WorldWideScience

Sample records for major highway reconstruction

  1. Major Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Major Highways for the United States. The Major Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class attribute value on each link...

  2. Handbook : guidelines for successful location and accommodation of major distribution centers on Texas highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Distribution centers (DC) have become more common in Texas over the past decade. As : major generators of large truck traffic, DCs can increase design and maintenance requirements of : Texas highway facilities. This handbook contains guidelines for u...

  3. Evolution of aerosol downwind of a major highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Gordon, M.; Makar, P.; Mihele, C.; Evans, G. J.; Jeong, C.; Wentzell, J. J.; Lu, G.; Lee, P.

    2010-12-01

    Primary aerosol from traffic emissions can have a considerable impact local and regional scale air quality. In order to assess the effect of these emissions and of future emissions scenarios, air quality models are required which utilize emissions representative of real world conditions. Often, the emissions processing systems which provide emissions input for the air quality models rely on laboratory testing of individual vehicles under non-ambient conditions. However, on the sub-grid scale particle evolution may lead to changes in the primary emitted size distribution and gas-particle partitioning that are not properly considered when the emissions are ‘instantly mixed’ within the grid volume. The affect of this modeling convention on model results is not well understood. In particular, changes in organic gas/particle partitioning may result in particle evaporation or condensation onto pre-existing aerosol. The result is a change in the particle distribution and/or an increase in the organic mass available for subsequent gas-phase oxidation. These effects may be missing from air-quality models, and a careful analysis of field data is necessary to quantify their impact. A study of the sub-grid evolution of aerosols (FEVER; Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions from Roadways) was conducted in the Toronto area in the summer of 2010. The study included mobile measurements of particle size distributions with a Fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS), aerosol composition with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), black carbon (SP2, PA, LII), VOCs (PTR-MS) and other trace gases. The mobile laboratory was used to measure the concentration gradient of the emissions at perpendicular distances from the highway as well as the physical and chemical evolution of the aerosol. Stationary sites at perpendicular distances and upwind from the highway also monitored the particle size distribution. In addition, sonic anemometers mounted on the mobile lab provided measurements of

  4. Hazardous materials incidents on major highways -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhaney, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Personnel from both the public and private sectors have been involved for many years in pre-planning for hazardous materials releases at fixed installations all over the world. As a result of several major petroleum releases during marine transportation, oil companies, private contractors and government agencies have been preparing contingency plans for oil spills and other petroleum product releases in marine settings. Various industry groups have also developed plans for railway and pipeline disasters. These response plans are of varying quality, complexity and usefulness. Organizations such as plant emergency response teams, government agencies, contract response and clean-up crews and fire departments use these plans as a basis for training and resource allocation, hopefully becoming familiar enough with them that the plans are truly useful when product releases occur. Planners and emergency responders to hazardous materials releases must overcome some of the deficiencies which have long stood in the way of efficient and effective response and mitigation efforts. Specifically they must recognize and involve all resources with which they may respond or interact during an incident. This involvement should begin with the planning stages and carry through to training and emergency response and recovery efforts. They must ensure that they adopt and utilize a common command and control system and that all potential resources know this system thoroughly and train together before the incident occurs. It is only through incorporating these two factors that may successfully combat the ever growing number of unwanted product releases occurring in the more difficult realm of transportation

  5. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  6. Heavy metals accumulation in roadside soil and vegetation along a major highway in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegborlo, R.B.; Chirgawi, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Levels of some heavy metals in soil and vegetation along a major highway in Libya were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Mn in soil and vegetation all decreased with distance from the road, indicating their relation to traffic. The concentrations of the metals also decreased with depth in the soil profile indicating that the source of the metals was aerial deposition from motor vehicles. Inter-relationships between metals in the soil were highly significant (p < 0.05) suggesting a common source for these metals. Pb and Zn were found to be deposited more than the other metals. Average values for citrus lemon leaves were generally 30 - 65 % of those for Olea europaea leaves. In most cases, between 20-40% of the metals was removable by simple washing with water, indicating that a significant, but not predominant fraction of the metals is in the form of easily-removed particulate matter. Discussion of the results of this study is based on statistical treatment of the data. (au)

  7. Roadway alignments as assets: evaluating alternatives for valuing major highway corridor rights of way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    In most highway asset management exercises, real estate used in alignments is considered to be an asset class that does not depreciate. Although the treatment of right of way assets as non-depreciable real property may be appropriate as an accounting...

  8. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)

  9. Geodetic Networks, This is udated by the use of GPS and updated weekely. It consist of interstate highways, state highways, major roads and local roads as well as private streets with address range, speed limit and elevation data associated to each segement., Published in 2007, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Networks dataset current as of 2007. This is udated by the use of GPS and updated weekely. It consist of interstate highways, state highways, major roads...

  10. Application of Non-pressure Reinforced Concrete Pipes in Modern Construction and Reconstruction of Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, B. A.; Pogorelov, S. N.; Kolmogorova, A. O.

    2017-11-01

    Modern highway construction technologies provide for the quality water discharge systems to increase facilities’ service life. Pipeline operating conditions require the use of durable and reliable materials and structures. The experience in using reinforced concrete pipes for these purposes shows their utilization efficiency. The present paper considers the experience in the use of non-pressure reinforced concrete pipes manufactured by the German company SCHLOSSER-PFEIFFER under the Ural region geological and climatic conditions. The authors analyzed the actual operation of underground pipelines and effective loads upon them. A detailed study of the mechanical properties of reinforced concrete pipes is necessary to improve their production technology and to enhance their serviceability. The use of software-based methods helped to develop a mathematical model and to estimate the strength and crack resistance of reinforced concrete pipes at different laying depths. The authors carried out their complex research of the strain-stress behaviour of reinforced concrete pipes and identified the most hazardous sections in the structure. The calculations performed were confirmed by the results of laboratory tests completed in the construction materials, goods, and structures test center. Based on the completed research, the authors formulated their recommendations to improve the design and technology of non-pressure reinforced concrete pipes.

  11. The effect of an overpass on pedestrian injuries on a major highway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bigger proportion of females (49.1%) crossed on the overpass compared to males (29.2%). More children (79.7 %) than adults (27.3%) used the overpass. The majority of pedestrians (77.9%) were worried about their safety in traffic but only 6.6% thought of the overpass as an appropriate means to avoid traffic accidents.

  12. Quality of life before reconstructive breast surgery: A preoperative comparison of patients with immediate, delayed, and major revision reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosson, Gedge D; Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Manahan, Michele A; Basdag, Basak; Gilson, Marta M; Pusic, Andrea L

    2013-05-01

    Women undergo breast reconstruction at different time-points in their cancer care; knowing patients' preoperative quality of life (QoL) is critical in the overall care of the patient with breast cancer. Our objective was to describe presurgical QoL among women undergoing immediate, delayed, or major revision breast reconstructive surgery at our institution. From March 2008 to February 2009, we administered preoperative BREAST-Q questionnaires to women who presented to our institution for breast reconstruction. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare patient cohorts across multiple QoL domains including body image, physical well-being, psychosocial well-being, and sexual well-being. Of the 231 patients who presented for preoperative consultation, 176 returned the questionnaire (response rate 76%; 117 from the immediate, 21 from the delayed, and 32 from the major revision reconstruction groups, plus 6 mixed or unknown). The three groups differed significantly (P < 0.05) across four of the six domains: body image (satisfaction with breasts), psychosocial well-being, sexual well-being, and physical well-being of the chest and upper body. The immediate reconstruction group had higher (better) scores than the delayed reconstruction group, which had higher (better) scores than the major revision group. These data suggest that women presenting for breast reconstruction at different stages of reconstruction have different baseline QoL. Such data may help us better understand patient selection, education, and expectations, and may lead to improved patient-surgeon communication. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reconstruction of major bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Bardram, Linda; Wettergren, André

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) after cholecystectomy remains a serious complication with major implications for patient outcome. For most major BDIs, the recommended method of repair is a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). We conducted a retrospective review aiming to examine the perioperative and the long...

  14. Major League pitching workload after primary ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction and risk for revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Marshall, Nathan E; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Khalil, Lafi; Tibone, James E; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2017-02-01

    Literature has attempted to correlate pitching workload with risk of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury; however, limited data are available in evaluating workload and its relationship with the need for revision reconstruction in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We identified 29 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction and compared them with 121 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared for the seasons after returning from primary reconstruction and for the last season pitched before undergoing revision surgery. The difference in workload between pitchers who did and did not require revision reconstruction was not statistically significant in games pitched, innings pitched, and MLB-only pitch counts. The one significant difference in workload was in total pitch counts (combined MLB and minor league), with the pitchers who required revision surgery pitching less than those who did not (primary: 1413.6 pitches vs. revision: 959.0 pitches, P = .04). In addition, pitchers who required revision surgery underwent primary reconstruction at an early age (22.9 years vs. 27.3 years, P risk for injury after primary UCL reconstruction. However, correlations of risk may be younger age and less MLB experience at the time of the primary reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pr...

  16. The effects of medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction on Major League pitching performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Steffes, Matthew J; Zhuo, David; Bey, Michael J; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2014-11-01

    Medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) reconstruction is commonly performed on Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Previous studies have reported that most pitchers return to presurgical statistical performance levels after MUCL reconstruction. Pitching performance data--specifically, earned run average (ERA), walks and hits per inning pitched (WHIP), winning percentage, and innings pitched--were acquired for 168 MLB pitchers who had undergone MUCL reconstruction. These data were averaged over the 3 years before surgery and the 3 years after surgery and also acquired from 178 age-matched, uninjured MLB pitchers. Of the pitchers who had MUCL reconstruction surgery, 87% returned to MLB pitching. However, compared with presurgical data, pitching performance declined in terms of ERA (P = .001), WHIP (P = .011), and innings pitched (P = .026). Pitching performance also declined in the season before the surgery compared with previous years (ERA, P = .014; WHIP, P = .036; innings pitched, P risk factor for requiring surgery. In addition, there is an increased risk of MUCL reconstruction for pitchers who enter the major leagues at a younger age. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Reliability of Pectorals Major Myocutaneous Flap in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Marakby, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The pectorals major myocutaneous pedicle flap (PMMPF) has been considered to be the workhorse of pedicled flaps in head and neck reconstruction. Several series of PMMPF procedures in head and neck reconstruction have been reported in the literature. Even with the worldwide use of free flaps, the flap is still considered the mainstay head and neck reconstructive procedures in many centers. However, the flap is usually associated with a high incidence of complications in addition 10 its large bulk compared with the free fasciocutaneous flaps. Also the final functional and the aesthetic results are not comparable to free flaps head and neck reconstruction. Aim of the Study: The aim of the study is to evaluate the reliability of such flap in selected cases of head and neck reconstruction. The indications, technique, complications and the functional as well as the aesthetic results of the flap utilization were evaluated. Patients and Methods: Between May 2002 and May 2005 a 26 consecutive head and neck reconstruction procedures using the PMMPF were carried out on 25 patients at the Department of Surgery, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. The indications for the flap use were defects due to resection of stage II-IV cancer in the head and neck region. The site, stage of the disease and the presence or absence of distant metastasis were assessed. Also preoperative assessment included the fitness of patients for such an extensive procedure. The total operative time, the need for blood transfusion, the postoperative complications, were all documented. The length of hospital stay, the follow-up of patients as well as the incidence of local recurrence underneath the flap were all evaluated. Results: Pectorals major myocutaneous pedicled flap reconstructions were used to reconstruct defects in the following sites: oral cavity (LO patients); oropharynx/hypopharynx, (5 patients); and neck or face (10 patients). Of the 26 PMMPF reconstructions. 22 flaps were

  18. The Boomerang-shaped Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of Circular Defect of Cervical Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Shuchi; Arikawa, Masaki; Miyamoto, Shimpei

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with a recurrence of oral cancer involving a cervical lymph node. The patient's postexcision cervical skin defect was nearly circular in shape, and the size was about 12 cm in diameter. The defect was successfully reconstructed with a boomerang-shaped pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap whose skin paddle included multiple intercostal perforators of the internal mammary vessels. This flap design is effective for reconstructing an extensive neck skin defect and enables primary closure of the donor site with minimal deformity.

  19. The Boomerang-shaped Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of Circular Defect of Cervical Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Azuma, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. We report on a patient with a recurrence of oral cancer involving a cervical lymph node. The patient’s postexcision cervical skin defect was nearly circular in shape, and the size was about 12 cm in diameter. The defect was successfully reconstructed with a boomerang-shaped pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap whose skin paddle included multiple intercostal perforators of the internal mammary vessels. This flap design is effective for reconstructing an extensive neck skin defect and enables primary closure of the donor site with minimal deformity.

  20. Multi-century cool- and warm-season rainfall reconstructions for Australia's major climatic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Mandy; Henley, Benjamin J.; Karoly, David J.; Allen, Kathryn J.; Baker, Patrick J.

    2017-11-01

    Australian seasonal rainfall is strongly affected by large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate influences. In this study, we exploit the links between these precipitation influences, regional rainfall variations, and palaeoclimate proxies in the region to reconstruct Australian regional rainfall between four and eight centuries into the past. We use an extensive network of palaeoclimate records from the Southern Hemisphere to reconstruct cool (April-September) and warm (October-March) season rainfall in eight natural resource management (NRM) regions spanning the Australian continent. Our bi-seasonal rainfall reconstruction aligns well with independent early documentary sources and existing reconstructions. Critically, this reconstruction allows us, for the first time, to place recent observations at a bi-seasonal temporal resolution into a pre-instrumental context, across the entire continent of Australia. We find that recent 30- and 50-year trends towards wetter conditions in tropical northern Australia are highly unusual in the multi-century context of our reconstruction. Recent cool-season drying trends in parts of southern Australia are very unusual, although not unprecedented, across the multi-century context. We also use our reconstruction to investigate the spatial and temporal extent of historical drought events. Our reconstruction reveals that the spatial extent and duration of the Millennium Drought (1997-2009) appears either very much below average or unprecedented in southern Australia over at least the last 400 years. Our reconstruction identifies a number of severe droughts over the past several centuries that vary widely in their spatial footprint, highlighting the high degree of diversity in historical droughts across the Australian continent. We document distinct characteristics of major droughts in terms of their spatial extent, duration, intensity, and seasonality. Compared to the three largest droughts in the instrumental period (Federation Drought

  1. Multi-century cool- and warm-season rainfall reconstructions for Australia's major climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Freund

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian seasonal rainfall is strongly affected by large-scale ocean–atmosphere climate influences. In this study, we exploit the links between these precipitation influences, regional rainfall variations, and palaeoclimate proxies in the region to reconstruct Australian regional rainfall between four and eight centuries into the past. We use an extensive network of palaeoclimate records from the Southern Hemisphere to reconstruct cool (April–September and warm (October–March season rainfall in eight natural resource management (NRM regions spanning the Australian continent. Our bi-seasonal rainfall reconstruction aligns well with independent early documentary sources and existing reconstructions. Critically, this reconstruction allows us, for the first time, to place recent observations at a bi-seasonal temporal resolution into a pre-instrumental context, across the entire continent of Australia. We find that recent 30- and 50-year trends towards wetter conditions in tropical northern Australia are highly unusual in the multi-century context of our reconstruction. Recent cool-season drying trends in parts of southern Australia are very unusual, although not unprecedented, across the multi-century context. We also use our reconstruction to investigate the spatial and temporal extent of historical drought events. Our reconstruction reveals that the spatial extent and duration of the Millennium Drought (1997–2009 appears either very much below average or unprecedented in southern Australia over at least the last 400 years. Our reconstruction identifies a number of severe droughts over the past several centuries that vary widely in their spatial footprint, highlighting the high degree of diversity in historical droughts across the Australian continent. We document distinct characteristics of major droughts in terms of their spatial extent, duration, intensity, and seasonality. Compared to the three largest droughts in the instrumental

  2. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning : efforts to improve transportation efficiency, safety and sustainability on critical : highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor (CHC) program. : It is i...

  3. Insights into the chemical partitioning of trace metals in roadside and off-road agricultural soils along two major highways in Attica's region, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsou, Fotini; Sungur, Ali; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    We report in this study the magnetic properties and partitioning patterns of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) in roadside and off-road (>200m distance from the road edge) agricultural soils collected along two major highways in Greece. Sequential extractions revealed that the examined trace metals for the entire data set were predominantly found in the residual fraction, averaging 37% for Cd up to 80% for Cu. Due to the strong influence of lithogenic factors, trace metal pseudototal contents of the roadside soils did not differ significantly to those of the off-road soils. Magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility determinations showed a magnetic enhancement of soils; however, it was primarily related to geogenic factors and not to traffic-derived magnetic particles. These results highlight that in areas characterized by strong geogenic backgrounds, neither pseudototal trace metal contents nor magnetic properties determinations effectively capture traffic-related contamination of topsoils. The vehicular emission signal was traced by the increased acid-soluble and reducible trace metal contents of the roadside soils compared to their off-road counterparts. In the case of Cu and Zn, changes in the partitioning patterns were also observed between the roadside and off-road soils. Environmental risks associated with agricultural lands extending at the margins of the studied highways may arise from the elevated Ni contents (both pseudototal and potentially mobile), and future studies should investigate Ni levels in the edible parts of plants grown on these agricultural soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of major depressive disorder in patients with modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Celina Rueda López

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Antecedents: Major depressive disorder (MDD is a psychiatric dysfunction that appears with relative frequency in the women with breast cancer diagnosis or which they are in treatment forthe same one. Nevertheless, specific data don’t exist in Colombia about the prevalence of depression in the patients with cancer who suffer from subjected to modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MDD in resident patients in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga with modified radical mastectomy without reconstruction. Method: It is a descriptive transversal study; it included women older than 18 years. We applied the SCID I. A semi structured interview for MDD based on approaches of the DSM-IV. Results: 80 women were evaluated with ages among the 30-85 years, with a 58.1 year-old average, SD13.79; the prevalence was of 42.5%, (95%CI 31.68 – 53.30 for MDD. The MDD was lower than in those women who had social support in 41.2% (PR 2.41; 95%CI 1.56-3.73 and was higher than in women who had problems due to the surgery in 88.2% (PR 3.41;95%CI 1.35- 8.64, we didn’t find association with age, the grade ofstudy, the marital status, the socioeconomic level, pain scale, the occupation and the time of the surgery. Conclusion: In this study TDM prevalence was higher than similar ones with general population; TDM was related directly with the problems derived from surgery and inversely with the social support.

  5. Practical data collection : establishing methods and procedures for measuring water clarity and turbidity of storm water run-off from active major highway construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-12

    In anticipation of regulation involving numeric turbidity limit at highway construction sites, research was : done into the most appropriate, affordable methods for surface water monitoring. Measuring sediment : concentration in streams may be conduc...

  6. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children’s physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design. Methods Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer at one year follow up. Pupils’ impressions of the new playground were qualitatively assessed post construction. Results A total of 347 pupils (mean age = 8 years, 55% boys; 36% Caucasian were recruited into the study at baseline; 303 provided valid baseline Actigraph data. Of those, 231 (76% completed follow-up (n = 169 intervention; n = 62 control and 77.4% of the sample recorded at least 4 days of Actigraph wear. In mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, ratio activity or sedentary/wear time at baseline, wear time at follow up, and school, no differences were observed in total moderate – vigorous activity (B = −1.4, 95% CI, −7.1, 4.2 min/d, light activity (B = 4.1, 95% CI, −17.9, 26.1, or sedentary time (B = −3.8, 95% CI, −29.2, 21.6 min/d between groups. There were significant age interactions for sedentary (p = 0.002 and light intensity physical activity (p = 0.008. We observed significant reductions in total sedentary (−28.0, 95% CI, −1.9, −54.1 min/d, p = 0.037 and increases in total light intensity activity (24.6, 95% CI, 0.3, 48.9 min/d, p = 0.047 for children aged under 9 yrs. old in the intervention. Conclusion Major playground reconstruction had limited effects on physical activity, but reduced sedentary time was observed in younger children. Qualitative data suggested that the children enjoyed the new

  7. Effect of a major highway on the spatial and temporal variation in the structure and diversity of the avifauna of a tropical premontane rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Bermúdez, Esteban

    2016-12-01

    Roads immersed in conservation areas will increase in number, size, and traffic over the next decade, and thus, understanding their effects on forest-dependent wildlife is crucial for improving current management practices and reducing the negative impacts of roads on sensitive species. We examined the influence of route 32 (a.k.a. Guápiles Highway) on temporal and spatial changes in the structure of the avifauna of Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica, a site crossed by this road along 25 km. The highway connects the capital city of San José with the Harbor of Limón in the Caribbean Sea (142 km). Although the road is narrow (12 m in width and comprised by two lanes along most of the route) it services over 1.5 million motor vehicles per year, 12 % are heavy trucks and trailers. We expected the highway to divide the avifauna, and thus to observe significant differences in species structure on opposite sides of the road. We described changes in bird diversity between wet and dry seasons at Las Palmas and Ceibo trails located on opposite sides of the highway (14 point counts per trail), and evaluated how abundance and diversity varied with road distance. Censuses took place during wet and dry seasons from 2002 to 2005. We listed 245 species and 6 035 observations during the 4-yr survey. Rare species dominated the avifauna (65 % of species forests near the road. This highway will expand outside the National Park (from 2 to 4 lanes along 107 km from Río Frío to Limón) in the next years, which will increase traffic volume and road impacts within the Park. Roads are increasing across highly diverse tropical areas justifying the need for management practices based on the identification of sensitive groups.

  8. Omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defect complex, multiple major reconstructive surgeries needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Neel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available OEIS complex is a rare combination of serious birth defects including omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects. The aim of managements has shifted from merely providing survival to improve patient outcomes and quality of life with higher level of physical and social independence. Multiple complicated reconstructive surgeries always needed for achieving the goals of treatment. In this case report, we aimed to present our surgical approach for this rare abnormality to achieve functionally and socially acceptable outcome.

  9. Enhanced Morbidity of Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap Used for Salvage after Previously Failed Oncological Treatment and Unsuccessful Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Maria Ribeiro Salles Vanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The reconstruction of complex cervicofacial defects arising from surgical treatment for cancer is a real challenge for head and neck surgeons, especially in salvage reconstruction surgery and/or failed previous reconstruction. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF has been widely used in these specific situations due to its reliability and low rate of failure or complications. Objectives. Identify factors that determine complications and influence the final outcome of the reconstructions with PMMF in salvage cancer surgery or in salvage reconstruction. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate a sample including 17 surgical patients treated over a period of ten years that met the inclusion criteria. Results. Reconstruction was successful in 13 cases (76.5%, with two cases of partial flap loss and no case of total loss. Complications occurred in 13 cases (76.5% and were specifically related to the flap in nine instances (52.9%. An association was identified between the development of major complications and reconstruction of the hypopharynx (=0.013 as well as in patients submitted to surgery in association with radiation therapy as a previous cancer treatment (=0.002. The former condition is also associated with major reconstruction failure (=0.018. An even lower incidence of major complications was noted in patients under the age of 53 (=0.044. Conclusion. Older patients, with hypopharyngeal defects and submitted to previous surgery plus radiation therapy, presented a higher risk of complications and reconstruction failure with PMMF.

  10. Combined duodenal and pancreatic major trauma in high risk patients: can a partial reconstruction be safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, A; Li Destri, G; Mannino, M; Arcerito, M C; Ardiri, A; Politi, A; Bertino, G; Di Carlo, I

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic trauma is an uncommon injury, occurring in only about 0.2% of blunt abdominal injuries, while duodenal injuries represent approximately 4% of all blunt abdominal injuries. When trauma of the pancreas and duodenum do not permit reparation, pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is mandatory. In the reconstructive phase, the use of ductal ligation as an alternative to standard pancreaticojejunostomy has been reported by some authors. We report a case of polytrauma with pancreatic and duodenal injury in which the initial diagnosis failed to recognize the catastrophic duodenal and pancreatic situation. The patient was submitted for PD and the pancreatic stump was abandoned in the abdominal cavity after main pancreatic ductal ligation. This technique can minimize the morbidity and mortality of PD in patients with other organs or apparatus involved severely and extensively in trauma.

  11. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  12. The Evolution of the Cup-Cage Technique for Major Acetabular Defects: Full and Half Cup-Cage Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculco, Peter K; Ledford, Cameron K; Hanssen, Arlen D; Abdel, Matthew P; Lewallen, David G

    2017-07-05

    Complex acetabular reconstruction for major bone loss can require advanced methods such as the use of a cup-cage construct. The purpose of this study was to review outcomes after the initial development of the cup-cage technique and the subsequent evolution to the use of a half cup-cage construct. We performed a retrospective, single-center review of 57 patients treated with cup-cage reconstruction for major acetabular bone loss. All patients had major acetabular defects graded as Paprosky Type 2B through 3B, with 34 (60%) having an associated pelvic discontinuity. Thirty patients received a full cup-cage construct and 27, a half cup-cage construct. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Both the full and half cup-cage cohorts demonstrated significantly improved Harris hip score (HHS) values, from 36 to 72 at a minimum of 2 years of follow-up (p cup-cage constructs and 6 (22%) of the half cup-cage constructs. One patient with a full cup-cage construct underwent re-revision of the acetabular component for progressive migration and aseptic loosening. Short-term survivorship free from re-revision for any cause or reoperation was 89% (83% and 96% for full and half cup-cage cohorts, respectively). Both full and half cup-cage constructs demonstrated successful clinical outcomes and survivorship in the treatment of major acetabular defects and pelvic discontinuity. Each method is utilized on the basis of individual intraoperative findings, including the extent and pattern of bone loss, the quality and location of host bone remaining after preparation, and the presence of pelvic discontinuity. Longer-term follow-up is required to understand the durability of these constructs in treating major acetabular defects and pelvic discontinuity. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Reconstructing tuberculosis services after major conflict: experiences and lessons learned in East Timor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Martins

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in developing countries. Following the disruption to health services in East Timor due to violent political conflict in 1999, the National Tuberculosis Control Program was established, with a local non-government organisation as the lead agency. Within a few months, the TB program was operational in all districts. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the East Timor TB program as a case study, we have examined the enabling factors for the implementation of this type of communicable disease control program in a post-conflict setting. Stakeholder analysis was undertaken, and semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2003 with 24 key local and international stakeholders. Coordination, cooperation, and collaboration were identified as major contributors to the success of the TB program. The existing local structure and experience of the local non-government organisation, the commitment among local personnel and international advisors to establishing an effective program, and the willingness of international advisers and local counterparts to be flexible in their approach were also important factors. This success was achieved despite major impediments, including mass population displacement, lack of infrastructure, and the competing interests of organisations working in the health sector. CONCLUSIONS: Five years after the conflict, the TB program continues to operate in all districts with high notification rates, although the lack of a feeling of ownership by government health workers remains a challenge. Lessons learned in East Timor may be applicable to other post-conflict settings where TB is highly prevalent, and may have relevance to other disease control programs.

  14. Breast cancer in the lower jaw after reconstructive surgery with a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestle-Kraemling C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For head and neck as well as for oromaxillofacial surgery, the use of the pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC flap is a standard reconstructive technique after radical surgery for cancers in this region. We report to our knowledge for the first development of breast cancer in the PMMC flap in a 79 year old patient, who had undergone several operations in the past for recurring squamous cell carcinoma of the jaw. The occurrence of a secondary malignancy within the donor tissue after flap transfer is rare, but especially in the case of transferred breast tissue and the currently high incidence of breast cancer theoretically possible. Therefore preoperative screening mammography seems advisable to exclude a preexisting breast cancer in female patients undergoing such reconstruction surgery. Therapy for breast cancer under these circumstances is individual and consists of radical tumor resection followed by radiation if applicable and a standard systemic therapeutic regimen on the background of the patients individual prognosis due to the primary cancer.

  15. Geotechnical considerations of perennial failures of a highway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The causes of frequent failures of the Kumasi – Accra highway section at Wiwiso have been investigated to offer remedial measures on future reconstruction works. The study of the highway section at Wiwiso has revea-led that pavements can undergo considerable distress when seepage control considerations are partially ...

  16. Reconstructing an ancestral mammalian immune supercomplex from a marsupial major histocompatibility complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Belov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The first sequenced marsupial genome promises to reveal unparalleled insights into mammalian evolution. We have used the Monodelphis domestica (gray short-tailed opossum sequence to construct the first map of a marsupial major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The MHC is the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and is critical to immunity and reproductive success. The marsupial MHC bridges the phylogenetic gap between the complex MHC of eutherian mammals and the minimal essential MHC of birds. Here we show that the opossum MHC is gene dense and complex, as in humans, but shares more organizational features with non-mammals. The Class I genes have amplified within the Class II region, resulting in a unique Class I/II region. We present a model of the organization of the MHC in ancestral mammals and its elaboration during mammalian evolution. The opossum genome, together with other extant genomes, reveals the existence of an ancestral "immune supercomplex" that contained genes of both types of natural killer receptors together with antigen processing genes and MHC genes.

  17. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  18. Role of Pectoralis Major Myocutanuos Flap in Salvage Laryngeal Surgery for Prophylaxis of Pharyngocutaneuos Fistula and Reconstruction of Skin Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebeed, A.; Hussein, H.A.; Saber, T.Kh.; Zohairy, M.A.; Lotayef, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to minimize the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) following salvage laryngeal surgery using vascularized pedicle pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) for enhancing wound healing, rapid intake of oral feeding, reconstruction of desqauamated irradiated skin, achieving short hospital stay and protection against catastrophic blow out mortality. Patients and Methods: This case series study of sixteen patients carried out from May 2005 to July 2009, at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University where we applied PMMC flap in salvage laryngeal surgery for those with high risk to develop complications: Patients of poor general conditions (anemia, hypoproteinaemia, diabetics) and/or poor local conditions for healing (irradiated neck, extensive local or nodal recurrence with skin desquamation, infiltration or tumor fungation which need extensive resection). Five cases had been treated with primary cobalt radiotherapy laryngeal field only and 4 cases laryngeal field with draining neck nodes, while photon therapy was given in 4 cases as laryngeal field only and 3 cases laryngeal field with draining neck nodes. All cases were squamous cell carcinoma (13 cases grade 2, 2 cases grade 3 and one case grade 1) proved before radiotherapy. Supraglottic recurrence was detected in 7 cases (43.75%) and glottis in 9 cases (56.25%). Following salvage surgery, 11 cases were staged T3 NO, Nl and N2, 3 cases were T2 NO or Nl and 2 cases were T4 N2 with skin infiltration. Tracheostomy was there in 4 cases. Results: The study included fifteen males (93.75%) and one female (6.25%), age was between 38-73 years (mean=55.5 years). Five cases were operated on as total laryngectomy with excision of skin flaps + PMMC flap, 4 cases as total laryngectomy with skin flap excision + functional block neck dissection + PMMC flap and 7 cases as total laryngectomy -f block neck dissection with skin, excision (modified radical in 4 cases and radical in 3 cases

  19. Highway Electrification And Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Shladover, Steven E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses how the California Department of Transportation and the California PATH Program have made efforts to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of highway electrification and automation technologies. In addition to describing how the work was conducted, the report also describes the findings on highway electrification and highway automation, with experimental results, design study results, and a region-wide application impacts study for Los Angeles.

  20. Geometric Design of Highways in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Baričević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the criteria, standards, and engineeringprocedures used to design principal elements of the highwayalignment, highway cross sections, and adjacent roadside environment.Development of a comprehensive highway design focuseson the establishment of travel lane configuration, alignmentlocation, and all dimensions related to the highway crosssection. A three-dimensional physical location is determinedthrough calculation of a horizontal and vertical alignment ofthe highway centerline, based on a variety of operational considerations.The results of these activities are refe"ed to as thegeometric design and represent all the visible features of a highwayor street. The first and major portion of the paper deals withthe design of motor-vehicle facilities. Specific design elementsare described and discussed with respect to design methodology.

