WorldWideScience

Sample records for major garlic lectins

  1. Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the world, including the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Japanese, and Native Americans. Currently, garlic is used as ... https://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/causes-prevention/risk/diet/garlic-fact-sheet on April 14, 2015. Reinhart ...

  2. An evaluation of garlic lectin as an alternative carrier domain for insecticidal fusion proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine Fitches; Judith Philip; Gareth Hinchliffe; Leisbeth Vercruysse; Nanasaheb Chougule; John A.Gatehouse

    2008-01-01

    The mannosc-binding lectin GNA(snowdrop lectin)is used as a"carrier"domain in insecticidal fusion proteins which cross the insect gut after oral ingestion.A similar lectin from garlic bulb,ASAII,has been evaluated as an altemative"carrieff".Recombinant ASAII delivered orally to larvae of cabbage moth(Mamestra brassica;Lepidoptera)Was subse-quently detected in haemolymph,demonstrating transport.Fusion proteins comprising an insect neurotoxin.ButaIT(Buthus tamulus insecticidal toxin;red scorpion toxin)linked to the C-terminal region of ASAII or GNA were produced as recombinant proteins(GNA/ButaIT and ASA/ButaIT)by expression in Pichia pastoris.In both cases the C-terminal sequence of the lectin was truncated to avoid post-translational proteolysis.The GNA-containing fusion protein was toxic by injection to cabbage moth larvae(LD50≈250μg/g),and when fed had a negative effect on survival and growth.It also decreased the survival of cereal aphids(Sitobion avenae;Homoptera)from neonate to adult by>70%when fed.In contrast,the ASA-ButaIT fusion protein was non-toxic to aphids,and had no effect on lepidopteran lalwae,either when injected or when fed.However,intact ASA-ButaIT fusion protein was present in the haemolymph of cabbage moth larvae following ingestion,showing that transport of the fusion had occurred.The stabilities of GNA/BUtaIT and ASA/ButaIT to proteolysis in vivo after injection or ingestion differed,and this may be a factor in determining insecticidal activities.

  3. Are Vicilins Another Major Class of Legume Lectins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Legume lectins comprise a structurally related, Ca/Mn-dependent, widespread, abundant and well characterized lectin family when compared to the large number of lectins from other sources described in the literature. Strangely enough, no specific function has been assigned to them aside from a possible role in storage and/or defense. Using a recent and fine-tuned methodology capable of specific lectin identification, β-conglutin, Vicia faba vicilin and β-lathyrin, the vicilin storage globulins from Lupinus albus, V. faba and Lathyrus sativus, respectively, were shown to be capable of affinity binding to thoroughly washed erythrocyte membranes and of specific elution with appropriate sugars. Based on this evidence and on sparse data published in the literature, a second family of legume lectins is proposed: the 7S family of storage proteins from leguminous seeds, or family II of legume lectins. These lectins are also structurally related, widespread and well characterized. In addition, they self-aggregate in a Ca/Mg, electrostatic dependent manner and are even more abundant than the family I of legume lectins. Using the same evidence, reserve and defense roles may be attributed to family II of legume lectins.

  4. Influence of major surgery on the mannan-binding lectin pathway of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Christensen, I J; Basse, L;

    2006-01-01

    The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2, and for compari...

  5. Influence of major surgery on the mannan-binding lectin pathway of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Basse, L.

    2006-01-01

    The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2, and for compari......The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2...... comprised 27 patients undergoing elective, open surgery for colorectal cancer, and was included in order to cover blood sampling between days 2 and 6. As expected, the surgical stress induced a marked acute phase response, as evidenced by a large increase in IL-6 (18-fold) and CRP (13-fold) levels...... cohorts (r = 0.71, P surgery influenced only marginally the two...

  6. Recent Research Progress on Garlic (大蒜 dà suàn as a Potential Anticarcinogenic Agent Against Major Digestive Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Raghu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; the bulb of Allium sativum, bestowed with an array of organosulfur compounds finds its application in treating many ailments including cardiovascular problems, common cold, bacterial and fungal infections and cancer. Numerous epidemiological evidences document the beneficial effects of various bioactive organosulfur compounds of garlic against different types of cancer. Studies involving the animal and cell models indicate garlic bioactive compounds could be effective in treating all the stages of cancer. This review gives an update on the recent pre-clinical and clinical trials, carried out to evaluate the efficacy of various garlic bioactive compounds along with the mechanism of action pertaining to major digestive cancers including liver, gastric and colorectal cancers. The major anti-carcinogenic mechanisms are caspase dependent and/or independent induction of apoptosis, anti-proliferative, anti-metastasis, anti-oxidant and immunomodulative properties. Form the clinical trials an increase in the garlic consumption of 20 g/day reduced the risk of gastric and colorectal cancer. In summary, increased uptake of garlic in diet may prevent the incidence of digestive cancers.

  7. Influence of major surgery on the mannan-binding lectin pathway of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H.; Christensen, I.J.; Basse, L.;

    2006-01-01

    The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2, and for compari......The mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation is important in host defence against pathogens and possibly against cancer. We investigated the effect of major surgery on two central components of the MBL pathway; MBL and the MBL-associated serine protease MASP-2......, and for comparison also measured the interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients belonging to two different cohorts. Cohort 1 comprised 60 patients undergoing open or laparoscopic colectomy for benign disease (n = 12) or colon cancer (n = 48). Cohort 2...... comprised 27 patients undergoing elective, open surgery for colorectal cancer, and was included in order to cover blood sampling between days 2 and 6. As expected, the surgical stress induced a marked acute phase response, as evidenced by a large increase in IL-6 (18-fold) and CRP (13-fold) levels...

  8. The Effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract on Interleukin-12 and 10 Levels in Leishmania Major (MRHO/IR/75/ER Infected Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roozbehani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulation effects of aqueous garlic extract (AGE in the cultured macrophages infected by Leishmania major.Methods: After J774 macrophages proliferation in RPMI1640 and incubation with Leishmania for 72 hours, AGE was added in doses of 9.25, 18.5, 37, 74 and 148 mg/ml for 18, 24 and 48 hours and cell culture supernatants were harvested. The Leishmania infected J774 cells to assess the cell viability was examined using trypan blue and methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed on cell culture supernatants for measurement of interleukin IL-10 and IL-12.Results: Dose of 37 mg/ml for 48 hours of garlic extract was the most potent dose for activation of amastigotes infected macrophages. In addition, AGE increased the level of IL-12 in Leishmania infected cell lines significantly.Conclusions: AGE treated cell is effective against parasitic pathogens, and AGE induced IL-12 differentially affected the immune response to invading Leishmania parasites.

