmroth, Sofia; Stenstr?m, Pernilla; Arnbjornsson, Einar ?lafur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the short- and long-term complication rates after video-assisted gastrostomy (VAG), the effects of age and gender on long-term complications and the effect of duration of gastrostomy tube retention on the need for gastroraphy when the gastrostomy device was removed. Methods This was a retrospective study of children undergoing VAG at a single institution. Children who died or moved from the area were excluded. The rates of short- and long-term com...

  13. Assessment of genetic and epigenetic variation during long-term Taxus cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunhua; Li, Liqin; Wu, Wenjuan; Li, Maoteng; Yu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Longjiang

    2012-07-01

    Gradual loss of secondary metabolite production is a common obstacle in the development of a large-scale plant cell production system. In this study, cell morphology, paclitaxel (Taxol®) biosynthetic ability, and genetic and epigenetic variations in the long-term culture of Taxus media cv Hicksii cells were assessed over a 5-year period to evaluate the mechanisms of the loss of secondary metabolites biosynthesis capacity in Taxus cell. The results revealed that morphological variations, gradual loss of paclitaxel yield and decreased transcriptional level of paclitaxel biosynthesis key genes occurred during long-term subculture. Genetic and epigenetic variations in these cultures were also studied at different times during culture using amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. A total of 32 primer combinations were used in AFLP amplification, and none of the AFLP loci were found to be polymorphic, thus no major genetic rearrangements were detected in any of the tested samples. However, results from both MSAP and HPLC indicated that there was a higher level of DNA methylation in the low-paclitaxel yielding cell line after long-term culture. Based on these results, we proposed that accumulation of paclitaxel in Taxus cell cultures might be regulated by DNA methylation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of increased methylation with the prolongation of culture time in Taxus cell culture. It provides substantial clues for exploring the gradual loss of the taxol biosynthesis capacity of Taxus cell lines during long-term subculture. DNA methylation maybe involved in the regulation of paclitaxel biosynthesis in Taxus cell culture.

  14. Local variability in long-term care services: local autonomy, exogenous influences and policy spillovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, José-Luis; Forder, Julien

    2015-03-01

    In many countries, public responsibility over the funding and provision of long-term care services is held at the local level. In such systems, long-term care provision is often characterised by significant local variability. Using a panel dataset of local authorities over the period 2002-2012, the paper investigates the underlying causes of variation in gross social care expenditure for older people in England. The analysis distinguishes between factors outside the direct control of policy makers, local preferences and local policy spillovers. The results indicate that local demand and supply factors, and to a much lesser extent local political preferences and spatial policy spillovers, explain a large majority of the observed variation in expenditure. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  16. Optimal Long-Term Financial Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. DeMarzo; Michael J. Fishman

    2007-01-01

    We develop an agency model of financial contracting. We derive long-term debt, a line of credit, and equity as optimal securities, capturing the debt coupon and maturity; the interest rate and limits on the credit line; inside versus outside equity; dividend policy; and capital structure dynamics. The optimal debt-equity ratio is history dependent, but debt and credit line terms are independent of the amount financed and, in some cases, the severity of the agency problem. In our model, the ag...

  17. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  18. Long-term creep test with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods for long-term creep behaviour is given. In addition, a survey on the methods of the inner state variables is given which, on the one hand, gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computable calculation method. Two examples on long-term creep behaviour illustrate the application field of the calculation method. (orig./LH) [de

  19. Patient empowerment in long-term conditions: development and preliminary testing of a new measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient empowerment is viewed by policy makers and health care practitioners as a mechanism to help patients with long-term conditions better manage their health and achieve better outcomes. However, assessing the role of empowerment is dependent on effective measures of empowerment. Although many measures of empowerment exist, no measure has been developed specifically for patients with long-term conditions in the primary care setting. This study presents preliminary data on the development and validation of such a measure. Methods We conducted two empirical studies. Study one was an interview study to understand empowerment from the perspective of patients living with long-term conditions. Qualitative analysis identified dimensions of empowerment, and the qualitative data were used to generate items relating to these dimensions. Study two was a cross-sectional postal study involving patients with different types of long-term conditions recruited from general practices. The survey was conducted to test and validate our new measure of empowerment. Factor analysis and regression were performed to test scale structure, internal consistency and construct validity. Results Sixteen predominately elderly patients with different types of long-term conditions described empowerment in terms of 5 dimensions (identity, knowledge and understanding, personal control, personal decision-making, and enabling other patients). One hundred and ninety seven survey responses were received from mainly older white females, with relatively low levels of formal education, with the majority retired from paid work. Almost half of the sample reported cardiovascular, joint or diabetes long-term conditions. Factor analysis identified a three factor solution (positive attitude and sense of control, knowledge and confidence in decision making and enabling others), although the structure lacked clarity. A total empowerment score across all items showed acceptable levels of internal

  20. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  1. Long-range terms in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.; Weaver, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Various separations, or ''gauge choices,'' are possible for the decomposition of the total Hamiltonian into electronic and internuclear terms. We show that, for one particular choice, all long-range Coulomb terms are associated with the internuclear motion. The potential then associated with electronic transitions is non-Coulombic. Some practical consequences of this gauge choice are discussed

  2. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  3. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaire, Mégane; Fraize, Nicolas; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Parmentier, Régis; Marighetto, Aline; Salin, Paul Antoine; Malleret, Gaël

    2017-01-01

    A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM). The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI) (HIWM task), or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task). Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a "within-session/short-term" PI effect. However, we also observed a different "between-session/long-term" PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be transferred and stored

  4. Long-term effects of interference on short-term memory performance in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mégane Missaire

    Full Text Available A distinction has always been made between long-term and short-term memory (also now called working memory, WM. The obvious difference between these two kinds of memory concerns the duration of information storage: information is supposedly transiently stored in WM while it is considered durably consolidated into long-term memory. It is well acknowledged that the content of WM is erased and reset after a short time, to prevent irrelevant information from proactively interfering with newly stored information. In the present study, we used typical WM radial maze tasks to question the brief lifespan of spatial WM content in rodents. Groups of rats were submitted to one of two different WM tasks in a radial maze: a WM task involving the repetitive presentation of a same pair of arms expected to induce a high level of proactive interference (PI (HIWM task, or a task using a different pair in each trial expected to induce a low level of PI (LIWM task. Performance was effectively lower in the HIWM group than in LIWM in the final trial of each training session, indicative of a "within-session/short-term" PI effect. However, we also observed a different "between-session/long-term" PI effect between the two groups: while performance of LIWM trained rats remained stable over days, the performance of HIWM rats dropped after 10 days of training, and this impairment was visible from the very first trial of the day, hence not attributable to within-session PI. We also showed that a 24 hour-gap across training sessions known to allow consolidation processes to unfold, was a necessary and sufficient condition for the long-term PI effect to occur. These findings suggest that in the HIWM task, WM content was not entirely reset between training sessions and that, in specific conditions, WM content can outlast its purpose by being stored more permanently, generating a long-term deleterious effect of PI. The alternative explanation is that WM content could be

  5. Long-term follow-up in dogs with idiopathic eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy treated with inhaled steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonne, A M; Bolen, G; Peeters, D; Billen, F; Clercx, C

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of canine idiopathic eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy mainly consists of long-term oral corticosteroid therapy. To avoid side effects, inhaled steroid therapy has been increasingly used but long-term clinical response and potential side effects are sparsely described. Description of clinical response and side effects with long-term fluticasone in dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy. Case series of dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy and treated with fluticasone monotherapy for at least 6 months. Clinical response and side effects assessed by physical examination, standardised questionnaire and ACTH (corticotropin) stimulation test. Eight dogs were treated for between 6 months and 5 years. Cough initially improved in all dogs; two dogs remained free of clinical signs, three were well controlled, but three showed severe relapse. Pituitary-adrenal axis inhibition occurred in two dogs treated with fluticasone monotherapy for more than 2 years; only one dog had clinical signs of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism. Fluticasone monotherapy allows initial improvement or remission in the majority of dogs but long-term treatment fails to resolve the cough in some individuals. In addition, such therapy may induce pituitary-adrenal axis inhibition. Prospective larger and randomised studies including both fluticasone and orally-treated dogs are needed to define the optimal treatment. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. Harsh parenting and encouragement from parents during childhood: Long-term effects on well-being, mental health, and major illness

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhalaf, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines long-term, negative consequences of various behaviours characteristic of negative parenting styles, specifically verbal maltreatment (insulting children), physical maltreatment (beating or hitting children), and lack of encouragement. Psychological scales were employed to explore the relationship of each of these factors to mental and physical health in adults. As a part of this research, a new questionnaire, the Arabic Parenting Style Questionnaire (APSQ), was developed...

  7. Risk assessment for long-term post-accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellia-Hervy, A.; Ducamp, F.

    1987-11-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis, currently conducted by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) for the French replicate series of 900 MWe power plants, has identified accident sequences requiring long-term operation of some systems after the initiating event. They have been named long-term sequences. Quantification of probabilities of such sequences cannot rely exclusively on equipment failure-on-demand data: it must also take into account operating failures, the probability of which increase with time. Specific studies have therefore been conducted for a number of plant systems actuated during these long-term sequences. This has required: - Definition of the most realistic equipment utilization strategies based on existing emergency procedures for 900 MWe French plants. - Evaluation of the potential to repair failed equipment, given accessibility, repair time, and specific radiation conditions for the given sequence. - Definition of the event bringing the long-term sequence to an end. - Establishment of an appropriate quantification method, capable of taking into account the evolution of assumptions concerning equipment utilization strategies or repair conditions over time. The accident sequence quantification method based on realistic scenarios has been used in the risk assessment of the initiating event loss of reactor coolant accident occurring at power and at shutdown. Compared with the results obtained from conventional methods, this method redistributes the relative weight of accident sequences and also demonstrates that the long term can be a significant contribution to the probability of core melt

  8. 长时程增强与长时程抑制的研究%Advances in long - term potentiation and long - term depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬军; 夏作理

    2000-01-01

    The impairment of learning and memory function in the central nervous system(CNS)is one of the main features of aging and Alzheimer' s disease (AD). Many experimental results have showed that long- term memory(LTM) is related to long- term potentiation(LTP) and long- term depression (LTD). They intluenee each other. The relationship between LTP and LTD is complex. Therefore, it is important to study the learning and memory mechanism from LTP、LTD and gene expression in the CNS.

  9. Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

  10. Long-term lunar stations: Some ecological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Bassett, Jr.; Scott, Kelly W.

    1992-01-01

    A major factor for long-term success of a lunar station is the ability to keep an agroecosystem functioning at a desirable, stable steady-state with ecological stability and reliability. Design for a long-lived extraterrestrial manned station must take into account interactions among its subsystems to insure that overall functionality is enhanced (or at least not compromised). Physical isolation of feed production, human living areas, recycling, and other systems may be straightforward, however, microbiological isolation will be very difficult. While it is possible to eliminate plant-associated microbiological communities by growing the plants asepticallly, it is not practical to keep plants germ-free on a large scale if humans are working with them. Ecological theory strongly suggests that some kinds of communities or organisms effectively increase the stability of ecosystems and will protect the plants from potential pathogens. A carefully designed and maintained (lunar-derived) soil can provide a variety of habitats for effective microbial buffers while adding structure to the agroecosystem. A soil can also increase ecosystem reliability through buffering otherwise large element and compound fluctuations (of nutrients, wastes, etc.) as well as buffering temperature level and atmosphere composition. We are doing experiments in ecological dynamics and attempting to extend the relevant theories.

  11. Long- and short-term complications of episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Gün

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although extensively applied in obstetrics practice to facilitate delivery by increasing the vaginal birth conduit, most episiotomy studies are in the context of short- or medium-term outcomes, and the number of studies investigating the long-term effects is insufficient. Episiotomy is often considered associated with urinary and/or anal incontinence and dyspareunia; however, there is no concrete evidence for this issue. Current meta-analyses and reviews that assessed the studies available in the literature revealed that episiotomy does not decrease the rates of urinary incontinence, perineal pain, and sexual dysfunction and that routine episiotomy does not prevent pelvic floor damage; thus, the recommended use of mediolateral episiotomy is restricted, rather than routine. According to the limited number of studies on sexual function, there seems to be a linear relationship between the degree of perineal laceration and postpartum dyspareunia. It is still not clear whether episiotomy has any impact on pelvic floor relaxation, pelvic organ prolapse, and sexual dysfunction in the long term. PRECIS: The long-term influences of episiotomy on urinary and/or fecal incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, sexual function, and dyspareunea are still not clear and studies on these issues are necessary.

  12. Spot markets vs. long-term contracts - modelling tools for regional electricity generating utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    A properly organised market for electricity requires that some information will be available for all market participants. Also a range of generally available modelling tools are necessary. This paper describes a set of simple models based on published data for analyses of the long-term revenues of regional utilities with combined heat and power generation (CHP), who will operate a competitive international electricity market and a local heat market. The future revenues from trade on the spot market is analysed using a load curve model, in which marginal costs are calculated on the basis of short-term costs of the available units and chronological hourly variations in the demands for electricity and heat. Assumptions on prices, marginal costs and electricity generation by the different types of generating units are studied for selected types of local electricity generators. The long-term revenue requirements to be met by long-term contracts are analysed using a traditional techno-economic optimisation model focusing on technology choice and competition among technologies over 20.30 years. A possible conclusion from this discussion is that it is important for the economic and environmental efficiency of the electricity market that local or regional generators of CHP, who are able to react on price signals, do not conclude long-term contracts that include fixed time-of-day tariff for sale of electricity. Optimisation results for a CHP region (represented by the structure of the Danish electricity and CHP market in 1995) also indicates that a market for CO 2 tradable permits is unlikely to attract major non-fossil fuel technologies for electricity generation, e.g. wind power. (au)

  13. Major Long-Term Benefits of Intensive Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vehicle Donation Planned Giving Options Memorial Giving Brochures & Envelopes Do-it-Yourself Fundraising & Local Events Matching Gift ... longer-term consequences of these complications, including kidney failure, loss of vision, amputations and heart disease, were ...

  14. Prediction of long-term precipitate evolution in austenitic heat-resistant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Jung, Woo-Sang; Cho, Young Whan [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Materials/Devices Div.; Kozeschnik, Ernst [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Materials Science and Technology

    2010-07-01

    Numerical prediction of the long-term precipitate evolution in five different austenitic heat-resistant stainless steels, NF709, Super304H, Sanicro25, CF8C-PLUS and HTUPS has been carried out. MX and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} are predicted to remain as major precipitates during long-term aging in these steels. The addition of 3 wt% Cu produces very fine Cu-rich precipitates during aging in Super304H and Sanicro25. It is found that the amount of Z phase start to increase remarkably between 1,000 and 10,000 hours of aging at the expense of MX precipitates in the steels containing a high nitrogen content. However, the growth rate of Z phase is relatively slow and its average size reaches at most a few tens of nanometers after 100,000 hours of aging at 700 C, compared with 9-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels. The predicted precipitation sequence and precipitate size during aging are in general agreement with experimental observations. (orig.)