  1. Canada's gas taxes = highway robbery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This report was prepared for the second annual 'gas honesty day' (May 18, 2000) in an effort to draw attention to the frustration of Canadian taxpayers with gasoline retailers and the petroleum industry for the inordinately and unjustifiably high prices for gasoline at the pump. The report points out that the public outcry is, in fact, misdirected since the largest profiteers at the pumps, the federal government, remains largely unscathed. It is alleged in the report that gas taxes are tantamount to highway robbery. Ostensibly collected for road construction and maintenance, of the almost $ 5 billion collected in 1999, only a paltry $ 194 million was returned to the provinces for roadway and highway spending. The 10-year average of federal returns to the the provinces from tax on gasoline is a meager 4.7 per cent, which fell even further to 4.1 per cent in 1998-1999. Gasoline tax revenues continue to climb, while government commitment to real roadway and highway spending continues to decline. This document attempts to shed some light on the pricing structure for gasoline. Without defending or explaining the non-tax portion of the pump price charged by Canada's oil companies, which is a task for the oil companies to undertake, the document makes a concerted effort to raise public awareness and focus public attention on government's involvement, namely that gas taxes represent on average about 50 per cent of the pump price and that the majority of the taxes collected are not put back into road and highway improvements. The Canadian Taxpayers Federation, authors of this report, expect that by focusing debate on the issue of gasoline taxes a broad support for a lowering of the overall tax burden on motorists will result. Among other things, the CTF advocates reduction of federal and provincial fuel taxes to levels commensurate with highway funding; dedication of fuel tax revenues to highway construction and maintenance; elimination of the sales and goods

  2. Mortality among California highway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Beaumont, J; Singleton, J

    1988-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were computed for a population of highway workers. Hazards of highway maintenance work include exposure to solvents, herbicides, asphalt and welding fumes, diesel and auto exhaust, asbestos, abrasive dusts, hazardous material spills, and moving motor vehicles. Underlying cause of death was obtained for 1,570 workers who separated from the California Department of Transportation between 1970 and 1983, and who died in California between 1970 and 1983 (inclusive). Among 1,260 white males, the major findings were statistically significant excesses of cancers of digestive organs (PMR = 128), skin (PMR = 218), lymphopoietic cancer (PMR = 157), benign neoplasms (PMR = 343), motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 141), and suicide (PMR = 154). Black males (N = 66) experienced nonsignificant excesses of cancer of the digestive organs (PMR = 191) and arteriosclerotic heart disease (PMR = 143). Among 168 white females, deaths from lung cancer (PMR = 189) and suicide (PMR = 215) were elevated. White male retirees, a subgroup with 5 or more years of service, experienced excess mortality due to cancers of the colon (PMR = 245), skin (PMR = 738), brain (PMR = 556), and lymphosarcomas and reticulosarcomas (PMR = 514). Deaths from external causes (PMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (PMR = 229) were elevated among white males with a last job in landscape maintenance. White males whose last job was highway maintenance experienced a deficit in mortality from circulatory diseases (PMR = 83) and excess mortality from emphysema (PMR = 250) and motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 196). Further epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies are needed to confirm the apparent excess mortality and to quantify occupational and nonoccupational exposures. However, reduction of recognized hazards among highway maintenance workers is a prudent precautionary measure.

  3. Maine highway safety plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  4. Mandibular Reconstruction Using Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap and Titanium Plates after Ablative Surgery for Locally Advanced Tumors of the Oral Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zohairy, M.A.F.; Mostafa, A.; Amin, A.; Abd El-Fattah, H.; Khalifa, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    The most common indication for mandible resection remains ablative surgery for cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The use of vascularized bone grafts has become state-of-the-art for mandibular reconstruction. However, the high cost of such surgery may not be justified in patients with advanced disease and poor prognosis, or poor performance status. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of mandibular reconstruction using titanium plates covered with a pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap after ablative surgery for locally advanced tumors of the oral cavity. Patients and methods: The study involves a total of 33 patients with locally advanced tumors of the oral cavity that were treated over 5 year period (2003-2008) at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt. Mandibular resections were performed for treatment of patients with primary oral cavity tumors invading the mandible followed by mandibular reconstruction using titanium plates covered with a pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. Results: Of 33 patients, 25 (75.75%) were males and 8 (24.25%) were females. The age ranged from 42 to 70 years (mean 52.3±5.9 years). Tongue cancer was the most common tumor, it affects 17 (51.5%) of the patients, 24 patients received post operative radiation therapy. The flap survival was 100%; partial necrosis of the flap skin was observed in 3 patients. One patient developed wound dehiscence. Oro-cutaneous fistula occurred in 5 patients that closed spontaneously. There were 4 cases of plate failure, one patient experienced plate fracture at 13 months after reconstruction. Three patients developed external plate exposure. All patients achieved good functional and acceptable aesthetic outcome. The overall cause-specific cumulative survival was 72.7% at one year and 56.1% at two years. Conclusions: Titanium plate and pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap is a safe and reliable option for composite mandibular defects

  5. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0–15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15–60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. - Highlights: ► Pb concentrations in highway runoff ranged from 0.5 to 752 mg/L. ► 78% of total lead concentration in highway runoff was in particulate form. ► Pb deposited on highway sites was mostly within 0 to 15 cm of soil column. ► Pb concentration in highway runoff and top soil was strongly correlated. ► Current Pb concentration in highway runoff is up to 11 times lower than late 1980s. - Most Pb deposited on soil near highways is within the top 15 cm. This Pb is the major sources of Pb concentration in highway runoff that has substantially been reduced since lead phase-out era.

  6. The green highway forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  7. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH) is such a software control s...

  8. Cost estimate modeling of transportation management plans for highway projects : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Highway rehabilitation and reconstruction projects frequently cause road congestion and increase safety concerns while limiting access for road users. State Transportation Agencies (STAs) are challenged to find safer and more efficient ways to renew ...

  9. Prominent ears: the effect of reconstructive surgery on self-esteem and social interaction in children with a minor defect compared to children with a major orthopedic defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Birgitta Johansson; Hedlund, Anders; Andersson, Gerhard; Wahlsten, Viveka Sundelin

    2008-11-01

    In a prospective study of patients with prominent ears, the effect of reconstructive surgery on self-esteem and social interaction was examined 1 year after surgery. Of 42 patients with prominent ears aged 7 to 15 years, 21 were matched with a comparison group of orthopedic patients (leg lengthening) and a control group of schoolchildren. Psychological measures evaluated self-esteem, depression, anxiety, cognition, parents' ratings of child behavior and symptoms, and parent anxiety. Semistructured interviews with the child and parents were also conducted. The motivation to be operated on was pain, teasing, and feelings of being different. The satisfaction rate with the result of reconstructive surgery was high. The psychological measures of the prominent ears group had results close to those of the control group, although the leg lengthening group had lower self-esteem and higher depression and anxiety scores. With few exceptions, all patients had scores within the normal range on self-rating scales. Parents reported less activity at leisure time in both patient groups than in the control group. After surgery, parents reported improved behavior on the Child Behavior Checklist total problem score. Patients with minor defects had fewer self-reported psychological and behavior problems than the major defect group. Interestingly, prominent ears patients also had low activity levels. Reconstructive surgery had no adverse effect on the prominent ears patients in this interim study but rather resulted in improved well-being. It is important to investigate further the effect of reconstructive surgery on children's self-esteem and social interaction.

  10. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  11. Resection and reconstruction of giant cervical metastatic cancer using a pectoralis major muscular flap transfer: A prospective study of 16 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Liu, Folin; Lan, Xiaolin; Huang, Jing; Luo, Keqing; Li, Shaojin

    2015-07-01

    If not promptly or properly treated, certain cervical metastatic cancers that develop from unknown primary tumors may rapidly grow into giant tumors that can invade the blood vessels, muscle and skin. The present study examined the feasibility and efficacy of radical neck dissection combined with reconstruction using the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for the treatment of giant cervical metastatic cancers that have developed from unknown primary tumors and have invaded the skin. A total of 16 patients who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to radical neck dissection to adequately resect invaded skin, and the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap was used to repair the large skin defect created in the cervical region. Following the surgery, the patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap survived in all 16 patients, with no cases of flap necrosis. In addition, no post-operative lymphedema, paresthesia or dysfunction of an upper extremity occurred due to the cutting of a pectoralis major muscle. In 9 cases, patients were satisfied with their post-operative shoulder movement at the donor site; in the remaining 7 cases, patients felt greater weakness in this region following surgery relative to prior to surgery. The 14 male patients were generally satisfied with the post-operative appearance of the donor region, whereas the 2 female patients were dissatisfied with the appearance of this region. Follow-up for 6-53 months after the patients were discharged following surgery and chemotherapy revealed that the recurrence of cervical tumors in 6 cases. Overall, radical neck dissection combined with the use of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for reconstruction is a feasible approach for the treatment of giant cervical metastatic cancers that have developed from unknown primary tumors and have invaded the skin. Post-operative concurrent chemoradiotherapy should be administered to improve the local control rate and

  12. Missouri Highway Safety Manual Recalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a national manual for analyzing the highway safety of various facilities, including rural roads, urban arterials, freeways, and intersections. The HSM was first published in 2010, and a 2014 supplement addressed fre...

  13. DOT Official County Highway Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The County Highway Map theme is a scanned and rectified version of the original MnDOT County Highway Map Series. The cultural features on some of these maps may be...

  14. BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima

    2006-11-01

    Brazil's BR-319 Highway linked Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, to Porto Velho, Rondônia, until it became impassable in 1988. Now it is proposed for reconstruction and paving, which would facilitate migration from the "Arc of Deforestation" in the southern part of the Amazon region to new frontiers farther north. The purpose of the highway, which is to facilitate transport to São Paulo of products from factories in the Manaus Free Trade Zone, would be better served by sending the containers by ship to the port of Santos. The lack of a land connection to Manaus currently represents a significant barrier to migration to central and northern Amazonia. Discourse regarding the highway systematically overestimates the highway's benefits and underestimates its impacts. A variety of changes would be needed prior to paving the highway if these potential impacts are to be attenuated. These include zoning, reserve creation, and increased governance in various forms, including deforestation licensing and control programs. More fundamental changes are also needed, especially the abandonment of the long-standing tradition in Brazil of granting squatters' rights to those who invade public land. Organizing Amazonian occupation in such a way that road construction and improvement cease to lead to explosive and uncontrolled deforestation should be a prerequisite for approval of the BR-319 and other road projects for which major impacts are expected. These projects could provide the impetus that is needed to achieve the transition away from appropriation of public land by both small squatters and by grileiros (large-scale illegal claimants). A delay in reconstructing the highway is advisable until appropriate changes can be effected.

  15. [BIPADDLED SPLIT PECTORALIS MAJOR MYOCUTANEOUS FLAPS FOR IMMEDIATE RECONSTRUCTION OF ORAL MUCOSAL DEFECTS AND NECK DEFECTS AFTER RESECTION OF RECURRENT ORAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Jiang, Canhua; Li, Ning; Gao, Zhengyang; Chen, Lichun; Wu, Xiaoshan; Chen, Xinqun; Jian, Xinchun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for immediate reconstruction of oral mucosal defects and neck defects after resection of recurrent oral cancer. Six patients with oral mucosal defects combined with neck defects after recurrent oral cancer resection were treated with bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap between September 2013 and September 2014. There were 5 males and 1 female with an average age of 54.7 years (range, 45-62 years), including 4 cases of recurrent tongue cancer, 1 case of recurrent mandibular gingival cancer, and 1 case of mouth floor carcinoma. All patients underwent local recurrence at 8 to 14 months after first operation, with no distant metastasis. The defects of the intraoral mucosa was 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 3.5 cm and the defect of the neck skin was 5.5 cm x 3.5 cm to 7.5 cm x 5.0 cm. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (14.0 cm x 3.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 5.5 cm) were incised at the level of the 3rd to the 4th rib, and then split down along the muscle fiber till about 2 cm away from the thoracoacromial vessels, forming 2 independent skin paddles with 1-2 branch vessels to the pedicles of the distal ones. The distal skin paddles were used for oral reconstruction while the proximal paddles for repair of neck defects. The chest donor sites were sutured directly. Cervical haematoma and infection happened in 1 patient respectively after operation, and were cured after symptomatic treatment. All 6 split pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps with 12 skin paddles completely survived. All patients were followed up 6 to 18 months (mean, 11 months). One patient died of pulmonary metastasis at 8 months after operation and the other 5 survived without relapse or metastasis during follow-up. The intraoral paddles showed good shape with satisfactory speech function and swallowing recovery. The paddles also healed perfectly on the neck with flat outlooks, and all patients obtained full

  16. Pectoralis Major Tear with Retracted Tendon: How to Fill the Gap? Reconstruction with Hamstring Autograft and Fixation with an Interference Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Baverel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is considered an uncommon injury and a significant number of ruptures are missed or diagnosed late, leading to a chronic tear. We report an open reconstruction technique and its outcomes in a case of chronic and retracted PM tear. At the last follow-up (12 months, the patient was pain-free, with a visual analogic scale at 0 all the time. He was very satisfied concerning the cosmetic and clinical results. The constant score was 93%, the SST value 95%, and the Quick DASH score 4.5. MRI performed one year postoperatively confirmed the continuity between PM tendon and graft, even if the aspect of the distal tendon seemed to be thinner than normal PM tendon. The excellent clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up suggest that PM tear with major tendon retraction can be reliably reconstructed with hamstring autograft, using a bioabsorbable screw to optimize the fixation device. This technique has proven its simplicity and efficiency to fill the gap.

  17. The Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Al

    1994-01-01

    The new information marketplace is based on a network of wide, two-way highways comprised of private owners and developers, makers of information appliances (televisions, telephones, computers, and combinations of all three), information providers (local broadcasters, digital libraries, information service providers, and entrepreneurs), and…

  18. The hydrogen highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigg, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  19. Highways: Interstate, US & State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains lines for all highways in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a USGS 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  20. The hydrogen highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A. [Fuel Cells Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  1. Off-highway vehicle technology roadmap.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The off-highway sector is under increasing pressure to reduce operating costs (including fuel costs) and to reduce emissions. Recognizing this, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) convened a workshop in April 2001 (ANL 2001) to (1) determine the interest of the off-highway sector (consisting of agriculture, construction, surface mining, inland marine) in crafting a shared vision of off-highway, heavy machines of the future and (2) identify critical research and development (R and D) needs for minimizing off-highway vehicle emissions while cost-effectively maintaining or enhancing system performance. The workshop also enabled government and industry participants to exchange information. During the workshop, it became clear that the challenges facing the heavy, surface-based off-highway sector can be addressed in three major machine categories: (1) engine/aftertreatment and fuels/lubes, (2) machine systems, and (3) thermal management. Working groups convened to address these topical areas. The status of off-highway technologies was determined, critical technical barriers to achieving future emission standards were identified, and strategies and technologies for reducing fuel consumption were discussed. Priority areas for R and D were identified. Given the apparent success of the discussions at the workshop, several participants from industry agreed to help in the formation of a joint industry/government ''roadmap'' team. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has an extensive role in researching ways to make heavy-duty trucks and trains more efficient, with respect to both fuel usage and air emissions. The workshop participants felt that a joint industry/government research program that addresses the unique needs of the off-highway sector would complement the current research program for highway vehicles. With industry expertise, in-kind contributions, and federal government funding (coupled with

  2. Secondary omental and pectoralis major double flap reconstruction following aggressive sternectomy for deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirasawa Bungo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery carries high morbidity and mortality. Our strategy for deep sternal wound infection is aggressive strenal debridement followed by vacuum-assisted closure (VAC therapy and omental-muscle flap reconstrucion. We describe this strategy and examine the outcome and long-term quality of life (QOL it achieves. Methods We retrospectively examined 16 patients treated for deep sternal wound infection between 2001 and 2007. The most recent nine patients were treated with total sternal resection followed by VAC therapy and secondary closure with omental-muscle flap reconstruction (recent group; whereas the former seven patients were treated with sternal preservation if possible, without VAC therapy, and four of these patients underwent primary closure (former group. We assessed long-term quality of life after DSWI by using the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey, Version 2 (SF36v2. Results One patient died and four required further surgery for recurrence of deep sternal wound infection in the former group. The duration of treatment for deep sternal wound infection in the recent group was significantly shorter than that in previous group (63.4 ± 54.1 days vs. 120.0 ± 31.8 days, respectively; p = 0.039. Despite aggressive sternal resection, the QOL of patients treated for DSWI was only minimally compromised compared with age-, sex-, surgical procedures-matched patients without deep sternal wound infection. Conclusions Aggressive sternal debridement followed by VAC therapy and secondary closure with an omental-muscle flap is effective for deep sternal wound infection. In this series, it resulted in a lower incidence of recurrent infection, shorter hospitalization, and it did not compromise long-term QOL greatly.

  3. Highway three-dimensional modeling based on Vehicle-borne laser data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weili, Sun; Ruofei, Zhong; Jiangxia, Wei; Fanyang, Zeng

    2014-01-01

    The of Vehicle-borne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) scanning technology is an efficiently practical approach on the acquisition and application of 3D information and its geographic elements of highway(including road surface, rails, attached facilities, slopes, ditches, etc.). The acquired information is significant on many aspects such as road maintenance, reconstruction, survey, landscape design, visualized modelling and highway hazard supervision and prevention. The initial laser data cannot be directly used to construct highway 3D model, operations of pre-processing are necessary. This paper presented a set of procedure about pre-processing laser data and constructing TIN (Triangle Irregular Net) model of highway

  4. Population genetic characterization and family reconstruction in brood bank collections of the Indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cyprinidae:Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ashraf; Basak, Abhisak; Islam, Md Nazrul; Alam, Md Samsul

    2015-01-01

    The founder stock of a captive breeding program is prone to changes in genetic structure due to inbreeding and genetic drift. Genetic characterization of the founder population using suitable molecular markers may help monitor periodic changes in the genetic structure in future. To develop benchmark information about the genetic structure we analyzed six microsatellite loci in the Brodbank collections of rohu (Labeo rohita) originated from three major rivers-the Jamuna, the Padma and the Halda. A total of 28 alleles were detected in 90 individuals with an average of 4.6 alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.655 to 0.705 and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.702 to 0.725. The mean F IS values were 0.103, 0.106 and 0.018 for the Jamuna, Padma and Halda fishes respectively. The population pair-wise F ST values ranged from 0.0057 to 0.0278. Structure analysis grouped the fishes of the three rivers into two clusters. The numbers of half-sib families were 5, 5 and 4 and the numbers of full-sib families were 12, 10 and 18 for the Halda, Jamuna and the Padma samples respectively. Bottleneck was detected in all the river samples. We recommend to collect more fish from different locations of the major rivers to broaden the genetic variability of the founder stocks of the Brood bank.

  5. Using coronal loops to reconstruct the magnetic field of an active region before and after a major flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malanushenko, A. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Schrijver, C. J.; DeRosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Wheatland, M. S. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Redfern, NSW (Australia)

    2014-03-10

    The shapes of solar coronal loops are sensitive to the presence of electrical currents that are the carriers of the non-potential energy available for impulsive activity. We use this information in a new method for modeling the coronal magnetic field of active region (AR) 11158 as a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF). The observations used are coronal images around the time of major flare activity on 2011 February 15, together with the surface line-of-sight magnetic field measurements. The data are from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The model fields are constrained to approximate the coronal loop configurations as closely as possible, while also being subject to the force-free constraints. The method does not use transverse photospheric magnetic field components as input and is thereby distinct from methods for modeling NLFFFs based on photospheric vector magnetograms. We validate the method using observations of AR 11158 at a time well before major flaring and subsequently review the field evolution just prior to and following an X2.2 flare and associated eruption. The models indicate that the energy released during the instability is about 1 × 10{sup 32} erg, consistent with what is needed to power such a large eruptive flare. Immediately prior to the eruption, the model field contains a compact sigmoid bundle of twisted flux that is not present in the post-eruption models, which is consistent with the observations. The core of that model structure is twisted by ≈0.9 full turns about its axis.

  6. Tree-ring based reconstruction of the seasonal timing, major events and origin of rockfall on a case-study slope in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Schneuwly

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Tree-ring analysis has been used to reconstruct 22 years of rockfall behavior on an active rockfall slope near Saas Balen (Swiss Alps. We analyzed 32 severely injured trees (L. decidua, P. abies and P. cembra and investigated cross-sections of 154 wounds.

    The intra-annual position of callus tissue and of tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts was determined in order to reconstruct the seasonality of past rockfall events. Results indicate strong intra- and inter-annual variations of rockfall activity, with a peak (76% observed in the dormant season (early October – end of May. Within the growth season, rockfall regularly occurs between the end of May and mid July (21.4%, whereas events later in the season appear to be quite rare (2.6%. Findings suggest that rockfall activity at the study site is driven by annual thawing processes and the circulation of melt water in preexisting fissures. Data also indicate that 43% of all rockfall events occurred in 1995, when two major precipitation events are recorded in nearby meteorological stations. Finally, data on impact angles are in very good agreement with the geomorphic situation in the field.

  7. Wireless monitoring of highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard; Hayes-Gill, Barrie; Crowe, John A.; Armitage, Robert; Rodgers, Dale; Hendroff, Adrian

    1999-05-01

    Electronic hardware has been developed to telemetrically transmit temperature and strain measurements from within a public highway in the UK. These measurements provide an important health check for monitoring fatigue damage in pavements. Previous attempts at measuring strain and temperature have required lengths of cable to be installed in the highway. The installation of these cables is both expensive and damaging to the pavement and provides potentially unreliable electrical connections. The new systems consist of a retrofitted instrumented asphalt core which is bonded into the pavement structure. The core contains all the electronics necessary to record two temperatures and two strains. An analogue front end provides signal conditioning which is digitized and passed to microcontroller for endcoding. From there the data is transmitted via a low power radio link to a receiver and data logger positioned by the side of the road. The system has an in-situ operating life of 6 months on AA alkaline batteries. Results are presented of power management and fault tolerant radio protocol techniques, long term temperature variations, dynamic strain measurements within the highway, and RF transmission capabilities through a layer of asphalt.

  8. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Marine Highway Transportation. Authority: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Sections 1121...] RIN 2133-AB70 America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... interim final rule that established America's Marine Highway Program, under which the Secretary will...

  9. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration...., Acting Division Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield...

  10. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability regarding a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI): U.S.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings...

  11. Research notes : monitoring water quality along highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Runoff from highways typically picks up a variety of pollutants from the roadway. These pollutants include sediment, trash, residue from petroleum products, and heavy metals. Depending on the highway and its geographic setting, highway runoff can eva...

  12. Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has the responsibility to assure that adequate highway transportation information is available to support its functions and...

  13. Pendulum impact tests of wooden and steel highway guardrail posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Jarvis D. Michie

    1974-01-01

    Impact strength characteristics of southern pine, red oak, and steel highway guardrail posts were evaluated in destructive impact testing with a 4,000-pound pendulum at the Southwest Research Institute. Effects were recorded with high-speed motion-picture equipment. Comparisons were based on reactions to the point of major post failure. Major comparisons of 6x6-inch...

  14. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 Highway Network for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The HIGHWAYS layer contains the Highway network, using NAVTEQ Functional Class=1,2,3 which includes major routes between minor cities or towns, and through city...

  15. Energy harvesting on highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A concept for harvesting energy from the traffic-induced loadings on a highway bridge using piezoelectric : materials to generate electricity was explored through the prototype stage. A total of sixteen lead-zirconate : titanate (PZT) Type 5A piezoel...

  16. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  17. The M77 Highway: saving lives and money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Evan O T; Augustine, Angelica; Tait, Gavin R

    2008-09-01

    Upgrading of a stretch of the A77, a major road in South West Scotland to Highway status has resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of serious and fatal road traffic accidents on a major international route. Notwithstanding the pain and suffering prevented, the annual economic savings amount to over pound 6.1 Million ($12.14 M/euro 7.96 M) The Highway, with an effective central reservation barrier, will pay for itself in 17 years and will continue to prevent serious injury and save lives.

  18. Highways of the future : a strategic plan for highway infrastructure research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This Highways of the FutureA Strategic Plan for Highway Infrastructure Research and Development was developed in response to a need expressed by the staff of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Infrastructure Research and Developme...

  19. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that

  20. The ELETTRA field highway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulfone, D.; Michelini, P.; Mignacco, M.

    1992-01-01

    ELETTRA is a third generation Synchrotron Light Source under construction in Trieste (Italy); it consists of a full energy linac injector and a storage ring with beam energies between 1.5 and 2 GeV. The ELETTRA control system has a distributed architecture, hierarchically divided into three layers of computers; two network levels provide communication between the adjacent computer layers. The field highway adopted for the connection of the middle-layer local process computers with the bottom-layer equipment interface units is the MIL-1553B multidrop highway. This paper describes the hardware configuration and the main communication services developed on the MIL-1553B field highway for accelerator control. As an additional feature, typical LAN utilities have been added on top of the basic MIL-1553B communication software allowing remote logic and file transfer; these tools are currently used for software development in our laboratory. (author)

  1. Fatal accidents in nighttime vs. daytime highway construction work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, David; Lee, Dong-Eun; Polat, Gul

    2007-01-01

    Awareness about worker safety in nighttime construction has been a major concern because it is believed that nighttime construction creates hazardous work conditions. However, only a few studies provide valuable comparative information about accident characteristics of nighttime and daytime highway construction activities. This study investigates fatal accidents that occurred in Illinois highway work zones in the period 1996-2001 in order to determine the safety differences between nighttime and daytime highway construction. The lighting and weather conditions were included into the study as control parameters to see their effects on the frequency of fatal accidents occurring in work zones. According to this study, there is evidence that nighttime construction is more hazardous than daytime construction. The inclusion of a weather parameter into the analysis has limited effect on this finding. The study justifies establishing an efficient work zone accident reporting system and taking all necessary measures to enhance safety in nighttime work zones.

  2. Trends in federal and state highway investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-18

    In response to Congressional request the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed data from Federal Highway Administration 's Highway Statistics for the period from 1982 through 2001, adjusting expenditures to 2001 dollars to (1) identify overal...

  3. Optimize pollutant emissions through adaptive highway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In this project, we investigated the possibility to reduce green house emission : (mainly CO2) from urban highways by adaptive ramp meter control. QUADSTONE : PARAMICS software was used to build a microscopic traffic model for a 4-lane highway : sect...

  4. Secondary Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Secondary Highways for the United States. The Secondary Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class value on each link present...

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  6. Quality of stormwater runoff discharged from Massachusetts highways, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation, conducted a field study from September 2005 through September 2007 to characterize the quality of highway runoff for a wide range of constituents. The highways studied had annual average daily traffic (AADT) volumes from about 3,000 to more than 190,000 vehicles per day. Highway-monitoring stations were installed at 12 locations in Massachusetts on 8 highways. The 12 monitoring stations were subdivided into 4 primary, 4 secondary, and 4 test stations. Each site contained a 100-percent impervious drainage area that included two or more catch basins sharing a common outflow pipe. Paired primary and secondary stations were located within a few miles of each other on a limited-access section of the same highway. Most of the data were collected at the primary and secondary stations, which were located on four principal highways (Route 119, Route 2, Interstate 495, and Interstate 95). The secondary stations were operated simultaneously with the primary stations for at least a year. Data from the four test stations (Route 8, Interstate 195, Interstate 190, and Interstate 93) were used to determine the transferability of the data collected from the principal highways to other highways characterized by different construction techniques, land use, and geography. Automatic-monitoring techniques were used to collect composite samples of highway runoff and make continuous measurements of several physical characteristics. Flowweighted samples of highway runoff were collected automatically during approximately 140 rain and mixed rain, sleet, and snowstorms. These samples were analyzed for physical characteristics and concentrations of 6 dissolved major ions, total nutrients, 8 total-recoverable metals, suspended sediment, and 85 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which include priority polyaromatic

  7. Multigene phylogenetic reconstruction of the Tubulinea (Amoebozoa) corroborates four of the six major lineages, while additionally revealing that shell composition does not predict phylogeny in the Arcellinida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Daniel J G; Grant, Jessica R; Katz, Laura A

    2013-05-01

    Tubulinea is a phylogenetically stable higher-level taxon within Amoebozoa, morphologically characterized by monoaxially streaming and cylindrical pseudopods. Contemporary phylogenetic reconstructions have largely relied on SSU rDNA, and to a lesser extent, on actin genes to reveal the relationships among these organisms. Additionally, the test (shell) forming Arcellinida, one of the most species-rich amoebozoan groups, is nested within Tubulinea and suffers from substantial under-sampling of taxa. Here, we increase taxonomic and gene sampling within the Tubulinea, characterizing molecular data for 22 taxa and six genes (SSU rDNA, actin, α- and β-tubulin, elongation factor 2 and the 14-3-3 regulatory protein). We perform concatenated phylogenetic analyses using these genes as well as approximately unbiased tests to assess evolutionary relationships within the Tubulinea. We confirm the monophyly of Tubulinea and four of the six included lineages (Echinamoeboidea, Leptomyxida, Amoebida and Poseidonida). Arcellinida and Hartmanellidae, the remaining lineages, are not monophyletic in our reconstructions, although statistical testing does not allow rejection of either group. We further investigate more fine-grained morphological evolution of previously defined groups, concluding that relationships within Arcellinida are more consistent with general test and aperture shape than with test composition. We also discuss the implications of this phylogeny for interpretations of the Precambrian fossil record of testate amoebae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Area Based Models of New Highway Route Growth

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Wei Chen

    2007-01-01

    Empirical data and statistical models are used to answer the question of where new highway routes are most likely to be located. High-quality land-use, population distribution and highway network GIS data for the Twin CitiesMetropolitan Area from 1958 to 1990 are developed for this study. The highway system is classified into three levels, Interstate highways, divided highways, and secondary highways. Binary logit models estimate the new route growth probability of divided highways and second...

  9. Green along the highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijers, E.; Kos, G.; Cornelissen, T.

    2008-01-01

    The results of downwind measurements of air quality around vegetation near a motorway are presented and discussed. The study (first ever in the Netherlands) was performed by order of the Innovation Programme Air Quality. At a carefully selected location measurements of PM and NOx were carried out downwind from a motorway in front of and (at various distances) behind a parallel orientated vegetation strip. Results are compared with synchronized data collected at a nearby location without vegetation (the 'reference' situation) and at the same distances from the motorway. Major findings are: Comparing measurements in front of and behind the vegetation strip show that the presence of vegetation tends to lower PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations immediately behind the vegetation. However, no such change is apparent in the concentrations of NO and NO2. The comparison with measurements executed without vegetation ('reference') indicate that concentration levels close to the vegetation strip are similar or somewhat higher. At a larger distance from motorway and vegetation (>30 m) NO and NO2 concentrations tend to be lower than what is observed in the reference situation. This could not be determined for PM [nl

  10. Highway Design on the Sections Affected by Aquaplaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Reznik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pouring rain, snow melting, water condensing, fog and other natural phenomena cause the collection of water on roadway pavement, leading to the decrease of road-holding capacity of a tyre.When a car or a light truck is moving at a high speed on wet road pavement, the water under its wheels cannot be expelled in time.It results in raising of the front wheels of the vehicle above the road surface under the action of a hydrodynamic force and loss of vehicle control.The methods ensuring traffic safety on road sections, where vehicle’s aquaplaning is possible, should be developed by identifying and improving these sections at the stages of highway design, reconstruction and maintenance and by limiting traffic speed of vehicles.Keywords: vehicle, road, road-holding capacity, aquaplaning, reconstruction, maintenance, traffic safety.DOI: 10.3846/mla.2009.6.06

  11. Vertebrate road kill survey on a highway in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Liberato Costa Corrêa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Highways are a major factor acting in the decline of several wildlife populations. Impact occurs due to the continuous flow of motor vehicles over tracks and collision with animals using the same area. This study aimed to list road killed wild vertebrates found in highways in the Pampa Biome, state of Rio Grande do Sul, over an entire year. The taxa found (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were identified to species level and their frequency of occurrence was seasonally registered. Along 2,160 km, we found 318 road killed individuals, totaling 65 species. This number represents an average of 0.147 road killed specimens by kilometer (that is, 1 individual each 7 km. Of these, seven species are under threat of extinction in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. We also found a seasonal pattern among road kills, in which the highest number of road killed animals was registered in the summer and spring months. These results contribute to increase knowledge about which species are most impacted by road kill on highways of the Pampa Biome. Such data can be used as an indicator for the implementation of measures by competent bodies to mitigate impacts of highways in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  12. Residential satisfaction close to highways : The impact of accessibility, nuisances and highway adjustment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Tillema, Taede; Sussman, Joseph; Arts, Jos

    In this paper we focus on gaining insight into the residential satisfaction of households near highways, based on survey data collected among 1225 respondents in the Netherlands living within 1000 m from a highway. Ordinal regression was used to study the impact of highway externalities on

  13. Computational Intelligence in Highway Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Pribyl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway management systems are used to improve safety and driving comfort on highways by using control strategies and providing information and warnings to drivers. They use several strategies starting from speed and lane management, through incident detection and warning systems, ramp metering, weather information up to, for example, informing drivers about alternative roads. This paper provides a review of the existing approaches to highway management systems, particularly speed harmonization and ramp metering. It is focused only on modern and advanced approaches, such as soft computing, multi-agent methods and their interconnection. Its objective is to provide guidance in the wide field of highway management and to point out the most relevant recent activities which demonstrate that development in the field of highway management is still important and that the existing research exhibits potential for further enhancement.

  14. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...

  15. Robust Vehicle and Traffic Information Extraction for Highway Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Chia-Hung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust vision-based traffic monitoring system for vehicle and traffic information extraction is developed in this research. It is challenging to maintain detection robustness at all time for a highway surveillance system. There are three major problems in detecting and tracking a vehicle: (1 the moving cast shadow effect, (2 the occlusion effect, and (3 nighttime detection. For moving cast shadow elimination, a 2D joint vehicle-shadow model is employed. For occlusion detection, a multiple-camera system is used to detect occlusion so as to extract the exact location of each vehicle. For vehicle nighttime detection, a rear-view monitoring technique is proposed to maintain tracking and detection accuracy. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of background extraction, which usually serves as the first step in any vehicle detection processing. Experimental results are given to demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient for vision-based highway surveillance.