  9. Salivary agglutinin is the major component in human saliva that modulates the lectin pathway of the complement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunput, S.T.G.; Wouters, D.; Nazmi, K.; Cukkemane, N.; Brouwer, M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Saliva interacts with blood after mucosal damage or leakage of gingival crevicular fluid. Surface-adsorbed salivary agglutinin (SAG) activates the lectin pathway (LP) of the complement system via mannose-binding lectin, while SAG in solution inhibits complement activation. In the present study we

  10. Shan Dong:Garlic Export Situation and Measures to Expand Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is one of the world's major garlic-producing,consumer and exporter countries.The main production bases of China's garlic are in Shandong,Henan,Jiangsu and other places.Shandong Province is the main home-town of garlic.The planting area of garlic in Jinxiang,Shandong and its surrounding rural counties is over 100 million Chinese acres.

  11. Garlic Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:One whole bream weighing about750g,100g garlic,3g salt,15g cookingwine,2g pepper,3g MSG,5g sugar,10g soy sauce,5g sesame oil,optionalamount of clear stock,minced scallionand ginger root and 1000g cooking oil(actual consumption only 100g).Method:1.Clean the bream,slit open bothsides,then smear over the soy sauceand soak for a while.2.Heat the wok and add in cookingoil.Put in the bream when the oil is80% hot.Fry the fish until it turnsgolden yellow.Remove.leaving someoil in the wok.3.Stir-fry the scallion and ginger until

  12. the effects of Garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appetite and food selection. ... It is therefore recommended that garlic intake should be regulated to avoid some possible adverse effects ..... particularly reproductive hormones, on the peripheral ... the taste modulatory mechanism of raw garlic.

  13. Garlic in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Pazyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far.

  14. Garlic in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were...

  15. Garlic in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Pazyar; Amir Feily

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were...

  16. Pyramided rice lines harbouring Allium sativum (asal) and Galanthus nivalis (gna) lectin genes impart enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, Y; Vijaya Kumar, S; Pasalu, I C; Balachandran, S M; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2011-03-20

    We have developed transgene pyramided rice lines, endowed with enhanced resistance to major sap-sucking insects, through sexual crosses made between two stable transgenic rice lines containing Allium sativum (asal) and Galanthus nivalis (gna) lectin genes. Presence and expression of asal and gna genes in pyramided lines were confirmed by PCR and western blot analyses. Segregation analysis of F₂ progenies disclosed digenic (9:3:3:1) inheritance of the transgenes. Homozygous F₃ plants carrying asal and gna genes were identified employing genetic and molecular methods besides insect bioassays. Pyramided lines, infested with brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), proved more effective in reducing insect survival, fecundity, feeding ability besides delayed development of insects as compared to the parental transgenics. Under infested conditions, pyramided lines were found superior to the parental transgenics in their seed yield potential. This study represents first report on pyramiding of two lectin genes into rice exhibiting enhanced resistance against major sucking pests. The pyramided lines appear promising and might serve as a novel genetic resource in rice breeding aimed at durable and broad based resistance against hoppers.

  17. The Mathematics of Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  18. Garlic: empiricism or science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviello, Gabriella; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo Antonio; Lembo, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Capasso, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used as a food and a spice. Garlic constituents include enzymes (for example, alliinase) and sulfur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Traditionally, it has been employed to treat infections, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, and many other disorders. Experimentally, it has been shown to exert antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antibacterial, immunostimulant and hypoglycemic actions. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of conditions, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, as an insect repellent, and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. However, the clinical evidence is far from compelling. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  19. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  20. Garlic biodiversity and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; Khassanov, F.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Auger, J.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    Garlic clones exhibit a wide variation in vegetative traits, flavor and pungency; bolting capacity, and fertility. Cultivar characteristics differ considerably with the location of cultivation, and climate has a significant impact on garlic bulbing, florogenesis and flavor. All cultivated garlic clo

  1. Synthetic fusion-protein containing domains of Bt Cry1Ac and Allium sativum lectin (ASAL) conferred enhanced insecticidal activity against major lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajne, Sunita; Boddupally, Dayakar; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2014-02-10

    Different transgenic crop plants, developed with δ-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and mannose-specific plant lectins, exhibited significant protection against chewing and sucking insects. In the present study, a synthetic gene (cry-asal) encoding the fusion-protein having 488 amino acids, comprising DI and DII domains from Bt Cry1Ac and Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Ligand blot analysis disclosed that the fusion-protein could bind to more number of receptors of brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins of Helicoverpa armigera. Artificial diet bioassays revealed that 0.025 μg/g and 0.50 μg/g of fusion-protein were sufficient to cause 100% mortality in Pectinophora gossypiella and H. armigera insects, respectively. As compared to Cry1Ac, the fusion-protein showed enhanced (8-fold and 30-fold) insecticidal activity against two major lepidopteran pests. Binding of fusion-protein to the additional receptors in the midgut cells of insects is attributable to its enhanced entomotoxic effect. The synthetic gene, first of its kind, appears promising and might serve as a potential candidate for engineering crop plants against major insect pests.

  2. Comparitive study on volatile aroma compounds of two different garlic types (Kastamonu and Chinese) using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Davut; Taşkin, Hatira; Baktemur, Gökhan; Kafkas, Ebru; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2014-01-01

    The medicinal use of garlic is much older than its usage as a food. The medical importance of garlic comes forward for its sulfur-containing components. In this study, it was aimed to compare Kastamonu garlic type with Chinese garlic type based on their aroma profiles. Fresh Kastamonu garlic samples harvested from Kastamonu region of Turkey and Chinese garlic samples obtained from Turkish market were used as plant material. Volatile aroma compounds were determined using Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS). Sixteen and twenty aroma components were identified in Kastamonu and Chinese garlic types, respectively. Kastamonu garlic type was found to be richer than Chinese garlic types in terms of sulfur-containing compounds. Diallyl disulphide, which is one of these components, was detected at level of 41.87% and 34.95% in the Kastamonu and Chinese garlic types, respectively. Also di-2-propenyl trisulfide was found only in Kastamonu garlic types. Disulfide, methyl 2-propenyl was determined at similar levels in both garlic types. The majority of garlic grown in Kastamonu region of Turkey is assessed by medical companies. The results of the current study showed that Kastamonu garlic type has important medical properties. Therefore, this garlic can also be used in the medical field, as well as the consumption as food.