  15. The long term agroecosystem research network - shared research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Timothy Strickland; Peter J.A. Kleinman; Kris Havstad; Thomas B. Moorman; M.Susan Moran; Phil Hellman; Ray B. Bryant; David Huggins; Greg McCarty

    2016-01-01

    While current weather patterns and rapidly accelerated changes in technology often focus attention on short-term trends in agriculture, the fundamental demands on modern agriculture to meet society food, feed, fuel and fiber production while providing the foundation for a healthy environment requires long-term perspective. The Long- Term Agroecoystem Research Network...

  16. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-01

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these 'legacy' sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  17. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-08

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these "legacy" sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  18. Long-term uranium supply-demand analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    It is the intention of this study to investigate the long-term uranium supply demand situation using a number of supply and demand related assumptions. For supply, these assumptions as used in the Resources and Production Projection (RAPP) model include country economic development status, and consequent lead times for exploration and development, uranium development status, country infrastructure, and uranium resources including the Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional, Categories I and II, (EAR-I and II) and Speculative Resource categories. The demand assumptions were based on the ''pure'' reactor strategies developed by the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Requirements for the 1986 OECD (NEA)/IAEA reports ''Nuclear Energy and its Fuel Cycle: Prospects to 2025''. In addition for this study, a mixed strategy case was computed using the averages of the Plutonium (Pu) burning LWR high, and the improved LWR low cases. It is understandable that such a long-term analysis cannot present hard facts, but it can show which variables may in fact influence the long-term supply-demand situation. It is hoped that results of this study will provide valuable information for planners in the uranium supply and demand fields. Periodical re-analyses with updated data bases will be needed from time to time

  19. Long-term deconditioning of gas-filled surge arresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Koviljka; Brajović, Dragan; Alimpijević, Mališa; Lončar, Boris

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify parameters that influence the long-term deconditioning effect of gas-filled surge arrester (GFSA) and to provide practical recommendations for mitigating this effect. Namely, after some period of time, on order of hours or days, during which there is no activation due to overvoltage, the deconditioning of GFSA occurs. This effect was observed experimentally within the paper. The observed parameters that could influence the long-term deconditioning effect were the following: shape of voltage load, gas type, gas pressure, interelectrode distance, electrode material, electrode surface topography as well as GFSA design such as two- or three-electrode configuration. According to the results obtained, it has been shown that the occurrence of long-term deconditioning in an insulating system, insulated by a noble gas at a subpressure and with small interelectrode distances, is a phenomenon that always occurs when the insulating system is at rest for about an hour. It has been found that the type of noble gas does not influence the long-term deconditioning. Analysis of such insulating systems' parameters, with a prospect of being used as GFSAs, has demonstrated that this phenomenon is less pronounced at higher pressures (for the same value of the pressure (p) and interelectrode distance (d) product) and for electrodes with microscopically embossed surfaces. According to the results that were obtained by noble gases and their mixtures, as well as the results that were obtained by mixtures of SF6 gas with noble gasses, it can be claimed with confidence that the effect of the long-term deconditioning is an electrode effect. It has also been established that the deconditioning effect does not depend on the electrode material except in the case of electrodes made out of noble metals, which reduce the effect. Based on these results, it can be recommended that the working point of GFSAs be set (according to the DC breakdown voltage value) at a

  20. Short- and long-term antidepressant effects of ketamine in a rat chronic unpredictable stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yinghong; Wang, Yiqiang; Sun, Xiaoran; Lian, Bo; Sun, Hongwei; Wang, Gang; Du, Zhongde; Li, Qi; Sun, Lin

    2017-08-01

    This research was aimed to evaluate the behaviors of short- or long-term antidepressant effects of ketamine in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Ketamine, a glutamate noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, regulates excitatory amino acid functions, such as anxiety disorders and major depression, and plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. After 42 days of CUS model, male rats received either a single injection of ketamine (10 mg/kg; day 43) or 15 daily injections (days 43-75). The influence of ketamine on behavioral reactivity was assessed 24 hr (short-term) or 7 weeks after ketamine treatment (long-term). Behavioral tests used to assess the effects of these treatments included the sucrose preference (SP), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swimming (FS), and water maze (WM) to detect anxiety-like behavior (OF and EPM), forced swimming (FS), and water maze (WM). Results: Short-term ketamine administration resulted in increases of body weight gain, higher sensitivity to sucrose, augmented locomotor activity in the OF, more entries into the open arms of the EPM, along increased activity in the FS test; all responses indicative of reductions in depression/despair in anxiety-eliciting situations. No significant differences in these behaviors were obtained under conditions of long-term ketamine administration ( p  > .05). The CUS + Ketamine group showed significantly increased activity as compared with the CUS + Vehicle group for analysis of the long-term effects of ketamine (* p   .05). Taken together these findings demonstrate that a short-term administration of ketamine induced rapid antidepressant-like effects in adult male rats exposed to CUS conditions, effects that were not observed in response to the long-term treatment regime.

  1. Age at treatment and long-term performance results in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H.W.; Maruyama, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is highly radioresponsive, and recent treatment results have improved greatly since the introduction of megavoltage machine in 1960s. There is increasing evidence for the potential cure of medulloblastoma if properly treated in its early stages. The curable group represents approximately 75% of diagnosed patients. Long-term treatment effects were examined in this study. The study reveals age-dependent late effects in learning ability; the patients less than 4-years-old at treatment had major learning problems; patients of 5 to 7 years old performed at satisfactory-to-low passing levels in school work; patients older than 8 years old had no major intellectual impairment. Short stature was common when growth potential was present at the time of therapy, but endocrine tests were generally negative. These observations indicate special educational requirement needs, especially for children treated at a young age

  2. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  3. Involvement of insulin-like peptide in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Jun; Okada, Ryuichi; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Suguru; Mita, Koichi; Sakamoto, Yuki; Yamagishi, Miki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Otsuka, Emi; Okuta, Akiko; Sunada, Hiroshi; Takigami, Satoshi; Sakakibara, Manabu; Fujito, Yutaka; Awaji, Masahiko; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-01-02

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning taste aversion and consolidating this learning into long-term memory (LTM) that is called conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Previous studies showed that some molluscan insulin-related peptides (MIPs) were upregulated in snails exhibiting CTA. We thus hypothesized that MIPs play an important role in neurons underlying the CTA-LTM consolidation process. To examine this hypothesis, we first observed the distribution of MIP II, a major peptide of MIPs, and MIP receptor and determined the amounts of their mRNAs in the CNS. MIP II was only observed in the light green cells in the cerebral ganglia, but the MIP receptor was distributed throughout the entire CNS, including the buccal ganglia. Next, when we applied exogenous mammalian insulin, secretions from MIP-containing cells or partially purified MIPs, to the isolated CNS, we observed a long-term change in synaptic efficacy (i.e., enhancement) of the synaptic connection between the cerebral giant cell (a key interneuron for CTA) and the B1 motor neuron (a buccal motor neuron). This synaptic enhancement was blocked by application of an insulin receptor antibody to the isolated CNS. Finally, injection of the insulin receptor antibody into the snail before CTA training, while not blocking the acquisition of taste aversion learning, blocked the memory consolidation process; thus, LTM was not observed. These data suggest that MIPs trigger changes in synaptic connectivity that may be correlated with the consolidation of taste aversion learning into CTA-LTM in the Lymnaea CNS.

  4. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  5. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  6. Long-term ecophysiological responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Plant physiology is affected by climate change. Acclimations of photosynthetic processes are induced by short-term changes in climatic conditions. Further acclimation can be caused by longterm adjustments to climate change due to ecosystem-feedbacks. The aim of this PhD was to investigate plant...... term responses of plant physiology to the climate change factors were investigated. In the CLIMAITE-experiment it has been shown that 2 years of treatment altered physiological responses in Deschampsiaand Calluna. In the work of this PhD similar responses were observed after 6 years of treatment...... physiological responses to climate change in a seasonal and long-term perspective. The effects of elevated CO2, passive night time warming and periodic summer drought as single factor and in combination, on plant physiology were investigated in the long-term multifactorial field experiment CLIMAITE in a Danish...

  7. Faculty Development in Higher Education: Long-Term Impact of a Summer Teaching and Learning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persellin, Diane; Goodrick, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Past participants of the Associated Colleges of the South Summer Teaching and Learning Workshop were surveyed to determine long-term impact of this type of professional development experience. Results indicate a large majority of participants across rank and academic discipline continued to view the workshop as effective and valued feedback from…

  8. Setting the stage for long-term reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Craig A; Vander Ley, Brian; Poock, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses some of the aspects of heifer development that contribute to long-term health and productivity, such as disease prevention and control. Nutrition is also an important component of long-term health, and body condition score is discussed as a way to determine whether the nutrient demands of heifers are being met. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy.

  10. Impact of Long-Term Care on Retirement Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Retirement wellness is the result of retiring at an appropriate age, saving enough and managing risks appropriately. One of the major risks that often is not addressed effectively is the long-term care (LTC) risk, i.e., the risk of needing help due to physical or cognitive limitations. In 2014, the Society of Actuaries issued a call for papers on the link between LTC and retirement security. This article will discuss the topic of LTC and retirement security broadly, drawing from several of the papers. Some of the topics include the impact of LTC on the individual, family members and caregivers; modeling results showing the impact of LTC on assets needed for a secure retirement; alternative methods of financing LTC; the link between housing decisions and LTC; and some ideas for the future.

  11. Waste partitioning and transmutation as a means towards long-term risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    It has been an idea for some time to reduce the long-term potential hazard of the waste by chemical removal of the actinides as well as some long-lived fission products and their subsequent transmutation in an intense neutron flux. Transmutation would thus shorten the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. It is estimated, that development of such technology would take at least 40 years because facilities would be required to perform a clean actinide and fission product isolation and to fabricate the fuel elements that contained the separated nuclides. This latter requirements would involve a major expansion of new chemical process steps which are not available as yet. Development of new equipment to maintain occupational exposures as low as reasonably achievable and to minimize releases of radioactivity to the environment would also be necessary. Partitioning and transmutation should be introduced, if at all, as a long-term decision about new nuclear power technology as a future energy source. With regard to this, R and D work dealing with basic questions seems to be worthwhile, However, the introduction of partitioning and transmutation will not eliminate the need for radioactive waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  13. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chao, E-mail: cyc@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  14. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Enriched Human Spermatogonia after Short- and Long-Term Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a molecular signature for enriched adult human stem/progenitor spermatogonia during short-term (<2 weeks and long-term culture (up to more than 14 months in comparison to human testicular fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cells. Human spermatogonia were isolated by CD49f magnetic activated cell sorting and collagen−/laminin+ matrix binding from primary testis cultures obtained from ten adult men. For transcriptomic analysis, single spermatogonia-like cells were collected based on their morphology and dimensions using a micromanipulation system from the enriched germ cell cultures. Immunocytochemical, RT-PCR and microarray analyses revealed that the analyzed populations of cells were distinct at the molecular level. The germ- and pluripotency-associated genes and genes of differentiation/spermatogenesis pathway were highly expressed in enriched short-term cultured spermatogonia. After long-term culture, a proportion of cells retained and aggravated the “spermatogonial” gene expression profile with the expression of germ and pluripotency-associated genes, while in the majority of long-term cultured cells this molecular profile, typical for the differentiation pathway, was reduced and more genes related to the extracellular matrix production and attachment were expressed. The approach we provide here to study the molecular status of in vitro cultured spermatogonia may be important to optimize the culture conditions and to evaluate the germ cell plasticity in the future.

  15. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Visual memory, the long and the short of it: A review of visual working memory and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgin, Mark W

    2018-04-23

    The majority of research on visual memory has taken a compartmentalized approach, focusing exclusively on memory over shorter or longer durations, that is, visual working memory (VWM) or visual episodic long-term memory (VLTM), respectively. This tutorial provides a review spanning the two areas, with readers in mind who may only be familiar with one or the other. The review is divided into six sections. It starts by distinguishing VWM and VLTM from one another, in terms of how they are generally defined and their relative functions. This is followed by a review of the major theories and methods guiding VLTM and VWM research. The final section is devoted toward identifying points of overlap and distinction across the two literatures to provide a synthesis that will inform future research in both fields. By more intimately relating methods and theories from VWM and VLTM to one another, new advances can be made that may shed light on the kinds of representational content and structure supporting human visual memory.

  17. Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing a Change Initiative in Long-Term Care Using the INTERACT® Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappen, Ruth M; Wolf, David G; Rahemi, Zahra; Engstrom, Gabriella; Rojido, Carolina; Shutes, Jill M; Ouslander, Joseph G

    Implementation of major organizational change initiatives presents a challenge for long-term care leadership. Implementation of the INTERACT® (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program, designed to improve the management of acute changes in condition and reduce unnecessary emergency department visits and hospitalizations of nursing home residents, serves as an example to illustrate the facilitators and barriers to major change in long-term care. As part of a larger study of the impact of INTERACT® on rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations, staff of 71 nursing homes were called monthly to follow-up on their progress and discuss successful facilitating strategies and any challenges and barriers they encountered during the yearlong implementation period. Themes related to barriers and facilitators were identified. Six major barriers to implementation were identified: the magnitude and complexity of the change (35%), instability of facility leadership (27%), competing demands (40%), stakeholder resistance (49%), scarce resources (86%), and technical problems (31%). Six facilitating strategies were also reported: organization-wide involvement (68%), leadership support (41%), use of administrative authority (14%), adequate training (66%), persistence and oversight on the part of the champion (73%), and unfolding positive results (14%). Successful introduction of a complex change such as the INTERACT® quality improvement program in a long-term care facility requires attention to the facilitators and barriers identified in this report from those at the frontline.

  18. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.

  19. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  20. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimori, Keiko; Endo, Naoto; Uchiyama, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism. This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH) vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years. Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients.