  16. Marginal overweight operating scenario for DOE's initiative I highway casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Loud, G.C.; Heitzman, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential transport of high-capacity Initiative I highway casks under development by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as permitted marginal overweight shipments that: exceed a gross vehicle weight (gvw) limit of 80,000, but weight less than 96,000 pounds; follow axle and axle group weight limits adopted by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982; conform to dimensional restrictions to operate on most major highways; and comply with the Federal Bridge Formula. The marginal overweight tractor-trailer would operate in normal open-quotes over-the-roadclose quotes mode and comply with all laws and regulations. The vehicle would have a sleeper berth and two drivers - one to drive while the other provides escort and communications services and accumulates required off-duty time

  17. State Maintained Highways in Louisiana, UTM Zone 15 NAD83, LDOTD (2007) [state_highways_ldotd_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents the state maintained road network of Louisiana. The dataset includes Interstates, US highways, and Louisiana State Highways. This dataset was...

  18. Business and the information highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, M.F. [Western Management Consultants, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of the information highway in the energy business was reviewed. Economic challenges, technology trends, and the opportunities available to the energy industry to exploit information technology were outlined. The `virtual` economy was identified as one of the consequences resulting from information technology, which will most likely have an impact on all aspects of the economy, including the energy industry, especially marketing. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for detailed business transactions, on-line services for information sharing, news, and discussion, the Internet for e-mail research, publishing, and customer contact, specialty applications for specific business functions, industry restructuring, and Fax transmission were pinpointed as the applications most likely to have the greatest impact on the business aspects of the energy industry.

  19. User costs as one of main advantages of precast concrete application in highway construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Radan

    2017-09-01

    Road user cost primarily refer to the monetized components of road (re)construction impacts, such as the user delay costs, vehicle operating costs, crash costs and emission costs. Objective of this paper is to analyze and appraise the advantages and benefits of the innovative prefabrication approach in contrast to traditional cast-in-place construction method. The goal is to reduce these additional costs borne by motorists and the community at-large as a result of road construction activity to their minimum through application of the prefabrication. Assessing two basic possible approaches to highway infrastructure construction - casting the road pavements and structures either in place or precast off the site - it can be concluded that the initial capital investment costs do not vary much. Substantial differences can be recognized when comparing their life-cycle costs and an extent to which their construction process affects the public, environment and the local economy. Prefabrication of any structure component off-site offers major construction time and user cost savings in comparison with the traditional cast-in-place methods of construction. Precast prestressed road pavements’ technology and precasting bridges’ parts and elements offers dramatic increase in durability, while it also substantially decreases construction time and resulting user costs.

  20. Canada's gas taxes = highway robbery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This report was prepared for the second annual 'gas honesty day' (May 18, 2000) in an effort to draw attention to the frustration of Canadian taxpayers with gasoline retailers and the petroleum industry for the inordinately and unjustifiably high prices for gasoline at the pump. The report points out that the public outcry is, in fact, misdirected since the largest profiteers at the pumps, the federal government, remains largely unscathed. It is alleged in the report that gas taxes are tantamount to highway robbery. Ostensibly collected for road construction and maintenance, of the almost $ 5 billion collected in 1999, only a paltry $ 194 million was returned to the provinces for roadway and highway spending. The 10-year average of federal returns to the the provinces from tax on gasoline is a meager 4.7 per cent, which fell even further to 4.1 per cent in 1998-1999. Gasoline tax revenues continue to climb, while government commitment to real roadway and highway spending continues to decline. This document attempts to shed some light on the pricing structure for gasoline. Without defending or explaining the non-tax portion of the pump price charged by Canada's oil companies, which is a task for the oil companies to undertake, the document makes a concerted effort to raise public awareness and focus public attention on government's involvement, namely that gas taxes represent on average about 50 per cent of the pump price and that the majority of the taxes collected are not put back into road and highway improvements. The Canadian Taxpayers Federation, authors of this report, expect that by focusing debate on the issue of gasoline taxes a broad support for a lowering of the overall tax burden on motorists will result. Among other things, the CTF advocates reduction of federal and provincial fuel taxes to levels commensurate with highway funding; dedication of fuel tax revenues to highway construction and maintenance; elimination of the sales and

  1. Revenue Risk Modelling and Assessment on BOT Highway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianti, T.; Setyawan, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The infrastructure project which is considered as a public-private partnership approach under BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) arrangement, such as a highway, is risky. Therefore, assessment on risk factors is essential as the project have a concession period and is influenced by macroeconomic factors and consensus period. In this study, pre-construction risks of a highway were examined by using a Delphi method to create a space for offline expert discussions; a fault tree analysis to map intuition of experts and to create a model from the underlying risk events; a fuzzy logic to interpret the linguistic data of risk models. The loss of revenue for risk tariff, traffic volume, force majeure, and income were then measured. The results showed that the loss of revenue caused by the risk tariff was 10.5% of the normal total revenue. The loss of revenue caused by the risk of traffic volume was 21.0% of total revenue. The loss of revenue caused by the force majeure was 12.2% of the normal income. The loss of income caused by the non-revenue events was 6.9% of the normal revenue. It was also found that the volume of traffic was the major risk of a highway project because it related to customer preferences.

  2. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  3. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  4. Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Kentucky s Highway Incident Management Strategic Plan consists of a mission statement, 4 goals, 16 objectives, and 49 action strategies. The action strategies are arranged by priority and recommended time frame for implementation. When implemented...

  5. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  6. New highway accident location manual for Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Missouri HAL manual is used to identify, analyze, and correct high crash locations, and has not been updated since : 1999. This new edition brings the manual up to date, while incorporating the methodology of the national Highway Safety : Manual ...

  7. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  8. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  9. Highway-Rail Crossings Inventory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The entire National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory is available in three separate downloadble files. There is a file of all current Public-at-Grade crossings. There...

  10. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  11. Highway renewable energy : photovoltaic noise barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Highway photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs) represent the combination of noise barrier systems and photovoltaic systems in order to mitigate traffic noise while simultaneously producing renewable energy. First deployed in Switzerland in 1989, PVNBs a...

  12. Highway runoff in areas of karst topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Karst terrain is characterized by sinkholes, depressions, caves, and underground drainage, generally underlain by soluble rocks such as limestone and dolomite. Because natural filtration through soil is limited in karst areas, pollutants in highway s...

  13. Highway travel time estimation with data fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Soriguera Martí, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a simple, innovative approach for the measurement and short-term prediction of highway travel times based on the fusion of inductive loop detector and toll ticket data. The methodology is generic and not technologically captive, allowing it to be easily generalized for other equivalent types of data. The book shows how Bayesian analysis can be used to obtain fused estimates that are more reliable than the original inputs, overcoming some of the drawbacks of travel-time estimations based on unique data sources. The developed methodology adds value and obtains the maximum (in terms of travel time estimation) from the available data, without recurrent and costly requirements for additional data. The application of the algorithms to empirical testing in the AP-7 toll highway in Barcelona proves that it is possible to develop an accurate real-time, travel-time information system on closed-toll highways with the existing surveillance equipment, suggesting that highway operators might provide...

  14. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  15. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  16. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  17. The history of highway transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Almeida Santos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The mismanagement of the highway transportation resources cannot be seen as new, mainly when the presence of both public sector and the diffuse regional interests, which are far away from the region necessities, are taken into consideration. Besides, it is imperative that the problems currently faced into transportation field be treated more seriously. These problems range from generation and management of required resources for construction and maintenance of roads, traffic jams to traffic violence. Yet they have been caused by both a lack of sensibility and political desire to solve issues and have brought serious consequences to the transportation sector itself as well. Another problem is the existence of contracts of privatization, which have given to the private road management companies full power and autonomy to manage profits without any kind of supervision. As a result the process of privatization only renamed the previous issues such as toll, resources application and tax collecting. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce the origin of the resources in superhighway transportation focusing not only on describing its events but also discussing the causes, which have led to the serious problems showed above.

  18. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  19. The mitochondrial genomes of Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae and Argas africolumbae (Ixodoidae: Argasidae: estimation of divergence dates for the major tick lineages and reconstruction of ancestral blood-feeding characters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Mans

    Full Text Available Ixodida are composed of hard (Ixodidae, soft (Argasidae and the monotypic Nuttalliellidae (Nuttalliella namaqua tick families. Nuclear 18S rRNA analysis suggested that N. namaqua was the closest extant relative to the last common ancestral tick lineage. The mitochondrial genomes of N. namaqua and Argas africolumbae were determined using next generation sequencing and de novo assembly to investigate this further. The latter was included since previous estimates on the divergence times of argasids lacked data for this major genus. Mitochondrial gene order for both was identical to that of the Argasidae and Prostriata. Bayesian analysis of the COI, Cytb, ND1, ND2 and ND4 genes confirmed the monophyly of ticks, the basal position of N. namaqua to the other tick families and the accepted systematic relationships of the other tick genera. Molecular clock estimates were derived for the divergence of the major tick lineages and supported previous estimates on the origins of ticks in the Carboniferous. N. namaqua larvae fed successfully on lizards and mice in a prolonged manner similar to many argasids and all ixodids. Excess blood meal-derived water was secreted via the salivary glands, similar to ixodids. We propose that this prolonged larval feeding style eventually gave rise to the long feeding periods that typify the single larval, nymphal and adult stages of ixodid ticks and the associated secretion of water via the salivary glands. Ancestral reconstruction of characters involved in blood-feeding indicates that most of the characteristics unique to either hard or soft tick families were present in the ancestral tick lineage.

  20. Methodology and significance of studies of atmospheric deposition in highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Rice, Karen C.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and the processes that are involved in causing and altering atmospheric deposition in relation to highway surfaces and runoff were evaluated nationwide. Wet deposition is more easily monitored than dry deposition, and data on wet deposition are available for major elements and water properties (constituents affecting acid deposition) from the inter-agency National Atmospheric Deposition Program/ National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Many trace constituents (metals and organic compounds) of interest in highway runoff loads, however, are not included in the NADP/NTN. Dry deposition, which constitutes a large part of total atmospheric deposition for many constituents in highway runoff loads, is difficult to monitor accurately. Dry-deposition rates are not widely available.Many of the highway-runoff investigations that have addressed atmospheric-deposition sources have had flawed investigative designs or problems with methodology. Some results may be incorrect because of reliance on time-aggregated data collected during a period of changing atmospheric emissions. None of the investigations used methods that could accurately quantify the part of highway runoff load that can be attributed to ambient atmospheric deposition. Lack of information about accurate ambient deposition rates and runoff loads was part of the problem. Samples collected to compute the rates and loads were collected without clean-sampling methods or sampler protocols, and without quality-assurance procedures that could validate the data. Massbudget calculations comparing deposition and runoff did not consider loss of deposited material during on-highway processing. Loss of deposited particles from highway travel lanes could be large, as has been determined in labeled particle studies, because of resuspension caused by turbulence from passing traffic. Although a cause of resuspension of large particles, traffic turbulence may increase the rate of deposition for small particles and

  1. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Gibson, S.M.

    1982-12-01

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire interstate highway system, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations > 100,000. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment

  2. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  3. Modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in reconstruction of head and neck defects%改良胸大肌肌皮瓣修复头颈肿瘤术后组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 黄文孝; 李赞; 周晓; 喻建军; 包荣华; 张海林; 凌航

    2015-01-01

    目的 总结改良胸大肌肌皮瓣修复头颈部组织缺损的经验.方法 回顾性总结2008年1月至2013年12月湖南省肿瘤医院头颈外科-肿瘤整形外科收治的107例患者的临床资料,该107例患者应用改良后胸大肌肌皮瓣修复头颈部肿瘤手术后的组织缺损,其中采用岛状弯月形肌皮瓣修复92例,采用女性下乳沟肌皮瓣修复15例;筋膜蒂的肌皮瓣56例,肌肉蒂的肌皮瓣51例;11例采用岛状肌皮瓣的皮肤面修补术腔黏膜,其肌肉面面向体外植皮,96例肌皮瓣的皮肤面修复颈部皮肤和(或)咽腔黏膜.结果 101例(94.4%)胸大肌肌皮瓣完全存活,5例(4.7%)肌皮瓣部分坏死,经换药后愈合,1例(0.9%)肌皮瓣完全坏死,更换另一侧胸大肌肌皮瓣修复成功.胸部伤口完全愈合100例,部分裂开瘢痕愈合7例.结论 改良的弯月形胸大肌肌皮瓣可以优化切取的胸壁皮肤组织量,减少胸壁皮肤张力,便于拉拢缝合伤口;保留中上段胸大肌的筋膜血管蒂的胸大肌肌皮瓣既能减少功能障碍,又能减少锁骨区组织臃肿和肌皮瓣血管蒂受压;附带中下段肌肉蒂的胸大肌肌皮瓣,可利用丰富的血运和强力抗感染的肌肉,既能覆盖保护颈总动脉,亦能改善放疗后患者颈部纤维化的情况.%Objective To report the experience of use of modified pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps in reconstruction of head and neck postoperative defects.Methods A total of 107 patients who underwent head and neck defect reconstruction using modified PMMC flaps after tumor rescetion between Jan 2008 and Dec 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results The success rate of reconstruction with modified PMMC flaps was 94.4% (101/107).Five patients had partial flap necrosis and their wounds healed with dressing change.One patient (0.9%) had total flap necrosis,followed by the second reconstruction using contralateral PMMC flap.Conclusions The modified falcate PMMC flap can

  4. Integrated prioritization method for active and passive highway-rail crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This two-year research project developed a prioritization system for highway-rail at-grade crossings that addressed the following major concerns: (1) warrants to identify low-volume, passive crossings with risk factors; (2) a broader priority index t...

  5. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Pakistan Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of public transportation networks have great implications in urban planning, public policies, and infectious disease control. This study contributes a weighted complex network analysis of travel routes on the national highway network of Pakistan. The network is responsible for handling 75 percent of the road traffic yet is largely inadequate, poor, and unreliable. The highway network displays small world properties and is assortative in nature. Based on the betweenness centrality of the nodes, the most important cities are identified as this could help in identifying the potential congestion points in the network. Keeping in view the strategic location of Pakistan, such a study is of practical importance and could provide opportunities for policy makers to improve the performance of the highway network.

  6. Case study on ventilation method development for Bar-Boljare highway tunnels construction in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetić Aleksandar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes tunnel construction is a necessity regardless of its purpose due to many reasons, to mention some of them: limited space, safe operation, environmental protection etc. In those cases, one of the main aspects concerning an appropriate design of a tunnel construction is site ventilation. Ventilation is required during the construction of any tunnel regardless of technology used to construct it. Three major construction ventilation schemes are typically applied. Which one will be use are often in dependency of the site requirements. In this paper is presented case study on ventilation method development for the highway tunnels construction and it includes ventilation solutions for tunnels ‘Suka’, ‘Vežešnik’, ‘Mrke’ and ‘Vjeternik’ during construction phase. The tunnels are part of the Bar-Boljare highway which is also a part of the Trans-European Highway (THE through the Republic of Montenegro.

  7. Impact of highway construction on land surface energy balance and local climate derived from LANDSAT satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbal, Václav; Brom, Jakub

    2018-08-15

    Extensive construction of highways has a major impact on the landscape and its structure. They can also influence local climate and heat fluxes in the surrounding area. After the removal of vegetation due to highway construction, the amount of solar radiation energy used for plant evapotranspiration (latent heat flux) decreases, bringing about an increase in landscape surface temperature, changing the local climate and increasing surface run-off. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the D8 highway construction (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic) on the distribution of solar radiation energy into the various heat fluxes (latent, sensible and ground heat flux) and related surface functional parameters (surface temperature and surface wetness). The aim was to describe the severity of the impact and the distance from the actual highway in which it can be observed. LANDSAT multispectral satellite images and field meteorological measurements were used to calculate surface functional parameters and heat balance before and during the highway construction. Construction of a four-lane highway can influence the heat balance of the landscape surface as far as 90m in the perpendicular direction from the highway axis, i.e. up to 75m perpendicular from its edge. During a summer day, the decrease in evapotranspired water can reach up to 43.7m 3 per highway kilometre. This means a reduced cooling effect, expressed as the decrease in latent heat flux, by an average of 29.7MWh per day per highway kilometre and its surroundings. The loss of the cooling ability of the land surface by evaporation can lead to a rise in surface temperature by as much as 7°C. Thus, the results indicate the impact of extensive line constructions on the local climate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of petition for exemption. SUMMARY: This...

  9. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Becker, T.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark)); Lorentz, H. (Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer (Germany))

    2010-06-15

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS). (author)

  10. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution on roadside soil along highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    Highway traffic is the main source of heavy metal pollution. Due to limited cropland, it is very common to plant crops along the highways. So, in view of agricultural products safety, heavy metal pollution by highway traffic to soils along highway is widely concerned. Therefore, to study distribution traits, accumulative laws and influence factors of heavy metals in agricultural soils could provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for environmental protection along express way.

  11. Green Performance Contracting Strategy for Highway Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    With the growing awareness of sustainability and global climate change, state highway agencies are taking essential steps to reduce carbon emissions from highway infrastructure on a life cycle basis. While much is known regarding climate change mitigation and adaption strategies during highway operation, very little is understood about how climate change issues should be integrated into highway planning, delivery, and construction processes. This paper presents the current contracting pra...

  12. Determining the drivers' acceptance of EFTCD in highway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong; Li, Yingfeng

    2011-05-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the temporary one-lane, two-way highway work zones due to the increasing of construction and maintenance operations. To prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes caused by the inattentive driving, the utilization of the Emergency Flasher Traffic Control Device (EFTCD) was under consideration by government agencies, in addition to existing temporary traffic control devices installed in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones. The EFTCD was a newly proposed traffic warning device implemented through the use of vehicles' hazard warning flashers. The primary objective of the research project was to investigate the drivers' acceptance of the proposed EFTCD by measuring the mean speed changes of vehicles with and without EFTCD and by evaluating the drivers' opinions of the EFTCD using the survey method. Field experimental results revealed that the EFTCD effectively reduced the mean vehicle speeds in the upstream of two work zones. A slow speed is more likely to reduce the severity of a crash in work zones. In addition, survey results indicated that 60% of the drivers thought the EFTCD signified a need for speed reduction and 82% of drivers recommended the implementation of the EFTCD in one-lane, two-way work zones. These results provide the necessary scientific justifications for the government agencies to decide if the EFTCD should be implemented in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones to prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  14. Explaining residential moving intentions : the case of highway locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Heinen, Eva; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper Structural Equation Modeling is used to test a theoretical framework to explain the impact of highway externalities (i.e. accessibility and nuisance) on moving intentions of people living close to highways. We aimed to study whether highway externalities (alongside other contextual

  15. Trends in the highway market for wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Knutson

    1975-01-01

    Forty-eight million cubic feet of wood products, about 50 million dollars worth, were used in the Nation's highway construction program in 1972. Expenditures for highway construction increased 2½ times from 1954 to 1972. The volume of wood products used in highway construction changed little during this period because other materials were substituted for...

  16. Air quality and energy impacts of NYSDOT highway ROW management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mowing the highway right-of-way is important for the safety of roadway users and maintaining the highway infrastructure. However, little quantitative data are available on the energy use and air quality impacts of highway mowing activities. In this r...

  17. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS... industrial centers, including important routes into, through, and around urban areas, serve the national... importance in Canada and Mexico. (2) The portion of the Interstate System designated under 23 U.S.C. 103 (e...

  18. Assessment of Pronghorn movements and strategies to promote highway permeability : US Highway 89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) movements were investigated with Global Position System (GPS) : telemetry from 2007 to 2008 along a 28-mile stretch of U.S. Highway 89 in northern Arizona to develop : strategies to enhance permeability with future h...

  19. Countermeasures that work : a highway safety countermeasure guide for state highway safety offices : eighth edition : 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The guide is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence- based : countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: : - Alcohol-and Drug-Impaired Driving; : - Seat Belts and Child Res...

  20. Development of a highway safety fundamental course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Although the need for road safety education was first recognized in the 1960s, it has become an increasingly urgent issue : in recent years. To fulfill the hefty goal set up by the AASHTO Highway Safety Strategy and by state DOTS, it is critical : to...

  1. Impact of nuclear waste traffic on highways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebaaly, P.E.; Siddharthan, R.; Epps, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A system was developed to evaluate the impact of nuclear waste traffic on the structural performance of highway pavements throughout the state of Nevada. The associated needs of maintenance and rehabilitations can also be evaluated along with their costs. This paper summarizes the system and provides two sample analyses

  2. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ''Training.'' Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination

  3. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  4. The use of commercial advertising on large scale electronic billboards for highways and their relation to driver safety and driver distraction, literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The potential for driver distraction on highways is a major safety concern for state : departments of transportation (DOTs). In the current technological climate, drivers have : the potential to be distracted by cell phones, mp3 players and other med...

  5. Current Situation of Highway Daily Maintenance Management in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Feng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the industry property, characteristics and management needs of highway maintenance project in Beijing, through investigation and research of the highway daily maintenance management, the present situation of highway repair and maintenance is expounded from the aspects such as the determination of maintenance funds and plan, maintenance management mode, and so on. Then in order to explore the new mechanisms for market management of highway maintenance, the advantages and disadvantages of highway maintenance and minor repairment of Beijing are analyzed.

  6. Vaginal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients

  7. ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in moderate exercise and recreational activities, or play sports that put less stress on the knees. ACL reconstruction is generally recommended if: You're an athlete and want to continue in your sport, especially if the sport involves jumping, cutting or ...

  8. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentr...... concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS)......This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution...

  9. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, An [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  10. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  11. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    Since the early 20th century various schemes were considered for the construction of roads, trails or railways 71 to link the Yukon, northern British Columbia and Alaska to the “outside.” These schemes were motivated by economic interests, including mining, lumber and tourism concerns. During...... the 1920s and 1930s a small but vocal group of “builders” began to campaign for a highway, either a coastal or inland route, to improve the northwest’s economic base. With the impending threat of war in the late 1930s, there was an increasing awareness by the American and Canadian governments...... increasing military needs. The unexpected bombing of Pearl Harbour in December 1941 stimulated interest in the construction of the Alaska Highway by the American government. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers selected a route based on the location of the NWSR airfields and the military needs for an alternative...

  12. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    single rain event. From the hindcast results it is possible to calculate mean water and pollutant loads. This method is commonly used in urban drainage systems for capacity analysis or for prediction of CSO's. The challenge is to develop a simplified and still accurate description of flow and transport......This PhD study deals with issues related to water and pollutant transport from highway surfaces caused by rain. It is essential in the study to apply methods and models in which improvements in relation to removal of pollutants can be identified and to be able to predict the yearly discharges....... Measurements of water and pollutant transport are carried out in different highway systems. A geometrically well-defined test pond is established, wherein the deposition of particulate matter can be measured. The result from the test pond is transferred to real detention ponds in which the three...

  13. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  14. Radioisotopes and their applications in highway testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of radioisotopes in highway testing are described. Radioisotopic methods have been used to determine : (1) moisture and density of soil and base materials for compaction control, (2) magnesium oxide content of cement, (3) permeability of bituminous coverings and (4) field density of freshly laid hot bituminous concrete surface. Possible uses of nuclear explosives for production of aggregates and of radioisotopes for determination of deflection in the design of flexible pavements are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  15. Highway Safety, Economic Behavior, and Driving Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Keeler, Theodore E.

    1991-01-01

    Economic analysis has enhanced our understanding of the efficacy of highway safety regulations. Specifically, a consumer-theoretic literature has developed on drivers' responses to regulations, based on ideas first set forth by Lester lave and W. E. Weber (1970) and more fully thought out by Sam Peltzman (1975). Meanwhile, an empirical literature has also developed, testing hypotheses relating to the effects on safety of speed limits, safety-device regulations, and alcohol policies, among oth...

  16. Autonomous Highway Systems Safety and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad, Imran

    2017-01-01

    Automated vehicles are getting closer each day to large-scale deployment. It is expected that self-driving cars will be able to alleviate traffic congestion by safely operating at distances closer than human drivers are capable of and will overall improve traffic throughput. In these conditions, passenger safety and security is of utmost importance. When multiple autonomous cars follow each other on a highway, they will form what is known as a cyber-physical system. In a general setting, t...

  17. Maxillary reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown James

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the various defects that occur with maxillectomy with a full review of the literature and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques described. Reconstruction of the maxilla can be relatively simple for the standard low maxillectomy that does not involve the orbital floor (Class 2. In this situation the structure of the face is less damaged and the there are multiple reconstructive options for the restoration of the maxilla and dental alveolus. If the maxillectomy includes the orbit (Class 4 then problems involving the eye (enopthalmos, orbital dystopia, ectropion and diplopia are avoided which simplifies the reconstruction. Most controversy is associated with the maxillectomy that involves the orbital floor and dental alveolus (Class 3. A case is made for the use of the iliac crest with internal oblique as an ideal option but there are other methods, which may provide a similar result. A multidisciplinary approach to these patients is emphasised which should include a prosthodontist with a special expertise for these defects.

  18. Mathematical model of highways network optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the issue of highways network design. Studies show that the main requirement from road transport for the road network is to ensure the realization of all the transport links served by it, with the least possible cost. The goal of optimizing the network of highways is to increase the efficiency of transport. It is necessary to take into account a large number of factors that make it difficult to quantify and qualify their impact on the road network. In this paper, we propose building an optimal variant for locating the road network on the basis of a mathematical model. The article defines the criteria for optimality and objective functions that reflect the requirements for the road network. The most fully satisfying condition for optimality is the minimization of road and transport costs. We adopted this indicator as a criterion of optimality in the economic-mathematical model of a network of highways. Studies have shown that each offset point in the optimal binding road network is associated with all other corresponding points in the directions providing the least financial costs necessary to move passengers and cargo from this point to the other corresponding points. The article presents general principles for constructing an optimal network of roads.

  19. The Roman Road System in the Golan: Highways, Paths and Tracks in Quotidian Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažout Adam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Roman Imperial Roads (highways built, maintained and organized by the Roman army and provincial authorities were studied in the Golan Heights since Schumacher’s surveys in the 1880s. However, most of these were obliterated by building and agricultural activity since the beginning of the 20th century. Local ancient road system, linking individual communities and their agricultural land was never studied, since it barely leaves a trace in archaeological record. This paper presents reconstruction of inter-provincial highways passing through the southern Golan Heights, and local road system in GIS using cumulative focal mobility network (CFMN analysis. The CFMN provides outline of natural corridors of movement in the region. From CFMN it is possible to extract path with higher mobility potential which will be tested against present evidence for Roman Imperial Highways, since it is assumed that corridors with high mobility potential would be suitable place for construction of (inter-provincial road. Path with lower mobility potential might indicate local road system, so it would be possible to connect agricultural communities with the land they exploited; which in turn may have implications for site prediction and site-catchment analysis exploring quotidian movement of people and goods in the landscape. Two case studies in this respect are presented: the city of Hippos and settlement of es-Safuriyye.

  20. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    on the major roads (150 km) in the municipality of North Funen from the winter 2007/8. The result has been a dramatically reduction in the number of traffic accidents on slippery roads during the winter season. From 7 and 5 accidents in the previous 2 winters to 1 accident in the winter 2007/8. Neighbouring...... municipalities had an increasing number of traffic accidents on slippery roads in the same period.......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  1. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  2. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  3. Updating a Strategic Highway Safety Plan : Learning from the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) - Proceedings from the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Highway Safety Peer-to-Peer Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    On November 4, 2009, ITDs Office of Highway Operations and Safety partnered with the FHWA Office of Safety to host a one-day peer exchange. This event focused on the update of Idahos Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP), entitled Toward Zero...

  4. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comprehensive methodology for the analysis of highway sight distance

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Malpica, María; Santos Berbel, César de; Iglesias Martínez, Luis

    2017-01-01

    As one of the main elements of geometric design, sight distance must be considered carefully for the safe and efficient operation of highways. An application developed on geographic information systems (GIS) was con-ceived for the three-dimensional estimation of sight distance on highways, as opposed to conventional two-dimensional techniques, which may underestimate or overestimate the actual visibility conditions. It is capable of computing the available sight distance of a highway section ...

  6. 76 FR 1664 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... on State Highway 99 (Segment G) AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of.... 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment... (State Highway 99) Segment G from I- 45 to US 59 in Harris and Montgomery Counties; FHWA Project...

  7. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria ...

  8. Highways, Alleys and By-lanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Christina; Hellström, Tomas

    2002-01-01

    The present paper introduces a view of how ideas develop in organizations that goes beyond the traditional focus on either individual or structural conditions for creativity and innovation. An interview study was conducted with key actors in a large Swedish telecom company. A model...... was then constructed where idea development is viewed as a process of combining and integrating various informal, yet powerful qualities of the organization. The paper argues that successful idea development depends on the capacity of actors and ideas to move on ‘organizational highways, alleys and by–lanes’. A number...

  9. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  10. Wildlife Mortality on National Highway 72 and 74 Across Rajaji National Park, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh JOSHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the road impact on resident wildlife is one of the important aspects of future conservation planning and of management related actions. Expanding a motor road network in and around protected habitats is considered to be a major threat that can cause the extinction of endangered species. We assessed vertebrate fauna mortality on two inter–state national highways: No. 72 (Haridwar–Dehradun and 74 (Haridwar–Bijnor and an ancillary road running across the Rajaji National Park and Haridwar Conservation area, North India. Field data on wildlife mortality was collected from June 2009 to May 2011. A total of 352 individuals of 39 species (3 amphibians, 9 reptiles, 18 mammals and 9 avian species were found dead on the national highways 72 & 74 and Haridwar–Chilla–Rishikesh motor road, which is running in between Rajaji National Park. Among all the mortalities, avian species were the most affected accounting for 38%, followed by mammals (27%. During Maha–Kumbh 2010, road accidents increased. It was an event that caused tremendous disturbance in animal migratory corridors and in drinking sites. The evaluation of vehicle traffic pressure on national highways revealed that ±14100 and ±9900 vehicles had been moving across these highways every day. In addition to that, expanding the motor roads network and increasing vehicle traffic pressure is disrupting ecological connectivity and impeding the movement of wild animals. In addition, wildlife mortality rate was observed to be increasing. Further studies are needed to understand the ecological impacts of increasing vehicle traffic on various national highways and roads and on animal behavioral responses, in order to take proper conservation actions

  11. Highway deicing salt dynamic runoff to surface water and subsequent infiltration to groundwater during severe UK winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Cuthbert, Mark O; Gamble, Richard; Connon, Lucy E; Pearson, Andrew; Shepley, Martin G; Davis, John

    2016-09-15

    Dynamic impact to the water environment of deicing salt application at a major highway (motorway) interchange in the UK is quantitatively evaluated for two recent severe UK winters. The contaminant transport pathway studied allowed controls on dynamic highway runoff and storm-sewer discharge to a receiving stream and its subsequent leakage to an underlying sandstone aquifer, including possible contribution to long-term chloride increases in supply wells, to be evaluated. Logged stream electrical-conductivity (EC) to estimate chloride concentrations, stream flow, climate and motorway salt application data were used to assess salt fate. Stream loading was responsive to salt applications and climate variability influencing salt release. Chloride (via EC) was predicted to exceed the stream Environmental Quality Standard (250mg/l) for 33% and 18% of the two winters. Maximum stream concentrations (3500mg/l, 15% sea water salinity) were ascribed to salt-induced melting and drainage of highway snowfall without dilution from, still frozen, catchment water. Salt persistance on the highway under dry-cold conditions was inferred from stream observations of delayed salt removal. Streambed and stream-loss data demonstrated chloride infiltration could occur to the underlying aquifer with mild and severe winter stream leakage estimated to account for 21 to 54% respectively of the 70t of increased chloride (over baseline) annually abstracted by supply wells. Deicing salt infiltration lateral to the highway alongside other urban/natural sources were inferred to contribute the shortfall. Challenges in quantifying chloride mass/fluxes (flow gauge accuracy at high flows, salt loading from other roads, weaker chloride-EC correlation at low concentrations), may be largely overcome by modest investment in enhanced data acquisition or minor approach modification. The increased understanding of deicing salt dynamic loading to the water environment obtained is relevant to improved

  12. PET reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, F.; Pawitan, Y.; Harrison, R.L.; Lewellen, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    In statistical terms, filtered backprojection can be viewed as smoothed Least Squares (LS). In this paper, the authors report on improvement in LS resolution by: incorporating locally adaptive smoothers, imposing positivity and using statistical methods for optimal selection of the resolution parameter. The resulting algorithm has high computational efficiency relative to more elaborate Maximum Likelihood (ML) type techniques (i.e. EM with sieves). Practical aspects of the procedure are discussed in the context of PET and illustrations with computer simulated and real tomograph data are presented. The relative recovery coefficients for a 9mm sphere in a computer simulated hot-spot phantom range from .3 to .6 when the number of counts ranges from 10,000 to 640,000 respectively. The authors will also present results illustrating the relative efficacy of ML and LS reconstruction techniques

  13. Penile surgery and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovic, Sava V; Djordjevic, Miroslav L J; Kekic, Zoran K; Djakovic, Nenad G

    2002-05-01

    This review will highlight recent advances in the field of penile reconstructive surgery in the paediatric and adult population. It is based on the work published during the year 2001. Besides the anatomical and histological studies of the penis, major contributions have been described in congenital and acquired penile anomalies. Also, a few new techniques and modifications of old procedures are described in order to improve the final functional and aesthetic outcome. The techniques for penile enlargement present a trend in the new millennium, but are still at the stage of investigation.