  3. The immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic organosulfur compounds in cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H

    2014-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor.

  4. Garlic in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S V; Pal, R; Vaiphei, K; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Ola, R P

    2011-06-01

    The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.

  5. Two distinct jacalin-related lectins with a different specificity and subcellular location are major vegetative storage proteins in the bark of the black mulberry tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Els J M; Hause, Bettina; Hu, Jialiang; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Peumans, Willy J

    2002-10-01

    Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research.

  6. Two Distinct Jacalin-Related Lectins with a Different Specificity and Subcellular Location Are Major Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Bark of the Black Mulberry Tree1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Els J.M.; Hause, Bettina; Hu, Jialiang; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Proost, Paul; Peumans, Willy J.

    2002-01-01

    Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research. PMID:12376642

  7. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of garlic bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouk, Reem; Abdou, Aya; Shetty, Kalidas; Sarkar, Dipayan; Eid, Ali H

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide with hypertension being a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. On a population level, non-pharmacological approaches, such as alternative/complementary medicine, including phytochemicals, have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure. Several epidemiological studies suggest an antihypertensive effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and of many its bioactive components. The aim of this review is to present an in-depth discussion regarding the molecular, biochemical and cellular rationale underlying the antihypertensive properties of garlic and its bioactive constituents with a primary focus on S-allyl cysteine and allicin. Key studies, largely from PubMed, were selected and screened to develop a comprehensive understanding of the specific role of garlic and its bioactive constituents in the management of hypertension. We also reviewed recent advances focusing on the role of garlic bioactives, S-allyl cysteine and allicin, in modulating various parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. These parameters include oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, hydrogen sulfide production, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, expression of nuclear factor-κB and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This review suggests that garlic and garlic derived bioactives have significant medicinal properties with the potential for ameliorating hypertension and associated morbidity; however, further clinical and epidemiological studies are required to determine completely the specific physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in disease prevention and management.

  8. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallock-Richards, Daynea; Doherty, Catherine J; Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J; Place, Marc; Govan, John R W; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  10. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daynea Wallock-Richards

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc, the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS. Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v. The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  11. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  12. Biological properties of garlic and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iciek, Małgorzata; Kwiecień, Inga; Włodek, Lidia

    2009-04-01

    Medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been widely known and used since ancient times till the present. Garlic enhances immune functions and has antibacterial, antifungal and antivirus activities. It is known to prevent platelet aggregation, and to have hypotensive and cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering properties, although the latter features have been questioned. This review is focused on anticancer efficacy of Allium sativum, and attempts to explain the mechanisms of this action. Medicinal properties of garlic rely upon organosulfur compounds mostly derived from alliin. Organosulfur compounds originating from garlic inhibit carcinogen activation, boost phase 2 detoxifying processes, cause cell cycle arrest mostly in G2/M phase, stimulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, increase acetylation of histones. Garlic-derived sulfur compounds influence also gap-junctional intercellular communication and participate in the development of multidrug resistance. This review presents also other little known aspects of molecular action of garlic-derived compounds, like modulation of cellular redox state, involvement in signal transduction and post-translational modification of proteins by sulfane sulfur or by formation of mixed disulfides (S-thiolation reactions).

  13. Advances in Research of Garlic Virus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...

  14. and tulbaghia species (wild garlic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Applied ... Tulbaghia (wild Garlic) is a plant genus most closely related to the genus ... Moreover, recent scientific studies have been performed on crude extracts.

  15. Determination of maleic hydrazide residues in garlic bulbs by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani Moreno, Claudia; Stadler, Teodoro; da Silva, Antônio Alberto; Barbosa, Luiz C A; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R

    2012-01-30

    In recent years, the release of information about the preventative and curative properties of garlic on different diseases and their benefits to human health has led to an increase in the consumption of garlic. To meet the requirements of international markets and reach competitiveness and profitability, farmers seek to extend the offer period of fresh garlic by increasing post-harvest life. As a result, the use of maleic hydrazide (1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione) [MH], a plant growth regulator, has been widespread in various garlic growing regions of the world. The present work was undertaken to develop and validate a new analytical procedure based on MH extraction from garlic previously frozen by liquid nitrogen and submitted to low temperature clean-up. The applicability of the method by analysis of garlic samples from a commercial plantation was also demonstrated. The influence of certain factors on the performance of the analytical methodology were studied and optimized. The approach is an efficient extraction, clean-up and determination alternative for MH residue-quantification due to its specificity and sensitivity. The use of liquid nitrogen during the sample preparation prevents the degradation of the analyte due to oxidation reactions, a major limiting factor. Moreover, the method provides good linearity (r(2): 0.999), good intermediate precision (coefficient of variation (CV): 8.39%), and extracts were not affected by the matrix effect. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) (0.33 mg kg(-1)) was well below the maximum residue level (MRL) set internationally for garlic (15 mg kg(-1)), with excellent rates of recovery (over 95%), good repeatability and acceptable accuracy (CV averaged 5.74%), since garlic is a complex matrix. The analytical performance of the methodology presented was compared with other techniques already reported, with highly satisfactory results, lower LOD and higher recoveries rates. In addition, the extraction

  16. 大蒜提取液对番茄主要病原真菌的抑制作用%Inhibition of Garlic Extract of the Major Pathogens in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文静; 赵洪锟; 董英山; 周义发; 李启云

    2009-01-01

    The inhibition of garlic extract of 4 pathogens in tomato was studied by using aimiao, the imported fungicide, and carbendazim, the commonly used fungicide at home, as the contrast. The results indicated the controlled ability of aimiao EC is the highest, and the garlic extract EC is close to carbendazim powder, but garlic extract EC is better compared to carbendazim powder by garlic extract EC,carbendazim powder and aimiao EC control the growth of 4 pathogens in tomato. By analyzing the inhibitory rate and calculating the trend of fungicide concentration, the EC_(95) oiFulvia fulva that aimiao EC controlled turns out to be 5 025-time diluent, and that of other fungi is about 2 220 times; the EC_(90) of Col-letotrichum coccodesthat garlic extract EC controlled is 586-time diluent, and that for Alternaria solani, Fulvia fulva and Botrytis cinerea are 149,173 and 446 times respectively; EC_(90) of Fulvia fulva that carbendazim powder controlled is 178-time diluent, and that for Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum coccodes and Botrytis cinerea are 111,145,107 times respectively. In a word, garlic extract EC and 2 fungicides have very strong ability in controlling the growth of the 4 pathogens in tomato, and the trend of fungicide concentration is consistent with the measured result, but the specificity is different for different fungicides respectively.%以进口杀菌剂爱苗和国内常用杀菌剂多菌灵为对照,研究了大蒜提取液对番茄4种病原真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:爱苗对4种病菌的抑制作用最大,大蒜提取液抑菌作用好于多菌灵.大蒜提取液对炭疽菌的EC_(90)为586倍稀释液,对早疫菌、叶霉菌和灰霉菌的EC_(90)分别为149,173,446倍.大蒜提取液和2种农药对番茄4种病原真菌有很强的抑制作用,但不同药剂有不同的专一性.