  1. Acute and long-term treatment of late-life major depressive disorder: duloxetine versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael; Oakes, Tina Myers; Raskin, Joel; Liu, Peng; Shoemaker, Scarlett; Nelson, J Craig

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of duloxetine with placebo on depression in elderly patients with major depressive disorder. Multicenter, 24-week (12-week short-term and 12-week continuation), randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. United States, France, Mexico, Puerto Rico. Age 65 years or more with major depressive disorder diagnosis (one or more previous episode); Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥20; Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total score ≥20. Duloxetine 60 or 120 mg/day or placebo; placebo rescue possible. Primary-Maier subscale of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) at week 12. Secondary-Geriatric Depression Scale, HAMD-17 total score, cognitive measures, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Numeric Rating Scales (NRS) for pain, Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, Patient Global Impression of Improvement in acute phase and acute plus continuation phase of treatment. Compared with placebo, duloxetine did not show significantly greater improvement from baseline on Maier subscale at 12 weeks, but did show significantly greater improvement at weeks 4, 8, 16, and 20. Similar patterns for Geriatric Depression Scale and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale emerged, with significance also seen at week 24. There was a significant treatment effect for all BPI items and 4 of 6 NRS pain measures in the acute phase, most BPI items and half of the NRS measures in the continuation phase. More duloxetine-treated patients completed the study (63% versus 55%). A significantly higher percentage of duloxetine-treated patients versus placebo discontinued due to adverse event (15.3% versus 5.8%). Although the antidepressant efficacy of duloxetine was not confirmed by the primary outcome, several secondary measures at multiple time points suggested efficacy. Duloxetine had significant and meaningful beneficial effects on pain. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi Montazeri, Nahid|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290575; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term

  3. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  4. Ecological strategies for long-term sustainability of the Malaysian ricefield agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    Ecological concepts should be imposed in ricefield agroecosystem so that a long-term sustainability as well as a sound environmental condition could be achieved. Although several problems are envisaged, thus can be overcome by adopting various techniques which are based on ecological principles. Fundamental issues which involve biodiversity, environment and economic activities should be addressed. In the ricefield agroecosystem the water regime also plays a major role particularly in determining the temporal aspects of the ricefield niche. Different seasons in this case, the dry and wet can have different types of food webs. (Author)

  5. Magnetic Behavior of Sintered NdFeB Magnets on a Long-Term Timescale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Haavisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable polarization of permanent magnets over the lifetime of the application is an important aspect in electrical machine design. Specification of the long-term stability of magnet material is difficult, since knowledge of the phenomenon is incomplete. To be able to optimize magnet material selection, the long-term magnetic behavior of the material must also be understood. This study shows that material with a very square JH curve is stable until a certain critical operating temperature is reached. Major losses are detected as the critical temperature is exceeded. Material with a rounder JH curve does not show a well-defined critical temperature, but increasing losses over a large temperature range. The critical temperature of a material is also dependent on the field conditions. Results differ whether the tests are performed in an open or closed magnetic circuit. In open-circuit tests, the opposing field is not homogeneously distributed throughout the volume of the magnet and thus the long-term behavior is different than that in closed-circuit conditions. Open-circuit tests seem to give bigger losses than closed-circuit tests in cases where the permeance coefficient of the open-circuit sample is considered to be the average permeance coefficient, calculated according to the dimensions of the magnet.

  6. Long-term stability of sodium caseinate-stabilized nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Manispuritha; Ghosh, Supratim

    2017-01-01

    Oil-in-water (5 wt%) nanoemulsions were prepared with different concentration (2.5-10 wt%) of sodium caseinate as a sole emulsifier and their long-term storage stability was investigated for 6 months. Previous studies associated with sodium caseinate looked only into nanoemulsion formation; hence the challenges with long-term stability were not addressed. All nanoemulsions displayed an average droplet size sodium caseinate-stabilized nanoemulsions.

  7. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flossmann, Oliver; Berden, Annelies; de Groot, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain.......Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain....

  8. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  9. Effects of long-term acid suppressants with ranitidine and omeprazole on gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P C Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Proton pump inhibitors are used widely for gastroesophageal reflux disease and ulcer type dyspepsia. Majority of the patients require long term medication. H2 receptor antagonist are also used for relief of symptoms. Though tachyphylaxis has been reported, symptom response is seen with long term use. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of long-term acid suppressants on gastric antral histology. Methods: Patients who received long-term acid suppressants such as ranitidine and omeprazole for gastroesophageal reflux disease or dyspepsia were included. All of them had an antral biopsy for histology and H. pylori status at baseline, at 6 months and 12 months. Patients on acid suppressants for less than a year or on long-term non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were excluded from the study. The grading of gastritis was classified as chronic active gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Results: Thirty patients received ranitidine and 28 omeprazole. In H. pylori positive group, the median duration of ranitidine and omeprazole were 3 years (1.5 to 8 years and 4 years (1 to 10 years respectively. Two thirds of patients had chronic active gastritis (ranitidine: 35.5%; omeprazole:26.6%; 10 had gastric atrophy (ranitidine: 6.6%; omeprazole:15.5% and 7 had intestinal metaplasia (ranitidine4.4%; omeprazole11.1%. Four of the 10 patients on omeprazole showed progression of histology as against only one of the 13 patients on ranitidine at one year of follow up. In omeprazole pylori negative patients, the median duration of ranitidine and omeprazole was 2.5 years (range 1 to 6 years and 3 years (range 2 to 7 years respectively. Irrespective of the acid suppressants, the baseline histology was either chronic active gastritis (78.5% or gastric atrophy (21.5%. None had intestinal metaplasia. Also there was no progression in histology staging during the follow up. Conclusions: Long-term acid

  10. Micro patterned surfaces: an effective tool for long term digital holographic microscopy cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Sarah; Lilge, Inga; Schönherr, Holger; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    The major problem of Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) long term live cell imaging is that over time most of the tracked cells move out of the image area and other ones move in. Therefore, most of the cells are lost for the evaluation of individual cellular processes. Here, we present an effective solution for this crucial problem of long-term microscopic live cell analysis. We have generated functionalized slides containing areas of 250 μm per 200 μm. These micropatterned biointerfaces consist of passivating polyaclrylamide brushes (PAAm). Inner areas are backfilled with octadecanthiol (ODT), which allows cell attachment. The fouling properties of these surfaces are highly controllable and therefore the defined areas designed for the size our microscopic image areas were effective in keeping all cells inside the rectangles over the selected imaging period.

  11. Potentials of short term and long term cryopreserved sperm of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To service the growing demand for male African giant catfish (Clarias gariepinus) broodstock for aquaculture in Nigeria, and to conserve valuable genetic resources, we improved both short-term (in deep freezer at -35°C) and long-term cryopreservation (in liquid nitrogen at -296°C) of catfish sperm. Catfish sperm ...

  12. Perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply Are there long term consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmelmair Hans

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are essential components of biological membranes or act as precursors for eicosanoid formation, in case of the 20 carbon atom fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, dihomo-c-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. During pregnancy LC-PUFA are enriched in the fetal circulation relative to maternal plasma. The corresponding placental processes have not been fully elucidated so far, but there are good indications that the LC-PUFA enrichment during the materno-fetal transfer is mediated by differences in the incorporation into lipid classes within the placenta between fatty acids and that specific fatty acid binding and transfer proteins are of major importance. In vitro a plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein could be identified, which preferentially binds DHA and AA compared to linoleic and oleic acids; in addition the m-RNA expression of fatty acid transfer protein 4 (FATP-4 in placental tissue was found to correlate significantly with the DHA percentage in cord blood phospholipids. After birth the percentage of LC-PUFA in infantile blood rapidly declines to levels depending on the dietary LC-PUFA supply, although preterm and full-term babies can convert linoleic and _-linolenic acids into AA and DHA, respectively. Breast milk provides preformed LC-PUFA, and breastfed infants have higher LC-PUFA levels in plasma and tissue than infants fed formulas without LC-PUFA. The high percentage of DHA in brain and other nervous tissue and the fact that the perinatal period is a period of fast brain growth suggests the importance of placental DHA transfer and dietary DHA content for optimal infantile development. Most but not all randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trials in preterm and in healthy full term infants demonstrated benefits of formulas supplemented with DHA and AA for the neurological development compared to formulas without LC-PUFA. Furthermore

  13. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  14. The long-term benefits of director stock ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Bolton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2009, the United States Treasury Department and Congress considered new regulations requiring executives and directors to receive much of their compensation in the form of long-term stock. One concern with this is that it may have negative consequences by entrenching managers and directors over the long term. This study compares the potential benefits of long-term director ownership with the potential costs of entrenchment. Using the dollar amount of stock owned by independent directors, the results suggest that the incentive effect dominates any costs related to entrenchment: firms with greater stock ownership outperform other firms, regardless of the degree of managerial entrenchment that may be present. The implication for policy-makers is that providing directors with incentives through stock ownership can be a very effective corporate governance mechanism.

  15. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992)

  17. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  18. Long-term oceanographic observations in Massachusetts Bay, 1989-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.; Borden, Jonathan; Casso, Michael A.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Hastings, Mary E.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Rendigs, Richard R.; Strahle, William S.

    2009-01-01

    This data report presents long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at long-term site A (LT-A) (42 deg 22.6' N., 70 deg 47.0' W.; nominal water depth 32 meters) from December 1989 through February 2006 and long-term site B (LT-B) (42 deg 9.8' N., 70 deg 38.4' W.; nominal water depth 22 meters) from October 1997 through February 2004 (fig. 1). The observations were collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study designed to understand the transport and long-term fate of sediments and associated contaminants in Massachusetts Bay. The observations include time-series measurements of current, temperature, salinity, light transmission, pressure, oxygen, fluorescence, and sediment-trapping rate. About 160 separate mooring or tripod deployments were made on about 90 research cruises to collect these long-term observations. This report presents a description of the 16-year field program and the instrumentation used to make the measurements, an overview of the data set, more than 2,500 pages of statistics and plots that summarize the data, and the digital data in Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. This research was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority and the U.S. Coast Guard.

  19. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Gupta, Vipul [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Huang, Shenyan [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Soare, Monica [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Zhao, Pengyang [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Wang, Yunzhi [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The goal of this project is to model long-term creep performance for nickel-base superalloy weldments in high temperature power generation systems. The project uses physics-based modeling methodologies and algorithms for predicting alloy properties in heterogeneous material structures. The modeling methodology will be demonstrated on a gas turbine combustor liner weldment of Haynes 282 precipitate-strengthened nickel-base superalloy. The major developments are: (1) microstructure-property relationships under creep conditions and microstructure characterization (2) modeling inhomogeneous microstructure in superalloy weld (3) modeling mesoscale plastic deformation in superalloy weld and (4) a constitutive creep model that accounts for weld and base metal microstructure and their long term evolution. The developed modeling technology is aimed to provide a more efficient and accurate assessment of a material’s long-term performance compared with current testing and extrapolation methods. This modeling technology will also accelerate development and qualification of new materials in advanced power generation systems. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from October 2014 to December 2016.

  20. Advancing nursing leadership in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer; Ringland, Margaret; Wilson, Susan

    2010-05-01

    Nurses working in the long-term care (LTC) sector face unique workplace stresses, demands and circumstances. Designing approaches to leadership training and other supportive human-resource strategies that reflect the demands of the LTC setting fosters a positive work life for nurses by providing them with the skills and knowledge necessary to lead the care team and to address resident and family issues. Through the St. Joseph's Health Centre Guelph demonstration site project, funded by the Nursing Secretariat of Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, the Excelling as a Nurse Leader in Long Term Care training program and the Mentor Team program were developed to address these needs. Evaluation results show that not only have individual nurses benefitted from taking part in these programs, but also that the positive effects were felt in other parts of the LTC home (as reported by Directors of Care). By creating a generally healthier work environment, it is anticipated that these programs will also have a positive effect on recruitment and retention.

  1. Short-horizon regulation for long-term investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Z.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of imposing repeated short-horizon regulatory constraints on long-term investors. We show that Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall constraints, when imposed dynamically, lead to similar optimal portfolios and wealth distributions. We also show that, in utility terms, the costs

  2. Long-term tinnitus suppression with linear octave frequency transposition hearing AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Peltier

    Full Text Available Over the last three years of hearing aid dispensing, it was observed that among 74 subjects fitted with a linear octave frequency transposition (LOFT hearing aid, 60 reported partial or complete tinnitus suppression during day and night, an effect still lasting after several months or years of daily use. We report in more details on 38 subjects from whom we obtained quantified measures of tinnitus suppression through visual analog scaling and several additional psychoacoustic and audiometric measures. The long-term suppression seems independent of subject age, and of duration and subjective localization of tinnitus. A small but significant correlation was found with audiogram losses but not with high frequency loss slope. Long-term tinnitus suppression was observed for different etiologies, but with a low success rate for sudden deafness. It should be noted that a majority of subjects (23 had a history of noise exposure. Tinnitus suppression started after a few days of LOFT hearing aid use and reached a maximum after a few weeks of daily use. For nine subjects different amounts of frequency shifting were tried and found more or less successful for long-term tinnitus suppression, no correlation was found with tinnitus pitch. When the use of the LOFT hearing aid was stopped tinnitus reappeared within a day, and after re-using the LOFT aid it disappeared again within a day. For about one third of the 38 subjects a classical amplification or a non linear frequency compression aid was also tried, and no such tinnitus suppression was observed. Besides improvements in audiometric sensitivity to high frequencies and in speech discrimination scores, LOFT can be considered as a remarkable opportunity to suppress tinnitus over a long time scale. From a pathophysiological viewpoint these observations seem to fit with a possible re-attribution of activity to previously deprived cerebral areas corresponding to high frequency coding.

  3. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Helen L; Schwartz, Silvia; Given, Fiona M; Scott, Maxwell J

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  4. Anticipatory eye movements and long-term memory in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Kee-You, Audrey M B; Adler, Scott A

    2016-11-01

    Advances in our understanding of long-term memory in early infancy have been made possible by studies that have used the Rovee-Collier's mobile conjugate reinforcement paradigm and its variants. One function that has been attributed to long-term memory is the formation of expectations (Rovee-Collier & Hayne, 1987); consequently, a long-term memory representation should be established during expectation formation. To examine this prediction and potentially open the door on a new paradigm for exploring infants' long-term memory, using the Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988), 3-month-old infants were trained to form an expectation for predictable color and spatial information of picture events and emit anticipatory eye movements to those events. One day later, infants' anticipatory eye movements decreased in number relative to the end of training when the predictable colors were changed but not when the spatial location of the predictable color events was changed. These findings confirm that information encoded during expectation formation are stored in long-term memory, as hypothesized by Rovee-Collier and colleagues. Further, this research suggests that eye movements are potentially viable measures of long-term memory in infancy, providing confirmatory evidence for early mnemonic processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…

  6. Rebalancing for Long-Term Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; Kuiper, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this study we show that the rebalance frequency of a multi-asset portfolio has only limited impact on the utility of a long-term passive investor. Although continuous rebalancing is optimal, the loss of a suboptimal strategy corresponds to up to only 30 basis points of the initial wealth of the

  7. Visual working memory buffers information retrieved from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2017-05-16

    Human memory is thought to consist of long-term storage and short-term storage mechanisms, the latter known as working memory. Although it has long been assumed that information retrieved from long-term memory is represented in working memory, we lack neural evidence for this and need neural measures that allow us to watch this retrieval into working memory unfold with high temporal resolution. Here, we show that human electrophysiology can be used to track information as it is brought back into working memory during retrieval from long-term memory. Specifically, we found that the retrieval of information from long-term memory was limited to just a few simple objects' worth of information at once, and elicited a pattern of neurophysiological activity similar to that observed when people encode new information into working memory. Our findings suggest that working memory is where information is buffered when being retrieved from long-term memory and reconcile current theories of memory retrieval with classic notions about the memory mechanisms involved.

  8. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  9. The uranium industry: long term planning for short term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vottero, X.

    2000-01-01

    Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. (authors)

  10. Long-term sealing of openings in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Stockmann, N.; Yaramanci, U.; Laurens, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in those potential pathways to prevent radioactive release to the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made of compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built from salt bricks will be ductile. The permeability of the salt bricks is assumed to be in the order of 2*10 -15 m 2 . Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. The permeability of the mortar decreases with its salt content to approx. 2*10 -14 m 2 . Moistened saliferous clay may show temporary swelling. Sealing experiments will be carried out in the Asse salt mine. Long-term seals will be built into holes of 1 m diameter. The contact and merging of the brick-wall with the surrounding rock salt will be investigated in long-term tests. Within the in situ sealing program a number of geophysical methods are applied. Acoustic emission measurements are used to study the effects of high pressure gas injection and a geoelectrical observation program is aiming to estimate the permeability in and around the long-term seal. High frequency electromagnetic methods contribute to the knowledge of the petrophysical rock properties. 11 refs., 12 figs

  11. Accounting of Long-Term Biological Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Mossakovskyy; Vasyl Korytnyy

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to generalization of experience in valuation of long-term biological assets of plant-growing and animal-breeding, and preparation of suggestions concerning improvement of accounting in this field. Recommendations concerning accounting of such assets are given based on the study of accounting practice at specific agricultural company during long period of time. Authors believe that fair value is applicable only if price level for agricultural products is fixed by the gov...