  14. A Review of Semivolatile and Volatile Organic Compounds in Highway Runoff and Urban Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Dionne, Shannon G.

    1998-01-01

    , the most significant factors affecting SVOC concentrations are organic carbon content and distance from sources such as highways and power plants. Petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crankcase oil and vehicle emissions are the major SVOCs detected in highway runoff and urban stormwater. The few loading factors and regression equations that were developed in the 1970's and 1980's have limited use in estimating current (1998) loads of SVOCs on a national scale. These factors and equations are based on few data and use inconsistent units, and some are independent of rainfall. Also, more cars on the road today have catalytic converters, and fuels that were used in 1998 are cleaner than when loading factors and regression equations were developed. Comparisons to water-quality and sedimentquality criteria and guidelines indicate that PAHs, phenolic compounds, and phthalates in runoff and sediment exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water and aquatic-life standards and guidelines. PAHs in stream sediments adjacent to highways have the highest potential for adverse effects on receiving streams. Few data exist on VOCs in highway runoff. VOCs were detected in precipitation adjacent to a highway in England, and chloromethane, toluene, xylenes, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane were detected in runoff from a highway in Texas. In urban stormwater, gasoline-related compounds were detected in as many as 23 percent of the samples. Land use could be the most significant factor affecting the occurrence of VOCs, with highest concentrations of VOCs found in industrial areas. Temperature is another factor affecting the occurrence and concentrations of VOCs. Urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of VOCs in stormwater. However, the atmosphere is a potential source of hydrophilic VOCs in stormwater, especially during cold seasons when partitioning of VOCs from air into water i

  15. 26 CFR 1.46-11 - Commuter highway vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-11 Commuter highway... investment under section 46(c)(1) for a qualifying commuter highway vehicle is 100 percent. A qualifying... meets the following requirements: (1) The vehicle is section 38 property in the hands of the taxpayer...

  16. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How do surgeons use implants to reconstruct a woman’s breast? How do surgeons ...

  17. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. Getting breast implants does not take as long as breast reconstruction ...

  18. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  19. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-06-17

    Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS

  20. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  1. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  2. Evaluation of the New Jersey Digital Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Jeng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the usefulness of the New Jersey Digital Highway (NJDH, www.njdigitalhighway.org and its portal structure. The NJDH intends to provide an immersive and user-centered portal for New Jersey history and culture. The research recruited 145 participants and used a Web-based questionnaire that contained three sections: for everyone, for educators, and for curators. The feedback on the usefulness of the NJDH was positive and the portal structure was favorable. The research uncovered several reasons why some collections did not want to or could not participate. The findings also suggested priorities for further development. This study is one of the few on the evaluation of cultural heritage digital library.

  3. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  4. Adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wenkai; Yin Fangfang

    2004-01-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) are iterative procedures for reconstructing objects from their projections. It is proven that ART can be computationally efficient by carefully arranging the order in which the collected data are accessed during the reconstruction procedure and adaptively adjusting the relaxation parameters. In this paper, an adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (AART), which adopts the same projection access scheme in multilevel scheme algebraic reconstruction technique (MLS-ART), is proposed. By introducing adaptive adjustment of the relaxation parameters during the reconstruction procedure, one-iteration AART can produce reconstructions with better quality, in comparison with one-iteration MLS-ART. Furthermore, AART outperforms MLS-ART with improved computational efficiency

  5. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbeds....... This paper reviews the current status of 40 Gbit/s TDM components and subsystem technologies achieved in HIGHWAY. The results of HIGHWAY 40 Gbit/s TDM systems and field tests will be reported in a subsequent paper. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  6. SafetyAnalyst : software tools for safety management of specific highway sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    SafetyAnalyst provides a set of software tools for use by state and local highway agencies for highway safety management. SafetyAnalyst can be used by highway agencies to improve their programming of site-specific highway safety improvements. SafetyA...

  7. Analytical Framework for End-to-End Delay Based on Unidirectional Highway Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslinda Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sparse vehicular ad hoc network, a vehicle normally employs a carry and forward approach, where it holds the message it wants to transmit until the vehicle meets other vehicles or roadside units. A number of analyses in the literature have been done to investigate the time delay when packets are being carried by vehicles on both unidirectional and bidirectional highways. However, these analyses are focusing on the delay between either two disconnected vehicles or two disconnected vehicle clusters. Furthermore, majority of the analyses only concentrate on the expected value of the end-to-end delay when the carry and forward approach is used. Using regression analysis, we establish the distribution model for the time delay between two disconnected vehicle clusters as an exponential distribution. Consequently, a distribution is newly derived to represent the number of clusters on a highway using a vehicular traffic model. From there, we are able to formulate end-to-end delay model which extends the time delay model for two disconnected vehicle clusters to multiple disconnected clusters on a unidirectional highway. The analytical results obtained from the analytical model are then validated through simulation results.

  8. Development of a GIS-based failure investigation system for highway soil slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Raghav; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Tanyu, Burak F.

    2015-06-01

    A framework for preparation of an early warning system was developed for Maryland, using a GIS database and a collective overlay of maps that highlight highway slopes susceptible to soil slides or slope failures in advance through spatial and statistical analysis. Data for existing soil slope failures was collected from geotechnical reports and field visits. A total of 48 slope failures were recorded and analyzed. Six factors, including event precipitation, geological formation, land cover, slope history, slope angle, and elevation were considered to affect highway soil slope stability. The observed trends indicate that precipitation and poor surface or subsurface drainage conditions are principal factors causing slope failures. 96% of the failed slopes have an open drainage section. A majority of the failed slopes lie in regions with relatively high event precipitation ( P>200 mm). 90% of the existing failures are surficial erosion type failures, and only 1 out of the 42 slope failures is deep rotational type failure. More than half of the analyzed slope failures have occurred in regions having low density land cover. 46% of failures are on slopes with slope angles between 20° and 30°. Influx of more data relating to failed slopes should give rise to more trends, and thus the developed slope management system will aid the state highway engineers in prudential budget allocation and prioritizing different remediation projects based on the literature reviewed on the principles, concepts, techniques, and methodology for slope instability evaluation (Leshchinsky et al., 2015).

  9. Conceptual Model for Smart Cities: Irrigation and Highway Lamps using IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Kumar Solanki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in mind the need to preserve energy as well as utilize the available at its best the need was felt to develop a module that would be able to sort out the problem where resources such as water and electricity were wasted, in urban as well as rural area. Resource (electricity was wasted as beside the point operation of Highway and High Mast Lamp; while wastage of water followed by improper trends and methodologies imparted for watering of city park, road side plantation and highway plantation. Thus as per Energy survey statistics of a City (Lucknow, India it was found that major portion of resources (water and electricity were being wasted due to negligent activities of officials who were in charge of resource management. So to facilitate energy saving trends and to completely modernize it to autonomous system, module below is proposed which incorporates modern technological peripheral and has its base ingrained in IoT (Internet of Things which when put into consideration would result in large scale resource and energy saving.This developed module incorporates the peripherals such as Arduino, Texas Instruments ultra low power kits etc. in accordance with software technology including Lab View which help to monitor as well as control the various operation from the base station, located far away from the site. Lab View Interface interacts with all the module located at various city parks, subways and highway lighting modules. Later below in several section a detailed pattern and application frame has been put up.

  10. [TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN DURING GEOMETRICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE IN CONJUNCTION WITH CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING AND USING OF HIGH THORACIC EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA AS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF GENERAL ANAESTHESIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevahina, M V; Farzutdinov, A F; Rahimov, A A; Makrushin, I M; Kvachantiradze, G Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the perioperative dynamics of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators: delivery (DO2), consumption (VO2), the coefficient of oxygen uptake (CUO2) and their composition, as well as the dynamics of blood lactate indicators in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) who underwent surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass with high thoracic epidural anaesthesia (HTEA) as the main component of anesthesia. Research was conducted in 30 patients with a critical degree of operational risk, during the correction of post-infarction heart aneurysmn using the V. Dor method in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting. The strategic blood oxygen transport indicators (delivery, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient) showed a statistically significant decrease compared to the physiological norm and to the initial data at two points of the research: the intubation of the trachea and during cardiopulmonary bypass. The system components of oxygen were influenced at problematic stages by the dynamics of SvO2 (increase), AVD (decrease), hemodilution withe fall of the HIb- in the process of JR in the persence of superficial hypothermia. The maintenance of optimal CA in the context of HTEA, combined with a balanced volemic load and a minimized cardiotonic support ensured the stabilisation of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators aithe postperfusion stage and during the immediate postoperative period The article is dedicated to the study of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators and their components during the operation of geometric reconstruc-tion of the left ventricle combined with coronary artery-bypass using cardiopulmonary bypass and with high thoracic epidural anesthesia as the main component of general anaesthesia. The analysis has covered the stagewise delivery dynamics, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient at II stages of the operation and of the immediate postoperative period. The study has ident (fled

  11. Cryo-electron Microscopy Reconstruction and Stability Studies of the Wild Type and the R432A Variant of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Reveal that Capsid Structural Stability Is a Major Factor in Genome Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Lauren M; Lins, Bridget; Janssen, Maria; Bennett, Antonette; Chipman, Paul; McKenna, Robert; Chen, Weijun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Cardone, Giovanni; Baker, Timothy S; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2016-10-01

    The adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising therapeutic gene delivery vectors and better understanding of their capsid assembly and genome packaging mechanism is needed for improved vector production. Empty AAV capsids assemble in the nucleus prior to genome packaging by virally encoded Rep proteins. To elucidate the capsid determinants of this process, structural differences between wild-type (wt) AAV2 and a packaging deficient variant, AAV2-R432A, were examined using cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction both at an ∼5.0-Å resolution (medium) and also at 3.8- and 3.7-Å resolutions (high), respectively. The high resolution structures showed that removal of the arginine side chain in AAV2-R432A eliminated hydrogen bonding interactions, resulting in altered intramolecular and intermolecular interactions propagated from under the 3-fold axis toward the 5-fold channel. Consistent with these observations, differential scanning calorimetry showed an ∼10°C decrease in thermal stability for AAV2-R432A compared to wt-AAV2. In addition, the medium resolution structures revealed differences in the juxtaposition of the less ordered, N-terminal region of their capsid proteins, VP1/2/3. A structural rearrangement in AAV2-R432A repositioned the βA strand region under the icosahedral 2-fold axis rather than antiparallel to the βB strand, eliminating many intramolecular interactions. Thus, a single amino acid substitution can significantly alter the AAV capsid integrity to the extent of reducing its stability and possibly rendering it unable to tolerate the stress of genome packaging. Furthermore, the data show that the 2-, 3-, and 5-fold regions of the capsid contributed to producing the packaging defect and highlight a tight connection between the entire capsid in maintaining packaging efficiency. The mechanism of AAV genome packaging is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the capsid determinants of the required capsid

  12. Evaluation and Selection of Renewable Energy Technologies for Highway Maintenance Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Taylor

    The interest in renewable energy has been increasing in recent years as attempts to reduce energy costs as well the consumption of fossil fuels are becoming more common. Companies and organizations are recognizing the increasing reliance on limited fossil fuels' resources, and as competition and costs for these resources grow, alternative solutions are becoming more appealing. Many federally run buildings and associations also have the added pressure of meeting the mandates of federal energy policies that dictate specific savings or reductions. Federal highway maintenance facilities run by the Department of Transportation fall into this category. To help meet energy saving goals, an investigation into potential renewable energy technologies was completed for the Ohio Department of Transportation. This research examined several types of renewable energy technologies and the major factors that affect their performance and evaluated their potential for implementation at highway maintenance facilities. Facilities energy usage data were provided, and a facility survey and site visits were completed to enhance the evaluation of technologies and the suitability for specific projects. Findings and technology recommendations were presented in the form of selection matrices, which were designed to help make selections in future projects. The benefits of utilization of other tools such as analysis software and life cycle assessments were also highlighted. These selection tools were designed to be helpful guides when beginning the pursuit of a renewable energy technology for highway maintenance facilities, and can be applied to other similar building types and projects. This document further discusses the research strategies and findings as well as the recommendations that were made to the personnel overseeing Ohio's highway maintenance facilities.

  13. Outflow of traffic from the national capital Kuala Lumpur to the north, south and east coast highways using flow, speed and density relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha; Nik Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim

    2016-01-01

    The functional relationships between flow (veh/km), density (veh/h) and speed (km/h) in traffic congestion have a long history of research. However, their findings and techniques persist to be relevant to this day. The analysis is pertinent, particularly in finding the best fit for the three major highways in Malaysia, namely the KL-Karak Highway, KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. The trans-logarithm function of density—speed model was compared to the classical models of Greenshields, Greenberg, Underwood and Drake et al. using data provided by the Transport Statistics Malaysia 2014. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Greenshields and Greenberg models were statistically signifi-cant. The trans-logarithm function was also tested and the results were nonetheless without exception. Its usefulness in addition to statistical significance related to the derived economic concepts of maximum speed and the related number of vehicles, flow and density and the limits of free speed were relevant in comparing the individual levels of traffic congestion between highways. For instance, KL-Karak Highway was least congested compared to KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. Their maximum speeds, based on three lanes carriage capacity of one direction, were 33.4 km/h for KL-Karak, 15.9 km/h for KL-Seremban, and 21.1 km/h for KL-Ipoh. Their corresponding flows were approxi-mated at 1080.9 veh/h, 1555.4 veh/h, and 1436.6 veh/h.

  14. Outflow of traffic from the national capital Kuala Lumpur to the north, south and east coast highways using flow, speed and density relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional relationships between flow (veh/km, density (veh/h and speed (km/h in traffic congestion have a long history of research. However, their findings and techniques persist to be relevant to this day. The analysis is pertinent, particularly in finding the best fit for the three major highways in Malaysia, namely the KL-Karak Highway, KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. The trans-logarithm function of density–speed model was compared to the classical models of Greenshields, Greenberg, Underwood and Drake et al. using data provided by the Transport Statistics Malaysia 2014. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Greenshields and Greenberg models were statistically significant. The trans-logarithm function was also tested and the results were nonetheless without exception. Its usefulness in addition to statistical significance related to the derived economic concepts of maximum speed and the related number of vehicles, flow and density and the limits of free speed were relevant in comparing the individual levels of traffic congestion between highways. For instance, KL-Karak Highway was least congested compared to KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. Their maximum speeds, based on three lanes carriage capacity of one direction, were 33.4 km/h for KL-Karak, 15.9 km/h for KL-Seremban, and 21.1 km/h for KL-Ipoh. Their corresponding flows were approximated at 1080.9 veh/h, 1555.4 veh/h, and 1436.6 veh/h.

  15. Beard reconstruction: A surgical algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninkovic, M; Heidekrueger, P I; Ehrl, D; von Spiegel, F; Broer, P N

    2016-06-01

    Facial defects with loss of hair-bearing regions can be caused by trauma, infection, tumor excision, or burn injury. The presented analysis evaluates a series of different surgical approaches with a focus on male beard reconstruction, emphasizing the role of tissue expansion of regional and free flaps. Locoregional and free flap reconstructions were performed in 11 male patients with 14 facial defects affecting the hair-bearing bucco-mandibular or perioral region. In order to minimize donor-site morbidity and obtain large amounts of thin, pliable, hair-bearing tissue, pre-expansion was performed in five of 14 patients. Eight of 14 patients were treated with locoregional flap reconstructions and six with free flap reconstructions. Algorithms regarding pre- and intraoperative decision making are discussed and long-term (mean follow-up 1.5 years) results analyzed. Major complications, including tissue expander infection with the need for removal or exchange, partial or full flap loss, occurred in 0% (0/8) of patients with locoregional flaps and in 17% (1/6) of patients undergoing free flap reconstructions. Secondary refinement surgery was performed in 25% (2/8) of locoregional flaps and in 67% (4/6) of free flaps. Both locoregional and distant tissue transfers play a role in beard reconstruction, while pre-expansion remains an invaluable tool. Paying attention to the presented principles and considering the significance of aesthetic facial subunits, range of motion, aesthetics, and patient satisfaction were improved long term in all our patients while minimizing donor-site morbidity. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Corresponding author, tel: +234 – 806 – 435 – 0200 ... construction, maintenance and optimization of the highways using the ...... Research Part A: Policy and Practice 29(4), 273-281. 1995. ... relationships: Quality and Theory of Traffic Flow.

  17. Evolution of new reflective materials for overhead highway signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Unlighted highway signs using newly developed retroreflective materials were installed along the Gowanus Expressway. Photometric measurements of the signs were used to assess the visibility of the signs using the relative visual performance model. Th...

  18. On-the-spot damage detection methodology for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Vibration-based damage identification (VBDI) techniques have been developed in part to address the problems associated with an aging civil infrastructure. To assess the potential of VBDI as it applies to highway bridges in Iowa, three applications of...

  19. NHDOT : process for municipally managed state aid highway program projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-23

    The design and construction of Municipally Managed State Aid Highway Program projects must comply with the requirements in this guideline in order to receive State Aid under the applicable provisions of RSA 235. Under this process, State Aid Construc...

  20. Highway vehicle systems contractors coordination meeting. Seventeenth summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts was prepared for each of the 62 papers presented at the Contractors' Coordination meeting on highway vehicle systems. One paper had previously appeared in DOE's data base.

  1. Using electronic document management systems to manage highway project files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    "WisDOTs Bureau of Technical Services is interested in learning about the practices of other state departments of : transportation in developing and implementing an electronic document management system to manage highway : project files"

  2. Economic development and workforce impacts of state DOT highway expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The research measured the impact of Georgia Department of Transportations highway : expenditures on economic activity in the State. The analysis covered awards made between January 2009 : and April 2013. The research is unique in that it not only ...

  3. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1995 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a national Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, Schulman,...

  4. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : 1997 customer satisfaction survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-13

    In 1995, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted its first Customer Satisfaction Survey in response to the requirements of the National Performance Review and Executive Order 12862. An independent research organization, S...

  5. The impact of Arizona Highways Magazine's facebook page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This project examined the relationship between use of the Arizona Highways magazine (AHM) Facebook Page and the decision to : travel to or within Arizona. Key purposes were to: (1) provide a thorough understanding of AHM Facebook Page users, includin...

  6. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  7. Analyses of Lattice Traffic Flow Model on a Gradient Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta Arvind Kumar; Redhu Poonam; Sharma Sapna

    2014-01-01

    The optimal current difference lattice hydrodynamic model is extended to investigate the traffic flow dynamics on a unidirectional single lane gradient highway. The effect of slope on uphill/downhill highway is examined through linear stability analysis and shown that the slope significantly affects the stability region on the phase diagram. Using nonlinear stability analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-deVries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equations are derived in stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The effect of reaction coefficient is examined and concluded that it plays an important role in suppressing the traffic jams on a gradient highway. The theoretical findings have been verified through numerical simulation which confirm that the slope on a gradient highway significantly influence the traffic dynamics and traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the optimal current difference effect in the new lattice model. (nuclear physics)

  8. Use of waste glass in highway construction (update--1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Increasing pressures to recycle more wastes and minimize the amount of materials placed in landfills are forcing reconsideration of potential uses of waste glass in highway construction and maintenance operations. The federal government and many stat...

  9. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of recycled concrete aggregate materials in highway constructions as compared to the use of virgin : materials reduces virgin natural resource demands on the environment. In order to evaluate their potential use of : recycle materials in high...

  10. Testimony on the Status of the Highway Trust Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Kim P. Cawley

    2013-01-01

    The current trajectory of the Highway Trust Fund is unsustainable. Starting in fiscal year 2015, the trust fund will have insufficient resources to meet all of its obligations—CBO projects—resulting in steadily accumulating shortfalls.

  11. Read your road : every highway user's guide to driving safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report is the sixth in a series produced for the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center). This formal comprehensive review of the plann...

  12. A visualization method for teaching the geometric design of highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-11

    In this project the authors employed state-of-the-art technology for developing visualization tools for teaching highway design. Specifically, the authors used photolog images as the basis for developing dynamic 3-D models of selected geometric eleme...

  13. Risk-based asset management methodology for highway infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining the infrastructure of roads, highways, and bridges is paramount to ensuring that these assets will remain safe and reliable in the future. If maintenance costs remain the same or continue to escalate, and additional funding is not made av...

  14. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  15. Technical and economic viability of automated highway systems : preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technical and economic investigations of automated highway systems (AHS) are addressed. It has generally been accepted that such systems show potential to alleviate urban traffic congestion, so most of the AHS research has been focused instead on tec...

  16. Incorporating travel time reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This final report documents the activities performed during SHRP 2 Reliability Project L08: Incorporating Travel Time Reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual. It serves as a supplement to the proposed chapters for incorporating travel time relia...

  17. CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface

  18. Least-Present-Value-of-Revenue Auctions and Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo M.R.A. Engel; Ronald D. Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    1998-01-01

    In recent years several countries have started massive highway franchising programs auctioned to private firms. In these auctions, the regulator typically sets the franchise term and firms bid on tolls, or, alternatively, the regulator sets tolls and the winner is the firm that asks for the shortest franchise term. In this paper we argue that many of the problems that highway franchises have encountered are due to the fact that the franchise term cannot adjust to demand realizations. We propo...

  19. Second-best Road Pricing Through Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the welfare impacts of a range of franchising regimes for congestible highways. For a single road in isolation, it is shown that a competitive auction with the level of road use as the decision criterion produces the socially optimal road (in terms of capacity and toll level) as the equilibrium outcome, provided constant returns to scale characterize highway operations. The auction outperforms various alternatives, in which the bidders are asked to minimize the toll level...

  20. Artificial potential functions for highway driving with collision avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf , Michael T.; Burdick, Joel W.

    2008-01-01

    We present a set of potential function components to assist an automated or semi-automated vehicle in navigating a multi-lane, populated highway. The resulting potential field is constructed as a superposition of disparate functions for lane- keeping, road-staying, speed preference, and vehicle avoidance and passing. The construction of the vehicle avoidance potential is of primary importance, incorporating the structure and protocol of laned highway driving. Particularly, the shape and dimen...

  1. Hydraulic analysis, Mad River at State Highway 41, Springfield, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ronald I.

    1977-01-01

    A hydraulic analysis of the lad River in a reach at Springfield, Ohio was made to determine the effects of relocating State Highway 41 in 1S76. The main channel was cleaned by dredging in the vicinity cf the new highway bridge and at the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge upstream. The new highway was placed on a high fill with relief structures for flood plain drainage consisting of a 12-foot corrugated metal pipe culvert and a bridge opening to accommodate the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway and a property access road. The effect of the new highway embankment on drainage from the flood plain was requested. Also requested was the effect that might be expected on the elevation of flood waters above the new highway embankment if the access road through the new highway embankment were raised.The study indicates that the improvement in the capacity of the main channel to carry water was such that, up to a discharge equivalent to a 25-year frequency flood, the water-surface elevation in the reach upstream from the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge would be about 0.6 foot lower than under conditions prior to the construction on State Highway 41. Diversion through the Mad River left bank levee break above the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge to the flood Flain would be decreased about one-half in terms of rate of discharge in cubic feet per second. The maximum difference in elevation cf the flood water between the upstream and downstream side of the new State Highway 41 embankment would be about 0.2 foot, with an additional 0.4 foot to be expected if the access road were raised 1.5 feet.

  2. An optimization model for improving highway safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promothes Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed a traffic safety management system (TSMS for improving safety on county paved roads in Wyoming. TSMS is a strategic and systematic process to improve safety of roadway network. When funding is limited, it is important to identify the best combination of safety improvement projects to provide the most benefits to society in terms of crash reduction. The factors included in the proposed optimization model are annual safety budget, roadway inventory, roadway functional classification, historical crashes, safety improvement countermeasures, cost and crash reduction factors (CRFs associated with safety improvement countermeasures, and average daily traffics (ADTs. This paper demonstrated how the proposed model can identify the best combination of safety improvement projects to maximize the safety benefits in terms of reducing overall crash frequency. Although the proposed methodology was implemented on the county paved road network of Wyoming, it could be easily modified for potential implementation on the Wyoming state highway system. Other states can also benefit by implementing a similar program within their jurisdictions.

  3. Modeling the highway transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    There will be a substantial increase in the number of spent fuel shipments on the nation's highway system in the next thirty years. Most of the spent fuel will be moving from reactors to a spent fuel repository. This study develops two models that evaluate the risk and cost of moving the spent fuel. The Minimum Total Transport Risk Model (MTTRM) seeks an efficient solution for this problem by finding the minimum risk path through the network and sending all the spent fuel shipments over this one path. The Equilibrium Transport Risk Model (ETRM) finds an equitable solution by distributing the shipments over a number of paths in the network. This model decreases the risk along individual paths, but increases society's risk because the spent fuel shipments are traveling over more links in the network. The study finds that there is a trade off between path risk and societal risk. As path risk declines, societal risk rises. The cost of shipping also increases as the number of paths expand. The cost and risk of shipping spent fuel from ten reactors to four potential repository sites are evaluated using the MTTRM. The temporary monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in Tennessee is found to be the minimum cost and minimum risk solution. When direct shipment to the permanent sites is considered, Deaf Smith, Texas is the least cost and least incident free transport risk location. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the least risk location when the focus is placed on the potential consequences of an accident

  4. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0-15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15-60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990 s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ...'' (GA-090-751). That report recommended that Financial Plans include the cost of financing the project... Project Financial Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice requests comments on draft Major Project Financial Plan...

  6. Evaluation of seismic damage to bridges and highway systems in Shelby County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, John Bailey

    Past earthquakes have demonstrated that bridges are one of the most vulnerable components of highway transportation systems. In addition to bridges, roadways may also be subject to damage, particularly in an area prone to earthquake-induced liquefaction. As a consequence, the highway transportation systems after an earthquake might be impaired and the post-earthquake emergency response might be compromised. Furthermore, the impact on the regional economy might be very significant from the damage to highway systems. Since highway transportation systems are critical lifelines for people living in an urban area, it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of bridges and highway systems in earthquake-prone regions. Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee are located close to the southwestern segment of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). This zone produced three of the largest earthquakes in North America in 1811--1812. Presently, the NMSZ is still active and is considered by engineers, seismologists, and public officials as the most hazardous seismic zone in the central and eastern United States. Bridges in the Memphis area were generally not designed for seismic resistance until 1990. Therefore, the majority of existing bridges might suffer damage from earthquakes occurring in the NMSZ. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the expected damage to bridges and roadways on the major routes in Memphis and Shelby County resulting from New Madrid earthquakes with the aid of geographic information system (GIS) technology. The road network selected for this study includes all the Interstate highway system, all the primary and secondary routes maintained by the state, and most of the major arterial routes. There are 452 bridges on the selected roadway systems and data pertinent to these bridges and roadway systems were collected and implemented as a GIS database. The bridges in the Memphis area were classified into several types and damage states were determined

  7. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  8. Zoning of highway flood-triggering environment for highway in Fuling District, Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qing-mei; Tang, Hong-mei; Chen, Hong-kai

    2011-10-01

    Based on the geological environment about Fuling district in Chongqing city, eight evaluating indicators on road flooding subsequently environment along the highway: geological disasters developmental condition, rainstorm intensity, flood frequency, landform condition, litho-logical condition, average annual rainfall, vegetation coverage and geological structure, have been chosen. Adopting expert system to double evaluation and using the analysis hierarchy process to confirm the weight of index, accordingly, the mathematical model of evaluation on subsequently environment is put forward. On the support of GIS, grid subsequently environmental index and township administrative division subsequently environmental index, subsequently environment is divided into 4 degrees. They are dangerous zone, high susceptible zone, middle susceptible zone and low susceptible zone of the floods subsequently environment around highway. The results of the study indicate that in the total area, dangerous zone, high susceptible zone, middle susceptible zone and low susceptible zone of road flooding are 11.89%, 41.65%, 32.20% and 14.26% respectively. The results provide some significant scientific evidence for the further risk evaluation of road flooding.

  9. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  10. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchmauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction, as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue, the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.

  11. Energy Beam Highways Through the Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of Energy Beam Flight Transportation Systems could dramatically change the way we travel in the 21st Century. A framework for formulating 'Highways of Light' and the top level architectures that invoke radically new Space Power Grid infrastructure, are introduced. Basically, such flight systems, hereafter called Lightcraft, would employ off-board energy beam sources (either laser or microwave) to energize on-board dependent 'motors' -- instead of the traditional autonomous 'engines' with their on-board energy sources (e.g., chemical fuels). Extreme reductions in vehicle dry mass appear feasible with the use of off-board power and a high degree of on-board artificial intelligence. Such vehicles may no longer need airports for refueling (since they require no propellant), and could possibly pick up travelers at their homes -- before motoring over to one of many local boost stations, for the flight out. With off-board power, hyper-energetic acceleration performance and boost-glide trajectories become feasible. Hypersonic MS airbreathing propulsion can enable boosts up to twice escape velocity, which will cut trip times to the moon down to 5.5 hours. The predominant technological, environmental and social factors that will result from such transportation systems will be stressed. This presentation first introduces the remote source siting options for the space power system infrastructure, and then provides three representative laser/microwave Lightcraft options (derived from historical Case Studies): i.e., 'Acorn', 'Toy Top', and 'Disc.' Next the gamut of combined-cycle engine options developed for these Lightcraft are examined -- to illuminate the 'emerging technologies' that must be harnessed to produce flight hardware. Needed proof-of concept experiments are identified, along with the Macro-Level Issues that can springboard these revolutionary concepts into hardware reality.

  12. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Federal-Aid Highway Contractors Annual EEO Report (Form PR-1391)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-Aid Highway Contractors Annual EEO Report (Form PR-1391) C Appendix C to Subpart A of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Part 230—Federal-Aid Highway Contractors Annual EEO Report (Form PR-1391) EC14OC91.000 ...

  13. Cost of Capital Estimation for Highway Concessionaires in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vergara-Novoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the cost of capital estimation for highway concessionaires in Chile. We estimated the cost of equity and the cost of debt and determined the capital structure for each one of twenty-four concessionaires that operate highways. We based our estimations on the developments of Sharpe (1964, Modigliani and Miller (1958, and Maquieira (2009, which were also compared with the Brusov et al. (2015 developments. We collected stock prices for different highway concessionaires around the world from Google Finance and Reuters’ websites in order to determine the Beta of equity using a representative company. After that, we estimated the cost of equity considering Hamada (1969 and a Capital Asset Pricing Model. Then, we estimated the cost of capital using the cost of debt and the capital structure of Chile’s highway concessionaires. With all above, we were able to determine the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC for highway concessions which ranges from 5.49 to 6.62%.

  14. [Effect of highway driving on the health of factory workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2008-06-01

    Commuting transportation is one of the important factors in the administration of safety management in industries. Most workers commute to work by car and are certain to make use of highways, mainly because of the special condition of factory locations. In this study, we investigated the effect of communicating by car on the health of factory workers. The proportion of males was significantly higher in the highway (HW) group than in the non-highway (NHW) group, and the former was younger than the latter. BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol deteriorated significantly in the NHW group after 5-year periodic medical checkups. However, in the HW group, those factors did not change except for systolic blood pressure and significant improvements in triglyceride. The percentage of those who follow a good lifestyle regarding excise and nutrition, and have a solution for stress, was lower in the HW group than in the NHW group. Nevertheless, the percentage of those who did not feel stress was significantly higher in the HW group than in the NHW group, suggesting a stress-relieving effect of highway driving. Highway driving might have an unexpectedly good impact on the health of factory workers.

  15. Modeling highway travel time distribution with conditional probability models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Freight Management and Operations, the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) has developed performance measures through the Freight Performance Measures (FPM) initiative. Under this program, travel speed information is derived from data collected using wireless based global positioning systems. These telemetric data systems are subscribed and used by trucking industry as an operations management tool. More than one telemetric operator submits their data dumps to ATRI on a regular basis. Each data transmission contains truck location, its travel time, and a clock time/date stamp. Data from the FPM program provides a unique opportunity for studying the upstream-downstream speed distributions at different locations, as well as different time of the day and day of the week. This research is focused on the stochastic nature of successive link travel speed data on the continental United States Interstates network. Specifically, a method to estimate route probability distributions of travel time is proposed. This method uses the concepts of convolution of probability distributions and bivariate, link-to-link, conditional probability to estimate the expected distributions for the route travel time. Major contribution of this study is the consideration of speed correlation between upstream and downstream contiguous Interstate segments through conditional probability. The established conditional probability distributions, between successive segments, can be used to provide travel time reliability measures. This study also suggests an adaptive method for calculating and updating route travel time distribution as new data or information is added. This methodology can be useful to estimate performance measures as required by the recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP 21).