  17. Cyborg lectins: novel leguminous lectins with unique specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Maruyama, I N; Osawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Bauhinia purpurea lectin (BPA) is one of the beta-galactose-binding leguminous lectins. Leguminous lectins contain a long metal-binding loop, part of which determines their carbohydrate-binding specificities. Random mutations were introduced into a portion of the cDNA coding BPA that corresponds to the carbohydrate-binding loop of the lectin. An library of the mutant lectin expressed on the surface of lambda foo phages was screened by the panning method. Several phage clones with an affinity for mannose or N-acetylglucosamine were isolated. These results indicate the possibility of making artificial lectins (so-called "cyborg lectins") with distinct and desired carbohydrate-binding specificities.

  18. Garlic for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence

  19. The mannan-binding lectin pathway and lung disease in cystic fibrosis--disfunction of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) may be a major modifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Jensenius, J C; Steffensen, R

    2006-01-01

    with no other precipitating factors. We suspect total MASP-2 dysfunction to be a major modifier of CF lung disease. However, heterozygosity for the D105G mutation of MASP-2 had no correlation to MBL pathway function or poor lung function. Lung function was higher in the MBL deficiency determining genotypes (XA/YO+YO/YO...

  20. The mannan-binding lectin pathway and lung disease in cystic fibrosis-disfunction of mannan-binding lectin-asssociated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) may be a major modifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H.V.; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Steffensen, R.

    2006-01-01

    with no other precipitating factors. We suspect total MASP-2 dysfunction to be a major modifier of CF lung disease. However, heterozygosity for the D105G mutation of MASP-2 had no correlation to MBL pathway function or poor lung function. Lung function was higher in the MBL deficiency determining genotypes (XA/YO+YO/YO...

  1. Human L-ficolin, a recognition molecule of the lectin activation pathway of complement, activates complement by binding to pneumolysin, the major toxin of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Youssif M; Kenawy, Hany I; Muhammad, Adnan; Sim, Robert B; Andrew, Peter W; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is an essential component of the immune response, providing a critical line of defense against different pathogens including S. pneumoniae. Complement is activated via three distinct pathways: the classical (CP), the alternative (AP) and the lectin pathway (LP). The role of Pneumolysin (PLY), a bacterial toxin released by S. pneumoniae, in triggering complement activation has been studied in vitro. Our results demonstrate that in both human and mouse sera complement was activated via the CP, initiated by direct binding of even non-specific IgM and IgG3 to PLY. Absence of CP activity in C1q(-/-) mouse serum completely abolished any C3 deposition. However, C1q depleted human serum strongly opsonized PLY through abundant deposition of C3 activation products, indicating that the LP may have a vital role in activating the human complement system on PLY. We identified that human L-ficolin is the critical LP recognition molecule that drives LP activation on PLY, while all of the murine LP recognition components fail to bind and activate complement on PLY. This work elucidates the detailed interactions between PLY and complement and shows for the first time a specific role of the LP in PLY-mediated complement activation in human serum.

  2. Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, R S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this review is to examine briefly the medical uses of garlic throughout the ages and the role that it was considered to play in prevention and treatment of disease. Interest in the potential benefits of garlic has origins in antiquity and is one of the earliest documented examples of plants employed for treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Garlic was in use at the beginning of recorded history and was found in Egyptian pyramids and ancient Greek temples. There are Biblical references to garlic. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India each prescribed medical applications for garlic. In many cultures, garlic was administered to provide strength and increase work capacity for laborers. Hippocrates, the revered physician, prescribed garlic for a variety of conditions. Garlic was given to the original Olympic athletes in Greece, as perhaps one of the earliest "performance enhancing" agents. It is of interest that cultures that developed without contact with one another came to similar conclusions about the efficacy of garlic. Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding garlic, defining mechanisms of action and exploring garlic's potential for disease prevention and treatment.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  4. 过热蒸汽处理对脱水蒜片杀菌效果及品质影响%Effects of superheated steam on sterilization and major quality of the dehydrated garlic slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书兰; 张静林; 陶阳; 赵颖; 韩永斌; 葛以兵

    2016-01-01

    利用过热蒸汽对脱水蒜片进行减菌处理,并测定品质变化。结果表明脱水蒜片中的菌落总数随着蒸汽处理时间或蒸汽温度的上升而下降。当处理温度为110℃,处理时间为9min时,菌落总数达到最小值3.53 log(cfu/g),较对照减少了1.36 log(cfu/g)。随着蒸汽处理时间的延长,脱水蒜片的色泽会逐渐加深,当处理温度为105℃,处理时间超过5 min时,脱水蒜片色泽发生改变,当处理时间达到9 min时,可观察到较显著差异。脱水蒜片的复水比随着蒸汽处理时间的延长,会有一定程度的下降,但变化并不显著。过热蒸汽对于脱水蒜片中的蛋白质含量有一定的影响,当110℃处理9 min时,可溶性蛋白含量由220.3 mg/g降至200.3mg/g。经过热蒸汽处理后大蒜素显著减少,以致在加热时间超过5 min时,采用高效液相色谱方法检测不出。为此,尽管过热蒸汽可有效减少大蒜片中的微生物,但对大蒜片的感官和大蒜素的破坏较严重。%Put dehydrated garlic slices on the gauze and then placed in high pressure steam boiler for processing. The results showed that:when the steam processing time or steam temperature rose, the total number of colonies declined. When the temperature was 110℃and the time was 9 min, the total number of colonies reached a minimum value (3.53 log cfu/g), which was reduced by 1.36 log (cfu/g). With the increase of steam treatment time , the color of dehydrated garlic changed markedly. When processing time reached 9 min, a significant difference in color was observed. The recovery of dehydrated garlic slice decreased with the increase of steam treatment time. Superheated steam had a certain effect on the protein content of dehydrated garlic tablets, and the soluble protein content decreased from 220.3mg/g to 200.3mg/g after treatment at 110℃for 9 min. After heat steam treatment, garlicin significantly declined, and HPLC