  12. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes...

  13. Long-term load–deformation behaviour of timber–concrete joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Dias, A.M.P.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the long-term mechanical behaviour of timber-to-concrete joints made with dowel-type fasteners. Despite the influence that the long-term behaviour of joints has on the mechanical behaviour of a timber–concrete structure and consequently on its design, there is still a lack of

  14. Distinct cerebellar engrams in short-term and long-term motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Masugi-Tokita, Miwako; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Aziz, Wajeeha; Tarusawa, Etsuko; Lorincz, Andrea; Molnár, Elek; Kesaf, Sebnem; Li, Yun-Qing; Fukazawa, Yugo; Nagao, Soichi; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2014-01-07

    Cerebellar motor learning is suggested to be caused by long-term plasticity of excitatory parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses associated with changes in the number of synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). However, whether the AMPARs decrease or increase in individual PF-PC synapses occurs in physiological motor learning and accounts for memory that lasts over days remains elusive. We combined quantitative SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling for AMPAR and physical dissector electron microscopy with a simple model of cerebellar motor learning, adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response (HOKR) in mouse. After 1-h training of HOKR, short-term adaptation (STA) was accompanied with transient decrease in AMPARs by 28% in target PF-PC synapses. STA was well correlated with AMPAR decrease in individual animals and both STA and AMPAR decrease recovered to basal levels within 24 h. Surprisingly, long-term adaptation (LTA) after five consecutive daily trainings of 1-h HOKR did not alter the number of AMPARs in PF-PC synapses but caused gradual and persistent synapse elimination by 45%, with corresponding PC spine loss by the fifth training day. Furthermore, recovery of LTA after 2 wk was well correlated with increase of PF-PC synapses to the control level. Our findings indicate that the AMPARs decrease in PF-PC synapses and the elimination of these synapses are in vivo engrams in short- and long-term motor learning, respectively, showing a unique type of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to memory consolidation.

  15. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  16. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  17. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  18. Improving Service Quality in Long-term Care Hospitals: National Evaluation on Long-term Care Hospitals and Employees Perception of Quality Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinkyung; Han, Woosok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate predictors for specific dimensions of service quality perceived by hospital employees in long-term care hospitals. Methods Data collected from a survey of 298 hospital employees in 18 long-term care hospitals were analysed. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis with hospital fixed effects was used to determine the predictors of service quality using respondents? and organizational characteristics. Results The most significant predictors of employee-...

  19. Forecasting stock return volatility: A comparison between the roles of short-term and long-term leverage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhiyuan; Liu, Li

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the GARCH-MIDAS model proposed by Engle et al. (2013) to account for the leverage effect in short-term and long-term volatility components. Our in-sample evidence suggests that both short-term and long-term negative returns can cause higher future volatility than positive returns. Out-of-sample results show that the predictive ability of GARCH-MIDAS is significantly improved after taking the leverage effect into account. The leverage effect for short-term volatility component plays more important role than the leverage effect for long-term volatility component in affecting out-of-sample forecasting performance.

  20. Long-term orbit prediction for China's Tiangong-1 spacecraft based on mean atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingshi; Liu, Lin; Miao, Manqian

    Tiangong-1 is China's test module for future space station. It has gone through three successful rendezvous and dockings with Shenzhou spacecrafts from 2011 to 2013. For the long-term management and maintenance, the orbit sometimes needs to be predicted for a long period of time. As Tiangong-1 works in a low-Earth orbit with an altitude of about 300-400 km, the error in the a priori atmosphere model contributes significantly to the rapid increase of the predicted orbit error. When the orbit is predicted for 10-20 days, the error in the a priori atmosphere model, if not properly corrected, could induce the semi-major axis error and the overall position error up to a few kilometers and several thousand kilometers respectively. In this work, we use a mean atmosphere model averaged from NRLMSIS00. The a priori reference mean density can be corrected during precise orbit determination (POD). For applications in the long-term orbit prediction, the observations are first accumulated. With sufficiently long period of observations, we are able to obtain a series of the diurnal mean densities. This series bears the recent variation of the atmosphere density and can be analyzed for various periods. After being properly fitted, the mean density can be predicted and then applied in the orbit prediction. We show that the densities predicted with this approach can serve to increase the accuracy of the predicted orbit. In several 20-day prediction tests, most predicted orbits show semi-major axis errors better than 700m and overall position errors better than 600km.

  1. Implicit short- and long-term memory direct our gaze in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-04-01

    Visual attention is strongly affected by the past: both by recent experience and by long-term regularities in the environment that are encoded in and retrieved from memory. In visual search, intertrial repetition of targets causes speeded response times (short-term priming). Similarly, targets that are presented more often than others may facilitate search, even long after it is no longer present (long-term priming). In this study, we investigate whether such short-term priming and long-term priming depend on dissociable mechanisms. By recording eye movements while participants searched for one of two conjunction targets, we explored at what stages of visual search different forms of priming manifest. We found both long- and short- term priming effects. Long-term priming persisted long after the bias was present, and was again found even in participants who were unaware of a color bias. Short- and long-term priming affected the same stage of the task; both biased eye movements towards targets with the primed color, already starting with the first eye movement. Neither form of priming affected the response phase of a trial, but response repetition did. The results strongly suggest that both long- and short-term memory can implicitly modulate feedforward visual processing.

  2. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  3. Introduction of long term cycle of reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyati, M.; Tanaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction of long term cycle of LWR reactor operation at NPP in Japan is considered, and problems of technical, legislative and economical character, increase of power coefficient are discussed. More long term operation period provides decreasing frequency of periodic inspections and reduction of personnel radiation doses. Reliability of fuel, energetic equipment, mechanisms and devices must be taken into account for the decision of technical problems. Consumptions for electric power generation are studied [ru

  4. Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance. Working Paper 174

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Özek, Umut; Sapienza, Paola

    2017-01-01

    We use remarkable population-level administrative education and birth records from Florida to study the role of Long-Term Orientation on the educational attainment of immigrant students living in the US. Controlling for the quality of schools and individual characteristics, students from countries with long-term oriented attitudes perform better…

  5. Long-term environmental impacts of geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1983-05-01

    This paper summarizes a study of the long-term environmental impacts of geologic repositories for radioactive wastes. Conceptual repositories in basalt, granite, salt, and tuff were considered. Site-specific hydrological and geochemical parameters were used wherever possible, supplemented with generic parameters when necessary. Radiation doses to future maximally exposed individuals who use the contaminated groundwater and surface water were calculated and compared with a performance criterion of 10 -4 Sv/yr for radiation exposures from probable events. The major contributors to geologic isolation are the absence of groundwater if the repository is in natural salt, the slow dissolution of key radioelements as limited by solubility and by diffusion and convection in groundwater, long water travel times from the waste to the environment, and sorption retardation in the media surrounding the repository. In addition, dilution by surface water can considerably reduce the radiation exposures that result from the small fraction of the waste radioactivity that may ultimately reach the environment. Estimates of environmental impacts are made both for unreprocessed spent fuel and for reprocessing wastes. Accelerated dissolution of waste exposed to groundwater during the period of repository heating is also considered. This study of environmental impacts is a portion of a more comprehensive study of geologic waste disposal carried out by the Waste Isolation System Panel of the US National Research Council

  6. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  7. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Fitzsimons

    Full Text Available A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  8. 26 CFR 1.471-10 - Applicability of long-term contract methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. See § 1.460-2 for rules providing for the application of the long-term contract methods to...

  9. Estimation of long-term probabilities for inadvertent intrusion into radioactive waste management areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eedy, W.; Hart, D.

    1988-05-01

    The risk to human health from radioactive waste management sites can be calculated as the product of the probability of accidental exposure (intrusion) times the probability of a health effect from such exposure. This report reviews the literature and evaluates methods used to predict the probabilities for unintentional intrusion into radioactive waste management areas in Canada over a 10,000-year period. Methods to predict such probabilities are available. They generally assume a long-term stability in terms of existing resource uses and society in the management area. The major potential for errors results from the unlikeliness of these assumptions holding true over such lengthy periods of prediction

  10. The stability of the international oil trade network from short-term and long-term perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingru; Gao, Xiangyun; Zhong, Weiqiong; Liu, Nairong

    2017-09-01

    To examine the stability of the international oil trade network and explore the influence of countries and trade relationships on the trade stability, we construct weighted and unweighted international oil trade networks based on complex network theory using oil trading data between countries from 1996 to 2014. We analyze the stability of international oil trade network (IOTN) from short-term and long-term aspects. From the short-term perspective, we find that the trade volumes play an important role on the stability. Moreover, the weighted IOTN is stable; however, the unweighted networks can better reflect the actual evolution of IOTN. From the long-term perspective, we identify trade relationships that are maintained during the whole sample period to reveal the situation of the whole international oil trade. We provide a way to quantitatively measure the stability of complex network from short-term and long-term perspectives, which can be applied to measure and analyze trade stability of other goods or services.

  11. Mechanisms of translation control underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of memory formation and its persistence is a phenomenon that has been studied intensely for centuries. Memory exists in many forms and is stored in various brain regions. Generally speaking, memories are reorganized into broadly distributed cortical networks over time through systems level consolidation. At the cellular level, storage of information is believed to initially occur via altered synaptic strength by processes such as long-term potentiation. New protein synthesis is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of cap-dependent protein synthesis and is required for numerous forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. As such, the study of mTORC1 and protein factors that control translation initiation and elongation has enhanced our understanding of how the process of protein synthesis is regulated during memory formation. Herein we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis as well as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that demonstrate the requirement for proper translational control in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term behaviour of concrete under saline conditions for long-term stable sealing structures; Langzeitverhalten von Beton unter salinaren Bedingungen fuer langzeitstabile Verschlussbauwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhaus, Frank; Haucke, Joerg [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau

    2012-03-15

    The authors of the contribution under consideration examine the long-term behaviour of concrete under saline conditions and in particular the suitability of the dam construction materials salt concrete and brine concrete for the use as a part of a sealing system of long-term stable geotechnical sealing structures. The long-term stability of the building material mainly is determined by the corrosion of the cement paste phases. The specific shrinkage behaviour of the construction material is analyzed experimentally in order to verify the expected cracks. The mechanisms of cracking in the salt concrete and brine concrete are analyzed by means of a mesomechanical approach in numerical finite-element calculations.

  13. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  14. Teen motherhood and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.

  15. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude

    2008-01-01

    One of the major lessons of memory research has been that human memory is fallible, imprecise, and subject to interference. Thus, although observers can remember thousands of images, it is widely assumed that these memories lack detail. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of objects with details from the image. Participants viewed pictures of 2,500 objects over the course of 5.5 h. Afterward, they were shown pairs of images an...

  16. The roles of long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge in phonological short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Yuki; Ueno, Taiji; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Saito, Satoru

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have explored and confirmed the influence of long-term phonological representations on phonological short-term memory. In most investigations, phonological effects have been explored with respect to phonotactic constraints or frequency. If interaction between long-term memory and phonological short-term memory is a generalized principle, then other phonological characteristics-that is, suprasegmental aspects of phonology-should also exert similar effects on phonological short-term memory. We explored this hypothesis through three immediate serial-recall experiments that manipulated Japanese nonwords with respect to lexical prosody (pitch-accent type, reflecting suprasegmental characteristics) as well as phonotactic frequency (reflecting segmental characteristics). The results showed that phonotactic frequency affected the retention not only of the phonemic sequences, but also of pitch-accent patterns, when participants were instructed to recall both the phoneme sequence and accent pattern of nonwords. In addition, accent pattern typicality influenced the retention of the accent pattern: Typical accent patterns were recalled more accurately than atypical ones. These results indicate that both long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge contribute to phonological short-term memory performance.

  17. Patient, resident, or person: Recognition and the continuity of self in long-term care for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhonen, Jari; Pietilä, Ilkka

    2015-12-01

    Becoming a resident in a long-term care facility challenges older people's continuity of self in two major ways. Firstly, as they leave behind their previous home, neighborhood, and often their social surroundings, older people have to change their life-long lifestyles, causing fears of the loss of one's self. Secondly, modern-day care facilities have some features of 'total' institutions that produce patient-like role expectations and thus challenge older people's selves. Our ethnographic study in a geriatric hospital and a sheltered home in Finland aims to find out what features of daily life either support or challenge older people's continuity of self. A philosophical reading of the concept of recognition is used to explore how various daily practices and interactions support recognizing people as persons in long-term care. Categories of institution-centered and person-centered features are described to illustrate multiple ways in which people are recognized and misrecognized. The discussion highlights some ways in which long-term care providers could use the results of the study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  19. Long-term continuous administration of a hydro-ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term continuous administration of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella ... Ghana, P.O Box LG 43, Legon, Accra, Ghana 2Department of Animal Experimentation, Noguchi Memorial. Institute for ..... short-or long-term administration.

  20. Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling accumulation in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2018-02-02

    Biofouling studies addressing biofouling control are mostly executed in short-term studies. It is unclear whether data collected from these experiments are representative for long-term biofouling as occurring in full-scale membrane systems. This study investigated whether short-term biofouling studies accelerated by biodegradable nutrient dosage to feed water were predictive for long-term biofouling development without nutrient dosage. Since the presence of a feed spacer has an strong effect on the degree of biofouling, this study employed six geometrically different feed spacers. Membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) were operated with the same (i) membrane, (ii) feed flow and (iii) feed water, but with feed spacers varying in geometry. For the short-term experiment, biofilm formation was enhanced by nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water, whereas no nutrient dosage was applied in the long-term experiment. Pressure drop development was monitored to characterize the extent of biofouling, while the accumulated viable biomass content at the end of the experimental run was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements. Impact of feed spacer geometry on biofouling was compared for the short-term and long-term biofouling study. The results of the study revealed that the feed spacers exhibited the same biofouling behavior for (i) the short-term (9-d) study with nutrient dosage and (ii) the long-term (96-d) study without nutrient dosage. For the six different feed spacers, the accumulated viable biomass content (pg ATP.cm) was roughly the same, but the biofouling impact in terms of pressure drop increase in time was significantly different. The biofouling impact ranking of the six feed spacers was the same for the short-term and long-term biofouling studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term accelerated biofouling studies in MFSs are a representative and suitable approach for the prediction of biofouling in membrane filtration systems after long-term

  1. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output flexibility during disrupted periods. The buyer’s expected cost functions and the optimal base-stock levels using each sourcing method under long-term horizon are obtained, respectively. The effects of three risk parameters, disruption probability, contingent capacity or uncertainty, and backup flexibility, are examined using comparative studies and numerical computations. Four sourcing methods, namely, single sourcing with contingent supply, dual sourcing, and single sourcing from either of the two suppliers, are also compared. These findings can be used as a valuable guideline for companies to select an appropriate sourcing strategy under supply disruption risks.