  16. Reconstructing human evolution

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074069

    1999-01-01

    One can reconstruct human evolution using modern genetic data and models based on the mathematical theory of evolution and its four major factors : mutation, natural selection, statistical fluctuations in finite populations (random genetic drift), and migration. Archaeology gives some help on the major dates and events of the process. Chances of studying ancient DNA are very limited but there have been a few successful results. Studying DNA instead of proteins, as was done until a few years ago, and in particular the DNA of mitochondria and of the Y chromosome which are transmitted, respectively, by the maternal line and the paternal line, has greatly simplified the analysis. It is now possible to carry the analysis on individuals, while earlier studies were of necessity based on populations. Also the evolution of ÒcultureÓ (i.e. what we learn from others), in particular that of languages, gives some help and can be greatly enlightened by genetic studies. Even though it is largely based on mechanisms of mut...

  17. Guidelines for selecting preferred highway routes for highway-route-controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document presents guidelines for use by State officials in selecting preferred routes for highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. A methodology for analyzing and comparing safety factors of alternative routes is described. Technical information on the impacts of radioactive material transportation needed to apply the methodology is also presented. Application of the methodology will identify the route (or set of routes) that minimizes the radiological impacts from shipments of these radioactive materials within a given State. Emphasis in the document is on practical application of the methodology. Some details of the derivation of the methods and data are presented in the appendices. All references in the body of the report can be found listed in the Bibliography (Appendix F)

  18. Highway 61 Revisited: Bob Dilan i francuski poststrukturalizam / Highway 61 Revisited: Bob Dilan and French Poststructuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Dedić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this text is to show parallels between rock music and poststructuralist philosophy. As a case study one of the most celebrated rock albums of all times – Bob Dylan’s Highway 61 Revisited from 1965 is taken. It is one of the crucial albums in the history of popular culture which influenced further development of rock music within American counter culture of the 60s. Dylan’s turn from the politics of American New Left and folk movement, his relation towards the notions of the author and intertextuality, and his connection with experimental usage of language in the manner of avant-garde and neoavant-garde poetry, are juxtaposed with the main philosophical standpoints of Jean-François Lyotard, Jean Baudrillard, Roland Barthes and Julia Kristeva which historically and chronologically coincide with the appearance of Dylan’s album.

  19. The optimization of concrete mixtures for use in highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Mohamadreza

    Portland cement concrete is most used commodity in the world after water. Major part of civil and transportation infrastructure including bridges, roadway pavements, dams, and buildings is made of concrete. In addition to this, concrete durability is often of major concerns. In 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimated that an annual investment of 170 billion on roads and 20.5 billion for bridges is needed on an annual basis to substantially improve the condition of infrastructure. Same article reports that one-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition [1]. However, portland cement production is recognized with approximately one cubic meter of carbon dioxide emission. Indeed, the proper and systematic design of concrete mixtures for highway applications is essential as concrete pavements represent up to 60% of interstate highway systems with heavier traffic loads. Combined principles of material science and engineering can provide adequate methods and tools to facilitate the concrete design and improve the existing specifications. In the same manner, the durability must be addressed in the design and enhancement of long-term performance. Concrete used for highway pavement applications has low cement content and can be placed at low slump. However, further reduction of cement content (e.g., versus current specifications of Wisconsin Department of Transportation to 315-338 kg/m 3 (530-570 lb/yd3) for mainstream concrete pavements and 335 kg/m3 (565 lb/yd3) for bridge substructure and superstructures) requires delicate design of the mixture to maintain the expected workability, overall performance, and long-term durability in the field. The design includes, but not limited to optimization of aggregates, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), chemical and air-entraining admixtures. This research investigated various theoretical and experimental methods of aggregate optimization applicable for the reduction of cement content

  20. Estimating Concentrations of Road-Salt Constituents in Highway-Runoff from Measurements of Specific Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.

    1999-01-01

    Discrete or composite samples of highway runoff may not adequately represent in-storm water-quality fluctuations because continuous records of water stage, specific conductance, pH, and temperature of the runoff indicate that these properties fluctuate substantially during a storm. Continuous records of water-quality properties can be used to maximize the information obtained about the stormwater runoff system being studied and can provide the context needed to interpret analyses of water samples. Concentrations of the road-salt constituents calcium, sodium, and chloride in highway runoff were estimated from theoretical and empirical relations between specific conductance and the concentrations of these ions. These relations were examined using the analysis of 233 highwayrunoff samples collected from August 1988 through March 1995 at four highway-drainage monitoring stations along State Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Theoretically, the specific conductance of a water sample is the sum of the individual conductances attributed to each ionic species in solution-the product of the concentrations of each ion in milliequivalents per liter (meq/L) multiplied by the equivalent ionic conductance at infinite dilution-thereby establishing the principle of superposition. Superposition provides an estimate of actual specific conductance that is within measurement error throughout the conductance range of many natural waters, with errors of less than ?5 percent below 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and ?10 percent between 1,000 and 4,000 ?S/cm if all major ionic constituents are accounted for. A semi-empirical method (adjusted superposition) was used to adjust for concentration effects-superposition-method prediction errors at high and low concentrations-and to relate measured specific conductance to that calculated using superposition. The adjusted superposition method, which was developed to interpret the State Route 25 highway-runoff records, accounts for

  1. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical......The paper presents some of the first results from a study of the removal of pollutants in highway detention ponds in Denmark. The objective of the study is to set up a procedure for long-term modelling of discharges of pollutants to the environment from the many Danish highway detention ponds...... rainfalls. The modelling will take place in a special version of the MIKE URBAN. The modelling is calibrated and validated on measurements from selected highway catchments. The removal of pollutants in the ponds is studied by local measurements in combination with CFD modelling using the MIKE 21 and MIKE 3...

  2. The highway capacity manual a conceptual and research history

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950, the Highway Capacity Manual has been a standard used in the planning, design, analysis, and operation of virtually any highway traffic facility in the United States. It has also been widely used abroad, and has spurred the development of similar manuals in other countries. The twin concepts of capacity and level of service have been developed in the manual, and methodologies have been presented that allow highway traffic facilities to be designed on a common basis, and allow for the analysis of operational quality under various traffic demand scenarios. The manual also addresses related pedestrian, bicycle, and transit issues.   This book details the fundamental development of the concepts of capacity and level of service, and of the specific methodologies developed to describe them over a wide range of facility types. The book is comprised of two volumes. Volume 1 (this book) focuses on the development of basic principles, and their application to uninterrupted flow facilities: freeways, multila...

  3. Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, northwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lee R.; Bayless, E. Randall; Buszka, Paul M.; Wilson, John T.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality were studied at a site in northwestern Indiana using a variety of geochemical indicators. Site characteristics such as high snowfall rates; large quantities of applied deicers; presence of a high-traffic highway; a homogeneous, permeable, and unconfined aquifer; a shallow water table; a known ground-water-flow direction; and minimal potential for other sources of chloride and sodium to complicate source interpretation were used to select a study area where ground water was likely to be affected by deicer application. Forty-three monitoring wells were installed in an unconfined sand aquifer (the Calumet aquifer) near Beverly Shores in northwestern Indiana. Wells were installed along two transects that approximately paralleled groundwater flow in the Calumet aquifer and crossed US?12. US?12 is a highway that receives Indiana?s highest level of maintenance to maintain safe driving conditions. Ground-water quality and water-level data were collected from the monitoring wells, and precipitation and salt-application data were compiled from 1994 through 1997. The water-quality data indicated that chloride was the most easily traced indicator of highway deicers in ground water. Concentration ratios of chloride to iodide and chloride to bromide and Stiff diagrams of major element concentrations indicated that the principal source of chloride and sodium in ground water from the uppermost one-third to one-half of the Calumet relative electromagnetic conductivity defined a distinct plume of deicer-affected water in the uppermost 8 feet of aquifer at about 9 feet horizontally from the paved roadway edge and a zone of higher conductivity than background in the lower one-third of the aquifer. Chloride and sodium in the deep parts of the aquifer originated from natural sources. Chloride and sodium from highway deicers were present in the aquifer throughout the year. The highest concentrations of chloride and sodium

  4. Transportation Infrastructure: Managing the Costs of Large-Dollar Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) was requested to assess the effectiveness of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) oversight of the costs of large-dollar highway and bridge projects (those with a total estimated cost of over $100 million)...

  5. Improved traffic control measures to prevent incorrect turns at highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A number of injuries and fatal collisions have occurred at certain highway-rail grade crossings that are located immediately adjacent to highway intersections, driveways or interstate ramps. Some guide signage, pavement markings, and other traffic co...

  6. Real-time stress monitoring of highway bridges with a secured wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This collaborative research aims to develop a real-time stress monitoring system for highway bridges with a secured wireless sensor network. The near term goal is to collect wireless sensor data under different traffic patterns from local highway br...

  7. West Virginia Peer Exchange : Streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program Project Delivery - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The West Virginia Division of Highways (WV DOH) hosted a Peer Exchange to share information and experiences for streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) project delivery. The event was held September 23 to 24, 2014 in Charleston, West V...

  8. Superhydrophobic engineered cementitious composites for highway bridge applications : technology transfer and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The strength and durability of highway bridges are two of the key components in maintaining a : high level of freight transportation capacity on the nations highways. Superhydrophobic : engineered cementitious composite (SECC) is a new advanced con...

  9. West Virginia peer exchange : streamlining highway safety improvement program project delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The West Virginia Division of Highways (WV DOH) hosted a Peer Exchange to share information and experiences : for streamlining Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) project delivery. The event was held September : 22 to 23, 2014 in Charleston, We...

  10. Frequency and distribution of highway crossings by Kenai Peninsula brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Tabitha A.; Farley, Sean; Servheen, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Highway construction and expansion through bear habitat can negatively affect brown bear populations. Highway structures can decrease habitat availability through habitat loss and restricted access, roads often displace animals and cause re-direction of natural movements, and highways can act as barriers to decrease gene flow. Lastly, highway traffic can cause direct bear and human mortality through car-animal collisions. We examined the spatial and temporal distribution of brown bear crossin...

  11. Methodology for safety optimization of highway cross-sections for horizontal curves with restricted sight distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar E; Sayed, Tarek; Ismail, Karim

    2012-11-01

    Several earlier studies have noted the shortcomings with existing geometric design guides which provide deterministic standards. In these standards the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from the standards. To mitigate these shortcomings, probabilistic geometric design has been advocated where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a mechanism for risk measurement to evaluate the safety impact of deviations from design standards. This paper applies reliability analysis for optimizing the safety of highway cross-sections. The paper presents an original methodology to select a suitable combination of cross-section elements with restricted sight distance to result in reduced collisions and consistent risk levels. The purpose of this optimization method is to provide designers with a proactive approach to the design of cross-section elements in order to (i) minimize the risk associated with restricted sight distance, (ii) balance the risk across the two carriageways of the highway, and (iii) reduce the expected collision frequency. A case study involving nine cross-sections that are parts of two major highway developments in British Columbia, Canada, was presented. The results showed that an additional reduction in collisions can be realized by incorporating the reliability component, P(nc) (denoting the probability of non-compliance), in the optimization process. The proposed approach results in reduced and consistent risk levels for both travel directions in addition to further collision reductions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions... management system; (g) Education and outreach highway safety programs, such as use of child safety seats... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144...

  13. Bad Foundation and its Treatment of HeBei Coastal Highway | Ye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, with the accelerating urbanization process, the national road network continues to expand, a lot of highway construction projects are in the countryside. The geological properties of high level, long distance highway foundation are complicated. In order to guarantee the stability of highway embankment, we ...

  14. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway... MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments... State in all matters relating to, and to enter into, on behalf of the State, all contracts and...

  15. 26 CFR 48.6427-0 - Off-highway business use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Off-highway business use. 48.6427-0 Section 48... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-0 Off-highway business use. For purposes of the regulations under section 6427, after March 31, 1983, the term “off-highway business use...

  16. 26 CFR 48.6421-0 - Off-highway business use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Off-highway business use. 48.6421-0 Section 48... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-0 Off-highway business use. For purposes of the regulations under section 6421, after March 31, 1983, the term “off-highway business use...

  17. Implementation of GPS controlled highway construction equipment, phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Beginning in 2006, WisDOT and the Construction Material and Support Center (CMSC) at UW-Madison worked : together to develop the specifications and the QA/QC procedures for GPS machine guidance on highway grading : projects. These specifications and ...

  18. Measuring highway efficiency : A DEA approach and the Malquist index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarmento, Joaquim Miranda; Renneboog, Luc; Verga-Matos, Pedro

    A growing concern exists regarding the efficiency of public resources spent in transport infrastructures. In this paper, we measure the efficiency of seven highway projects in Portugal over the past decade by means of a data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist productivity and efficiency indices.

  19. Education Moves into High Gear on the Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    The utilization of teleconferencing as part of the information highway, mainly among schools in North Carolina, is examined. The National Information Infrastructure, outlined by Vice President Gore in January 1994, is the official name of the information system. The U.S. Congress issued four pieces of legislation in support of high-tech…

  20. Feasibility of shoulder use for highway work zone optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Du

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Highway maintenance, often requiring lane closure, is very expensive in terms of the costs associated with transportation agencies (i. e. work zone setups and road users (i. e. delay. Longer work zones tend to increase the user delay but will be efficient because of fewer repeated setups. To increase road capacity and mitigate congestion impact for a short-term work zone, temporary shoulder use may be applied. This study develops an analytical model to optimize work zone length on a multi-lane highway considering time-varying traffic volume and road capacity affected by light condition, heavy vehicle percentage, and lane width. The results can be used to evaluate the work zone impact (i. e. delay and cost and assist engineers/planners to prepare and develop a cost-effective highway maintenance plan. A case study for a highway work zone in New Jersey has been conducted, in which the optimized solution is found. A guideline of using road shoulder under various circumstances is developed.

  1. 76 FR 5120 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... suggested that FMCSA should provide pavement markings and signage at or near grade crossings to indicate the... eligible for funding under 23 U.S.C. 130; (2) improvement of highway signage and pavement markings; and (3... crossings might get pavement markings and signage and that not all grade-crossing improvements are likely to...

  2. GIS for Highway Engineering in Developing Countries | Mulaku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based information system that enables the input, management, analysis, output and dissemination of geospatial data and information. It is therefore an invaluable management tool in all fields where geospatial data is applied, such as highway engineering. Unfortunately ...

  3. Highway Construction in the U.S.: Costs, Benefits, Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2013-01-01

    Few people truly recognize the influence of modern transportation on society. In the United States, that includes the influence of highways that allow the citizenry to travel freely, the strength of the economy, and the country's national security. In all cases, the geography of the United States influenced the evolution of transportation and…

  4. Developing a Highway Safety Fundamentals Course : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Although the need for road : safety education was fi rst : recognized in the 1960s, : recently it has become an : increasingly urgent issue. To : fulfi ll the hefty goal set up by : the AASHTO Highway : Safety Strategy (cutting : traffi c fatalities ...

  5. The impact of Arizona Highways Magazine on tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine the effect of Arizona Highways Magazine (AHM) on tourism, 2) determine trip : characteristics of AHM subscribers traveling in Arizona, and 3) calculate a benefit/cost ratio for AHM based on the : magazine...

  6. Highway traffic simulation on multi-processor computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Doss, E.; Tentner, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate highway traffic for various degrees of automation with a high level of fidelity in regard to driver control and vehicle characteristics. The model simulates vehicle maneuvering in a multi-lane highway traffic system and allows for the use of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technologies such as an Automated Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC). The structure of the computer model facilitates the use of parallel computers for the highway traffic simulation, since domain decomposition techniques can be applied in a straight forward fashion. In this model, the highway system (i.e. a network of road links) is divided into multiple regions; each region is controlled by a separate link manager residing on an individual processor. A graphical user interface augments the computer model kv allowing for real-time interactive simulation control and interaction with each individual vehicle and road side infrastructure element on each link. Average speed and traffic volume data is collected at user-specified loop detector locations. Further, as a measure of safety the so- called Time To Collision (TTC) parameter is being recorded.

  7. 3D engineered models for highway construction : the Iowa experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    3D engineered modeling is a relatively new and developing technology that can provide numerous bene ts to owners, engineers, : contractors, and the general public. This manual is for highway agencies that are considering or are in the process of s...

  8. Stabilization of Highway Expansive Soils with High Loss on Ignition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of high loss on ignition content cement kiln dust on the stabilization of highway expansive soils. Laboratory tests were performed on the natural and stabilized soil samples in accordance with BS 1377 (1990) and BS 1924 (1990), respectively. The preliminary investigation ...

  9. Montana Highway Safety Improvement Program : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report provides a summary of a peer-to-peer (P2P) videoconference sponsored by the : Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) and the Federal Highway Administration : (FHWA) Office of Safety. The videoconference format provided a low-cost oppo...

  10. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Natural highway aggregate is a finite resource that with continued use in construction : activities but some good quality aggregates used in existing concrete structures may be : re-used to replace with the natural aggregate. Due to the repair or rep...

  11. Apparatus for obtaining electric energy in speed highways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatyan, P.R.; Khalatyan, R.P.; Khalatyan, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    The problems of obtaining electricity by means of moving motor-transport are examined. An apparatus installed in the distributive zone of intensive traffic speed highways is proposed. Part of air mass movement of kinetic energy is transformed from the movement of automobiles into electricity

  12. Efficient use of highway capacity summary : report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report was developed to summarize the implementation of safety shoulders as travel lanes as a method to increase the efficient use of highway capacity. Its purpose is to provide a succinct overview of efforts to use left or right shoulder lanes ...

  13. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  14. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation system research, data, and analysis used to develop or support the business model. (vii) Proposed... Highway Projects. (9) Utilize current or future Federal funding mechanisms, as appropriate, to support the...) Organization. Provide the organizational structure of the proposed project, including business affiliations...

  15. Reliable Freestanding Position-Based Routing in Highway Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A.; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  16. Infiltration of stormwater from highway operations to reduce coastal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The coastal waters of Hawaii are extremely important for recreation as well as for the health of : the marine environment. Runoff from the construction and operation of highways can be a : source of pollution to coastal waters. Individual states in t...

  17. Effect of chronic nonmalignant pain on highway driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, D S; van Wijck, A J M; Wille, F; Verster, J C; Kenemans, J L; Kalkman, C J; Olivier, B; Volkerts, E R

    2006-05-01

    Most pain patients are treated in an outpatient setting and are engaged in daily activities including driving. Since several studies showed that cognitive functioning may be impaired in chronic nonmalignant pain, the question arises whether or not chronic nonmalignant pain affects driving performance. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of chronic nonmalignant pain on actual highway driving performance during normal traffic. Fourteen patients with chronic nonmalignant pain and 14 healthy controls, matched on age, educational level, and driving experience, participated in the study. Participants performed a standardized on-the-road driving test during normal traffic, on a primary highway. The primary parameter of the driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP). In addition, driving-related skills (tracking, divided attention, and memory) were examined in the laboratory. Subjective assessments, such as pain intensity, and subjective driving quality, were rated on visual analogue scales. The results demonstrated that a subset of chronic nonmalignant pain patients had SDLPs that were higher than the matched healthy controls, indicating worse highway driving performance. Overall, there was a statistically significant difference in highway driving performance between the groups. Further, chronic nonmalignant pain patients rated their subjective driving quality to be normal, although their ratings were significantly lower than those of the healthy controls. No significant effects were found on the laboratory tests.

  18. A comparative study of wood highway sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan Grgurevich; Thomas Boothby; Harvey Manbeck; Courtney Burroughs; Stephen Cegelka; Craig Bernecker; Michael A. Ritter

    2002-01-01

    Prototype designs for wood highway sound barriers meeting the multiple criteria of structural integrity, acoustic effectiveness, durability, and potential for public acceptance have been developed. Existing installations of wood sound barriers were reviewed and measurements conducted in the field to estimate acoustic insertion losses. A complete matrix of design...

  19. Highway Expenditures and Associated Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the satisfaction of the Nevadans with respect to their highway transportation system and the corresponding expenditures of Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT. A survey questionnaire was designed to capture the opinions of the Nevadans (customers about a number of characteristics of their transportation system. Data from the financial data warehouse of the NDOT was used to evaluate expenditures. Multinomial probit models were estimated to study the correlations between customers’ opinion and the government expenditures in transportation. The results indicate the customer satisfaction is decreasing with respect to traffic safety throughout Northwestern and Southern Nevada highways. In addition, users of Northwestern highways are more likely to be satisfied, compared to their counterparts, with increasing construction spending to reduce the time taken to complete construction projects. In Southern Nevada highways, customers’ satisfaction increases with the expenditures associated with reduction of congestion. These insights are examples of the conclusions that were obtained as a consequence of simultaneously considering customer satisfaction and the corresponding expenditures in transportation.

  20. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  1. Second-best Road Pricing through Highway Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, E.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the welfare impacts of a range of franchising regimes for congestible highways. For a single road in isolation, it is shown that a competitive auction with the level of road use as the decision criterion produces the socially optimal road (in terms of capacity and toll level),

  2. Variability of Travel Times on New Jersey Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the results of a link and path travel time study conducted on selected New Jersey (NJ) highways to produce estimates of the corresponding variability of travel time (VTT) by departure time of the day and days of the week. The tra...

  3. Highway pavement failure induced by poor soil geotechnical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of abundant kaolinite peaks and a subdued goethite peak without any trace of montmorrilonite. The presence of excess fines in the pavement construction materials (soils) contributed to the failure of the highway pavement at this locality. The low CBR value is also a noted cause ...

  4. Desmatamento no sul do estado de Roraima: padrões de distribuição em função de projetos de assentamento do INCRA e da distância das principais rodovias (BR-174 e BR-210 Deforestation in the southern portion of the Roraima state: distribution with respect to INCRA settlement projects and distance from major highways (BR-174 and BR-210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Barni

    2012-06-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS to delineate buffers along each of the two main highways that cross the region: BR-174 and BR-210. Each buffer was 20 km wide and was divided into eight strips 2500 m in width. The study covered the 2001-2007 period using annual deforestation data from PRODES vector files and visual analysis of TM Landsat 5 imagery. We also used shape files of roads and settlement projects in the southern part of Roraima coupled with field observations. Deforestation in the period was strongly related to the availability of roads and to the number of families present in the settlement project. The occurrence of deforestation was highest in the area of the BR-210 where large landowners and land invasions were present. The logging center on the BR-174 may have influenced the formation of small clearings in the Rorainópolis city neighbor. Predatory logging and new land occupations by both small and large landholders are spreading quickly in a disorderly fashion. This situation has high potential for forest loss since migration is expected to increase if Roraima is connected to the "Arc of Deforestation" by reopening the BR-319 Highway, which would connect Manaus to Porto Velho.

  5. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  6. Update on orbital reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-08-01

    Orbital trauma is common and frequently complicated by ocular injuries. The recent literature on orbital fracture is analyzed with emphasis on epidemiological data assessment, surgical timing, method of approach and reconstruction materials. Computed tomographic (CT) scan has become a routine evaluation tool for orbital trauma, and mobile CT can be applied intraoperatively if necessary. Concomitant serious ocular injury should be carefully evaluated preoperatively. Patients presenting with nonresolving oculocardiac reflex, 'white-eyed' blowout fracture, or diplopia with a positive forced duction test and CT evidence of orbital tissue entrapment require early surgical repair. Otherwise, enophthalmos can be corrected by late surgery with a similar outcome to early surgery. The use of an endoscope-assisted approach for orbital reconstruction continues to grow, offering an alternative method. Advances in alloplastic materials have improved surgical outcome and shortened operating time. In this review of modern orbital reconstruction, several controversial issues such as surgical indication, surgical timing, method of approach and choice of reconstruction material are discussed. Preoperative fine-cut CT image and thorough ophthalmologic examination are key elements to determine surgical indications. The choice of surgical approach and reconstruction materials much depends on the surgeon's experience and the reconstruction area. Prefabricated alloplastic implants together with image software and stereolithographic models are significant advances that help to more accurately reconstruct the traumatized orbit. The recent evolution of orbit reconstruction improves functional and aesthetic results and minimizes surgical complications.

  7. Assessment of the neighborhood environmental effects of highway improvements through micronetwork simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpeler, C.C. (Schimpeler--Corradino Associates, Louisville, KY); Corradino, J.C.; Siria, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    New Cut Road is a major arterial highway serving South Louisville. Until recently, it was a narrow two-lane highway of rural-type design carrying up to 14,000 vehicles per day under forced flow conditions. Then construction began to widen the road from Southside Drive to Old Third Street Road, as a result of Urban Corridor Demonstration Program funding. The impacts (traffic, noise, and air pollution) on the neighborhoods surrounding this widening have been measured through micronetwork simulation techniques. Traffic will be diverted from surrounding roads (up to 20 percent) to the widened New Cut facility, thereby eliminating ''over-capacity'' conditions in these facilities, adding several years' life. Further, expeditious movement of vehicles through the New Cut Road ''area of influence'' will have a beneficial, albeit small, effect on the local air and noise environment. New Cut Road will be a highly cost-effective, low-capital-intensive improvement.

  8. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways...... in the People's Republic of China, this paper proposes an integrated model for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of highway. The model has two main characteristics. Firstly, the whole highway is divided into several sections, and then weight of each section is distributed by its importance. Secondly...

  9. Spatial and temporal differences in traffic-related air pollution in three urban neighborhoods near an interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P.; Perkins, Jessica; Zamore, Wig; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have characterized differences in intra- and inter-neighborhood traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) concentrations and distance-decay gradients in along an urban highway for the purposes of exposure assessment. The goal of this work was to determine the extent to which intra- and inter-neighborhood differences in TRAP concentrations can be explained by traffic and meteorology in three pairs of neighborhoods along Interstate 93 (I-93) in the metropolitan Boston area (USA). We measured distance-decay gradients of seven TRAPs (PNC, pPAH, NO, NOX, BC, CO, PM2.5) in near-highway (1 km) in Somerville, Dorchester/South Boston, Chinatown and Malden to determine whether (1) spatial patterns in concentrations and inter-pollutant correlations differ between neighborhoods, and (2) variation within and between neighborhoods can be explained by traffic and meteorology. The neighborhoods ranged in area from 0.5 to 2.3 km2. Mobile monitoring was performed over the course of one year in each pair of neighborhoods (one pair of neighborhoods per year in three successive years; 35-47 days of monitoring in each neighborhood). Pollutant levels generally increased with highway proximity, consistent with I-93 being a major source of TRAP; however, the slope and extent of the distance-decay gradients varied by neighborhood as well as by pollutant, season and time of day. Correlations among pollutants differed between neighborhoods (e.g., ρ = 0.35-0.80 between PNC and NOX and ρ = 0.11-0.60 between PNC and BC) and were generally lower in Dorchester/South Boston than in the other neighborhoods. We found that the generalizability of near-road gradients and near-highway/urban background contrasts was limited for near-highway neighborhoods in a metropolitan area with substantial local street traffic. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring gradients of multiple pollutants under different ambient conditions in individual near-highway neighborhoods for health

  10. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

    contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... or equivalently noise elimination and for data analysis. However for small sets of high dimensional data, the log-likelihood estimator for the covariance matrix is often far from convergence, and therefore reliable models must be obtained by use of prior information. We propose a natural and intrinsic...

  11. Revisit of Nasolabial flap in the reconstruction of defects involving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that NL flap is a reliable option for reconstruction of the oral floor, in form as well as function, without esthetic compromise and has a major role even in this era of free flaps. Keywords: Floor of mouth defects, local flaps, nasolabail flap, oral cavity defects, reconstruction, regional flaps ...

  12. Safety early warning research for highway construction based on case-based reasoning and variable fuzzy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yi, Ting-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established.

  13. Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR, this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods’ effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established.

  14. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  15. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  16. Decontamination technology verification test on scraping surface soil on the highway roadside slopes using unmanned scraping machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinaka, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Mitsuru; Shibuya, Susumu; Kasai, Yoshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    The restore the normal life in the contaminated area, reconstruction of the infrastructure is necessary and early decontamination of roads and roadside slopes of highway are required. Decontamination work of roadside slopes is conducted only by hand working so far, but on the high and steep roadside slopes it is desirable to carry out decontamination work by an unmanned scraping machine to reduce working hours and improve safety. In this verification test, decontamination work of the roadside slope of highway, of which area was 20m W x 15m L and divided into two sections, was implemented by the machine or by hand, and working hours and radiation exposure dose were measured. As the results of the test, working hours and radiation exposure dose by the machine were 49% and 63% respectively compared to those by hand. Based on the results, cost and radiation dose for decontamination work on larger slopes were evaluated. Cost by the machine is estimated to be less than that by hand where the area is over 4,000m 2 . It is confirmed that the decontamination work of roadside slopes by the machine can be done more quickly and safely in comparison with hand working. (author)

  17. Trends in Materials Science for Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Oana Roxana; Sava, Daniel Florin; Radulescu, Marius; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Ficai, Denisa; Veloz-Castillo, Maria Fernanda; Mendez-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Ficai, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The number of ligament injuries increases every year and concomitantly the need for materials or systems that can reconstruct the ligament. Limitations imposed by autografts and allografts in ligament reconstruction together with the advances in materials science and biology have attracted a lot of interest for developing systems and materials for ligament replacement or reconstruction. This review intends to synthesize the major steps taken in the development of polymer-based materials for anterior cruciate ligament, their advantages and drawbacks and the results of different in vitro and in vivo tests. Until present, there is no successful polymer system for ligament reconstruction implanted in humans. The developing field of synthetic polymers for ligament reconstruction still has a lot of potential. In addition, several nano-structured materials, made of nanofibers or in the form of ceramic/polymeric nanocomposites, are attracting the interest of several groups due to their potential use as engineered scaffolds that mimic the native environment of cells, increasing the chances for tissue regeneration. Here, we review the last 15 years of literature in order to obtain a better understanding on the state-of-the-art that includes the usage of nano- and poly-meric materials for ligament reconstruction, and to draw perspectives on the future development of the field. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of salt is less than fifty percent per square meter. In addition, supply of brine from two mixer...... of interpreting this information. The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. Major challenges in the process have been to verify the higher quality...... of the nozzles spread pattern, to ensure maximum utilization of volume of brine carried by the spreading vehicles and to control the mixing of brine without getting stratification in the mixture. Moreover, of course, to ensure political approval of abandoning a well-served technology and to organize...

  19. Morbidity and cost differences between free flap reconstruction and pedicled flap reconstruction in oral and oropharyngeal cancer: Matched control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeele, Ludwig E.; Goldstein, David; Tsai, Vance; Gullane, Patrick J.; Neligan, Peter; Brown, Dale H.; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2006-01-01

    To compare morbidity and cost in patients who underwent primary reconstruction with free tissue transfer with those with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) reconstructions after ablation of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Over a 6-year period, 36 patients had PMMF

  20. The Damage Effects in Steel Bridges under Highway Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histo...... indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative.......In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load...

  1. Impact of highway construction on water bodies: a geospatial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Labhasetwar, P K

    2017-08-01

    India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies. The study indicates that construction activities have led to transformation within the water bodies regarding reduction in area and inter-changing of land use and land cover classes, in turn leading to siltation and reduction of recharge.

  2. Ground-water problems in highway construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, W.C.; Haigler, L.B.

    1953-01-01

    This report discusses the occurrence of ground water in relation to certain problems in highway construction and maintenance. These problems are: the subdrainage of roads; quicksand; the arrest of soil creep in road cuts; the construction of lower and larger culverts necessitated by the farm-drainage program; the prevention of failure of bridge abutments and retaining walls; and the water-cement ratio of sub-water-table concrete. Although the highway problems and suggested solutions are of general interest, they are considered with special reference to the State of Delaware, in relation to the geology of that State. The new technique of soil stabilization by electroosmosis is reviewed in the hope that it might find application here in road work and pile setting, field application by the Germans and Russians is reviewed.