  5. WATER REQUIREMENT OF IRRIGATED GARLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  6. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  7. Lectin coated MgO nanoparticle: its toxicity, antileishmanial activity, and macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebali, Ali; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Kazemi, Bahram; Allaveisie, Azra; Masoudi, Alireza; Daliri, Karim; Sedighi, Najme; Ranjbari, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate toxicity of uncoated magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs), MgO NPs coated with Peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectin, and PNA alone on the promastigotes of Leishmania major (L. major) and macrophages of BALB/c mice. On the other hand, antileishmanial property of uncoated MgO NPs, lectin coated MgO NPs, and PNA lectin alone was evaluated, and also macrophage activation was investigated after treatment with these materials by measurement of nitrite, H2O2, and some interleukins. This study showed that PNA lectin and lectin coated MgO NPs had approximately no toxicity on L. major and macrophages, but some toxic effects were observed for uncoated MgO NPs, especially at concentration of 500 µg/mL. Interestingly, lectin coated MgO NPs had the highest antileishmanial activity and macrophage activation, compared with uncoated MgO NPs and PNA lectin.

  8. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushe...

  9. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushe...

  10. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion.

  11. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic.

  12. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  13. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Development of a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of garlic viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin-xi; LEI Yan; WANG Pei; TANG Lin-fei; HE Chang-zheng; SONG Yong; XIONG Xing-yao; NIE Xian-zhou

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary screening for garlic viruses in garlic plants in Hunan, China, using existing monoplex (simplex) reverse tran-scription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedures detected four viruses/virus groups. These viruses/virus groups were Onion yel ow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yel ow stripe virus (LYSV), Shal ot latent virus (SLV) and al exiviruses (e.g., garlic viruses A, B, C, D, E, X). Sequence analysis of the projected al exivirus amplicons revealed the al exivirus in the infected garlic plants was Garlic virus D (GarV-D), which shared 92–97%sequence identities with various isolates from the world. A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) was therefore developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate the four viruses/virus groups. To achieve this, four primer pairs targeting al exiviruses, OYDV, LYSV and SLV were designed. The anticipated amplicon sizes are 183 bp (al exiviruses), 265 bp (OYDV), 404 bp (LYSV) and 592 bp (SLV), respectively. Al primer pairs produced virus-speciifc fragments in both simplex and multiplex formats, thus conifrming the efifcacy of the newly developed mRT-PCR for detection of these viruses. The mRT-PCR further was evaluated by applying it to garlic plant samples col ected in two geographic locations in Hunan. Al exiviruses, OYDV, LYSV and SLV were detected in 50.9, 40.3, 28.3 and 58.5%of leaf samples, respectively;and mixed infections with two or more viruses accounted for 54%of the garlic samples. The results obtained by mRT-PCR were conifrmed by simplex RT-PCR assays. In conclusion, this newly devel-oped mRT-PCR provides a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the detection and identiifcation of major garlic viruses.

  15. Comparative study of adsorption of Pb(II) on native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Tao, Yaqi; Yu, Youjie; Jiang, Hongmei; Lian, Hongzhen

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study using native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(2+) has been proposed. Under the optimized pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage, the adsorption capacity of garlic peel after mercerization was increased 2.1 times and up to 109.05 mg g(-1). The equilibrium sorption data for both garlic peels fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the adsorbent-adsorbate kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. These both garlic peels were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy, and the results indicated that mercerized garlic peel offers more little pores acted as adsorption sites than native garlic peel and has lower polymerization and crystalline and more accessible functional hydroxyl groups, which resulted in higher adsorption capacity than native garlic peel. The FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of both garlic peels before and after loaded with Pb(2+) further illustrated that lead was adsorbed on the through chelation between Pb(2+) and O atom existed on the surface of garlic peels. These results described above showed that garlic peel after mercerization can be a more attractive adsorbent due to its faster sorption uptake and higher capacity.

  16. Freshly crushed garlic is a superior cardioprotective agent than processed garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

    2009-08-12

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-a-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all of the rats were sacrificed and isolated the hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both of the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushed garlic. Consistent with these results, the freshly crushed garlic group displayed significantly greater phosphorylation of antiapoptotic ERK1/2 proteins, reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic p-38MAPK and JNK. Moreover, the survival signaling network consisting of Akt-FoxO1 was increased in the freshly crushed garlic treated hearts. Freshly crushed garlic, but not the processed garlic, showed enhanced redox signaling as evident by increased level of p65 subunit of NFkappaB, Nrf2, and enhanced GLUT 4, PPARalpha, and PPARdelta. The results thus show that although both freshly crushed garlic and processed garlic provide cardioprotection, the former has additional cardioprotective properties presumably due to the presence of H2S.

  17. SSR-based genetic diversity and structure of garlic accessions from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Camila Pinto; Resende, Francisco Vilela; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2014-10-01

    Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.

  18. The effect of garlic on coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: There are many reports on anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Also, regarding the simultaneous consumption of garlic and Warfarine or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, some warning recommendations are published. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of garlic on coagulation tests, and in case of any demonstrative anticoagulation effect, the patients, particularly those with coagulation disorders, could be given appropriate advice on proper consumption of garlic.Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial in which 50 volunteer students were selected based on information collected using appropriate questionnaires. The students were tested for coagulation assays including bleeding time (BT, clotting time (CT, prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PIT, clot retraction (CR, and platelets count (PC before and after consumption of garlic. Data were analyzed using SPPS and T-test. The average values of tests obtained in two stages of experiment were further compared statistically. Results: The results of our study on subjects (30 females and 20 males with an average age of 21.7 years showed that there was no significant change in values obtained for CT, PT, PC and CR (p>0.05 following consumption of garlic. However, a significant increase in PTT values was found following consumption of garlic (the p values for samples collected after 24 hours and 4 hours were 0.001 and 0.012 respectively. There was also a significant difference (p=0.027 in BT 24 hours after garlic consumption. Regarding the results of similar tests among two genders, no significant difference was found.Conclusion: Following consumption of garlic, there was a significant increase in PIT and BT, the effect being more obvious after 24 hours. The data of present study regarding the inhibitory effect of garlic on platelet activities is consistent with those reported by some other researches which is also

  19. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species

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    Ranjeeta Bhari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to D-ribose, L-fucose, D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannitol, D-galactosamine hydrochloride, D-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age.