  2. Short- and long-term reproducibility of radioisotopic examination of gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonderko, K. (Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1990-01-01

    Reproducibility of gastric emptying (GE) of a radiolabelled solid meal was assessed. The short-term reproducibility was evaluated on the basis of 12 paired GE examinations performed 1-3 days apart. Twelve paired GE examinations taken 3-8 months apart enabled long-term reproducibility assessment. Reproducibility of GE parameters was expressed in terms of the coefficient of variation, CV. No significant between-day variation of solid GE was found either regarding the short-term or the long-term reproducibility. Although slightly higher CV values characterized the long-term reproducibility of the GE parameters considered, the variations of the differences between repeated GE examinations did not differ significantly between short- and long-term GE reproducibility. The results obtained justify the use of radioisotopic GE measurement for the assessment of early and late results of pharmacologic or surgical management. (author).

  3. Mapping long-term wetland response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Gallant, A.; Rover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands provide unique feeding and breeding habitat for numerous waterfowl species. The distribution of wetlands has been considerably changed due to agricultural land conversion and hydrologic modification. Climate change may further impact wetlands through altered moisture regimes. This study characterized long-term variation in wetland conditions by using dense time series from all available Landsat data from 1985 to 2014. We extracted harmonic frequencies from 30 years to two years to delineate the long-term variation in all seven Landsat bands. A cluster analysis and unsupervised classification then enabled us to map different classes of wetland response. We demonstrated the method in the Prairie Pothole Region in North Dakota.

  4. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term behavior of nuclear glass: the r(t) operational model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribet, I.; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Vernaz, E.; Chaix, P.; Do Quang, R.

    2001-01-01

    Predicting the long-term behavior of vitrified waste packages requires the development of models incorporating knowledge of the aqueous alteration mechanisms of nuclear glass. The r(t) model allows for the formation of a protective gel layer during leaching, and is thus able to account for the major drops in the glass alteration rate that are observed experimentally. This article describes the model hypotheses, the methodology implemented to determine its three internal parameters, and the results obtained from about fifty leaching experiments performed under various conditions. The orders of magnitude of the internal parameter values are indicated according to the alteration conditions. (author)

  6. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  7. The Situation Of The Long Term Unemployment In Bihor. From Illusion To Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dodescu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Bihor County has been created in the last years the „myth” of a very low unemployment rate (values under the EU average. Trans-border migrations, the existence of an important labor force in the agricultural sector, especially in the case of subsistence agriculture are just a few aspects behind this myth. The long term unemployment is also an important aspect that needs a realistic investigation. The necessary and inevitable reformation of the regional economy will determine in the immediate future major challenges in the employment sector. The present work aims, besides the investigation of the theoretical and operational approach of the long term unemployment in Romania and EU, to analyze the apparently favorable situation of the long term unemployment in Bihor County on the last three years, with the purpose of identifying the real problems and to do the delineation of a strategy that could determine active measures adapted to the situations and to the individual needs identified. The work presents preliminary research results from the “eWork today”, – project financed through PHARE 2005 Programme in order to adapt/orient the active labor force at the requirements of the informational society. The data used have been offered by virtue of an accord of collaboration, in the mentioned project, by the Bihor County Agency for Employment.

  8. Staff attitudes and reactions towards residents' masturbation in Spanish long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Serrat, Rodrigo; Celdrán, Montserrat; Fabà, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To explore staff attitudes and reactions towards masturbation in long-term care facilities. Staff attitudes and reactions towards the expression of sexuality in long-term care facilities may be influenced by the nature of the sexual behaviour being expressed. Staff attitudes towards masturbation, a common sexual behaviour in such settings, have gone largely unexplored so far. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative research design. Fifty-three staff members working in five different long-term care facilities participated in the study. They were asked about what they would think, how they would react, and what possible reactions they might expect from workmates if they entered a room and found a resident masturbating. The majority of participants considered that masturbation was acceptable and avoiding interference was by far the most common reaction, although other reactions also arose. When asked about reactions attributed to workmates, mentions to reprimanding the resident and gossiping/joking about the issue were more frequent than acceptance. The discrepancy between professionals' own reported attitudes and those attributed to workmates suggests the existence of widespread negative reactions towards sexual activity in later life. In the light of these results, we underline the necessity of developing explicit policies regarding sexual issues. Formal training offered to staff would also help to recognise and preserve resident's sexual rights and needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ethics and Intimate Sexual Activity in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Eran

    2017-07-01

    A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  11. Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Huesmann, L Rowell

    2006-04-01

    To test whether the results of the accumulated studies on media violence and aggressive behavior are consistent with the theories that have evolved to explain the effects. We tested for the existence of both short-term and long-term effects for aggressive behavior. We also tested the theory-driven hypothesis that short-term effects should be greater for adults and long-term effects should be greater for children. Meta-analysis. Children younger than 18 years and adults. Violent media, including TV, movies, video games, music, and comic books. Measures of aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal (eg, heart rate, blood pressure), and helping behavior. Effect size estimates were combined using meta-analytic procedures. As expected, the short-term effects of violent media were greater for adults than for children whereas the long-term effects were greater for children than for adults. The results also showed that there were overall modest but significant effect sizes for exposure to media violence on aggressive behaviors, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, arousal levels, and helping behavior. The results are consistent with the theory that short-term effects are mostly due to the priming of existing well-encoded scripts, schemas, or beliefs, which adults have had more time to encode. In contrast, long-term effects require the learning (encoding) of scripts, schemas, or beliefs. Children can encode new scripts, schemas, and beliefs via observational learning with less interference and effort than adults.

  12. Long-term energy futures: the critical role of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the results of a 5-year study conducted by IIASA jointly with the World Energy Council (WEC) on long term-energy perspectives. After summarizing the study's main findings, the paper addresses the crucial role of technological change in the evolution of long-term energy futures and in responding to key long-term uncertainties in the domains of energy demand growth, economics, as well as environmental protection. Based on most recent empirical and methodological findings, long-term dynamics of technological change portray a number of distinct features that need to be taken account of in technology and energy policy. First, success of innovation efforts and ultimate outcomes of technological are uncertain. Second, new, improved technologies are not a free good, but require continued dedicated efforts. Third, technological knowledge (as resulting from R and D and accumulation of experience, i.e. technological learning) exhibits characteristics of (uncertain) increasing returns. Forth, due to innovation - diffusion lags, technological interdependence, and infrastructure needs (network externalities), rates of change in large-scale energy systems are necessarily slow. This implies acting sooner rather than later as a contigency policy to respond to long-term social, economic and environmental uncertainties, most notably possible climate change. Rather than picking technological 'winners' the results of the IIASA-WEC scenario studies are seen most appropriate to guide technology and R and D portfolio analysis. Nonetheless, robust persistent patterns of technological change invariably occur across all scenarios. Examples of primising groups of technologies are given. The crucial importance of meeting long-energy demand in developing countries, assuring large-scale infrastructure investments, maintaining a strong and diversified R AND D protfolio, as well as to dvise new institutional mechnisms for technology development and diffusion for instance

  13. Developments in long-term explicit memory late in the first year of life: behavioral and electrophysiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Wiebe, Sandra A; Carver, Leslie J; Waters, Jennie M; Nelson, Charles A

    2003-11-01

    Coincident with developments in the temporal-cortical explicit memory network, long-term recall abilities are newly emergent late in the first year of human life. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 9-month-olds as an index of the integrity of the neural substrate underlying a task thought to reflect explicit memory, namely, deferred imitation. ERP measures of recognition memory 1 week after unique laboratory experiences predicted whether and how much infants recalled of the experiences 1 month later. The findings further imply that memory storage and consolidation processes are a major source of variability in long-term recall memory late in the first year of life.

  14. Insulin signaling is acutely required for long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Daniel B; Androschuk, Alaura; Rosenfelt, Cory; Langer, Steven; Harding, Mark; Bolduc, Francois V

    2015-01-01

    Memory formation has been shown recently to be dependent on energy status in Drosophila. A well-established energy sensor is the insulin signaling (InS) pathway. Previous studies in various animal models including human have revealed the role of insulin levels in short-term memory but its role in long-term memory remains less clear. We therefore investigated genetically the spatial and temporal role of InS using the olfactory learning and long-term memory model in Drosophila. We found that InS is involved in both learning and memory. InS in the mushroom body is required for learning and long-term memory whereas long-term memory specifically is impaired after InS signaling disruption in the ellipsoid body, where it regulates the level of p70s6k, a downstream target of InS and a marker of protein synthesis. Finally, we show also that InS is acutely required for long-term memory formation in adult flies.

  15. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E; Brown, Lucy L

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding.

  16. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E.; Brown, Lucy L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal striatum, consistent with results from early-stage romantic love studies; and (ii) several regions implicated in maternal attachment, such as the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra, Raphe nucleus, thalamus, insular cortex, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate. Correlations of neural activity in regions of interest with widely used questionnaires showed: (i) VTA and caudate responses correlated with romantic love scores and inclusion of other in the self; (ii) GP responses correlated with friendship-based love scores; (iii) hypothalamus and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with sexual frequency; and (iv) caudate, septum/fornix, posterior cingulate and posterior hippocampus responses correlated with obsession. Overall, results suggest that for some individuals the reward-value associated with a long-term partner may be sustained, similar to new love, but also involves brain systems implicated in attachment and pair-bonding. PMID:21208991

  17. Assessing the associative deficit of older adults in long-term and short-term/working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tina; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Older adults exhibit a deficit in associative long-term memory relative to younger adults. However, the literature is inconclusive regarding whether this deficit is attenuated in short-term/working memory. To elucidate the issue, three experiments assessed younger and older adults' item and interitem associative memory and the effects of several variables that might potentially contribute to the inconsistent pattern of results in previous studies. In Experiment 1, participants were tested on item and associative recognition memory with both long-term and short-term retention intervals in a single, continuous recognition paradigm. There was an associative deficit for older adults in the short-term and long-term intervals. Using only short-term intervals, Experiment 2 utilized mixed and blocked test designs to examine the effect of test event salience. Blocking the test did not attenuate the age-related associative deficit seen in the mixed test blocks. Finally, an age-related associative deficit was found in Experiment 3, under both sequential and simultaneous presentation conditions. Even while accounting for some methodological issues, the associative deficit of older adults is evident in short-term/working memory.

  18. The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, MiKyung; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits, both in the short term and the longer term, to infants and their mothers. There is an increasing number of studies that report on associations between breastfeeding and long-term protection against chronic disease. Recent research evidence is reviewed in this study, building on previous authoritative reviews. The recent World Health Organization reviews of the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding concluded that there was strong evidence for many public health benefits of breastfeeding. Cognitive development is improved by breastfeeding, and infants who are breastfed and mothers who breastfeed have lower rates of obesity. Other chronic diseases that are reduced by breastfeeding include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and some types of cancer. © 2015 APJPH.

  19. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  20. Fast Weight Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T. Anderson; Sridhar, Sharath Nittur; Wang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Associative memory using fast weights is a short-term memory mechanism that substantially improves the memory capacity and time scale of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). As recent studies introduced fast weights only to regular RNNs, it is unknown whether fast weight memory is beneficial to gated RNNs. In this work, we report a significant synergy between long short-term memory (LSTM) networks and fast weight associative memories. We show that this combination, in learning associative retrie...

  1. Perceived stress and anhedonia predict short-and long-term weight change, respectively, in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mostafa; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2016-04-01

    Perceived stress; emotional eating; anhedonia; depression and dietary restraint, hunger, and disinhibition have been studied as risk factors for obesity. However, the majority of studies have been cross-sectional and the directionality of these relationships remains unclear. In this longitudinal study, we assess their impact on future weight change. Psychological predictors of weight change in short- (6month) and long-term (>1year) periods were studied in 65 lean and obese individuals in two cohorts. Subjects participated in studies of food intake and metabolism that did not include any type of medication or weight loss interventions. They completed psychological questionnaires at baseline and weight change was monitored at follow-up visits. At six months, perceived stress predicted weight gain (r(2)=0.23, P=0.02). There was a significant interaction (r(2)=.38, P=0.009) between perceived stress and positive emotional eating, such that higher scores in both predicted greater weight gain, while those with low stress but high emotional eating scores lost weight. For long-term, higher anhedonia scores predicted weight gain (r(2)=0.24, P=0.04). Depression moderated these effects such that higher scores in both predicted weight gain but higher depression and lower anhedonia scores predicted weight loss. There are different behavioral determinants for short- and long-term weight change. Targeting perceived stress may help with short-term weight loss while depression and anhedonia may be better targets for long-term weight regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term results after aortic valve-sparing operation (David I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Malakh; Baraki, Hassina; Maeding, Ilona; Fitzner, Sebastian; Sarikouch, Samir; Khaladj, Nawid; Hagl, Christian; Haverich, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Aortic valve-sparing David procedure has gained broad acceptance. However, few long-term results have been published. We present our results. More than 450 David procedures have been performed in our institution so far. Of these, 126 patients were operated between July 1993 and December 2000. Median age was 57 (8-83) years and 46 (36.5%) were female. As many as 26 (20.6%) had Marfan syndrome, 21 (16.7%) had acute aortic dissection type A (AADA) and 67 (53.2%) had additional procedures. There were six (4.8%) deaths in 30 post-operative period (POD), four of whom had AADA. In the follow-up, there were 32 (25.4%) late deaths, 11 (34.4%) of these were caused by cardiac or underlying disease or op-related. As many as 15 (11.9%) patients were re-operated; six (40%) were Marfan patients and two (13.3%) had early endocarditis. Follow-up echocardiography of 76 (60.3%) event-free patients showed valve insufficiency (AI)≤AI I° in 68 (89.5%) and grade II in 7 (9.2%) patients. Leaflet degeneration due to proposed leaflet contact with the straight Dacron graft was not observed. A total of 36 (47.4%) patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, 33 (43.4%) in NYHA II, and five (6.6%) were in class III. During the entire follow-up of 790 patient-years, there was no stroke or major bleeding. Survival at 1, 5 and 10 years was 93%, 85% and 70%, respectively. Freedom from valve replacement at 1, 5 and 10 years was 96%, 91% and 87%, respectively. Regardless of the underlying pathology, valve-sparing David I procedure has acceptable long-term results. Valve-related complications such as stroke or major bleeding is exceedingly low.