  3. Measurements of air pollution from a Danish highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P. Massling, A.

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the results from a measurement campaign carried out at the Holbaek Highway during 2008. The objective of the campaign was to determine the emission factors for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} due to highway traffic. The campaign included measurements of NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, TEOM PM{sub 2.5}, TEOM PM{sub 10}, O{sub 3}, particle size distribution and local meteorology. The emission factors for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} were determined to 45 and 155 mg/(vehicle km), respectively. This is comparable to the emission factors previously determined for H. C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen and somewhat higher than found at Jagtvej, Copenhagen. (author)

  4. Fracture Mechanics Prediction of Fatigue Life of Aluminum Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations. The fati......Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations...... against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. Furthermore, it was in both investigations found that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  5. Image reconstruction design of industrial CT instrument for teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yongning; Cai Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Industrial CT instrument for teaching is applied to teaching and study in field of physics and radiology major, image reconstruction is an important part of software on CT instrument. The paper expatiate on CT physical theory and first generation CT reconstruction algorithm, describe scan process of industrial CT instrument for teaching; analyze image artifact as result of displacement of rotation center, implement method of center displacement correcting, design and complete image reconstruction software, application shows that reconstructed image is very clear and qualitatively high. (authors)

  6. Ecotoxicological effects of highway and tunnel wash water runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Meland, Sondre

    2010-01-01

    In Norway, the traffic loadings have shown a substantial increase during the last decades. From 1948 to 2008 the transportation load has increased from 2.5 to 60.6 million passenger km. Hence, the ever increasing traffic has without doubt a significant negative effect on the environment. For example, highway runoffs typically contain a cocktail of both organic and inorganic contaminants being able to cause detrimental effects on the aquatic ecosystem. The present thesis, which is part of t...

  7. Approximation Algorithms for the Highway Problem under the Coupon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to decide the prices of items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy the items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we consider the line highway problem (in which each customer is interested in an interval on the line of the items) and the cycle highway problem (in which each customer is interested in an interval on the cycle of the items), and show approximation algorithms for the line highway problem and the cycle highway problem in which the smallest valuation is s and the largest valuation is l (this is called an [s, l]-valuation setting) or all valuations are identical (this is called a single valuation setting).

  8. Improving E-Bike Safety on Urban Highways in China

    OpenAIRE

    Linjun Lu; Chen Wang; Tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine characteristics of e-bike fatal crashes on urban highways in China. Crash data were retrieved from the three-year crash reports (2010–2012) of Taixing City. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine characteristics of e-bike riders, drivers, and crashes. The important findings include the following: (1) most fatal crashes were related to e-bike riders’ aberrant driving behaviors, including driving in motorized lanes, red-light running, driving against the direct...

  9. Policy Safeguards and the Legitimacy of Highway Interdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Adoption among Large Law Enforcement Agencies,” Crime & Delinquency 59, no. 1 (2013): 33, doi:10.1177/0011128708328863. 71 Drug Enforcement...correlation or validity could be established between the number of complaints and the impact of highway interdiction safeguards implemented by the...Engel, “The Impact of Drivers’ Race, Gender, and Age During Traffic Stops Assessing Interaction Terms and the Social Conditioning Model,” Crime

  10. MANAGING RISKS AND LIABILITIES IN THE HIGHWAYS AND TRANSPORT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. FORMAN, B.Eng.(Hons.), M.Sc., C.Eng.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, more people have been claiming financial recompense for personal injuries they sustain. Increasingly, the targets of such claims are highway authorities, transport operators and property owners. This paper outlines an area of risk commonly overlooked by practitioners, but which can be managed effectively and can afford both cost savings and public safety improvements. Inconsistencies between design standards, safety improvement policies and maintenance regimes for the more...

  11. Present lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T

    1970-01-01

    This study examined the lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways. The factors influencing the total lead content of the trees, shrubs and grasses were found to be the direction of the traffic, the age of the plants, the season, the surface peculiarities of the plant, and the lateral and vertical distance between the plants and the road. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Overview of image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, R.B.

    1980-04-01

    Image reconstruction (or computerized tomography, etc.) is any process whereby a function, f, on R/sup n/ is estimated from empirical data pertaining to its integrals, ∫f(x) dx, for some collection of hyperplanes of dimension k < n. The paper begins with background information on how image reconstruction problems have arisen in practice, and describes some of the application areas of past or current interest; these include radioastronomy, optics, radiology and nuclear medicine, electron microscopy, acoustical imaging, geophysical tomography, nondestructive testing, and NMR zeugmatography. Then the various reconstruction algorithms are discussed in five classes: summation, or simple back-projection; convolution, or filtered back-projection; Fourier and other functional transforms; orthogonal function series expansion; and iterative methods. Certain more technical mathematical aspects of image reconstruction are considered from the standpoint of uniqueness, consistency, and stability of solution. The paper concludes by presenting certain open problems. 73 references

  13. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery and will certainly become an invaluable addition to breast reconstructive methods....

  14. Forging Provincial Reconstruction Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Honore, Russel L; Boslego, David V

    2007-01-01

    The Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) training mission completed by First U.S. Army in April 2006 was a joint Service effort to meet a requirement from the combatant commander to support goals in Afghanistan...

  15. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your surgical options and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of implant-based reconstruction, and may show you ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  16. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  17. Highway accident involving radiopharmaceuticals near Brookhaven, Mississippi on December 3, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, P.B.; Mount, M.E.; Schwartz, M.W.

    1985-04-01

    A rear-end collision occurred between a passenger automobile and a luggage trailer carrying 84 packages, 76 of which contained radiopharmaceuticals, on US Highway 84 near Brookhaven, Mississippi on the afternoon of December 3, 1983. The purpose of this report is to document the mechanical circumstances of the accident, confirm the nature and quantity of radioactive materials involved, and assess the nature of the physical environment to which the packages were exposed and the response of the packages. The report consists of three major sections. The first deals wth the nature and circumstances of the accident and findings of fact. The second gives an accounting and description of the materials involved and the consequences of their exposure. The third gives an assessment and analysis of the mechanisms of damage and the conclusions which may be drawn from the investigation. 4 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs

  18. The development of an ecological approach to manage the pollution risk from highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, B; Dempsey, P; Johnson, I; Whitehead, M

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Highways Agency is responsible for operating, maintaining and improving the strategic road network in England. One focus of the Highways Agency's ongoing research into the nature and impact of highway runoff is aimed at ensuring that the Highways Agency will meet the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. A research programme, undertaken in partnership with the Environment Agency, is in progress to develop a better understanding of pollutants in highway runoff and their ecological impact. The paper presents the outcome of a study to: (1) monitor pollutants in highway runoff under different climate and traffic conditions; (2) develop standards to assess potential ecological risks from soluble pollutants in highway runoff; and (3) develop a model to predict pollutant concentrations in highway runoff. The model has been embedded in a design tool incorporating risk assessment procedures and receiving water standards for soluble and insoluble pollutants--the latter has been developed elsewhere in another project within the research programme. The design tool will be used to support improved guidance on where, and to what level, treatment of runoff is required for highway designers to manage the risk of ecological impact from highway runoff.

  19. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    of planetary surfaces, but other purposes is considered as well. The system performance is measured with respect to the precision and the time consumption.The reconstruction process is divided into four major areas: Acquisition, calibration, matching/reconstruction and presentation. Each of these areas...... are treated individually. A detailed treatment of various lens distortions is required, in order to correct for these problems. This subject is included in the acquisition part. In the calibration part, the perspective distortion is removed from the images. Most attention has been paid to the matching problem...

  20. Source apportionment of organic pollutants of a highway-traffic-influenced urban area in Bayreuth (Germany) using biomarker and stable carbon isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bruno; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Bock, Michael; Fiedler, Stefan; Mehring, Marion; Heitmann, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Traffic- and urban-influenced areas are prone to enhanced pollution with products of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass such as black carbon or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Black carbon is composed of aromatic and graphitic structures and may act as a carrier for pollutants such as PAHs and heavy metals. However, little is known about possible contributions of traffic-derived black carbon to the black carbon inventory in soils. Similar uncertainties exist regarding the contribution of different pollutant sources to total PAH and black carbon contents. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the importance of traffic pollution to black carbon and PAH inventories in soils. PAH contamination of soils adjacent to a major German highway in the urban area of Bayreuth with about 50,000 vehicles per day was in the same order of magnitude compared to highway-close soils reported in other studies. Using molecular (black carbon and PAHs) and compound-specific stable carbon isotope evidence (PAHs) it was demonstrated that this contamination originated not only from automobile exhausts, here primarily diesel, but also from tire abrasion and tailpipe soot which significantly contributed to the traffic-caused black carbon and PAH contamination. Low molecular weight PAHs were more widely transported than their heavy molecular counterparts (local distillation), whereas highway-traffic-caused black carbon contamination was distributed to at least 30 m from the highway. On the other hand, urban fire exhausts were distributed more homogeneously among the urban area.

  1. Differences in Services and Fees for Management and Administration of Iraq Reconstruction Contracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David; Childress, David; Salvatierra, George; Thompson, Chuck; Williams, Roger M

    2008-01-01

    ...), a field operating agency of the Air Force Civil Engineer, are two primary organizations providing project management and contract administration services for major Iraq reconstruction projects...

  2. Industrial dynamic tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eric Ferreira de

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art methods applied to industrial processes is currently based on the principles of classical tomographic reconstructions developed for tomographic patterns of static distributions, or is limited to cases of low variability of the density distribution function of the tomographed object. Noise and motion artifacts are the main problems caused by a mismatch in the data from views acquired in different instants. All of these add to the known fact that using a limited amount of data can result in the presence of noise, artifacts and some inconsistencies with the distribution under study. One of the objectives of the present work is to discuss the difficulties that arise from implementing reconstruction algorithms in dynamic tomography that were originally developed for static distributions. Another objective is to propose solutions that aim at reducing a temporal type of information loss caused by employing regular acquisition systems to dynamic processes. With respect to dynamic image reconstruction it was conducted a comparison between different static reconstruction methods, like MART and FBP, when used for dynamic scenarios. This comparison was based on a MCNPx simulation as well as an analytical setup of an aluminum cylinder that moves along the section of a riser during the process of acquisition, and also based on cross section images from CFD techniques. As for the adaptation of current tomographic acquisition systems for dynamic processes, this work established a sequence of tomographic views in a just-in-time fashion for visualization purposes, a form of visually disposing density information as soon as it becomes amenable to image reconstruction. A third contribution was to take advantage of the triple color channel necessary to display colored images in most displays, so that, by appropriately scaling the acquired values of each view in the linear system of the reconstruction, it was possible to imprint a temporal trace into the regularly

  3. Alternative reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooperman Avram M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the procedure of choice for tumors of the head of the pancreas and periampulla. Despite advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, the procedure continues to carry a high morbidity rate. One of the most common morbidities is delayed gastric emptying with rates of 15%–40%. Following two prolonged cases of delayed gastric emptying, we altered our reconstruction to avoid this complication altogether. Subsequently, our patients underwent a classic pancreaticoduodenectomy with an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. Methods We reviewed the charts of our last 13 Whipple procedures evaluating them for complications, specifically delayed gastric emptying. We compared the outcomes of those patients to a control group of 15 patients who underwent the Whipple procedure with standard reconstruction. Results No instances of delayed gastric emptying occurred in patients who underwent an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. There was 1 wound infection (8%, 1 instance of pneumonia (8%, and 1 instance of bleeding from the gastrojejunal staple line (8%. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion Use of the undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction following the Whipple procedure may decrease the incidence of delayed gastric emptying. In addition, it has the added benefit of eliminating bile reflux gastritis. Future randomized control trials are recommended to further evaluate the efficacy of the procedure.

  4. Association between proximity to major roads and sputum cell counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julie; D’silva, Liesel; Brannan, John; Hargreave, Frederick E; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Nair, Parameswaran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution caused by motor vehicle emissions has been associated with exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases; however, the nature of the resulting bronchitis has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or eosinophils, and to evaluate the effect of proximity to roads on spirometry and exacerbations in patients with asthma. METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attending a tertiary chest clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, identified eosinophilic or neutrophilic bronchitis. Patients’ residences were geocoded to the street network of Hamilton using geographic information system software. Associations among bronchitis, lung function, and proximity to major roads and highways were examined using multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for patient age, smoking status and corticosteroid medications. RESULTS: Patients living within 1000 m of highways showed an increased risk of bronchitis (OR 3.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 13.7]; Proad were at increased risk for an asthma exacerbation (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.5 to 15.5]; Proad was associated with neutrophilic bronchitis, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis, asthma exacerbations and lower lung function. PMID:21369545

  5. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  6. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to highway construction in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.; Chen, Y.; Wei, X.

    2010-01-01

    Highway construction in mountainous areas can result in sedimentation of streams, negatively impacting stream habitat, water quality, and biotic communities. We assessed the impacts of construction of a segment of Corridor H, a four-lane highway, in the Lost River watershed, West Virginia, by monitoring benthic macroinvertebrate communities and water quality, before, during, and after highway construction and prior to highway use at upstream and downstream sites from 1997 through 2007. Data analysis of temporal impacts of highway construction followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study design. Highway construction impacts included an increase in stream sedimentation during the construction phase. This was indicated by an increase in turbidity and total suspended solids. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics indicated a community more tolerant during and after construction than in the period before construction. The percent of Chironomidae and the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) increased, while percent of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. Our 10-year study addressed short-term impacts of highway construction and found that impacts were relatively minimal. A recovery of the number of EPT taxa collected after construction indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate community may be recovering from impacts of highway construction. However, this study only addressed a period of 3 years before, 3 years during, and 4 years post construction. Inferences cannot be made concerning the long-term impacts of the highway, highway traffic, runoff, and other factors associated with highway use. Continual monitoring of the watershed is necessary to determine if the highway has a continual impact on stream habitat, water quality, and biotic integrity. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Reconstructing random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong, C.L.; Torquato, S.

    1998-01-01

    We formulate a procedure to reconstruct the structure of general random heterogeneous media from limited morphological information by extending the methodology of Rintoul and Torquato [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186, 467 (1997)] developed for dispersions. The procedure has the advantages that it is simple to implement and generally applicable to multidimensional, multiphase, and anisotropic structures. Furthermore, an extremely useful feature is that it can incorporate any type and number of correlation functions in order to provide as much morphological information as is necessary for accurate reconstruction. We consider a variety of one- and two-dimensional reconstructions, including periodic and random arrays of rods, various distribution of disks, Debye random media, and a Fontainebleau sandstone sample. We also use our algorithm to construct heterogeneous media from specified hypothetical correlation functions, including an exponentially damped, oscillating function as well as physically unrealizable ones. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  9. Saphenous vein grafts for perforator flap salvage in autologous breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jaime I; Rad, Ariel N; Shridharani, Sachin M; Stapleton, Sahael M; Rosson, Gedge D

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of saphenous vein grafts in free-flap salvage and extremity replantation is relatively common, their use in breast reconstruction is rare. These two case reports represent extreme alternatives for breast reconstruction flap salvage. In our normal daily practice, the overwhelming majority of elective breast reconstructions proceed smoothly. However, the occasional patient may require saphenous vein graft flap rescue for completion of the reconstruction. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. HEEL BONE RECONSTRUCTIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Svetashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.

  11. Vertex reconstruction in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanat, E.; D'Hondt, J.; Estre, N.; Fruehwirth, R.; Prokofiev, K.; Speer, T.; Vanlaer, P.; Waltenberger, W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ('vertex finding') and an estimation problem ('vertex fitting'). Starting from least-squares methods, robustifications of the classical algorithms are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels

  12. Vertex Reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabanat, E; D'Hondt, J; Vanlaer, P; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Frühwirth, R; Waltenberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ("vertex finding") and an estimation problem ("vertex fitting"). Starting from least-square methods, ways to render the classical algorithms more robust are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections among male highway coach drivers in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Wah Wah; Thant, Myo; Wai, Khin Thet; Aye, Mya Mya; Ei, Phyu Win; Myint, Thuzar; Thidar, Moe

    2013-05-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from February 2008 to December 2009 at the largest Highway Terminal, Yangon, Myanmar to determine the prevalence of curable STIs (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis), to find out the associated factors for STIs, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of gonococcal infection among highway drivers. Urine and blood specimens were collected from 601 male highway coach drivers after an interview about their behavior. Standard laboratory tests were carried out to detect STIs. Multivariate analysis was used to ascertain potential risk factors for STIs. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis were 4.8, 4.3, 5.7, and 9.8%, respectively. One hundred and two (17.0%) were infected with at least one of the tested four STIs, and 34 (5.7%) had STI co-infections (2STIs). Those who had multiple sexual contacts were likely to be infected with at least one STI, and those who had a history of inconsistent condom use within past two weeks and multiple sexual contacts were more likely to have STI co-infections (p < 0.05). Antimicrobial susceptibility of 21 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates showed that 85.7% were susceptible to azithromycin, 80.9% to spectinomycin, 66.7% to cefixime, 61.9% to ceftriaxone, and 38.1% to ciprofloxacin. The high prevalence of STIs in this study and the decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone highlighted the role of periodic screening in early diagnosis and effective treatment of STIs among high-risk populations.

  14. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.

    2004-05-01

    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary

  15. Multi-fractal analysis of highway traffic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Peng-Jian; Shen Jin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the presence of multi-fractal behaviours in the traffic time series not only by statistical approaches but also by geometrical approaches. The pointwise H(o)lder exponent of a function is calculated by developing an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of H(o)lder exponent of time series. The traffic time series observed on the Beijing Yuquanying highway are analysed. The results from all these methods indicate that the traffic data exhibit the multi-fractal behaviour.

  16. Hempcrete Noise Barrier Wall for Highway Noise Insulation : Research & Construction

    OpenAIRE

    KC, Prabesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the possibility of Hempcrete or hemp-lime composite noise barrier walls in the highways and to construct the walls for the acoustic test according to the European Union Standards EN ISO 717-1 and ISO 10140-2 for air-borne sound insulation. The thesis was commissioned by the company Hemprefine Oy, and all the standard tests were performed in the HAMK-Ruukki Sheet Metal Centre in Hämeenlinna and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd in Espoo. ...

  17. Fatigue in Aluminum Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test...... is normally used in the design against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from Miner’s rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  18. Highway of dreams a critical view along the information superhighway

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, A Michael

    2013-01-01

    This important volume reviews the history of the telecommunication superhighway pointing out its beginnings in the interactive TV and broadband highway of the wired cities more than two decades ago. It explains the technological uncertainties of the superhighway and many of its futuristic services, and also gives an understandable review of the technological principles behind today's modern telecommunication networks and systems. Recognizing that technology is only one factor in shaping the future, the author, a well-recognized telecommunications expert, analyzes the financial, policy

  19. RESOURCE SAVING IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY WITH HIGHWAY BRANCH AS EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Roudensky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of energy is an objective (independent on cost fluctuations technical efficiency criterion of any construction or repair work. Highway/road (particularly bituminous pavement sector is an important construction industry part. Bituminous road pavement construction consists of such components as excavation and preparation of basic materials, manufacture of mixes, ready mix laying/compacting and transportation of all materials. Average energy consumption for every bituminous pavement construction component is assessed. Approach to resource and energy saving presented in the article may be used in construction industry to develop and implement innovativetechnical and organizational solutions both of general application and for individual projects.

  20. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    is to evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  1. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    is to evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress...... with the situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  2. Quantitative tectonic reconstructions of Zealandia based on crustal thickness estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobys, Jan W. G.; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Zealandia is a key piece in the plate reconstruction of Gondwana. The positions of its submarine plateaus are major constraints on the best fit and breakup involving New Zealand, Australia, Antarctica, and associated microplates. As the submarine plateaus surrounding New Zealand consist of extended and highly extended continental crust, classic plate tectonic reconstructions assuming rigid plates and narrow plate boundaries fail to reconstruct these areas correctly. However, if the early breakup history shall be reconstructed, it is crucial to consider crustal stretching in a plate-tectonic reconstruction. We present a reconstruction of the basins around New Zealand (Great South Basin, Bounty Trough, and New Caledonia Basin) based on crustal balancing, an approach that takes into account the rifting and thinning processes affecting continental crust. In a first step, we computed a crustal thickness map of Zealandia using seismic, seismological, and gravity data. The crustal thickness map shows the submarine plateaus to have a uniform crustal thickness of 20-24 km and the basins to have a thickness of 12-16 km. We assumed that a reconstruction of Zealandia should close the basins and lead to a most uniform crustal thickness. We used the standard deviation of the reconstructed crustal thickness as a measure of uniformity. The reconstruction of the Campbell Plateau area shows that the amount of extension in the Bounty Trough and the Great South Basin is far smaller than previously thought. Our results indicate that the extension of the Bounty Trough and Great South Basin occurred simultaneously.

  3. Optimisation of the ATLAS Track Reconstruction Software for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Salzburger, Andreas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Track reconstruction is one of the most complex element of the reconstruction of events recorded by ATLAS from collisions delivered by the LHC. It is the most time consuming reconstruction component in high luminosity environments. The flat budget projections for computing resources for Run-2 of the LHC together with the demands of reconstructing higher pile-up collision data at rates more than double those in Run-1 (an increase from 400 Hz to 1 kHz in trigger output) have put stringent requirements on the track reconstruction software. The ATLAS experiment has performed a two year long software campaign which aimed to reduce the reconstruction rate by a factor of three to meet the resource limitations for Run-2: the majority of the changes to achieve this were improvements to the track reconstruction software. The CPU processing time of ATLAS track reconstruction was reduced by more than a factor of three during this campaign without any loss of output information of the track reconstruction. We present the ...

  4. Evaluation and Modelling of Traffic Noise on the Asian Highway in Golestan National Park, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharibi Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of vehicles on Iran’s highways and major roads has led to an increase in noise levels. As a result, traffic is now considered a main source of noise pollution. This paper reports on the modelling of traffic noise levels in Golestan National Park, Golestan using vehicle data and other environmental features. For the evaluation of noise and the recording of independent environmental variables, Sampling stations were selected using a systematic-random method at 76 points at various distances and between 0-250 meters from the road. At each sampling point, traffic flow (number and speed of vehicles, number of horn beeps was measured for 15 minutes from 8 am to 8 pm. Simultaneously other environmental variables were assessed, including the geometry of the road surface and location conditions .The best multivariable regression based on the correlation coefficient (R and the coefficient of determination (R2 was achieved. The R-square (73% and the adjusted R-square (68% of the regression equation were 73% and 68% respectively. The results of modelling show that the most important variables affecting noise pollution are distance from the road, roughness coefficient, speed of medium-weight vehicles, relative humidity, and height and number of light vehicles. There is a negative correlation with distance from the road and noise pollution.The accuracy of the model was found to be about ±5 dB. Therefore, the model is suggested for the prediction of traffic noise on the Asian Highway in Golestan National Park.

  5. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  6. Dalton Highway 9 to 11 Mile expedient resistivity permafrost investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This project performed capacitive coupled resistivity surveys over a roadway reconstruction project in Interior Alaska, for the determination of permafrost extent. The : objective was to ascertain the ability of an expedient earth resistivity survey ...

  7. Reconstructing Neutrino Mass Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton mixing is one of the fundamental problems of particle physics. In this connection we consider two central topics: (i) the origin of large lepton mixing, (ii) possible existence of new (sterile) neutrino states. We discuss also possible relation between large mixing and existence of sterile neutrinos.

  8. Position reconstruction in LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β- with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV) . Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. The reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.

  9. Comparison of Ferry Boat and Highway Bridge Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D. Cottrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger ferries serve a variety of transport needs in the U.S., such as providing vital links across bodies of water, and supplementing highway bridges. In some cases in which there is a ferry connection but no bridge, a bridge would be impractical; in other cases, a bridge might be feasible. The paper compares the energy consumption of ferries and motor vehicles on bridges, to determine which link is more fuel efficient. One finding is that limited data are available on ferry boat fuel consumption: despite there being 208 ferry boat operators in the U.S. as of 2008, only eight were providing energy use data to the National Transit Database. Examinations of three of the systems found that the passenger-MPG of the ferries ranged from 2.61 to 14.00 (1.11 to 5.95 km/L, while that of the motor vehicles on adjacent highway bridge connections ranged from 25.34 to 32.45 (10.77 to 13.79 km/L. Data from the eight systems are used to develop a ferry MPG model. The model is used to show that the Ryer Island and Charles Hall Ferries are less fuel efficient than hypothetical bridges in those locations. The fuel efficiencies and consumptions of the ferries would equal those of motor vehicles on the bridges, however, if smaller vessels were used, and if the frequency of service was reduced.

  10. Optimal Retrofit Scheme for Highway Network under Seismic Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxi Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many older highway bridges in the United States (US are inadequate for seismic loads and could be severely damaged or collapsed in a relatively small earthquake. According to the most recent American Society of Civil Engineers’ infrastructure report card, one-third of the bridges in the US are rated as structurally deficient and many of these structurally deficient bridges are located in seismic zones. To improve this situation, at-risk bridges must be identified and evaluated and effective retrofitting programs should be in place to reduce their seismic vulnerabilities. In this study, a new retrofit strategy decision scheme for highway bridges under seismic hazards is developed and seamlessly integrate the scenario-based seismic analysis of bridges and the traffic network into the proposed optimization modeling framework. A full spectrum of bridge retrofit strategies is considered based on explicit structural assessment for each seismic damage state. As an empirical case study, the proposed retrofit strategy decision scheme is utilized to evaluate the bridge network in one of the active seismic zones in the US, Charleston, South Carolina. The developed modeling framework, on average, will help increase network throughput traffic capacity by 45% with a cost increase of only $15million for the Mw 5.5 event and increase the capacity fourfold with a cost of only $32m for the Mw 7.0 event.

  11. Risk assessment of wind turbines close to highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2012-01-01

    with a spacing of 400m. As an example the generally accepted risk on highways in increased with less than 0.1% in wind turbines are installed more than 150 meters from the highway. The risk due to ice throw from a wind turbine in operation is seen to be slightly greater than the risk if the wind turbine......) and a spacing of 400-500 m along the road. The studies show that the probability per kilometer that a person in a vehicle is killed due to total or partial collapse (damage) of a wind turbine can be assumed to be of minor importance. The probability per kilometer will be less than 5 10-12 for wind turbines...... that are more than 60 meters from the road. This risk is considered acceptable using the ALARP principle and comparing with the general, well-documented risk on roads in Denmark which in 2009 was 2 10-9. The analysis also shows that the height of the turbines and the distance between them is of less importance...

  12. Analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koz, B. [Giresun University, Department of Biology, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: ugurc@ktu.edu.tr; Ozdemir, T. [Giresun University, Department of Biology, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kaya, S. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Gundogdu, A. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Celik, N. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-05-01

    The elemental analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard additions is applied for the elemental analysis of mosses. An annular 50 mCi {sup 241}Am radioactive source and annular 50 mCi {sup 55}Fe radioactive source were used for excitation of characteristic K X-rays. An Si(Li) detector which has a 147 eV full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV photons was used for intensity measurements. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained phosphates, potassium, calcium, titanium, iron, strontium, tin and barium. Since this study is the elemental analysis along the highway, one can expect to detect Pb. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, elements were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for Pb. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for ecology and human is briefly discusse000.

  13. Analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koz, B.; Cevik, U.; Ozdemir, T.; Duran, C.; Kaya, S.; Gundogdu, A.; Celik, N.

    2008-01-01

    The elemental analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard additions is applied for the elemental analysis of mosses. An annular 50 mCi 241 Am radioactive source and annular 50 mCi 55 Fe radioactive source were used for excitation of characteristic K X-rays. An Si(Li) detector which has a 147 eV full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV photons was used for intensity measurements. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained phosphates, potassium, calcium, titanium, iron, strontium, tin and barium. Since this study is the elemental analysis along the highway, one can expect to detect Pb. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, elements were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for Pb. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for ecology and human is briefly discussed

  14. Pollution by lead near the Turin--Milan highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapetti, C; Arduino, E

    1973-10-01

    Soil samples taken at 5 to 50 m from the Turin-Milan highway at depths ranging from 0 to 30 cm on two different sites were analyzed for lead residues by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following extraction by means of ammoniacal EDTA at pH 9. Soil samples from the surface layer taken in one well-ventilated site contained 11.5 to 12.4 ppM lead, while subsoil samples had 5.7 to 9.8 ppM. Soil samples taken in the other site with poor ventilation contained 23.5 to 43.3 ppM lead in the surface layer, and 9.2 to 15.4 ppM in the subsoil. Decrease of the lead concentrations in the soil with increasing depth and distance from the highway was noted. Plant samples taken from the same sites contained 6.4 to 32.2 ppM lead. Lead was fixed predominantly to the exchange complex; partly to the clay fraction, and partly to the humic fraction.

  15. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Welles, B.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  16. Landslides along Highways: GIS-based Inventory and Planning Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Ann-Kathrin; Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Highways rank as critical transportation infrastructures that are at risk of landslides in many areas worldwide (e.g., Hungr et al., 1999; Bhandary et al., 2013). Safe and affordable operations of traffic routes constitute the two main criteria for transportation planning in landslide-prone terrain. A right balancing of these often conflicting priorities requires profound knowledge of landslide locations across highway networks and the costs caused by landslides in the past (e.g., Saha et al., 2005). Much of the direct costs affecting transportation departments relate to capital investments for landslide repair or mitigation and operational expenditures in connection with maintenance works. A systematic collection and inventory of such data sets combined with an acquisition of hazard information on vulnerable road sections is still rarely the case in engineering practice. This is despite significant cost impacts and budgetary burdens, especially in peripheral mountain areas where financial resources are naturally limited (e.g., Klose et al., 2014). The present contribution introduces a regional inventory of landslides along highways in the Harz Mountains, NW Germany. As subset of a landslide database for the entire country, this focused GIS-based inventory has been compiled in close collaboration with the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation. The inventory includes data sets gathered by archive studies and relies on high-quality information sources such as maintenance protocols, geotechnical reports, and documents from tendering, controlling, and accounting. A mapping tool in ArcGIS format is used to specify and visualize road sections affected by landslides. This spatial information on hazard exposure is complemented by narrative risk profiles for landslide sites showing a long history of damage events. By summarizing the occurrence dates of landslides, the associated damages, and the types and costs of repair or prevention, such risk profiles are useful to

  17. Detector independent cellular automaton algorithm for track reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisel, Ivan; Kulakov, Igor; Zyzak, Maksym [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Track reconstruction is one of the most challenging problems of data analysis in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, which have to process per second of the order of 10{sup 7} events with high track multiplicity and density, registered by detectors of different types and, in many cases, located in non-homogeneous magnetic field. Creation of reconstruction package common for all experiments is considered to be important in order to consolidate efforts. The cellular automaton (CA) track reconstruction approach has been used successfully in many HEP experiments. It is very simple, efficient, local and parallel. Meanwhile it is intrinsically independent of detector geometry and good candidate for common track reconstruction. The CA implementation for the CBM experiment has been generalized and applied to the ALICE ITS and STAR HFT detectors. Tests with simulated collisions have been performed. The track reconstruction efficiencies are at the level of 95% for majority of the signal tracks for all detectors.

  18. Effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow unconsolidated aquifers in Ohio, interim report, 1988-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.L.; Sroka, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of the application of highway deicing chemicals during winter months on ground- water quality are being studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. Eight sites throughout the State were selected along major undivided highways where drainage is by open ditches and ground-water flow is approximately perpendicular to the highway. At these sites, records of deicer application rates are being kept and apparent movement of deicing chemicals through shallow, unconsolidated aquifers is being monitored by means of periodic measurements of specific con ductance and concentrations of dissolved sodium, calcium, and chloride. The counties and corre sponding sections of state routes being monitored are the following: State Route (SR) 3 in Ashland County, SR 84 in Ashtabula County, SR 29 in Champaign County, SR 4 in Clark County, SR 2 in Lucas County, SR 104 in Pickaway County, SR 14 in Portage County, and SR 97 in Richland County. The study began in January 1988 with background data collection, extensive literature review, and site selection. This process, including drilling of wells at the eight selected sites, lasted 3 years. Routine ground-water sampling at 4- to 6-week intervals began in January 1991. A relatively new type of multilevel, passive flow ground-water sampling device was constructed and used. Other conditions monitored on a regular basis included ground-water level (monitored con tinuously), specific conductance, air and soil temperature, precipitation, chloride concentration in soil samples, ground conductivity, and deicing chemical application times and rates. For the interim reporting period, water samples were collected from January 1991 through September 1993. Evidence from water analysis, specific conductance measurements, and surface geophysical measurements indicates that four of the eight sites (Ashtabula County, Lucas County, Portage County, and Richland

  19. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of its own motor, whether such motor is powered by gasoline, diesel fuel, special motor fuels... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of...

  20. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...-2008-0114] RIN 2125-AF26 Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise... the Federal regulations on the Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise. The final rule clarifies and adds definitions, the applicability of this regulation, certain...

  1. Highways and habitat: managing habitat connectivity and landscape permeability for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Millions of miles of highway crisscross the United States . Highways fragment the landscape, affecting the distribution of animal populations and limiting the ability of individuals to disperse between those populations. Moreover, animal-vehicle collisions are a serious hazard to wildlife, not to mention people.Researchers at the PNW Research Station in...

  2. Workshop report : joint workshop on liability issues in advanced vehicle control and automated highway systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-05

    The National Automated Highway System Consortium (NAHSC), ITS America and the American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials (AASHTO) co-sponsored a two-day workshop in Washington, DC on February 5-6, 1997 to examine the liability i...