  20. Lectin activity in mycelial extracts of Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhari, Ranjeeta; Kaur, Bhawanpreet; Singh, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to d-ribose, l-fucose, d-glucose, l-arabinose, d-mannitol, d-galactosamine hydrochloride, d-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-d-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Lectin binding to cystic stages of Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeman, R M; Williams, J F

    1984-10-01

    Studies of membrane glycoconjugates of Taenia taeniaeformis were initiated by assays of the lectin binding characteristics of 35-day-old cysticerci. Parasites fixed in glutaraldehyde were incubated with one of the following FITC-labelled lectins: Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), fucose binding protein (FBP) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and either their specific or a nonspecific sugar. Ultraviolet microscopy revealed that only Con A and LCA bound in large amounts to the surface of cysticerci. This binding was partly inhibited by the specific sugar, but the nonspecific sugar had little effect. The lectin not removed by either of the sugars may have been bound nonspecifically to the charged glycocalyx. Lectins were primarily bound on the anterior third of the parasite around the scolex invagination. Kinetic studies of lectin interactions were carried out with LCA and RCA by spectrophotofluorometric analysis of the amount bound specifically or nonspecifically over a range of lectin concentrations. Lens culinaris lectin binding was found to be specific and involve 2 receptors which showed large differences in their affinity for lectin and prevalence on the surface. Ricinus communis lectin did not bind specifically but nonspecific interactions were observed. Adherence of small numbers of host cells was shown to have no measurable effect on the lectin binding characteristics. The results suggest that the major surface carbohydrates exposed are D-mannose and/or D-glucose residues with the other sugar groups poorly represented. This relatively homogeneous surface may have implications for the antigenicity of the parasite in its host.

  2. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  3. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  4. Effect of Nitrogen Topdressing on Growth and Yield of Garlic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wentong HOU; Zhenxiang LIU; Zhaoping HU

    2016-01-01

    With Cangshan garlic and early bolting garlic as experimental materials,this paper studies the effect of nitrogen topdressing on the garlic growth and yield of garlic stems and garlic bulbs. The results show that under the same amount of nitrogen,applying ammonium phosphor nitrate can better promote the growth of garlic than applying urea and ammonium chloride; both ammonium chloride and ammonium phosphor nitrate can effectively improve the yield of garlic stems and garlic bulbs,especially for ammonium phosphor nitrate; through economic benefit analysis,applying ammonium chloride and ammonium phosphor nitrate can produce greater economic benefits than applying urea,and especially ammonium phosphor nitrate increases the economic benefits of Cangshan garlic and early bolting garlic by 5490 yuan and 6690 yuan per ha,respectively.

  5. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  6. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-04

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5-15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies.

  7. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis.

  8. Effects of garlic on Schistosoma mansoni harbored in albino mice: molecular characterization of the host and parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Nahed H A; Taha, Hoda A; Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2013-04-15

    Garlic has been used for its health benefits for thousands of years. Modern research confirmed many of the healing properties of garlic, including its antiparasitic activity. This study was designed to evaluate the antischistosomal action of garlic through detecting the changes in DNA profile of Schistosoma mansoni worms and the infected mouse. Forty mice were subcutaneously infected with ~200 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae/mouse. Infected mice were divided into four equal groups: non-treated, prophylactic, therapeutic, and continuously-treated. Non-infected control and garlic-treated groups were assigned for the sake of comparison. Garlic extract (50mg/kg bw/mouse) was given orally, day after day, at a fixed daytime. Seven weeks post-infection, adult schistosomes were recovered by perfusion and the livers of the mice were excised out and were processed for DNA extraction and Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR). The results showed that garlic exerted no major changes in the genome of schistosomes. Nevertheless, that schistosomal infection induced genetic alterations in the DNA of mice, and garlic was able to ameliorate such alterations to a great extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausicaä eLANNOO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are under constant attack from pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect and defend themselves, plants evolved a multi-layered surveillance system, known as the innate immune system. Plants sense their encounters upon perception of conserved microbial structures and damage-associated patterns using cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Plant lectins and proteins with one or more lectin domains represent a major part of these receptors. The whole group of plant lectins comprises an elaborate collection of proteins capable of recognizing and interacting with specific carbohydrate structures, either originating from the invading organisms or from damaged plant cell wall structures. Due to the vast diversity in protein structures, carbohydrate recognition domains and glycan binding specificities, plant lectins constitute a very diverse protein superfamily. In the last decade, new types of nucleocytoplasmic plant lectins have been identified and characterized, in particular lectins expressed inside the nucleus and the cytoplasm of plant cells often as part of a specific plant response upon exposure to different stress factors or changing environmental conditions. In this review, we provide an overview on plant lectin motifs used in the constant battle against pathogens and predators during plant defenses.

  10. GARLIC AND ONION IN DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Onion and garlic are the commonly used ingredients in the kitchen. We are still completely unaware that its health benefits are numerous. They have been tried in vivo in the treatment of deadly diseases like cancer, HIV etc. and are proved to be successful. They both belong to same family of Allium genus. They provide benefit even in morphine withdrawal, diabetes and are known to confer significant immunity to humans. Here, in this review, we discuss the constituents, properties; medicinal uses, Dental applications, adverse effects and contraindications of these naturally available herbs.

  11. Garlic and hepatic coccidiosis: prophylaxis or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Oda, Samah S; Ashmawy, Karam I

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of crude garlic (Allium sativum) against experimental infection with Eimeria stiedae in rabbits. Forty rabbits were divided into four groups of ten rabbits each: a healthy control group (HC); a challenged-garlic-protected group (CGP) which received a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight (bwt) crude garlic for five successive days before challenge with E. stiedae; a challenged-garlic-treated group (CGT) which was treated with a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg bwt crude garlic for five successive days post-challenge; and an infected control group (IC). The challenge dose was 5 x 10(4) sporulated E. stiedae oocysts per rabbit. Mortality rate, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and faecal oocyst count were evaluated throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, all rabbits were killed and histopathological examination was performed. No mortalities were recorded in the HC and CGP groups, whilst mortality was found to be 20% and 40% in the CGT and IC groups, respectively. CGP rabbits had better body weight gain and lower numbers of oocysts than those in the CGT and IC groups. Hepatic lesions were less severe in the CGP group than in the CGT and IC groups. These results showed that oral administration of crude garlic ameliorated the adverse impacts of hepatic coccidiosis on rabbits when used as a prophylactic, but garlic was less effective as a therapeutic.