  3. On the long-term analysis with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods on long-term behaviour is given. This is followed by a survey of the method of the inner state variables, which on the one hand gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computer-ready calculation process. Two examples on long-term behaviour illustrate the regions of application of the computer methods. (orig./LH) [de

  4. Child maltreatment: pathway to chronic and long-term conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Lazenbatt, Anne; Soliman, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The manifesto Start Well, Live Better by the UK Faculty of Public Health (Start Well, Live Better-A Manifesto for the Public's Health. London: UK Faculty of Public Health, 2014) sets out 12 compelling priorities for the protection of people's health. The focus of this document is preventative, calling for a comprehensive strategy to target a wide-ranging set of challenges to public health; however, it fails to mention child maltreatment and its negative impact on long-term health outcomes. In this article, we explore the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and how these can be conceptually aligned with four different characteristics of long-term health conditions. We suggest that situating child maltreatment within a long-term conditions framework could have significant advantages and implications for practice, policy and research, by strengthening a commitment across disciplines to apply evidence-based principles linked with policy and evaluation and recognizing the chronic effects of maltreatment to concentrate public, professional and government awareness of the extent and impact of the issue. We argue that a public health approach is the most effective way of focusing preventative efforts on the long-term sequelae of child maltreatment and to foster cooperation in promoting children's rights to grow and develop in a safe and caring environment free from violence and abuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Long-term follow-up results of umbilical hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venclauskas, Linas; Jokubauskas, Mantas; Zilinskas, Justas; Zviniene, Kristina; Kiudelis, Mindaugas

    2017-12-01

    Multiple suture techniques and various mesh repairs are used in open or laparoscopic umbilical hernia (UH) surgery. To compare long-term follow-up results of UH repair in different hernia surgery groups and to identify risk factors for UH recurrence. A retrospective analysis of 216 patients who underwent elective surgery for UH during a 10-year period was performed. The patients were divided into three groups according to surgery technique (suture, mesh and laparoscopic repair). Early and long-term follow-up results including hospital stay, postoperative general and wound complications, recurrence rate and postoperative patient complaints were reviewed. Risk factors for recurrence were also analyzed. One hundred and forty-six patients were operated on using suture repair, 52 using open mesh and 18 using laparoscopic repair technique. 77.8% of patients underwent long-term follow-up. The postoperative wound complication rate and long-term postoperative complaints were significantly higher in the open mesh repair group. The overall hernia recurrence rate was 13.1%. Only 2 (1.7%) patients with small hernias ( 30 kg/m 2 , diabetes and wound infection were independent risk factors for umbilical hernia recurrence. The overall umbilical hernia recurrence rate was 13.1%. Body mass index > 30 kg/m 2 , diabetes and wound infection were independent risk factors for UH recurrence. According to our study results, laparoscopic medium and large umbilical hernia repair has slight advantages over open mesh repair concerning early postoperative complications, long-term postoperative pain and recurrence.

  6. Variation in benthic long-term data of transitional waters: Is interpretation more than speculation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lothar Zettler

    Full Text Available Biological long-term data series in marine habitats are often used to identify anthropogenic impacts on the environment or climate induced regime shifts. However, particularly in transitional waters, environmental properties like water mass dynamics, salinity variability and the occurrence of oxygen minima not necessarily caused by either human activities or climate change can attenuate or mask apparent signals. At first glance it very often seems impossible to interpret the strong fluctuations of e.g. abundances or species richness, since abiotic variables like salinity and oxygen content vary simultaneously as well as in apparently erratic ways. The long-term development of major macrozoobenthic parameters (abundance, biomass, species numbers and derivative macrozoobenthic indices (Shannon diversity, Margalef, Pilou's evenness and Hurlbert has been successfully interpreted and related to the long-term fluctuations of salinity and oxygen, incorporation of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index, relying on the statistical analysis of modelled and measured data during 35 years of observation at three stations in the south-western Baltic Sea. Our results suggest that even at a restricted spatial scale the benthic system does not appear to be tightly controlled by any single environmental driver and highlight the complexity of spatially varying temporal response.

  7. Impact of delirium on postoperative frailty and long term cardiovascular events after cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Masato; Izawa, Kazuhiro P.; Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Tsuboi, Yasunori; Komaki, Kodai; Gotake, Yasuko; Sakai, Yoshitada; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Okita, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common and critical complication after cardiac surgery. However, the relationship between POD and postoperative physical frailty and the effect of both on long-term clinical outcomes have not been fully explored. Objective We aimed to examine the associations among POD, postoperative frailty, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods We studied 329 consecutive patients undergoing elective cardiac s...

  8. Long-term stabilization considerations for decommissioned and reclaimed uranium sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.; Johnson, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term stabilization of decommissioned uranium mill sites and of reclaimed uranium mill tailings sites encompass a broad spectrum of design capabilities. This paper presents a few of the quantitative methodologies recently developed or refined to evaluate physical factors (i.e. precipitation, fluvial geomorphology, stable slope, slope stabilization with riprap and riprap selection) that influence long-term stabilization of uranium mill and mill tailings sites. It is acknowledged that the degree of refinement of these methodologies are in their infancy and that extensive research and development are warranted to increase the level of assurance. However, these methodologies provide an initial guideline for evaluating long-term stabilization that has not been previously existed. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of currently available state-of-the-art engineering techniques and methodologies for the evaluation of reclamation plans designed to provide long-term stability against potential failure modes. In some cases, evaluative techniques have been developed for long-term stabilization where methodologies have not previously existed. Each methodology to be presented represents a starting point upon which additional research and/or development may be warranted

  9. Persistent increased PKMζ in long-term and remote spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Changchi; Tsokas, Panayiotis; Serrano, Peter; Hernández, A Iván; Tian, Dezhi; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2017-02-01

    PKMζ is an autonomously active PKC isoform that is thought to maintain both LTP and long-term memory. Whereas persistent increases in PKMζ protein sustain the kinase's action in LTP, the molecular mechanism for the persistent action of PKMζ during long-term memory has not been characterized. PKMζ inhibitors disrupt spatial memory when introduced into the dorsal hippocampus from 1day to 1month after training. Therefore, if the mechanisms of PKMζ's persistent action in LTP maintenance and long-term memory were similar, persistent increases in PKMζ would last for the duration of the memory, far longer than most other learning-induced gene products. Here we find that spatial conditioning by aversive active place avoidance or appetitive radial arm maze induces PKMζ increases in dorsal hippocampus that persist from 1day to 1month, coinciding with the strength and duration of memory retention. Suppressing the increase by intrahippocampal injections of PKMζ-antisense oligodeoxynucleotides prevents the formation of long-term memory. Thus, similar to LTP maintenance, the persistent increase in the amount of autonomously active PKMζ sustains the kinase's action during long-term and remote spatial memory maintenance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. J.; Haberl, H.

    2012-04-01

    Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales Simron Jit Singh and Helmut Haberl Institute of Social Ecology, Vienna, Austria Understanding trajectories of change in coupled socio-ecological (or human-environment) systems requires monitoring and analysis at several spatial and temporal scales. Long-term ecosystem research (LTER) is a strand of research coupled with observation systems and infrastructures (LTER sites) aimed at understanding how global change affects ecosystems around the world. In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that sustainability concerns require extending this approach to long-term socio-ecological research, i.e. a more integrated perspective that focuses on interaction processes between society and ecosystems over longer time periods. Thus, Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research, abbreviated LTSER, aims at observing, analyzing, understanding and modelling of changes in coupled socio-ecological systems over long periods of time. Indeed, the magnitude of the problems we now face is an outcome of a much longer process, accelerated by industrialisation since the nineteenth century. The paper will provide an overview of a book (in press) on LTSER with particular emphasis on 'socio-ecological transitions' in terms of material, energy and land use dynamics across temporal and spatial scales.

  11. Vitamin D status among long-term survivors of testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepisi, Giuseppe; De Padova, Silvia; Scarpi, Emanuela; Lolli, Cristian; Gurioli, Giorgia; Menna, Cecilia; Burgio, Salvatore L; Rossi, Lorena; Gallà, Valentina; Casadio, Valentina; Salvi, Samanta; Conteduca, Vincenza; De Giorgi, Ugo

    2017-05-30

    A correlation between disturbances in hormone levels and the onset of metabolic disorders has been reported in long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TC).We evaluated serum vitamin D levels and other biological parameters in a consecutive series of 61 long-term (≥3 years) unilateral TC survivors with a median a follow-up of 4 years and in a cohort of healthy males. Deficient vitamin D levels were observed in 10 (17%) of the 58 long-term unilateral TC survivors but were not reported in healthy males (p=.019, Fisher test). Median vitamin D levels were 18.6 ug/L in 58 assessable TC survivors and 23.6 ug/L in 40 healthy males (p=.031). In univariate logistic regression analysis, TC diagnosis was associated with inadequate levels of vitamin D (p=.047). Vitamin D levels were lower when follow-up was > 10 years, albeit this difference was not statistically significant (p=.074). Long-term (especially > 10 years) TC survivors may have difficulty maintaining optimal vitamin D levels. Larger studies are needed to better characterize vitamin D status and possible correlations with premature hormonal aging reported in long-term TC survivors.

  12. [The Development of Long-Term Care Policies and the Impact on Nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiao-Chi; Tsai, Yin-Yin; Yeh, Shin-Ting

    2015-10-01

    The government must reform and enhance current medical and long-term care services in order to respond effectively to societal ageing and labor shortage trends and to ensure sustainable operations. The post-acute care system should be reoriented on the home and community instead of the hospital. The Long Term Care Service Act integrates long-term care services that were previously dispersed amongst different departments, sets up a long-term care development fund, and improves the quality and allocation of long-term care services. Moreover, the Long Term Care Insurance Act will implement a bundle payment system to assist disabled families. The integration of automation and information technology will make long-term care more efficient. Although nurses are more skilled at elderly care and counseling than other community care professionals, nurses generally lack training in business management. Home and community-based services thus require better-trained manpower, opportunities to set care agents, and opportunities to offer flexible caring jobs. Therefore, nurses should strengthen their capabilities in post-acute care, business management, cooperation, and coordination.

  13. Major depressive disorder subtypes to predict long-term course

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Hanna M.; Cai, Tianxi; Gruber, Michael J.; Li, Junlong; de Jonge, Peter; Petukhova, Maria; Rose, Sherri; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Wilcox, Marsha A.; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Andrade, Laura Helena; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bunting, Brendan; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Xavier, Miguel; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Variation in course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing subtype distinctions. A new subtyping approach is considered here. Methods Two data mining techniques, ensemble recursive partitioning and Lasso generalized linear models (GLMs) followed by k-means cluster analysis, are used to search for subtypes based on index episode symptoms predicting subsequent MDD course in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The WMH surveys are community surveys in 16 countries. Lifetime DSM-IV MDD was reported by 8,261 respondents. Retrospectively reported outcomes included measures of persistence (number of years with an episode; number of with an episode lasting most of the year) and severity (hospitalization for MDD; disability due to MDD). Results Recursive partitioning found significant clusters defined by the conjunctions of early onset, suicidality, and anxiety (irritability, panic, nervousness-worry-anxiety) during the index episode. GLMs found additional associations involving a number of individual symptoms. Predicted values of the four outcomes were strongly correlated. Cluster analysis of these predicted values found three clusters having consistently high, intermediate, or low predicted scores across all outcomes. The high-risk cluster (30.0% of respondents) accounted for 52.9-69.7% of high persistence and severity and was most strongly predicted by index episode severe dysphoria, suicidality, anxiety, and early onset. A total symptom count, in comparison, was not a significant predictor. Conclusions Despite being based on retrospective reports, results suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made using data mining methods. Further studies are needed to test and expand these results with prospective data. PMID:24425049

  14. Perspectives of survivors of traumatic brain injury and their caregivers on long-term social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Hélène; Cloutier, Geneviève; Josée Levert, Marie

    2008-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has damaging impacts on victims and family members' lives and their long-term social integration constitutes a major challenge. The objective of the study was to document the repercussions of TBI on victims' long-term social integration (10 years post-trauma) and the contribution made by the services received from the point of view of TBI victims and family caregivers. This article examines the determinants of long-term social integration as well as the impact of TBI on family caregivers. A qualitative design was used (semi-directed interviews). The sample consisted of 22 individuals who had sustained a moderate or severe TBI and 21 family caregivers. The results show that TBI is an experience that continues to present difficulties, even 10 years after the accident, and that different barriers contribute to this difficulty: not going back to work, depressive episodes, problems in relationships and sequellae. Family caregivers must help TBI victims confront the barriers in their path. This study adopts a longitudinal perspective to help professionals determine how to intervene with TBI victims and their families. It validates the importance of having clients and family caregivers describe their reality.

  15. Long-term stability analysis of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The time-dependent behavior of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station has a major influence on the normal operation and long-term safety of the hydropower station. To solve this problem, a geomechanical model containing various faults and weak structural planes is established, and numerical simulation is conducted under normal water load condition using FLAC3D, incorporating creep model proposed based on thermodynamics with internal state variables theory. The creep deformations of the left bank abutment slope are obtained, and the changes of principal stresses and deformations of the dam body are analyzed. The long-term stability of the left bank abutment slope is evaluated according to the integral curves of energy dissipation rate in domain and its derivative with respect to time, and the non-equilibrium evolution rules and the characteristic time can also be determined using these curves. Numerical results show that the left bank abutment slope tends to be stable in a global sense, and the stress concentration is released. It is also indicated that more attention should be paid to some weak regions within the slope in the long-term deformation process.

  16. Long-term physical and psychological effects of the Vajont disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaetta, Cristina; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Few studies to date investigated the long-term consequences of disasters on physical health. The aim of the present report was to study the consequence on physical health of exposure to the Vajont disaster after 40 years. We also explored the effects of severity of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression disorder on physical health and health-related quality of life. Sixty survivors of the Vajont disaster and 48 control subjects of similar gender, education, and age participated in the study. Physician-reported and subjective measures of physical health have been employed. Survivors reported a greater number of physical complaints than controls (pVajont one may have deleterious effects on both psychological and physical health.

  17. Long- and Short-Term Cryptocurrency Volatility Components: A GARCH-MIDAS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Conrad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the GARCH-MIDAS model to extract the long- and short-term volatility components of cryptocurrencies. As potential drivers of Bitcoin volatility, we consider measures of volatility and risk in the US stock market as well as a measure of global economic activity. We find that S&P 500 realized volatility has a negative and highly significant effect on long-term Bitcoin volatility. The finding is atypical for volatility co-movements across financial markets. Moreover, we find that the S&P 500 volatility risk premium has a significantly positive effect on long-term Bitcoin volatility. Finally, we find a strong positive association between the Baltic dry index and long-term Bitcoin volatility. This result shows that Bitcoin volatility is closely linked to global economic activity. Overall, our findings can be used to construct improved forecasts of long-term Bitcoin volatility.

  18. Independence of long-term contextual memory and short-term perceptual hypotheses: Evidence from contextual cueing of interrupted search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagbauer, Bernhard; Mink, Maurice; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Observers are able to resume an interrupted search trial faster relative to responding to a new, unseen display. This finding of rapid resumption is attributed to short-term perceptual hypotheses generated on the current look and confirmed upon subsequent looks at the same display. It has been suggested that the contents of perceptual hypotheses are similar to those of other forms of memory acquired long-term through repeated exposure to the same search displays over the course of several trials, that is, the memory supporting "contextual cueing." In three experiments, we investigated the relationship between short-term perceptual hypotheses and long-term contextual memory. The results indicated that long-term, contextual memory of repeated displays neither affected the generation nor the confirmation of short-term perceptual hypotheses for these displays. Furthermore, the analysis of eye movements suggests that long-term memory provides an initial benefit in guiding attention to the target, whereas in subsequent looks guidance is entirely based on short-term perceptual hypotheses. Overall, the results reveal a picture of both long- and short-term memory contributing to reliable performance gains in interrupted search, while exerting their effects in an independent manner.