  3. 76 FR 47288 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... highway project will be barred unless the claim is filed on or before January 31, 2012. If the Federal law... following highway project in the State of California: The addition of bus rapid transit stations and... actions by the Federal agencies, and the laws under which such actions were taken, are described in the...

  4. Maintenance of signs and sign supports : a guide for local highway and street maintenance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Highway signs are the means by which the road agency communicates the rules, warnings, guidance and other highway information that drivers need to navigate their roads and streets. This guide, which is an update to the same titled guide published in ...

  5. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  6. Discussion on the method of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics and environmental radiological impact of the highway construction project, the basic procedure of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project is put forward, including analysis and determination of contamination sources, selection of evaluation factors, determination of assessment range and dose limit, environmental investigation, environmental impact prediction and assessment. The working method of each procedure is analyzed. (authors)

  7. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-10-29

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  8. Proposed methodology for estimating the impact of highway improvements on urban air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The aim of this methodology is to indicate the expected change in ambient air quality in the vicinity of a highway improvement and in the total background level of urban air pollution resulting from the highway improvement. Both the jurisdiction in w...

  9. Dollars for lives : the effect of highway capital investments on traffic fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    There is no research that links capital investments on highways with highway fatalities. Our research project aimed to fill : t : hat gap. We used state : - : level data from the 48 contiguous states of the U.S. from 1968 through 2010 to estimate the...

  10. Residential moving intentions at highway locations: : The trade-off between nuisances and accessibility in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Heinen, Eva; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how highway nuisances are traded off against accessibility gains and other residential characteristics in the moving intentions of people living near highways. It studies a potential mediating role for residential satisfaction and potential mitigating relationships with

  11. A feasibility study for Arizona's roadway safety management process using the Highway Safety Manual and SafetyAnalyst : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    To enable implementation of the American Association of State Highway Transportation (AASHTO) Highway Safety Manual using : SaftetyAnalyst (an AASHTOWare software product), the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) studied the data assessment :...

  12. Exploration of Drone and Remote Sensing Technologies in Highway Embankment Monitoring and Management (Phase I) : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Over time, many Louisiana highway embankments have experienced surface sliding failures, a safety issue causing traffic disruptions. Since no advance-warning system is available for these highway embankment failures, the Louisiana Department of Trans...

  13. Federal-aid highways : FHWA has improved its risk management approach, but needs to improve its oversight of project costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The federal-aid highway program : provides about $33 billion a year to : states for highway projects. The : federal government provides : funding for and oversees this : program, while states largely : choose and manage the projects. : As requested, ...

  14. Drug research methodology. Volume 1, The alcohol-highway safety experience and its applicability to other drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop concerning the alcohol and highway safety experience, which includes research efforts to define the drinking-driving problem and societal responses to reduce the increased highway safety risk attributab...

  15. Dollars for lives: the effect of highway capital investments on traffic fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yeung, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the effect of highway capital investments on highway fatalities. We used state-level data from the 48 contiguous states in the United States from 1968 through 2010 to estimate the effects on highway fatalities of capital expenditures and highway capital stock. We estimated these effects by controlling for a set of control variables together with state and year dummy variables and state-specific linear time trends. We found that capital expenditures and capital stock had significant and negative effects on highway fatalities. States faced with declines in gas tax revenues have already cut back drastically on spending on roads including on maintenance and capital outlay. If this trend continues, it may undermine traffic safety. While states and local governments are currently fiscally strained, it is important for them to continue investments in roadways to enhance traffic safety and, more significantly, to save lives. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and revised users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire Interstate System, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of Interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations greater than 100,000 persons. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment

  17. Performance analysis of Brazilian highways under concession through the capacity and level of service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira Santos, T.; Martins Ribeiro, P.C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a methodology to analyze the performance of highways under concession through the capacity and level of service, with special attention to Brazilian highways. The trajectory of transport infrastructure provision in Brazil and its performance assessment framework are mentioned, as well as an approach of the level of service concept and the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). An inventory of the highway with the necessary data to the model is proposed. This database should incorporate information from multiple data sources and its use will be important for the processing and compilation of raw data in order to structure a full informational basis. Then, it is developed a method for segmentation of homogeneous road sections, as conceptualized by HCM, and proposed a way of level of service measurement. Finally, there are analysis of the use of HCM in some highways concession programs in Brazil. (Author)

  18. Algebraic reconstruction techniques for spectral reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ronny; Nielsen, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) necessitates solving the diffusion equation, which is nonlinear with respect to the parameters that have to be reconstructed. Currently applied solving methods are based on the linearization of the equation. For spectral three-dimensional reconstruction, the emerging equation system is too large for direct inversion, but the application of iterative methods is feasible. Computational effort and speed of convergence of these iterative methods are crucial since they determine the computation time of the reconstruction. In this paper, the iterative methods algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and conjugated gradients (CGs) as well as a new modified ART method are investigated for spectral DOT reconstruction. The aim of the modified ART scheme is to speed up the convergence by considering the specific conditions of spectral reconstruction. As a result, it converges much faster to favorable results than conventional ART and CG methods

  19. 40 CFR 63.43 - Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) determinations for constructed and reconstructed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator, and shall provide a summary in a compatible electronic format for inclusion in the MACT data base... paragraph (d) of this section. (2) In each instance where a constructed or reconstructed major source would...) In each instance where the owner or operator contends that a constructed or reconstructed major...

  20. Spatio Temporal Change of Selected Glaciers Along Karakoram Highway from 1994-2017 Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Yasmeen; Iqbal, Javed

    2018-04-01

    With the acceleration of global warming glaciers are receding rapidly. Monitoring of glaciers are important because they caused outburst of floods the past. This research delivers a systematic approach for the assessment of glaciers i.e. Batura, Passu, Ghulkin and Gulmit cover along the Karakoram Highway. Main reason to select these glaciers was their closeness to Karakoram Highway which plays an important role in China-Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC). This study incorporates the techniques of Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing (GIS & RS). For this study, Landsat 4,5,7,8 images were taken for the years of 1994, 2002, 2009, 2013 and 2017. Using the said images supervised classification was done in ArcMap 10.3 version to identify the changes in glaciers. The area was categorized into six major classes' i.e. Fresh snow, Glaciers, Debris, Vegetation, Water bodies and Open land. Classified results showed a decrease in the area of Glaciers, almost 3.5% from 1994 to 2017. GLIMS data about boundary of glaciers of 1999 and 2007 was compared with the classified results which show decrease in terminus of glaciers. Batura glacier has been receded almost 0.6 km from 1999 to 2017, whereas Passu glaciers receded 0.3 km, whereas Gulmit and Ghulkin glaciers are more stable than Passu and Batura with the difference of -0.05 and +0.57 km respectively. At the end results from classified maps were compared with the climatic data. Wherein temperature is rapidly increasing resulting in melting of glaciers and can cause shrinkage of fresh water as well as destruction to Karakoram highway in case of outburst floods.

  1. Blowing dust and highway safety in the southwestern United States: Characteristics of dust emission "hotspots" and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junran; Kandakji, Tarek; Lee, Jeffrey A; Tatarko, John; Blackwell, John; Gill, Thomas E; Collins, Joe D

    2018-04-15

    Despite the widespread media attention of chain-reaction traffic incidents and property damage caused by windblown dust in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world, very few studies have provided in-depth analysis on this issue. Remote sensing and field observations reveal that wind erosion in the southwestern U.S. typically occurs in localized source areas, characterized as "hotspots", while most of the landscape is not eroding. In this study, we identified the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of hotspots that may contribute dust blowing onto highways in the southwestern U.S. We further classified the hotspots for the potential of blowing dust production based upon field observations and wind erosion modeling. Results of land use and land cover show that shrubland, grassland, and cropland accounted for 42%, 31%, and 21% of the overall study area, respectively. However, of the 620 total hotspots identified, 164 (26%), 141 (22%), and 234 (38%) are located on shrubland, grassland, and cropland, respectively. Barren land represented 0.9% of the land area but 8% of the dust hotspots. While a majority of these hotspots are located close to highways, we focused on 55 of them, which are located hotspot sites are dominated by sand and silt particles with threshold shear velocities ranging from 0.17-0.78m s -1 , largely depending on the land use of the hotspot sites. Dust emission modeling showed that 13 hotspot sites could produce annual emissions >3.79kg m -2 , yielding highly hazardous dust emissions to ground transportation with visibility hotspots are critical information for highway authorities to make informed and timely management decisions when wind events strike. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  3. Reconstructing warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.

  4. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  5. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  6. A comparative empirical analysis of statistical models for evaluating highway segment crash frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bismark R.D.K. Agbelie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted an empirical highway segment crash frequency analysis on the basis of fixed-parameters negative binomial and random-parameters negative binomial models. Using a 4-year data from a total of 158 highway segments, with a total of 11,168 crashes, the results from both models were presented, discussed, and compared. About 58% of the selected variables produced normally distributed parameters across highway segments, while the remaining produced fixed parameters. The presence of a noise barrier along a highway segment would increase mean annual crash frequency by 0.492 for 88.21% of the highway segments, and would decrease crash frequency for 11.79% of the remaining highway segments. Besides, the number of vertical curves per mile along a segment would increase mean annual crash frequency by 0.006 for 84.13% of the highway segments, and would decrease crash frequency for 15.87% of the remaining highway segments. Thus, constraining the parameters to be fixed across all highway segments would lead to an inaccurate conclusion. Although, the estimated parameters from both models showed consistency in direction, the magnitudes were significantly different. Out of the two models, the random-parameters negative binomial model was found to be statistically superior in evaluating highway segment crashes compared with the fixed-parameters negative binomial model. On average, the marginal effects from the fixed-parameters negative binomial model were observed to be significantly overestimated compared with those from the random-parameters negative binomial model.

  7. Analyzing the Impact of Highways Associated with Farmland Loss under Rapid Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Highway construction has accelerated urban growth and induced direct and indirect changes to land use. Although many studies have analyzed the relationship between highway construction and local development, relatively less attention has been paid to clarifying the various impacts of highways associated with farmland loss. This paper integrates GIS spatial analysis, remote sensing, buffer analysis and landscape metrics to analyze the landscape pattern change induced by direct and indirect highway impacts. This paper explores the interaction between the impact of highways and farmland loss, using the case of the highly urbanized traffic hubs in eastern China, Hang-Jia-Hu Plain. Our results demonstrate that the Hang-Jia-Hu Plain experienced extensive highway construction during 1990–2010, with a clear acceleration of expressway development since 2000. This unprecedented highway construction has directly fragmented the regional landscape and indirectly disturbed the regional landscape by attracting a large amount of built-up land transition from farmland during the last two decades. In the highway-effect zone, serious farmland loss initially occurred in the urban region and then spread to the rural region. Moreover, we found the discontinuous expansion of built-up land scattered the farmland in the rural region and expressway-effect zone. Furthermore, farmland protection policies in the 1990s had the effect of controlling the total area of farmland loss. However, the cohesive farmland structure was still fragmented by the direct and indirect impacts of highway construction. We suggest that an overall farmland protection system should be established to enhance spatial control and mitigate the adverse impacts caused by highway construction. This work improves the understanding of regional sustainable development, and provides a scientific basis for balanced urban development with farmland protection in decision-making processes.

  8. Reconstruction after complex facial trauma: achieving optimal outcome through multiple contemporary surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Pu, Lee L Q

    2013-04-01

    Major facial trauma injuries often require complex repair. Traditionally, the reconstruction of such injuries has primarily utilized only free tissue transfer. However, the advent of newer, contemporary procedures may lead to potential reconstructive improvement through the use of complementary procedures after free flap reconstruction. An 18-year-old male patient suffered a major left facial degloving injury resulting in soft-tissue defect with exposed zygoma, and parietal bone. Multiple operations were undertaken in a staged manner for reconstruction. A state-of-the-art free anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap and Medpor implant reconstruction of the midface were initially performed, followed by flap debulking, lateral canthopexy, midface lift with redo canthopexy, scalp tissue expansion for hairline reconstruction, and epidermal skin grafting for optimal skin color matching. Over a follow-up period of 2 years, a good and impressive reconstructive result was achieved through the use of multiple contemporary reconstructive procedures following an excellent free ALT flap reconstruction. Multiple staged reconstructions are essential in producing an optimal outcome in this complex facial injury that would likely not have been produced through a 1-stage traditional free flap reconstruction. Utilizing multiple, sequential contemporary surgeries may substantially improve outcome through the enhancement and refinement of results based on possibly the best initial soft-tissue reconstruction.

  9. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...

  10. Regional Myocutaneous Flaps for Head and Neck Reconstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional myocutaneous pedicle flaps (RMF) are known to be relevant in the reconstruction of major head and neck oncologic defects with pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicle flap (PMMC) being the best-known RMF. For over three decades, since first described by Ariyan in 1979, PMMC has continually been used in the ...

  11. LHCb jet reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Oscar; Rangel, Murilo; Barter, William; Bursche, Albert; Potterat, Cedric; Coco, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than 4 X 10 32 cm -2 s -1 and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1,02fb -1 on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test perturbative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space ηX φ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the colorimeters are used on the LHCb experiment to create objects called particle flow objects that are used as input to anti-kt algorithm. The LHCb is specially interesting for jets studies because its η region is complementary to the others main experiments on LHC. We will present the first results of jet reconstruction using 2011 LHCb data. (author)

  12. LHCb jet reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Oscar; Rangel, Murilo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barter, William [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bursche, Albert [Universitat Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Potterat, Cedric [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Coco, Victor [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than 4 X 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1,02fb{sup -1} on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test perturbative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space {eta}X {phi} and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the colorimeters are used on the LHCb experiment to create objects called particle flow objects that are used as input to anti-kt algorithm. The LHCb is specially interesting for jets studies because its {eta} region is complementary to the others main experiments on LHC. We will present the first results of jet reconstruction using 2011 LHCb data. (author)

  13. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the

  14. Iterative concurrent reconstruction algorithms for emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.K.; Hasegawa, B.H.; Lang, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    Direct reconstruction techniques, such as those based on filtered backprojection, are typically used for emission computed tomography (ECT), even though it has been argued that iterative reconstruction methods may produce better clinical images. The major disadvantage of iterative reconstruction algorithms, and a significant reason for their lack of clinical acceptance, is their computational burden. We outline a new class of ''concurrent'' iterative reconstruction techniques for ECT in which the reconstruction process is reorganized such that a significant fraction of the computational processing occurs concurrently with the acquisition of ECT projection data. These new algorithms use the 10-30 min required for acquisition of a typical SPECT scan to iteratively process the available projection data, significantly reducing the requirements for post-acquisition processing. These algorithms are tested on SPECT projection data from a Hoffman brain phantom acquired with a 2 x 10 5 counts in 64 views each having 64 projections. The SPECT images are reconstructed as 64 x 64 tomograms, starting with six angular views. Other angular views are added to the reconstruction process sequentially, in a manner that reflects their availability for a typical acquisition protocol. The results suggest that if T s of concurrent processing are used, the reconstruction processing time required after completion of the data acquisition can be reduced by at least 1/3 T s. (Author)

  15. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  16. [Reconstructive methods after Fournier gangrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, C; Behr, B; Ring, A; Mikhail, B D; Lehnhardt, M; Daigeler, A

    2016-04-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a variant of the necrotizing fasciitis restricted to the perineal and genital region. It presents as an acute life-threatening disease and demands rapid surgical debridement, resulting in large soft tissue defects. Various reconstructive methods have to be applied to reconstitute functionality and aesthetics. The objective of this work is to identify different reconstructive methods in the literature and compare them to our current concepts for reconstructing defects caused by Fournier gangrene. Analysis of the current literature and our reconstructive methods on Fournier gangrene. The Fournier gangrene is an emergency requiring rapid, calculated antibiotic treatment and radical surgical debridement. After the acute phase of the disease, appropriate reconstructive methods are indicated. The planning of the reconstruction of the defect depends on many factors, especially functional and aesthetic demands. Scrotal reconstruction requires a higher aesthetic and functional reconstructive degree than perineal cutaneous wounds. In general, thorough wound hygiene, proper pre-operative planning, and careful consideration of the patient's demands are essential for successful reconstruction. In the literature, various methods for reconstruction after Fournier gangrene are described. Reconstruction with a flap is required for a good functional result in complex regions as the scrotum and penis, while cutaneous wounds can be managed through skin grafting. Patient compliance and tissue demand are crucial factors in the decision-making process.

  17. Supporting migration to services using software architecture reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Liam; Smith, Dennis; Lewis, Grace

    2005-01-01

    peer-reviewed There are many good reasons why organizations should perform software architecture reconstructions. However, few organizations are willing to pay for the effort. Software architecture reconstruction must be viewed not as an effort on its own but as a contribution in a broader technical context, such as the streamlining of products into a product line or the modernization of systems that hit their architectural borders, that is require major restructuring. In this paper we ...

  18. Missing concepts in natural selection theory reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnobili, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    The concept of fitness has generated a lot of discussion in philosophy of biology. There is, however, relative agreement about the need to distinguish at least two uses of the term: ecological fitness on the one hand, and population genetics fitness on the other. The goal of this paper is to give an explication of the concept of ecological fitness by providing a reconstruction of the theory of natural selection in which this concept was framed, that is, based on the way the theory was put to use in Darwin's main texts. I will contend that this reconstruction enables us to account for the current use of the theory of natural selection. The framework presupposed in the analysis will be that of metatheoretical structuralism. This framework will provide both a better understanding of the nature of ecological fitness and a more complete reconstruction of the theory. In particular, it will provide what I think is a better way of understanding how the concept of fitness is applied through heterogeneous cases. One of the major advantages of my way of thinking about natural selection theory is that it would not have the peculiar metatheoretical status that it has in other available views. I will argue that in order to achieve these goals it is necessary to make several concepts explicit, concepts that are frequently omitted in usual reconstructions.

  19. The structure of reconstructed chalcopyrite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinius, Sascha; Islam, Mazharul M.; Bredow, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) surfaces are of major interest for copper exploitation in aqueous solution, called leaching. Since leaching is a surface process knowledge of the surface structure, bonding pattern and oxidation states is important for improving the efficiency. At present such information is not available from experimental studies. Therefore a detailed computational study of chalcopyrite surfaces is performed. The structures of low-index stoichiometric chalcopyrite surfaces {hkl} h, k, l ∈ {0, 1, 2} have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) and global optimization strategies. We have applied ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) in combination with simulated annealing (SA) in order to explore possible reconstructions via a minima hopping (MH) algorithm. In almost all cases reconstruction involving substantial rearrangement has occurred accompanied by reduction of the surface energy. The analysis of the change in the coordination sphere and migration during reconstruction reveals that S-S dimers are formed on the surface. Further it was observed that metal atoms near the surface move toward the bulk forming metal alloys passivated by sulfur. The obtained surface energies of reconstructed surfaces are in the range of 0.53-0.95 J/m2.

  20. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, J.A.; Vejrum, Tina

    1997-01-01

    on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa.The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which correspond......In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis.In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series...... to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark.The test series which have been carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...

  1. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1999-01-01

    have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 810-840 MPa. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens...... correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gauge measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Faro Bridges in Denmark. The test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...

  2. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Nathan O.; Jagota, Anand

    2003-12-01

    We discuss a microscopic model for the study of multi-lane highway traffic flow dynamics. Each car experiences a force resulting from a combination of the desire of the driver to attain a certain velocity, aerodynamic drag, and change of the force due to car-car interactions. The model also includes multi-lane simulation capability and the ability to add and remove obstructions. We implement the model via a Java applet, which is used to simulate traffic jam formation, the effect of bottlenecks on traffic flow, and the existence of light, medium, and heavy traffic flow. The simulations also provide insight into how the properties of individual cars result in macroscopic behavior. Because the investigation of emergent characteristics is so common in physics, the study of traffic in this manner sheds new light on how the micro-to-macro transition works in general.

  3. Assessment of metal retention in newly constructed highway embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2016-12-01

    Newly constructed embankments should provide both a specific bearing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases and a sufficient pollutant retention capacity to protect the groundwater. A number of lysimeters were installed along the A115 highway to determine total and dissolved metal concentrations in road runoff and in the soil solution of newly constructed embankments. Dissolved concentrations in soil solution of the embankments did not exceed the trigger values of the German legislation. Depending on the metal, total concentrations in soil solution were more than twice as high as dissolved concentrations. The high infiltration rates lead to increased groundwater recharge beneath the embankments (up to 4100 mm a -1 ). Although metal concentrations were not problematic from the legislators' point of view, the elevated infiltration rates beside the road facilitated the transfer of high metal loads into deeper soil layers and potentially into the groundwater as well.

  4. Modeling land development along highway 4 in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potjamas Chuangchang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the change of developed land in three different locations along Highway 4 Road from Phattalung to HatYai. The method involves creating a digitized grid of geographical coordinates covering the study area. The land-use codes and plot identifiers were recorded in database tables indexed by grid coordinates. Logistic regression of land development adjusted for spatial correlation was used to model its change over a 9-year period using land-use at the previous survey combined with location as a determinant. The results show increasing average percentages of developed land (3% in 2000 and 5% in 2009. Land development occurred mostly in the northern location along the Pattalung to HatYai road.

  5. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  6. Threshold Research on Highway Length under Typical Landscape Patterns Based on Drivers’ Physiological Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriately landscaped highway scenes may not only help improve road safety and comfort but also help protect ecological environment. Yet there is very little research data on highway length threshold with consideration of distinctive landscape patterns. Against this backdrop, the paper aims to quantitatively analyze highway landscape’s effect on driving behavior based on drivers’ physiological performance and quantify highway length thresholds under three typical landscape patterns, namely, “open,” “semiopen,” and “vertical” ones. The statistical analysis was based on data collected in a driving simulator and electrocardiograph. Specifically, vehicle-related data, ECG data, and supplemental subjective stress perception were collected. The study extracted two characteristic indices, lane deviation and LF/HF, and extrapolated the drivers’ U-shaped physiological response to landscape patterns. Models on highway length were built based on LF/HF’s variation trend with highway length. The results revealed that the theoretical highway length threshold tended to increase when the landscape pattern was switched to open, semiopen, and vertical ones. And the reliability and accuracy of the results were validated by questionnaires and field operational tests. Findings from this research will assist practitioners in taking active environmental countermeasures pertaining to different roadside landscape patterns.

  7. Proposal for a New Model for Highway Records in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Paar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Highways are public roads, whose function is to integrate Croatia in the European transport system, link the regions of Croatia and facilitate transit traffic. They are public property for general use, owned by the Republic of Croatia, and they cannot be the subject of acquisition or other proprietary rights of any kind. Today, there are two types of highway record-keeping. The first is conducted by leading companies authorised to manage highways in order to develop a highway database, or create a highway register. The second is conducted by land-management systems; the Cadastre and Land Registry. They are the official public registers for keeping records of land plots, buildings and other structures, and their ownership. Procedures that need to be implemented in the second type of record-keeping often get "stuck" in practice. Based on the problems identified in this model and an analysis of the state of record-keeping, a proposal for a new model for highway records in the Cadastre and Land Registry is given. Keywords: highways; building plot; expropriation; record; Cadastre; Land Registry

  8. Qualitative stability assessment of cut slopes along the National Highway-05 around Jhakri area, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Jagadish; Sarkar, Kripamoy; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Singh, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Several deformation phases in tectonically active Himalayas have rendered the rock masses very complex in terms of structure, lithology and degree of metamorphism. Again, anthropogenic activities such as roads, tunnels and other civil engineering constructions have led to a state of disequilibrium which in many cases, results in failure of rock masses. National Highway-05 around Jhakri area in India is a major connecting route to the China border in the hilly terrains of the state Himachal Pradesh. It cuts through the Himalayan rocks and has a hazardous history of landslides destroying human lives and interrupting communication very frequently. As a contribution towards the mitigation process, a study has been carried out along the highway to analyse kinematic stability and qualitative estimation of rock mass condition through rock mass classification systems. The kinematic analysis shows that the rock slopes are prone to planar and wedge failure. Rock mass rating for most of the locations lies between 7 and 34, representing a poor rock mass quality (Class IV), whereas slope mass rating is more disperse and ranges from 11 to 52 for most of the slopes (Class III, IV and V).

  9. Inter-individual variability of stone marten behavioral responses to a highway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ascensão

    Full Text Available Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages. We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk.

  10. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  11. Progressive Reconstruction: A Methodology for Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohr, Karl C

    2006-01-01

    ... these nations in accordance with stated United States' goals. The argument follows closely current and developing United States military doctrine on stabilization, reconstruction, and counterinsurgency operations...

  12. Spectral reconstruction for shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxia; Chernavskaia, Olga; Popp, Jürgen; Bocklitz, Thomas

    2018-08-15

    Fluorescence emission is one of the major obstacles to apply Raman spectroscopy in biological investigations. It is usually several orders more intense than Raman scattering and hampers further analysis. In cases where the fluorescence emission is too intense to be efficiently removed via routine mathematical baseline correction algorithms, an alternative approach is needed. One alternative approach is shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS), where two Raman spectra are recorded with two slightly different excitation wavelengths. Ideally, the fluorescence emission at the two excitations does not change while the Raman spectrum shifts according to the excitation wavelength. Hence the fluorescence is removed in the difference of the two recorded Raman spectra. For better interpretability a spectral reconstruction procedure is necessary to recover the fluorescence-free Raman spectrum. This is challenging due to the intensity variations between the two recorded Raman spectra caused by unavoidable experimental changes as well as the presence of noise. Existent approaches suffer from drawbacks like spectral resolution loss, fluorescence residual, and artefacts. In this contribution, we proposed a reconstruction method based on non-negative least squares (NNLS), where the intensity variations between the two measurements are utilized in the reconstruction model. The method achieved fluorescence-free reconstruction on three real-world SERDS datasets without significant information loss. Thereafter, we quantified the performance of the reconstruction based on artificial datasets from four aspects: reconstructed spectral resolution, precision of reconstruction, signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and fluorescence residual. The artificial datasets were constructed with varied Raman to fluorescence intensity ratio (RFIR), SNR, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), excitation wavelength shift, and fluorescence variation between the two spectra. It was demonstrated that

  13. A Novel Beamforming Technique for Highways Coverage Using High-Altitude Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Albagory

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel beamforming technique to form an arbitrary-shaped cell for the high-altitude platforms (HAPs mobile communications. The new technique is based on pattern summation of individual low-sidelobe, narrow beams which constitute the desired cell pattern weighted by an amplitude correcting function. The new cell pattern can be adapted to cover the main highways forming worm-shaped cells which may cover the highway for long distances up to 100 km and it will have an important role in reducing frequent handoffs and signaling traffic of location updating from moving users over the long highways.

  14. A perspective of the Malaysian highway energy consumption and future power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqr, Khalid M.; Musa, Md. Nor

    2011-01-01

    In this short communication, we discuss the energy consumption trends in the Malaysian road transport sector, with a special emphasis on the energy losses due to vehicle aerodynamic drag on highways. The recent trends of energy consumption in the Malaysian road transport sector are reviewed. It is evidently shown that the aerodynamic losses represented exceed 1.2 MTOE annually since 2002. A novel concept of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) farms for harvesting aerodynamic energy losses on Malaysian highways is preliminarily proposed. The novel concept aims at providing a sustainable and green energy source for the lighting of the highway network in the country.

  15. Demand Analysis of Logistics Information Matching Platform: A Survey from Highway Freight Market in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqiang; Shen, Xiahong; Tong, Bing; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Tao

    With the increasing competition in logistics industry and promotion of lower logistics costs requirements, the construction of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation plays an important role, and the accuracy of platform design is the key to successful operation or not. Based on survey results of logistics service providers, customers and regulation authorities to access to information and in-depth information demand analysis of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation in Zhejiang province, a survey analysis for framework of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation is provided.

  16. Risk assessment of wind turbines sited close to highways; Risikovurdering i forbindelse med vindmoeller og motorveje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalsgaard Soerensen, J.; Lemming, J. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Noerkaer Soerensen, J. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., DTU Mekanik, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-06-15

    This report treats risk assessment of siting wind turbines close to highways in Denmark. The assessment only deals with the risk of total or partly failure of the turbines and the risk of ice throw from the blades. The report describes the fundamental methods, risk assessments as well as the assumptions and limitations the results are based on. The results is based on an example with a number of turbines sited alone the highway and presented as the risk per driven km on the highway. (Author)

  17. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Warne, David; Barry, Mark; Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin

    2011-01-01

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  18. Reconstruction of Facial Defect Using Deltopectoral Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the head and neck is a challenge for otolarygology surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons as well as plastic surgeons. Defects caused by the resection and/or trauma should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Deltopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the facial defects. This study report a patient presenting with tragic Road Traffic Accident (RTA) admitted to maxillofacial surgery department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar province, Iraq. An incision, medially based, was done and deltopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure and closure of defects after RTA. There was no major complication. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Deltopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation.

  19. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.

  20. Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Tyagi, Neelam; Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2007-01-01

    Variations in target volume position between and during treatment fractions can lead to measurable differences in the dose distribution delivered to each patient. Current methods to estimate the ongoing cumulative delivered dose distribution make idealized assumptions about individual patient motion based on average motions observed in a population of patients. In the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), errors are introduced in both the implementation and delivery processes. In addition, target motion and MLC motion can lead to dosimetric errors from interplay effects. All of these effects may be of clinical importance. Here we present a method to compute delivered dose distributions for each treatment beam and fraction, which explicitly incorporates synchronized real-time patient motion data and real-time fluence and machine configuration data. This synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction method properly accounts for the two primary classes of errors that arise from delivering IMRT with an MLC: (a) Interplay errors between target volume motion and MLC motion, and (b) Implementation errors, such as dropped segments, dose over/under shoot, faulty leaf motors, tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, and communications delays. These reconstructed dose fractions can then be combined to produce high-quality determinations of the dose distribution actually received to date, from which individualized adaptive treatment strategies can be determined

  1. LHCb; LHCb Jet Reconstruction

    CERN Multimedia

    Augusto, O

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than $4 \\times 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1.02 $fb^{-1}$ on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test pertubative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space $\\eta \\times \\phi$ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the calo...

  2. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  3. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  4. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  5. Entropy and transverse section reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections

  6. Phenology of a Vegetation Barrier and Resulting Impacts on Near-Highway Particle Number and Black Carbon Concentrations on a School Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina H. Fuller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related air pollution is a persistent concern especially in urban areas where populations live in close proximity to roadways. Innovative solutions are needed to minimize human exposure and the installation of vegetative barriers shows potential as a method to reduce near-road concentrations. This study investigates the impact of an existing stand of deciduous and evergreen trees on near-road total particle number (PNC and black carbon (BC concentrations across three seasons. Measurements were taken during spring, fall and winter on the campus of a middle school in the Atlanta (GA, USA area at distances of 10 m and 50 m from a major interstate highway. We identified consistent decreases in BC concentrations, but not for PNC, with increased distance from the highway. In multivariable models, hour of day, downwind conditions, distance to highway, temperature and relative humidity significantly predicted pollutant concentrations. The magnitude of effect of these variables differed by season, however, we were not able to show a definitive impact of the vegetative barrier on near-road concentrations. More detailed studies are necessary to further examine the specific configurations and scenarios that may produce pollutant and exposure reductions.

  7. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  8. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  9. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Merrill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1 the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2 evaluation of various sources of power, (3 estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4 a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M, vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M, reduction of accidents ($544.6 M, and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M. These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  10. Sustainable Development Factors in Pavement Life-Cycle: Highway/Airport Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Babashamsi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has gained as much importance as management in business. Sustainable pavement development as a business practice should involve making evaluations according to the triple bottom line in the pavement life-cycle. Despite the current approaches to evaluating the social as well as economic and environmental feasibility of pavement projects (involving highway and airport infrastructure, there has recently been a lack of consensus on a methodology to guarantee sustainability upon assessment and analysis during the pavement life-cycle. As sustainability is a complex issue, this study intends to further explore sustainability and elaborate on its meaning. The second step involves a general depiction of the major sustainability appraisal tools, namely cost-benefit analysis, life-cycle cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, multi-criteria decision-making, environmental impact assessment and social life-cycle assessment, and an explanation of their cons and pros. Subsequently, the article addresses the application of an organized methodology to highlight the main factors or concepts that should be applied in sustainable pavement development and, more specifically, in sustainable pavement management. In the final step, research recommendations toward sustainability are given. This study is aimed to assist decision-makers in pavement management to plan sustainability frameworks in accordance with probable boundaries and restrictions.