  12. Lectins from Mycelia of Basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina E. Nikitina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins of a nonimmunoglobulin nature that are capable of specific recognition of and reversible binding to the carbohydrate moieties of complex carbohydrates, without altering the covalent structure of any of the recognized glycosyl ligands. They have a broad range of biological activities important for the functioning of the cell and the whole organism and, owing to the high specificity of reversible binding to carbohydrates, are valuable tools used widely in biology and medicine. Lectins can be produced by many living organisms, including basidiomycetes. Whereas lectins from the fruit bodies of basidiomycetes have been studied sufficiently well, mycelial lectins remain relatively unexplored. Here, we review and comparatively analyze what is currently known about lectins isolated from the vegetative mycelium of macrobasidiomycetes, including their localization, properties, and carbohydrate specificities. Particular attention is given to the physiological role of mycelial lectins in fungal growth and development.

  13. Garlic, Chocolate, or Tomatoes for (Pre- Hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract, dark chocolate, or lycopene-rich tomato products have been linked with blood pressure-lowering properties in hypertensive people. There is consistent evidence for garlic supplements, in particular in the form of Kyolic® aged garlic extract, to be effective in lowering blood pressure comparable to first-line standard antihypertensive medication. Dark chocolate appears to be beneficial for blood pressure reduction as well, albeit to a lesser extent than Kyolic®. Lycopene in tomato extract has a protective effect on serum cholesterol similar to low-dose statins, and may also be beneficial for lowering blood pressure in hypertensive people.

  14. [Garlic--a "secret miracle of God"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, B

    1995-01-03

    Garlic belongs to the oldest traditional medicinal plants. It has already been mentioned 1500 A. D. in an ancient egyptian medical script, the Papyrus Ebers. In modern times antitumoral and antiarteriosclerotic effects are attributed to garlic-derived drugs. These effects could be demonstrated in vitro and appear to be supported by epidemiologic studies. Production of commercial products and pharmacologic studies, however, are rendered more difficult by chemical instability and low bioavailability of the active drugs. Clinical studies on effects and case reports about side effects of garlic consumption are summarized in this paper.

  15. Glycan and lectin biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belický, Štefan; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    A short description about the importance of glycan biorecognition in physiological (blood cell type) and pathological processes (infections by human and avian influenza viruses) is provided in this review. Glycans are described as much better information storage media, compared to proteins or DNA, due to the extensive variability of glycan structures. Techniques able to detect an exact glycan structure are briefly discussed with the main focus on the application of lectins (glycan-recognising proteins) in the specific analysis of glycans still attached to proteins or cells/viruses. Optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric and micromechanical biosensors with immobilised lectins or glycans able to detect a wide range of analytes including whole cells/viruses are also discussed. PMID:27365034

  16. Chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms of garlic organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; You, Sixiang; He, Xi; He, Jianhua; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2014-05-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has long been used both for culinary and medicinal purposes by many cultures. Population and preclinical investigations have suggested that dietary garlic intake has health benefits, such as lowering the risk of esophageal, stomach and prostate cancers. Extensive studies from laboratory and animal models have revealed that garlic has a wide range of biological activities, and garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are responsible for the biological activities. However, the presence and potency of garlic OSCs vary with respect to the mode of garlic preparation and extraction. Cooked or processed garlic products showed different kinds of garlic OSCs, some of which are highly unstable and instantly decomposed. These facts, possibly gave paradoxical results on the garlic effects. In this review, we first summarized the biotransformation processes of garlic alliin into different garlic OSCs as well as the garlic OSCs compositions from different garlic preparations. Next, we reviewed the chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms focusing on the anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-diabetes and anticancer activity behind different garlic OSCs.

  17. Structure and Function of Mammalian Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin; Evers, David; Rice, Kevin G.

    Over the past three decades the field of glycobiology has expanded beyond a basic understanding of the structure and biosynthesis of glycoprotein, proteoglycans, and glycolipids toward a more detailed picture of how these molecules afford communication through binding to mammalian lectins. Although the number of different mammalian lectin domains appears to be finite and even much smaller than early estimates predicated based on the diversity of glycan structures, nature appears capable of using these in numerous combinations to fine tune specificity. The following provides an overview of the major classes of mammalian lectins and discusses their glycan binding specificity. The review provides a snapshot of the field of glycobiology that continues to grow providing an increasing number of examples of biological processes that rely upon glycan-lectin binding.

  18. Development and performance evaluation of a garlic peeler

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Garlic peeling is a tedious, key, costly and time consuming unit operation in garlic processing. A power operated garlic peeler having a cylinder-concave mechanism was developed with an intention to reduce cost and time. Physical properties of garlic relevant for peeler development were identified and measured. The average length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, weight of garlic segment and weight of 1,000 garlic segment were measured as 26.3 mm, 10.4 mm, 8.7 mm, 13.3 m...

  19. Direction Identification System of Garlic Clove Based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the requirements of seeding direction of garlic cloves, the paper proposed a research method of garlic clove direction identification based on machine vision, it expounded the theory of garlic clove direction identification, stated the arithmetic of it, designed the direction identification device of it, then developed the control system of garlic clove direction identification based on machine vision, at last tested the garlic clove direction identification, and the result of the experiment certificated that the rate of garlic clove direction identification could reach to more than 97%, and it demonstrated that the research is of high feasibility and technological values.

  20. Development and performance evaluation of a garlic peeler

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunatha, M.; Samuel, D. V. K.; Anurag, Rahul K.; Gaikwad, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    Garlic peeling is a tedious, key, costly and time consuming unit operation in garlic processing. A power operated garlic peeler having a cylinder-concave mechanism was developed with an intention to reduce cost and time. Physical properties of garlic relevant for peeler development were identified and measured. The average length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, weight of garlic segment and weight of 1,000 garlic segment were measured as 26.3 mm, 10.4 mm, 8.7 mm, 13.3 m...

  1. Meristem cultures in garlic (Allium sativum) breeding

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVEHLOVÁ, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the use of meristem cultures in garlic (Allium sativum) breeding. The source material was used variety Tantalum of garlic. The using material, before the isolation of meristem, was tested for the occurrence of viral diseases by immunological tests ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay), also known as EIA (Enzyme Immunoassay). The method used to detect antibodies and antigens. The material was tested for viruses onion yellow dwarf (OYDV - Onion Yellow Dwarf Vi...