  19. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    , the psychodynamic perspective is integrated within a multi-dimensional model that considers biological, cognitive, identity, gender and social learning factors. The analysis reveals the possibility of achieving a detailed understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the development of long-term tranquillizer...

  20. Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Werkman, D.M.; Barnaart, L.F.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the long-term survival of patellofemoral arthroplasty with primary diagnosis, age, sex, and body mass index. One hundred eighty-five consecutive Richards type II patellofemoral arthroplasties were performed in 161 patients with isolated patellofemoral

  1. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  2. Long-term outcomes of unilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad H; Hariri, Sanaz

    2009-06-01

    the long-term outcomes of wartime transtibial amputations have not been well documented. The purpose of this case series is to present the long-term functional, social, and psychological outcomes of modern-day military unilateral transtibial amputees. the Iranian Veterans Administration of the Khorasan province invited their Iranian military amputees from the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) to its medical center for evaluation. The patients filled out a detailed questionnaire and were interviewed and examined by each team member. two hundred (77%) of the 260 invited amputees were willing and able to come back for follow-up. Ninety-six of these patients (48%) were unilateral transtibial amputation. The average follow-up was 17.4 years (range 15-22 years). Land mines were the leading cause of war injury necessitating a transtibial amputation (68%). The most common symptoms about their amputated limbs were phantom sensations (54%), phantom pain (17%), and stump pain (42%). Lower back pain, contralateral (nonamputated limb) knee pain, and ipsilateral (amputated limb) knee pain were reported by 44%, 38%, and 13% of subjects, respectively. Sixty-five percent of patients were employed or had been employed for multiple years after their war injury. All patients were married, and 97% had children. Fifty-four percent of amputees reported psychological problems; 26% were currently utilizing psychological support services. at long-term follow-up, most military transtibial amputees experienced phantom sensation or some type of stump pain. More than half had persistent psychiatric problems, but only about half of these patients were receiving psychological treatment. Although this case series reports the status of these amputees, the next step would be to prospectively follow modern wartime amputees using standardized, validated outcome measures. With the goal of optimizing long-term amputee outcomes, researchers should correlate outcomes with demographics, injury characteristics, and

  3. Constraints on the affinity term for modeling long-term glass dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.; Carroll, S.A.; Phillips, B.L.

    1993-11-01

    Predictions of long-term glass dissolution rates are highly dependent on the form of the affinity term in the rate expression. Analysis of the quantitative effect of saturation state on glass dissolution rate for CSG glass (a simple analog of SRL-165 glass), shows that a simple (1-Q/K) affinity term does not match experimental results. Our data at 100 degree C show that the data is better fit by an affinity term having the form (1 - (Q/K) 1 /σ) where σ = 10

  4. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Larsen, Anders R

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  5. Long-term ecological research in a human-dominated world

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Philip Robertson; Scott L. Collins; David R. Foster; Nicholas Brokaw; Hugh W. Ducklow; Ted L. Gragson; Corinna Gries; Stephen K. Hamilton; A. David McGuire; John C. Moore; Emily H. Stanley; Robert B. Waide; Mark W. Williams

    2012-01-01

    The US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network enters its fourth decade with a distinguished record of achievement in ecological science. The value of long-term observations and experiments has never been more important for testing ecological theory and for addressing today’s most difficult environmental challenges. The network’s potential for tackling emergent...

  6. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  7. Short-term power plant operation scheduling in thermal systems with long-term boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, H.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time, the modeling of long-term quantitative conditions within the short-term planning of the application of power stations is made via their shadow prices. It corresponds to a decomposition of the quantitative conditions by means of the method of the Langrange relaxation. The shadow prices determined by the planning for energy application regarding long- term quantitative conditions pass into the short-term planning for power station application and subsidize or rather punish the application of limited amounts as for as they are not claimed for sufficiently or excessively. The clear advantage of this modeling is that the short-term planning of power station application can deviate from the envisioned energy application regarding the total optimum, because the shadow prices contain all information about the cost effect of the energy shifts in the residual total period, which become necessary due to the deviations in the short-term period to be planned in the current short-term period. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Dispositional optimism as predictor of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Erkki; Heiskanen, Tiia; Lindfors, Olavi; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Knekt, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Dispositional optimism predicts various beneficial outcomes in somatic health and treatment, but has been little studied in psychotherapy. This study investigated whether an optimistic disposition differentially predicts patients' ability to benefit from short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. A total of 326 adult outpatients with mood and/or anxiety disorder were randomized into short-term (solution-focused or short-term psychodynamic) or long-term psychodynamic therapy and followed up for 3 years. Dispositional optimism was assessed by patients at baseline with the self-rated Life Orientation Test (LOT) questionnaire. Outcome was assessed at baseline and seven times during the follow-up, in terms of depressive (BDI, HDRS), anxiety (SCL-90-ANX, HARS), and general psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90-GSI), all seven follow-up points including patients' self-reports and three including interview-based measures. Lower dispositional optimism predicted faster symptom reduction in short-term than in long-term psychotherapy. Higher optimism predicted equally rapid and eventually greater benefits in long-term, as compared to short-term, psychotherapy. Weaker optimism appeared to predict sustenance of problems early in long-term therapy. Stronger optimism seems to best facilitate engaging in and benefiting from a long-term therapy process. Closer research might clarify the psychological processes responsible for these effects and help fine-tune both briefer and longer interventions to optimize treatment effectiveness for particular patients and their psychological qualities. Weaker dispositional optimism does not appear to inhibit brief therapy from effecting symptomatic recovery. Patients with weaker optimism do not seem to gain added benefits from long-term therapy, but instead may be susceptible to prolonged psychiatric symptoms in the early stages of long-term therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Long-term CO2 injection and its impact on near-surface soil microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwosdz, Simone; West, Julia M; Jones, David; Rakoczy, Jana; Green, Kay; Barlow, Tom; Blöthe, Marco; Smith, Karon; Steven, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Impacts of long-term CO 2 exposure on environmental processes and microbial populations of near-surface soils are poorly understood. This near-surface long-term CO 2 injection study demonstrated that soil microbiology and geochemistry is influenced more by seasonal parameters than elevated CO 2 Soil samples were taken during a 3-year field experiment including sampling campaigns before, during and after 24 months of continuous CO 2 injection. CO 2 concentrations within CO 2 -injected plots increased up to 23% during the injection period. No CO 2 impacts on geochemistry were detected over time. In addition, CO 2 -exposed samples did not show significant changes in microbial CO 2 and CH 4 turnover rates compared to reference samples. Likewise, no significant CO 2 -induced variations were detected for the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea (16S rDNA) and gene copy numbers of the mcrA gene, Crenarchaeota and amoA gene. The majority (75%-95%) of the bacterial sequences were assigned to five phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes The majority of the archaeal sequences (85%-100%) were assigned to the thaumarchaeotal cluster I.1b (soil group). Univariate and multivariate statistical as well as principal component analyses showed no significant CO 2 -induced variation. Instead, seasonal impacts especially temperature and precipitation were detected. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance in patients with MTL lesions on tasks with short retention intervals, or no retention interval, and neuroimaging findings with similar tasks have been interpreted to mean that the MTL is sometimes needed for working memory and possibly even for visual perception itself. We present a reappraisal of this interpretation. Our main conclusion is that, if the material to be learned exceeds working memory capacity, if the material is difficult to rehearse, or if attention is diverted, performance depends on long-term memory even when the retention interval is brief. This fundamental notion is better captured by the terms subspan memory and supraspan memory than by the terms short-term memory and long-term memory. We propose methods for determining when performance on short-delay tasks must depend on long-term (supraspan) memory and suggest that MTL lesions impair performance only when immediate memory and working memory are insufficient to support performance. In neuroimaging studies, MTL activity during encoding is influenced by the memory load and correlates positively with long-term retention of the material that was presented. The most parsimonious and consistent interpretation of all the data is that subspan memoranda are supported by immediate memory and working memory and are independent of the MTL. PMID:22180053

  11. Haloperidol for long-term aggression in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushu, Abha; Powney, Melanie J

    2016-11-27

    Psychotic disorders can lead some people to become agitated. Characterised by restlessness, excitability and irritability, this can result in verbal and physically aggressive behaviour - and both can be prolonged. Aggression within the psychiatric setting imposes a significant challenge to clinicians and risk to service users; it is a frequent cause for admission to inpatient facilities. If people continue to be aggressive it can lengthen hospitalisation. Haloperidol is used to treat people with long-term aggression. To examine whether haloperidol alone, administered orally, intramuscularly or intravenously, is an effective treatment for long-term/persistent aggression in psychosis. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (July 2011 and April 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) or double blind trials (implying randomisation) with useable data comparing haloperidol with another drug or placebo for people with psychosis and long-term/persistent aggression. One review author (AK) extracted data. For dichotomous data, one review author (AK) calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a fixed-effect model. One review author (AK) assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. We have no good-quality evidence of the absolute effectiveness of haloperidol for people with long-term aggression. One study randomising 110 chronically aggressive people to three different antipsychotic drugs met the inclusion criteria. When haloperidol was compared with olanzapine or clozapine, skewed data (n=83) at high risk of bias suggested some advantage in terms of scale scores of unclear clinical meaning for olanzapine/clozapine for 'total aggression'. Data were available for only one other outcome, leaving the study early. When compared with other antipsychotic drugs, people allocated to haloperidol were no more likely to leave the study

  12. Long-term dataset on aquatic responses to concurrent climate change and recovery from acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Taylor H.; Winslow, Luke A.; Acker, Frank W.; Bloomfield, Jay A.; Boylen, Charles W.; Bukaveckas, Paul A.; Charles, Donald F.; Daniels, Robert A.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Eichler, Lawrence W.; Farrell, Jeremy L.; Funk, Clara S.; Goodrich, Christine A.; Michelena, Toby M.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A.; Roy, Karen M.; Shaw, William H.; Sutherland, James W.; Swinton, Mark W.; Winkler, David A.; Rose, Kevin C.

    2018-04-01

    Concurrent regional and global environmental changes are affecting freshwater ecosystems. Decadal-scale data on lake ecosystems that can describe processes affected by these changes are important as multiple stressors often interact to alter the trajectory of key ecological phenomena in complex ways. Due to the practical challenges associated with long-term data collections, the majority of existing long-term data sets focus on only a small number of lakes or few response variables. Here we present physical, chemical, and biological data from 28 lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of northern New York State. These data span the period from 1994-2012 and harmonize multiple open and as-yet unpublished data sources. The dataset creation is reproducible and transparent; R code and all original files used to create the dataset are provided in an appendix. This dataset will be useful for examining ecological change in lakes undergoing multiple stressors.

  13. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Escobar, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memo...

  14. Relationship between short and long term radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Ramirez, D.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this work the radon group of the Faculty of Chemistry at the National University of Mexico presents the results obtained in the establishment of a relation between the short and long term radon measures made with passive electret detectors E-PERM type LLT and HST. The measures were carried out inside single family dwellings (open house condition) located in the southeast of Mexico City (in Xochimilco) during the four seasons of the year 1997. A correlation was established between the short term measures (five days) and those of a long term for every season as well as an annual average, with an equation that relates them. The objective and advantage of this correlation are that with a short term measure it is possible to predict the annual mean radon concentration, that represents a saving of human and economic resources. (author)

  15. Prevention of fall-related injuries in long-term care: a randomized controlled trial of staff education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wayne A; Taylor, Jo A; Brown, Anne K; Gideon, Patricia; Hall, Kathi; Arbogast, Patrick; Meredith, Sarah

    2005-10-24

    Fall-related injuries, a major public health problem in long-term care, may be reduced by interventions that improve safety practices. Previous studies have shown that safety practice interventions can reduce falls; however, in long-term care these have relied heavily on external funding and staff. The aim of this study was to test whether a training program in safety practices for staff could reduce fall-related injuries in long-term care facilities. A cluster randomization clinical trial with 112 qualifying facilities and 10,558 study residents 65 years or older and not bedridden. The intervention was an intensive 2-day safety training program with 12-month follow-up. The training program targeted living space and personal safety; wheelchairs, canes, and walkers; psychotropic medication use; and transferring and ambulation. The main outcome measure was serious fall-related injuries during the follow-up period. There was no difference in injury occurrence between the intervention and control facilities (adjusted rate ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16). For residents with a prior fall in facilities with the best program compliance, there was a nonsignificant trend toward fewer injuries in the intervention group (adjusted rate ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.10). More intensive interventions are required to prevent fall-related injuries in long-term care facilities.

  16. Long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sophie Halkjær; Roed, Casper; Andersen, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term mortality and causes of death in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) are poorly documented. In this study, long-term mortality and causes of death in PTB and EPTB patients were compared with the background population...

  17. Smoking and long-term labour market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-07-01

    To examine the long-term effects of smoking on labour market outcomes using twin data matched to register-based individual information on earnings. Twin data for Finnish men born 1945-1957 was used to remove the shared environmental and genetic factors. The results were subjected to extensive robustness testing. Lifetime cigarette consumption was measured by (cumulative) cigarette pack-years in early adulthood. The average of an individual's earnings (and, alternatively, taxable income) was measured over a subsequent 15-year period in later adulthood. Smokers have lower long-term income and earnings. For example, controlling for the shared environmental and genetic factors using the data on genetically identical twins, smoking is negatively associated with lifetime income (p=0.015). The negative association was also robust to the use of various covariates, such as education, health indicators and extraversion. Smoking is negatively related to long-term labour market outcomes. The provision of information about the indirect monetary costs of smoking may thus complement the policy efforts that aim at educating consumers about the health costs of smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.; Thorne, M.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the storage of spent nuclear fuel, with particular reference to the options which would be available for long-term storage. Two reference programmes of nuclear power generation in the UK are defined and these are used as a basis for the projection of arisings of spent fuel and the storage capacity which might be needed. The characteristics of spent fuel which are relevant to long-term storage include the dimensions, materials and physical construction of the elements, their radioactive inventory and the associated decay heating as a function of time after removal from the reactor. Information on the behaviour of spent fuel in storage ponds is reviewed with particular reference to the corrosion of the cladding. The review indicates that, for long-term storage, both Magnox and AGR fuel would need to be packaged because of the high rate of cladding corrosion and the resulting radiological problems. The position on PWR fuel is less certain. Experience of dry storage is less extensive but it appears that the rate of corrosion of cladding is much lower than in water. Unit costs are discussed. Consideration is given to the radiological impact of fuel storage. (author)

  19. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  20. Long Term Monitoring of Microbial Induced Soil Strengthening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.; Colwell, F. S.; Ohan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil strengthening/stabilization processes are used to address some of soil quality issues. Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising soil stabilization process that could offer long term solution by overcoming problems of commonly used methods (e.g. injecting cement slurry). MICP can be applied in larger spatial scales, allowing the enhanced soils to be maintained in an economic sustainable and environmental friendly way. Methods are sought for the long term monitoring of MICP enhanced soils. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method is one promising method due to sensitivity on such processes and the ability for long term, even autonomous, operation as well as cost effectiveness. Previous laboratory tests showed the sensitivity of the SIP method on soil strengthening as a result of abiotic calcite precipitation. We extended this work to biotic calcite precipitation through MICP. Early results suggest that the MICP formed calcite is denser and could provide improved strengthening capabilities. Our results are supported by geophysical (SIP and shear-wave velocity), geo-chemical and microbiological monitoring. Destructive analysis and visualization (scanning electron imaging - SEM) is expected to provide conclusive evidence on the MICP long term effectiveness.