  11. Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G

    2006-09-01

    It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants. This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg 1(-1). In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg 1(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

  12. Highway Passenger Transport Based Express Parcel Service Network Design: Model and Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Highway passenger transport based express parcel service (HPTB-EPS is an emerging business that uses unutilised room of coach trunk to ship parcels between major cities. While it is reaping more and more express market, the managers are facing difficult decisions to design the service network. This paper investigates the HPTB-EPS network design problem and analyses the time-space characteristics of such network. A mixed-integer programming model is formulated integrating the service decision, frequency, and network flow distribution. To solve the model, a decomposition-based heuristic algorithm is designed by decomposing the problem as three steps: construction of service network, service path selection, and distribution of network flow. Numerical experiment using real data from our partner company demonstrates the effectiveness of our model and algorithm. We found that our solution could reduce the total cost by up to 16.3% compared to the carrier’s solution. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the robustness and flexibility of the solutions of the model.

  13. Relative individual workload changes may be a risk factor for rerupture of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Khalil, Lafi S; Ahmad, Christopher S; ElAttrache, Neal

    2017-03-01

    With an increasing number of Major League Baseball (MLB) players undergoing ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction, there remains limited literature on appropriate post-reconstruction workload management to limit the risk of reinjury. A total of 28 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction were identified and compared with 137 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared 3 years before and after primary reconstruction. Results were then compared between groups. Pitchers who later required revision increased their games pitched by 14.1% after reconstruction whereas the no-revision group pitched 13.6% fewer games than before reconstruction (P < .01). Inning workload was reduced by 9.8% after surgery (89.8 innings after vs 99.6 innings before) for the revision group compared with the no-revision group, which threw 26% fewer innings after surgery (86.3 innings after vs 116.7 innings before) (P = .05). In addition, the revision group pitched 6.6% more pitches after reconstruction, 1138.9 pitches, compared with before reconstruction, 1068.6 pitches. Pitchers who did not require revision, in contrast, pitched 19.6% fewer pitches after reconstruction than before reconstruction (P = .08). This study's findings suggest that MLB pitchers who require revision UCL reconstruction after returning to play following primary UCL reconstruction pitch at or above their pre-primary UCL reconstruction workload whereas control pitchers who do not require revision pitch significantly less, below their pre-primary UCL reconstruction workload. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Federal Highway Administration research and technology evaluation final report : Eco-Logical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report documents an evaluation of Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Research and Technology Programs activities on the implementation of the Eco-Logical approach by State transportation departments and metropolitan planning organizati...

  15. Impact of left lane truck restriction strategies on multilane highways in Louisiana : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Truck lane restriction strategies (TLRS) are a means of managing truck traffic on highways by prohibiting trucks from using certain lanes to minimize interaction between trucks and other vehicles. The purpose of this study is to review the literature...

  16. Highway-rail intersection GPS-based in-vehicle warning systems - literature review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    In 2008, there were 2,395 incidents at highway-rail intersections (level crossings) in the United States, resulting in 939 injuries and 287 fatalities. Crossing elimination, grade separation, and the implementation of traditional warning devices are ...

  17. Recovery act : states' use of highway infrastructure funds and compliance with the act's requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) included more than $48 billion for the Department of Transportations (DOT) investment in transportation infrastructure, including highways, rail, and transit. This testimonybased...

  18. On the spot damage detection methodology for highway bridges during natural crises : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a : low-cost portable damage detection tool to : assess and predict damage areas in highway : bridges. : The proposed tool was based on standard : vibration-based damage identification (VBDI) : techniques but...

  19. Applications of variable speed control for contending with recurrent highway congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This research project developed vital operational guidelines for design of a variable speed limit (VSL) system and its integrated operations with ramp metering control in contending with recurrent highway congestion. The developed guidelines can serv...

  20. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  1. INFORMATION SECURITY: Weak Controls Place DC Highway Trust Fund and Other Data at Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    We reviewed information system general controls over the financial systems that process and account for the financial activities of the District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund as part of our annual...

  2. Transportation planning implications of automated/connected vehicles on Texas highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This research project was focused on the transportation planning implications of automated/connected : vehicles (AV/CVs) on Texas highways. The research assessed how these potentially transformative : technologies can be included in transportation pl...

  3. New Orleans Regional Planning Commission scenario planning workshop : sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report summarizes noteworthy practices and key recommendations shared during a scenario planning workshop, hosted by the New Orleans Regional Planning Commission, on August 12-13, 2015, in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Federal Highway Administrati...

  4. A feasibility study on embedded micro-electromechanical sensors and systems (MEMS) for monitoring highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) provide vast improvements over existing sensing methods in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM) of highway infrastructure systems, including improved system reliability, improved longevity and enhan...

  5. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (Macintosh version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  6. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (IBM version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  7. Kentucky Peer Exchange : Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a peer exchange hosted by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) and the Kentucky Office of Highway Safety (KOHS) on June 16-17, 2015, in Frankfort, KY. The event included peer representatives from the Georgia Department of...

  8. Nevada Peer Exchange : Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP) Implementation - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) hosted a peer exchange March 4 and 5, 2015, in Carson City, : NV, with support from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety. In addition to FHWA and : NDOT staff, representatives from ...

  9. Bayou Corne sinkhole : control measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The sinkhole located in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens the stability of Highway 70, a state maintained route. In order to : mitigate the potential damaging e ects of the sinkhole on this infrastructure, the Louisiana Department of Transpo...

  10. Bayou Corne sinkhole : control measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This project measured and assessed the surface stability of the portion of LA Highway 70 that is : potentially vulnerable to the Assumption Parish sinkhole. Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) : enhanced by a real-time network (RTN) of continuousl...

  11. Bayou Corne Sinkhole: Control Measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The sinkhole located in northern Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens : the stability of Highway 70, a state-maintained route. In order to monitor : and mitigate potential damage eff ects on this infrastructure, the Louisiana : Department of Trans...

  12. A tale of three regions : influence of highway investments on population and traffic growth in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    To what extent may highway investments shape population growth and land development? To answer this question, three decades of data were examined in the Virginia locations of Fairfax County, Spotsylvania County, and Newport News. In each location, a ...

  13. 76 FR 46356 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    .... Hartman, Division Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, 3050 Lake Harbor Lane, Suite 126, Boise... programs and activities apply to this program.) Authority: 23 U.S.C. 139(I)(1). Peter J. Hartman, Division...

  14. 75 FR 41278 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    .... Peter J. Hartman, Division Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, 3050 Lake Harbor Lane, Suite... this program.) Authority: 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). Peter J. Hartman, Division Administrator, FHWA--Idaho...

  15. 76 FR 1663 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ..., Bonner Bridge Replacement Project along NC 12, from Rodanthe to Bodie Island in Dare County, North... Bonner Bridge Replacement Project along Highway NC 12, from Rodanthe to Bodie Island, in Dare County...

  16. INSAR For Early Warning Of Possible Highway Instability Over Undermined Area Of Ostrava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazecky, Milan; Kacmarik, Michal; Rapant, Petr

    2012-01-01

    A part of czech highway D1 connecting Ostrava with Prague and Poland, is built over an undermined area of Ostrava-Svinov. Since the end of 2010, this part of the highway is fully operational. Because of undermining, a subsidence can be expected, however with a very slow rate since the mines are no more active in this area. Several TerraSAR-X images from 2011 are investigated interferometrically in order to estimate a precise deformation model. Subjects of interest are movements of newly built highway bridges, banks and close neighbourhood. Existing C-band multitemporal InSAR processing results of ERS and Envisat are available from an earlier period that reveil a slow trend of residual subsidence. In this project, InSAR will be investigated as a tool for an early warning for highway stability.

  17. Literature review on recent international activity in cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This literature review supports the report, Recent International Activity in Cooperative VehicleHighway Automation Systems. It : reviews the published literature in English dating from 2007 or later about non-U.S.-based work on cooperative vehicle...

  18. Genetic algorithm-based stochastic optimization for preempted signals at highway railroad grade crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Decreasing the number of accidents at highway-railway grade crossings (HRGCs) is an important goal in the transportation field. The preemption of traffic signal operations at HRGCs is widely used to prevent accidents by clearing vehicles off the trac...

  19. Simulation of physical development because affected by the construction of the highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Bačnar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for planning highways entails evaluation of possibilities the purpose being selection of the optimal one. In the procedure certain criteria are applied, amongst other evaluation of influences on regional and urban development. Despite the set criteria the chosen route is often contrary to development goals of cities and wider areas – regions, which it affects. The article presents possibilities of using models of effects of highways on settlement development for forecasting consequences of construction. The model is based on knowledge of effects of already built highways, examples of analysed highway exits are shown with settlement growth. Spatial models are useful tools for forecasting physical changes and simulating effects of projects on physical development or its particular elements.

  20. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a highway construction project in Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the field environmental investigation and monitoring result, the radioactive environmental impact for a highway construction project in Guangdong province has been analyzed and assessed and forecacted. (authors)

  1. State highways as main streets : a study of community design and visioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The objectives for this project were to explore community transportation design policy to improve collaboration when state highways serve as local main streets, determine successful approaches to meet the federal requirements for visioning set forth ...

  2. Stream instability countermeasures applied at Kansas Department of Transportation highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This project considered stream instability countermeasures used by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) to protect the highway infrastructure at stream crossings from changes due to the dynamic nature of streams. Site visits were made to 13...

  3. Large-scale laboratory observations of wave forces on a highway bridge superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The experimental setup and data are presented for a laboratory experiment conducted to examine realistic wave forcing on a highway bridge : superstructure. The experiments measure wave conditions along with the resulting forces, pressures, and struct...

  4. Highway Safety Manual applied in Missouri - freeway/software : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    AASHTOs Highway Safety Manual (HSM) : includes models for freeway segments, speedchange : lanes (transitional area between mainline : and ramps), ramps, and interchange terminals. : These predictive models for freeway : interchanges need to be cal...

  5. Determining the Toll and Capacity of a Highway to Be Constructed in Parallel with Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of toll and capacity choice of a new highway with a bottleneck added onto an existing transit network under four ownership/tolling regimes: public fine toll, public flat toll, private fine toll, and private flat toll. Whenever fine toll and flat toll are imposed, in a competitive highway/transit network with constant returns to scale in road construction, an optimally designed and priced privately owned highway would produce positive net benefit justly equal to the total markup with respect to all autocommuters, whereas an optimally designed and priced publicly owned highway would lead to a deficit; that is, the toll revenues are insufficient to cover its all costs. The economic conditions to invest a new road are investigated under different ownership/tolling regimes.

  6. Development of a highway incident management operational and training guide for incident responders in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Each year highway traffic incidents, such as crashes, place responders on and beside roadways with : dangerous high-speed traffic. The unexpected conditions of an incident scene have the potential to surprise : unsuspecting or inattentive drivers, po...

  7. A Stochastic Geometry Model for Multi-hop Highway Vehicular Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    dissemination. This paper exploits stochastic geometry to develop a tractable and accurate modeling framework to characterize the multi-hop transmissions for vehicular networks in a multi-lane highway setup. In particular, we study the tradeoffs between per

  8. Gulf Regional Planning Commission scenario planning workshop : sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes noteworthy practices shared during a scenario planning workshop, hosted by the Gulf Regional Planning Commission, on March 15-16, 2016, in Biloxi, Mississippi. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored this event as p...

  9. Wind-powered electrical systems : highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation : (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine : the extent to which wi...

  10. Updating and improving methodology for prioritizing highway project locations on the strategic intermodal system (SIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) District One developed the Congestion Management Process : (CMP) system to prioritize low-cost, near-term highway improvements on the Strategic Intermodal System (SIS). : The existing CMP system is desi...

  11. Incorporating travel time reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual. [supporting datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-30

    The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) historically has been among the most important reference guides used by transportation professionals seeking a systematic basis for evaluating the capacity, level of service, and performance measures for elements of ...

  12. Real time laser scanning of aggregate materials in highway construction : a transportation pooled fund study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The quality and service life of the roadways that make up the highway transportation infrastructure are dependent upon : the selection and use of high quality aggregate materials. Five state transportation agencies participated in this Transportation...

  13. Highway Safety Data : costs, quality, and strategies for improvement : research report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project was to analyze the collection and management of highway safety data by identifying issues and costs, and proposing means of resolving those issues and reducing the costs. Initial emphasis addressed known elements of the highw...

  14. High-Performance Phylogeny Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffani L. Williams

    2004-11-10

    Under the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Computational Biology, I have been afforded the opportunity to study phylogenetics--one of the most important and exciting disciplines in computational biology. A phylogeny depicts an evolutionary relationship among a set of organisms (or taxa). Typically, a phylogeny is represented by a binary tree, where modern organisms are placed at the leaves and ancestral organisms occupy internal nodes, with the edges of the tree denoting evolutionary relationships. The task of phylogenetics is to infer this tree from observations upon present-day organisms. Reconstructing phylogenies is a major component of modern research programs in many areas of biology and medicine, but it is enormously expensive. The most commonly used techniques attempt to solve NP-hard problems such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, typically by bounded searches through an exponentially-sized tree-space. For example, there are over 13 billion possible trees for 13 organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics that quickly analyze large amounts of data accurately will revolutionize the biological field. This final report highlights my activities in phylogenetics during the two-year postdoctoral period at the University of New Mexico under Prof. Bernard Moret. Specifically, this report reports my scientific, community and professional activities as an Alfred P. Sloan Postdoctoral Fellow in Computational Biology.

  15. Spatial Planning for Transit Tourism on The Highway: A Case Study of Highway Е-75 Through Vojvodina (Horgoš – Belgrade Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuk GARAČA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality and extent of traffc infrastructure has an immense infuence on the development of tourist destinations and on tourism in gener-al. Transit tourism is a unique form of movement and represents a link between generating zones and destinations. The subject of this study is the planning and spatial organization along the route of Highway Е-75 thorough northern Serbian province of Vojvodina. The goal of the study is to scientifcally assert that the route of highway is inadequately equipped as it lacks adequate hospitality services considering its signifcance and the needs of passengers in transit. The pa-per intends to analyze the growing tourists’ de-mands perceived in passenger numbers and the passenger vehicles turnover with existing tourist products.The spatial extent of the research comprises the section of Highway Е-75 through Vojvodina (Horgoš – Subotica – Bačka Topola – Vrbas – Novi Sad – Beška – Indjija – Stara Pazova. The study utilizes mixed quantitative and qual-itative methods, and employs preliminary desk research, feld work, comparative analysis, and a description to establish a critical synthetic narrative. The statistical method of Pearson cor-relation was used for quantitative data analysis and to assess the relationship between overnight stays in places along the highway and the num-ber of passengers travelling the highway. The results of the research pointed out that the initial hypothesis which refers to the lack of specialized accommodation capacity in the highway zone is valid.

  16. Intraoral Approach and Stereolithographic-guided Large Mandibular Reconstruction with Fibula Free Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Diaz-Carandell, MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The reconstruction of mandibular defects has always been of great concern, and it still represents a challenge for head-and-neck reconstructive surgeons. The mandible plays a major role in mastication, articulation, swallowing, respiration, and facial contour. Thus, when undertaking mandibular reconstruction, restoration of both function and cosmetics should be considered as the measure of success. Microsurgical reconstruction is the gold-standard method to repair a segmental mandibular defect. Reconstruction of sizeable defects often needs a large neck incision, leading to unsatisfactory cosmetic outcomes. Virtual surgical planning and stereolithographic modeling are new techniques that offer excellent results and can provide precise data for mandibular reconstruction and improve postoperative outcomes. We present a case of complete intraoral resection and reconstruction of a large ameloblastoma of the mandible.

  17. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  18. Learning text representation using recurrent convolutional neural network with highway layers

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Ying; Zhang, Weinan; Luo, Rui; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the rapid development of word embedding and neural networks has brought new inspiration to various NLP and IR tasks. In this paper, we describe a staged hybrid model combining Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks (RCNN) with highway layers. The highway network module is incorporated in the middle takes the output of the bi-directional Recurrent Neural Network (Bi-RNN) module in the first stage and provides the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) module in the last stage with the i...

  19. Numerical Modelling of Suspended Transport and Deposition of Highway Deposited Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Bach, Christine

    Good data for calibration and validation of numerical models are of high importance. In the natural environment data can be hard to archive and the stochastic nature have governing influence on the data archived. Hence for modelling of suspended transport and deposition of particles, originating ...... from the highway surfaces, in highway detention ponds, four experiments are carried out. To simplify the complexity of a real pond and for easy control and measurement the sediment transports where carried out in two rectangular channels....

  20. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  1. CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korolev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction.Materials and methods: 45 patients who underwent meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between 2007 and 2013 by the same surgeon were included in the study. In total, fifty meniscus were repaired (26 medial and 24 lateral. Procedures included use of one up to four Fast-Fix implants (Smith & Nephew. In five cases both medial and lateral meniscus were repaired. Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scales were used for long-term outcome analysis.Results: 19 male and 26 female patients were included in the study aging from 15 to 59 years (mean age 33,2±1,5. Median time from injury to surgical procedure was zero months (ranging zero to one. Mean time from surgery to scale analysis was 55,9±3 months (ranged 20-102. Median Cincinnati score was 97 (ranged 90-100, with excellent results in 93% of cases (43 patients and good results in 7% (3 patients. Median IKDC score was 90,8 (ranged 86,2-95,4, with excellent outcomes in 51% of cases (23 patients, good in 33% (15 patients and satisfactory in 16% (7 patients. Median Lysholm score was 95 (ranged 90-100, with excellent outcomes in 76% of cases (34 patients and good in 24% (11 patients. Authors identified no statistical differences when comparing survey results in age, sex and time from trauma to surgery.Conclusions: Results of the present study match the data from orthopedic literature that prove meniscal repair as a safe and efficient procedure with good and excellent outcomes. All-inside meniscal repair can be used irrespectively of patients' age and is efficient even in case of delayed procedures.

  2. Depuration of highway runoff water into grass-covered embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, P; Saadé, M; Pfeiffer, H R; Hammecker, C; Degoumois, Y

    2008-06-01

    The management of polluted road runoff water is an important issue in environmental protection. A strategy could be to perform local depuration by infiltration into the soils of the embankment, but knowledge for designing such systems is lacking. This study aims at discussing the relevant soil properties, by estimating the long-term depuration of road runoff water infiltrating into the sandy soil embankment of the A9 highway in Wallis, Switzerland. This was done by estimating the heavy metals (HM) mass balance of two sites 23 and 12 years old, respectively. The accumulated HM were estimated by soil and GB analyses. The HM input was estimated by average water quality and traffic. The results were discussed using two-dimensional simulation of infiltration and a 14 months in situ monitoring of the runoff from the pavement to the embankment and at the bottom of the embankment. The soil properties were appropriate for both small particle adsorption and filtration. A good match between input and stored pollutant charges was found, and the HM profiles accorded well with infiltration simulation and monitoring results, which showed that 80-100% of the runoff water infiltrated into the embankment. Replacement of the cracked concrete gutters by an infiltration channel made of similar soil is recommended. These results oppose the Swiss guidelines for road-polluted water infiltration, as much more clayey soils are recommended. These later soils are difficult to find in Switzerland, and may allow for preferential flow through macro pores, in contrast to the studied site.

  3. A Methodology for Assessing the Seismic Vulnerability of Highway Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirianni, Francis; Leonardi, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Modern society is totally dependent on a complex and articulated infrastructure network of vital importance for the existence of the urban settlements scattered on the territory. On these infrastructure systems, usually indicated with the term lifelines, are entrusted numerous services and indispensable functions of the normal urban and human activity.The systems of the lifelines represent an essential element in all the urbanised areas which are subject to seismic risk. It is important that, in these zones, they are planned according to opportune criteria based on two fundamental assumptions: a) determination of the best territorial localization, avoiding, within limits, the places of higher dangerousness; b) application of constructive technologies finalized to the reduction of the vulnerability.Therefore it is indispensable that in any modern process of seismic risk assessment the study of the networks is taken in the rightful consideration, to be integrated with the traditional analyses of the buildings.The present paper moves in this direction, dedicating particular attention to one kind of lifeline: the highway system, proposing a methodology of analysis finalized to the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the system

  4. Visual tracking strategies for intelligent vehicle highway systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher E.; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Brandt, Scott A.; Richards, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The complexity and congestion of current transportation systems often produce traffic situations that jeopardize the safety of the people involved. These situations vary from maintaining a safe distance behind a leading vehicle to safely allowing a pedestrian to cross a busy street. Environmental sensing plays a critical role in virtually all of these situations. Of the sensors available, vision sensors provide information that is richer and more complete than other sensors, making them a logical choice for a multisensor transportation system. In this paper we present robust techniques for intelligent vehicle-highway applications where computer vision plays a crucial role. In particular, we demonstrate that the controlled active vision framework can be utilized to provide a visual sensing modality to a traffic advisory system in order to increase the overall safety margin in a variety of common traffic situations. We have selected two application examples, vehicle tracking and pedestrian tracking, to demonstrate that the framework can provide precisely the type of information required to effectively manage the given situation.

  5. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  6. Concession of Brazilian Federal Highways: Orphan Assets Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Rezende Salgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the uses of public service concession contracts in Brazil is in the road infrastructure sector, existing at the federal level 21 roads’ concession contracts, totaling approximately 10 thousand kilometers, which is 12.6% of the federal road network. Whereas in this type of contract the government does not transfer ownership of the asset, but only access to the concessionaire for the operation of public services, this study aims to determine in which entity (public or private are registered the federal roads, object of the concession contracts. To address the research question, the financial statements of 21 utility companies or controlling group were analyzed, as well the balance sheet of the National Land Transportation Agency (ANTT, all for the year 2014. The study findings show that the Brazilian federal highways are not recorded in public statements or in the financial statements of utility companies, providing evidence that these infrastructure assets meet the definition of orphan assets. Thus, the net worth of the ANTT is not adequately represented in its balance sheet.

  7. Databases for highway inventories. Proposal for a new model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Casan, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    Database models for highway inventories are based on classical schemes for relational databases: many related tables, in which the database designer establishes, a priori, every detail that they consider relevant for inventory management. This kind of database presents several problems. First, adapting the model and its applications when new database features appear is difficult. In addition, the different needs of different sets of road inventory users are difficult to fulfil with these schemes. For example, maintenance management services, road authorities and emergency services have different needs. In addition, this kind of database cannot be adapted to new scenarios, such as other countries and regions (that may classify roads or name certain elements differently). The problem is more complex if the language used in these scenarios is not the same as that used in the database design. In addition, technicians need a long time to learn to use the database efficiently. This paper proposes a flexible, multilanguage and multipurpose database model, which gives an effective and simple solution to the aforementioned problems. (Author)

  8. Improving E-Bike Safety on Urban Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine characteristics of e-bike fatal crashes on urban highways in China. Crash data were retrieved from the three-year crash reports (2010–2012 of Taixing City. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine characteristics of e-bike riders, drivers, and crashes. The important findings include the following: (1 most fatal crashes were related to e-bike riders’ aberrant driving behaviors, including driving in motorized lanes, red-light running, driving against the direction of traffic, inattentive driving, and drunk driving; (2 e-bike riders with lower educational background tended to perform illegal or inattentive driving behaviors in fatal crashes; (3 most drivers were not found to commit any faults and very few drivers were found to commit drunk driving offences; (4 most nighttime fatal crashes were related to absence of street lightings; (5 heavy good vehicles (HGVs and small passenger cars were the two vehicle types that were mostly involved in the e-bike fatal crashes. This study provides useful information that can help traffic engineers better understand e-bike safety in China and develop safety countermeasures.

  9. Highway runoff quality models for the protection of environmentally sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents novel highway runoff quality models using artificial neural networks (ANN) which take into account site-specific highway traffic and seasonal storm event meteorological factors to predict the event mean concentration (EMC) statistics and mean daily unit area load (MDUAL) statistics of common highway pollutants for the design of roadside ditch treatment systems (RDTS) to protect sensitive receiving environs. A dataset of 940 monitored highway runoff events from fourteen sites located in five countries (Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, and China) was compiled and used to develop ANN models for the prediction of highway runoff suspended solids (TSS) seasonal EMC statistical distribution parameters, as well as the MDUAL statistics for four different heavy metal species (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb). TSS EMCs are needed to estimate the minimum required removal efficiency of the RDTS needed in order to improve highway runoff quality to meet applicable standards and MDUALs are needed to calculate the minimum required capacity of the RDTS to ensure performance longevity.

  10. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  11. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  12. The study for installing noise barrier on highway route no.9

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    Jiradecha Chaddanai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Highway Route No. 9 is a Bangkok bypass motorway that aims to alleviate traffic congestion in greater Bangkok areas. Presently, it is found a rapid expansion of new communities residing along both side of Highway No. 9. To lessen the noise level, Department of Highways installed the noise barrier on the sensitive locations. However, people from communities living on both sides of highway still demand some additional noise pollution improvement. To improve the efficiency of using noise barriers and to promote environmental and social quality for the people on the sensitive communities along the highway route, the Department of Highways, therefore, designs a new technique for installing noise barrier on the sensitive areas, i.e. education institutions, temple, residential area. In addition, the mathematic model is applied to 12 selected locations of sensitive areas for monitoring the effectiveness of the new installation technique. The mathematic model is used for predict the future noise level after installation of noise barrier in year 2037. The results confirm that the appropriate height and width of noise barrier can improve the comfortable of the people on the sensitive area.

  13. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Moo Young

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD cr , TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO 3 , TP, PO 4 and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways. - Research highlights: → Field test on urban highway were performed to 50 of 100 storm events for 3 years. → The peak pollutant concentrations occurs 20 min after the first runoff. → The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and rainfall intensity. → Relationship between runoff and event mean concentration for SS and COD. → A crest of the EMC by 70-80 m 3 /event and decreasing EMC after 70-80 m 3 /event. - This study investigate the characterization of the EMC of runoff during rainfall event on highway.

  14. Causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh province of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohu, S.; Halid, A.; Nagapan, S.; Fattah, A.; Latif, I.; Ullah, K.

    2017-11-01

    Cost overrun is an increase of cost of project from approved budget which was signed by parties at the time of tender. Cost overrun in construction of highway projects is a common problem worldwide and construction industry of Pakistan is also facing this crucial problem of cost overrun in highway projects of Pakistan. The main objective of this research is to identify the causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh province of Pakistan. A well designed questionnaire was developed based on 64 common factors of cost overrun from literature review. Developed questionnaire was distributed among selected 30 experts from owner/client, designer/consultant and contractor who have experience more than 20 years’ experience in highway projects. The collected data was statistical analyzed. After analysis results showed that delay process in payment by client, inadequate planning, client interference, poor contract management, delay of decision making, change of scope of project and financial problems faced by client were most causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects. This research will provide alertness to stakeholders of highway projects of Sindh province to avoid cost overrun in projects.

  15. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  16. Reconstruction of electric systems (ELE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohutovic, P.

    2001-01-01

    The original design of WWER-230 units consisted of a single common system EEPS (essential electric power supply system) per unit. The establishment of redundancy 2 x 100% EEPS was a global task. The task was started during the 'Small reconstruction' - MR V1, continued in 'Gradual reconstruction' and finished in the year 2000. (author)

  17. Adaptive multiresolution method for MAP reconstruction in electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Erman, E-mail: erman.acar@tut.fi [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere University of Technology, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Peltonen, Sari; Ruotsalainen, Ulla [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere University of Technology, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    3D image reconstruction with electron tomography holds problems due to the severely limited range of projection angles and low signal to noise ratio of the acquired projection images. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods have been successful in compensating for the missing information and suppressing noise with their intrinsic regularization techniques. There are two major problems in MAP reconstruction methods: (1) selection of the regularization parameter that controls the balance between the data fidelity and the prior information, and (2) long computation time. One aim of this study is to provide an adaptive solution to the regularization parameter selection problem without having additional knowledge about the imaging environment and the sample. The other aim is to realize the reconstruction using sequences of resolution levels to shorten the computation time. The reconstructions were analyzed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency using a simulated biological phantom and publically available experimental datasets of electron tomography. The numerical and visual evaluations of the experiments show that the adaptive multiresolution method can provide more accurate results than the weighted back projection (WBP), simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT), and sequential MAP expectation maximization (sMAPEM) method. The method is superior to sMAPEM also in terms of computation time and usability since it can reconstruct 3D images significantly faster without requiring any parameter to be set by the user. - Highlights: • An adaptive multiresolution reconstruction method is introduced for electron tomography. • The method provides more accurate results than the conventional reconstruction methods. • The missing wedge and noise problems can be compensated by the method efficiently.

  18. Breast Reconstruction Following Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernd; Marx, Mario; Untch, Michael; Faridi, Andree

    2015-08-31

    About 8000 breast reconstructions after mastectomy are per - formed in Germany each year. It has become more difficult to advise patients because of the wide variety of heterologous and autologous techniques that are now available and because of changes in the recommendations about radiotherapy. This article is based on a review of pertinent articles (2005-2014) that were retrieved by a selective search employing the search terms "mastectomy" and "breast reconstruction." The goal of reconstruction is to achieve an oncologically safe and aestically satisfactory result for the patient over the long term. Heterologous, i.e., implant-based, breast reconstruction (IBR) and autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) are complementary techniques. Immediate reconstruction preserves the skin of the breast and its natural form and prevents the psychological trauma associated with mastectomy. If post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is not indicated, implant-based reconstruction with or without a net/acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a common option. Complications such as seroma formation, infection, and explantation are significantly more common when an ADM is used (15.3% vs. 5.4% ). If PMRT is performed, then the complication rate of implant-based breast reconstruction is 1 to 48% ; in particular, Baker grade III/IV capsular fibrosis occurs in 7 to 22% of patients, and the prosthesis must be explanted in 9 to 41% . Primary or, preferably, secondary autologous reconstruction is an alternative. The results of ABR are more stable over the long term, but the operation is markedly more complex. Autologous breast reconstruction after PMRT does not increase the risk of serious complications (20.5% vs. 17.9% without radiotherapy). No randomized controlled trials have yet been conducted to compare the reconstructive techniques with each other. If radiotherapy will not be performed, immediate reconstruction with an implant is recommended. On the other hand, if post-mastectomy radiotherapy

  19. Complications in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction: One-year Outcomes of the Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium (MROC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Edwin G; Hamill, Jennifer B; Kim, Hyungjin M; Kim, John Y; Greco, Richard J; Qi, Ji; Pusic, Andrea L

    2018-01-01

    In postmastectomy reconstruction, procedure choice is heavily influenced by the relative risks of the various options. This study sought to evaluate complications in a large, multicenter patient population. Previous studies have reported widely varying complication rates, but have been limited by their single center designs and inadequate controlling for confounders in their analyses. Eleven sites enrolled women undergoing first time, immediate, or delayed reconstruction following mastectomy for cancer treatment or prophylaxis. Procedures included expander/implant, latissimus dorsi (LD), pedicle transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (PTRAM), free TRAM (FTRAM), and deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) techniques. Data were gathered pre- and postoperatively from medical records. Separate logistic regressions were conducted for all complications and major complications (those requiring rehospitalization and/or reoperation) within 1 year. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for procedure type, controlling for site, demographic, and clinical variables. Complication rates for 2234 patients were analyzed. Compared with expander/implant reconstructions, LD (OR) 1.95, P = 0.026), PTRAM (OR 1.89, P = 0.025), FTRAM (OR 1.94, P = 0.011), and DIEP (OR 2.22, P procedures were associated with higher risks of complications. Significantly higher risks were also associated with older age, higher body mass index (BMI), immediate reconstruction, bilateral procedures, and radiation. For major complications, regression showed significantly greater risks for PTRAM (OR 1.86, P = 0.044) and DIEP (OR 1.75, P = 0.004), than expander/implant reconstructions. Failure rates were relatively low, ranging from 0% for PTRAM to 5.9% for expander/implant reconstructions. In this multicenter analysis, procedure choice and other patient variables were significant predictors of 1-year complications in breast reconstruction. These findings should be considered in counseling patients on

  20. Spatiotemporal Change Detection in Forest Cover Dynamics Along Landslide Susceptible Region of Karakoram Highway, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barira; Iqbal, Javed

    2018-04-01

    Forest Cover dynamics and its understanding is essential for a country's social, environmental, and political engagements. This research provides a methodical approach for the assessment of forest cover along Karakoram Highway. It has great ecological and economic significance because it's a part of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Landsat 4, 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI imagery for the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2016 respectively were subjected to supervised classification in ArcMap 10.5 to identify forest change. The study area was categorized into five major land use land cover classes i.e., Forest, vegetation, urban, open land and snow cover. Results from post classification forest cover change maps illustrated notable decrease of almost 26 % forest cover over the time period of 26 years. The accuracy assessment revealed the kappa coefficients 083, 0.78, 0.77 and 0.85, respectively. Major reason for this change is an observed replacement of native forest cover with urban areas (12.5 %) and vegetation (18.6 %) However, there is no significant change in the reserved forests along the study area that contributes only 2.97 % of the total forest cover. The extensive forest degradation and risk prone topography of the region has increased the environmental risk of landslides. Hence, effective policies and forest management is needed to protect not only the environmental and aesthetic benefits of the forest cover but also to manage the disaster risks. Apart from the forest assessment, this research gives an insight of land cover dynamics, along with causes and consequences, thereby showing the forest degradation hotspots.