  1. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  2. Long-term follow-up study of the therapeutic effect after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changjiang; Li Long; Gao Jianqing; Xu Sumei; Chen Linna; Zhou Jianming

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect through long-term visit and analyze the affecting factors of cure rate after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, a long-term follow-up has been undertaken for the patients with hyperthyroidism after iodine-131 treatment. The following results have been obtained. (1) The cure rate of iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism is 74.4%, and the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism is 7.5%. (2) There is no significant difference in the cure rate and incidence of hypothyroidism between the groups of male and female or 'not take ATD' and 'ATD withdrawn longer than 2 weeks' (P>0.05). (3) The difference of the cure rate among the groups of the courses of disease 3 a are significant (P 55 g are significant (P 0.05). The course of disease, age and thyroid mass are the major factors which influence the cure rate. Meanwhile, age and thyroid mass are the major factors which influence the incidence of hypothyroidism. To get high cure rate, the patients with hyperthyroidism should be treated with iodine-131 as early as possible. In the meantime, the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism must be paid attention to. (authors)

  3. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Harald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated long-term outcome after bracing using validated health related quality of life outcome measures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS 12 years or more after treatment with the Boston brace. Methods 109 (80% of 135 patients (7 men with AIS treated with the Boston brace at a mean of 19.2 (range 12–28 years previously responded to long-term follow-up examination. All patients (n = 109 answered a standardised questionnaire including demographics, work status, treatment, Global Back Disability Question, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI (100-worst possible, General Function Score (GFS (100 – worst possible, EuroQol (EQ-5D (1 – best possible, EQ-VAS (100 – best possible and Scoliosis Research Society -22 (SRS – 22 (5 – best possible. Clinical and radiological examination was obtained in 86 patients. Results The magnitude of the primary prebrace major curve was in average 33.4° (range 20 – 52. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3° (9–56 and 34.2° (8 – 87, respectively. The mean age at follow-up was 35 (27 – 46 years. Work status was: full time (80%, on sick-leave (3%, on rehabilitation (4%, disability pension (4%, homemaker (7%, students (2%, 7% had changed their job because of back pain. 88% had had delivered a baby, 55% of them had pain in pregnancy. Global back status was excellent or good in 81%. The mean (standard deviation ODI was 6.4 (9.8, GFS 5.4 (10.5, EQ-5D 0.84 (0.2, SRS-22: pain 4.2 (0.8, mental health 4.2 (0.7, self-image 3.9 (0.7, function 4.1 (0.6, satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0. 28% had taken physiotherapy for back pain the last year and 12% had visited a doctor. Conclusion Long-term results were satisfactory in most patients with AIS treated with the Boston brace.

  4. Long term prospects for world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a world gas trade model used to forecast long term gas markets. Assumptions that went into the model are described, including the extent of current proven gas reserves, production ratios, total energy and gas demand, gas supply cost curves for each producing country, available gas liquefaction and transportation facilities, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping costs. The results indicate that even with generally very low supply costs for most gas producing basins, gas trade will continue to be restricted by the relatively high cost of transportation, whether by pipeline or tanker. As a consequence, future gas trade will tend to be regionally oriented. United States gas imports will come mostly from Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico; Western Europe will largely be supplied by the Soviet Union and Africa, and Japan's requirements will generally be met by Pacific Rim producers. Although the Middle East has vast quantities of gas reserves, its export growth will continue to be hampered by its remote location from major markets. 16 figs

  5. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.

  6. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for Amchitka Island, Alaska, is to obtain data that will assure the public safety, inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination, and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. Amchitka's geographical setting, climate, geology, hydrology, and ecology are described. Site history including event information for LONG SHOT in 1965, MILROW in 1969, and CANNIKIN in 1971 is described. Event related contamination has been observed only at the LONG SHOT site. At this site, tritium in concentrations below the drinking water standards has been observed in mud pits and wells in the area adjacent to surface ground zero. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for Amchitka is described. No radioactive venting, significant radioactive leakage, or bioenvironmental damage resulted from any of the nuclear tests on Amchitka

  7. Comparison of long-term results of laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of common bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Sarabjit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare long term results of laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of common bile duct, to assess post-procedure quality of life. Materials and Methods: From September 1992 to August 2003, we performed 4058 cholecystectomies, out of which 479 (11.80% patients had choledocholithiasis. There were 163 males and 316 females. Mean age was 63.65 ± 5.5 years. These patients were put in two groups. In the first group of 240 patients, a majority of patients underwent two-stage procedures. ERCP/ES was performed in 210 (87.50% cases. In the second group of 239 patients, a majority of patients underwent single-stage procedures. ERCP/ES was done in 32 (13.38% cases. Results: Mortality was zero in both groups. Morbidity was 15.1% in first group and 7.5% in second group. Mean hospital stay was 11.7 ± 3.2 days in first group and 6.2 ± 2.1 days in second group. Average operative time was 95.6 ± 20 minutes in first group and 128.4 ± 32 minutes in second group. Completed questionnaires received from 400 (83.50% patients revealed better long-term results in the second group. Clinical features of low-grade cholangitis were seen in 20% of patients who underwent ES. Hence the post-procedure quality of life in patients who underwent single-stage procedures was definitely much better, because of minimal damage of sphincter of Oddi. Conclusions: Single-stage laparoscopic operations provide better results and shorter hospital stay. Damage to sphincter of Oddi should be minimal, to avoid long-term low-grade cholangitis. In young patients, the operation of choice should be single-stage laparoscopic procedure with absolutely no damage to sphincter of Oddi.

  8. Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Georgina; de la Cruz, Lorena Fernández; Monzani, Benedetta; Bowyer, Laura; Anson, Martin; Cadman, Jacinda; Heyman, Isobel; Turner, Cynthia; Veale, David; Mataix-Cols, David

    2017-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for adolescent body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in the short term, but longer-term outcomes remain unknown. The current study aimed to follow up a group of adolescents who had originally participated in a randomized controlled trial of CBT for BDD to determine whether treatment gains were maintained. Twenty-six adolescents (mean age = 16.2, SD = 1.6) with a primary diagnosis of BDD received a course of developmentally tailored CBT and were followed up over 12 months. Participants were assessed at baseline, midtreatment, posttreatment, 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD. Secondary outcomes included measures of insight, depression, quality of life, and global functioning. BDD symptoms decreased significantly from pre- to posttreatment and remained stable over the 12-month follow-up. At this time point, 50% of participants were classified as responders and 23% as remitters. Participants remained significantly improved on all secondary outcomes at 12-month follow-up. Neither baseline insight nor baseline depression predicted long-term outcomes. The positive effects of CBT appear to be durable up to 12-month follow-up. However, the majority of patients remained symptomatic and vulnerable to a range of risks at 12-month follow-up, indicating that longer-term monitoring is advisable in this population. Future research should focus on enhancing the efficacy of CBT in order to improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Short-term and long-term plasticity interaction in human primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzi, Ennio; Suppa, Antonio; Conte, Antonella; Li Voti, Pietro; Bologna, Matteo; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over primary motor cortex (M1) elicits changes in motor evoked potential (MEP) size thought to reflect short- and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity, resembling short-term potentiation (STP) and long-term potentiation/depression (LTP/LTD) observed in animal experiments. We designed this study in healthy humans to investigate whether STP as elicited by 5-Hz rTMS interferes with LTP/LTD-like plasticity induced by intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS and cTBS). The effects induced by 5-Hz rTMS and iTBS/cTBS were indexed as changes in MEP size. We separately evaluated changes induced by 5-Hz rTMS, iTBS and cTBS applied alone and those induced by iTBS and cTBS delivered after priming 5-Hz rTMS. Interactions between 5-Hz rTMS and iTBS/cTBS were investigated under several experimental conditions by delivering 5-Hz rTMS at suprathreshold and subthreshold intensity, allowing 1 and 5 min intervals to elapse between 5-Hz rTMS and TBS, and delivering one and ten 5-Hz rTMS trains. We also investigated whether 5-Hz rTMS induces changes in intracortical excitability tested with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. When given alone, 5-Hz rTMS induced short-lasting and iTBS/cTBS induced long-lasting changes in MEP amplitudes. When M1 was primed with 10 suprathreshold 5-Hz rTMS trains at 1 min before iTBS or cTBS, the iTBS/cTBS-induced after-effects disappeared. The 5-Hz rTMS left intracortical excitability unchanged. We suggest that STP elicited by suprathreshold 5-Hz rTMS abolishes iTBS/cTBS-induced LTP/LTD-like plasticity through non-homeostatic metaplasticity mechanisms. Our study provides new information on interactions between short-term and long-term rTMS-induced plasticity in human M1. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Long-term nonprogression and broad HIV-1-specific proliferative T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrina eImami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex mechanisms underlying the maintenance of fully functional, proliferative, HIV-1-specific T-cell responses involve processes from early T-cell development through to the final stages of T-cell differentiation and antigen recognition. Virus-specific proliferative CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, important for the control of infection, are observed in some HIV-1+ patients during early stages of disease, and are maintained in long-term nonprogressing subjects. In the vast majority of HIV-1+ patients, full immune functionality is lost when proliferative HIV-1-specific T-cell responses undergo a variable progressive decline throughout the course of chronic infection. This appears irreparable despite administration of potent combination antiretroviral therapy, which to date is non-curative, necessitating life-long administration and the development of effective, novel, therapeutic interventions. While a sterilising cure, involving clearance of virus from the host, remains a primary aim, a functional cure may be a more feasible goal with considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection. Such an approach would enable long-term co-existence of host and virus in the absence of toxic and costly drugs. Effective immune homeostasis coupled with a balanced response appropriately targeting conserved viral antigens, in a manner that avoids hyperactivation and exhaustion, may prove to be the strongest correlate of durable viral control. This review describes novel concepts underlying full immune functionality in the context of HIV-1 infection, which may be utilised in future strategies designed to improve upon existing therapy. The aim will be to induce long-term nonprogressor or elite controller status in every infected host, through immune-mediated control of viraemia and reduction of viral reservoirs, leading to lower HIV-1 transmission rates.

  11. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...... behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme outperforms the other tariff schemes in terms of cost saving and network operation condition improving....

  12. Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-01-01

    A recent open-label pilot study (N = 15) found that two to three moderate to high doses (20 and 30 mg/70 kg) of the serotonin 2A receptor agonist, psilocybin, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, resulted in substantially higher 6-month smoking abstinence rates than are typically observed with other medications or CBT alone. To assess long-term effects of a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation program at ≥12 months after psilocybin administration. The present report describes biologically verified smoking abstinence outcomes of the previous pilot study at ≥12 months, and related data on subjective effects of psilocybin. All 15 participants completed a 12-month follow-up, and 12 (80%) returned for a long-term (≥16 months) follow-up, with a mean interval of 30 months (range = 16-57 months) between target-quit date (i.e., first psilocybin session) and long-term follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, 10 participants (67%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At long-term follow-up, nine participants (60%) were confirmed as smoking abstinent. At 12-month follow-up 13 participants (86.7%) rated their psilocybin experiences among the five most personally meaningful and spiritually significant experiences of their lives. These results suggest that in the context of a structured treatment program, psilocybin holds considerable promise in promoting long-term smoking abstinence. The present study adds to recent and historical evidence suggesting high success rates when using classic psychedelics in the treatment of addiction. Further research investigating psilocybin-facilitated treatment of substance use disorders is warranted.

  13. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Winkler, R. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m{sup -3} (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m{sup -3} (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  14. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m -3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  15. Long-term medical outcomes in survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Sklar, Charles A; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Kernan, Nancy A; Khakoo, Yasmin; Marr, Brian P; Wolden, Suzanne L; Abramson, David H; Dunkel, Ira J

    2013-04-01

    Data on long-term outcomes of survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma are lacking. The authors sought to provide the first report characterizing long-term outcomes among survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective analysis of long-term medical outcomes in 19 survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma treated between 1992 and 2009. Severity of outcomes was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. All patients received intensive multimodality therapy for their extra-ocular disease after management of their primary intra-ocular disease, including conventional chemotherapy (n = 19, 100%), radiotherapy (n = 15, 69%), and/or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (n = 17, 89%). The median follow-up was 7.8 years from diagnosis of extra-ocular retinoblastoma (range 2-17.8 years). The most common long-term non-visual outcomes were hearing loss (n = 15, 79%), short stature (n = 7, 37%), and secondary malignancies [SMN] (n = 6, 31%). Sixty-eight percent of survivors exhibited ≥2 non-visual long-term outcomes of any grade. Except short stature, which was not graded for severity, Grade 3-4 outcomes were limited to: ototoxicity (n = 8; n = 4 require hearing aids), SMNs (n = 6), and unequal limb length (n = 1). Five patients who developed SMNs carried a known RB1 mutation. SMNs developed at a median of 11.1 years after initial diagnosis; two patients died of their SMN. Long-term cardiac, pulmonary, hepatobiliary, or renal conditions were not identified in any survivors. Long-term outcomes are commonly seen in extra-ocular retinoblastoma survivors but the majority are mild-moderate in their severity. Longer comprehensive follow-up is needed to fully assess treatment-related outcomes but the information collected to date may affect management decisions for children with extra-ocular disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  17. Clinical trials with rasagiline: evidence for short-term and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderowf, Andrew; Stern, Matthew

    2006-05-23

    Rasagiline (N-propargyl-1 (R)-aminoindan) is a selective, potent irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B that possesses neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties in a variety of in vitro and in vivo animal models relevant to Parkinson's disease (PD). Several randomized controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of rasagiline as monotherapy in PD and as adjunctive therapy for patients receiving levodopa. In addition, the 1-year randomized, delayed-start analysis of the TEMPO study suggests that rasagiline may slow the rate of progression of PD. The randomized delayed-start paradigm has potential to differentiate short-term symptomatic effects from long-term effects of anti-parkinsonian agents. In the future, long-term trials to examine the potential disease-modifying effects of rasagiline, which incorporate biological markers as well as clinical endpoints, may further elucidate the role of rasagiline in the treatment of both early and advanced PD.

  18. Long-term outcome of sports injuries : results after inpatient treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R; van der Sluis, CK; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH; ten Duis, HJ

    Objective: To investigate whether sports injuries result in long-term disabilities and handicaps and to establish variables with a prognostic value for the occurrence of these long-term consequences. Materials and methods: All patients older than 17 years of age and admitted to the University

  19. Long-term trends in the abundance and community structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... increased predation by top predators. Another mechanism contributing to the long-term increase in zooplankton is the observed long-term intensification of coastal upwelling, which could enhance primary and secondary production, and increase advective input of zooplankton populations into the study area and augment ...

  20. Global long-term cost dynamics of offshore wind electricity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gernaat, David E H J; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Van Vliet, Jasper; Sullivan, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Using the IMAGE/TIMER (The Targets IMage Energy Regional) long-term integrated assessment model, this paper explores the regional and global potential of offshore wind to contribute to global electricity production. We develop long-term cost supply curve for offshore wind, a representation of the