  2. Potential beneficial effects of garlic in oncohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, F; Calapai, G

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-conventional medicines, especially herbal medicine, is common in patients with cancers including haematologic malignancies. Diet components may also modify the risk of cancer through the influence on multiple processes, including DNA repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Garlic (Allium sativum), considered either food or herbal medicine, possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that can be used in anticancer interventions. We analyzed literature data on effects of garlic and garlic compounds which can serve as basic information to design clinical approach in oncohematology. Garlic contains water soluble and oil-soluble sulfur compounds. The latter are responsible for anticancer effects exerted through multiple mechanisms such as: inhibition of metabolic carcinogenic activation, arrest of cell cycle, antioxidant and pro-apoptotic action. Evidence about the effects of main sulfur compounds diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), ajoene and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in oncohematology was described. Our research highlights that data on garlic in oncohematology are essentially represented by pre-clinical studies. Although these studies must be considered as preliminary, they provided insight into biological activities of garlic compounds and support a rationale for the use of substances such as DAS, DADS, DATS and ajoene as promising anticancer agents in oncohematology.

  3. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...

  4. The lectin pathway of complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie Diederich; Haugaard, Anna Karen; Garred, P

    2014-01-01

    The pattern recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are important components of the innate immune system with known functions in host-virus interactions. This paper summarizes current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL), Ficolin-1, -2...

  5. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  6. Mannose-binding dietary lectins induce adipogenic differentiation of the marrow-derived mesenchymal cells via an active insulin-like signaling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Manmohan; Hinge, Ashwini; Limaye, Lalita S; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Surolia, Avadhesha; Kale, Vaijayanti P

    2011-04-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the mannose-binding lectins, namely banana lectin (BL) and garlic lectin (GL), interacted with the insulin receptors on M210B4 cells--an established mesenchymal cell line of murine marrow origin--and initiate mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in them. In this study, we show that this lectin-mediated active ERK signaling culminates into an adipogenic differentiation of these cells. Gene expression studies indicate that the effect takes place at the transcriptional level. Experiments carried out with pharmacological inhibitors show that MEK-dependent ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent AKT pathways are positive regulators of the lectin- and insulin-mediated adipogenic differentiation, while stress-activated kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase pathway acts as a negative one. Since both lectins could efficiently substitute for insulin in the standard adipogenic induction medium, they may perhaps serve as molecular tools to study the mechanistic aspects of the adipogenic process that are independent of cell proliferation. Our study clearly demonstrates the ability of BL and GL to activate insulin-like signaling in the mesenchymal cells in vitro leading to their adipocytic differentiation. The dietary origin of these lectins underscores an urgent need to examine their in vivo effects on tissue homeostasis.

  7. Garlic: nature's protection against physiological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Mehmood S; Iqbal, Javaid

    2009-06-01

    Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements in the field of immunonutrition, physiology, and pharmacology further explored its importance as a functional food against various pathologies. Extensive research work has been carried out on the health promoting properties of garlic, often referred to its sulfur containing metabolites i.e. allicin and its derivatives. Garlic in its preparations are effective against health risks and even used as dietary supplements such as age garlic extract (AGE) and garlic oil etc. Its components/formulations can scavenge free radicals and protect membranes from damage and maintains cell integrity. It also provides cardiovascular protection mediated by lowering of cholesterol, blood pressure, anti-platelet activities, and thromboxane formation thus providing protection against atherosclerosis and associated disorders. Besides this, it possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that are interesting in chemopreventive interventions. Several mechanisms have been reviewed in this context like activation of detoxification phase-I and II enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and reducing DNA damage etc. Garlic could be useful in preventing the suppression of immune response associated with increased risk of malignancy as it stimulates the proliferation of lymphocytes, macrophage phagocytosis, stimulates the release of interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and enhances natural killer cells. In this paper much emphasis has been placed on garlic's ability to ameliorate oxidative stress, core role

  8. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from...

  9. Animal lectins as self/non-self recognition molecules. Biochemical and genetic approaches to understanding their biological roles and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, G R; Ahmed, H; Fink, N E; Elola, M T; Marsh, A G; Snowden, A; Odom, E W

    1994-04-15

    In recent years, the significant contributions from molecular research studies on animal lectins have elucidated structural aspects and provided clues not only to their evolution but also to their multiple biological functions. The experimental evidence has suggested that distinct, and probably unrelated, groups of molecules are included under the term "lectin." Within the invertebrate taxa, major groups of lectins can be identified: One group would include lectins that show significant homology to membrane-integrated or soluble vertebrate C-type lectins. The second would include those beta-galactosyl-specific lectins homologous to the S-type vertebrate lectins. The third group would be constituted by lectins that show homology to vertebrate pentraxins that exhibit lectin-like properties, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P. Finally, there are examples that do not exhibit similarities to any of the aforementioned categories. Moreover, the vast majority of invertebrate lectins described so far cannot yet be placed in one or another group because of the lack of information regarding their primary structure. (See Table 1.) Animal lectins do not express a recombinatorial diversity like that of antibodies, but a limited diversity in recognition capabilities would be accomplished by the occurrence of multiple lectins with distinct specificities, the presence of more than one binding site, specific for different carbohydrates in a single molecule, and by certain "flexibility" of the binding sites that would allow the recognition of a range of structurally related carbohydrates. In order to identify the lectins' "natural" ligands, we have investigated the interactions between those proteins and the putative endogenous or exogenous glycosylated substances or cells that may be relevant to their biological function. Results from these studies, together with information on the biochemical properties of invertebrate and vertebrate lectins, including their structural

  10. Lectins and Tetrahymena - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2016-09-01

    The unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena is a complete organism, one of the most highly developed protozoans, which has specialized organelles performing each of the functions characteristic to the cells of higher ranked animals. It is also able to produce, store, and secrete hormones of higher ranked animals and also react to them. It produces lectins that can bind them and has functions, which are influenced by exogenous lectins. The review lists the observations on the relationship between lectins and Tetrahymena and try to construe them on the basis of the data, which are at our disposal. Considering the data, lectins can be used by Tetrahymena as materials for influencing conjugation, for stimulating hormone receptors, and by this, mimic the hormonal functions. Lectins can influence phagocytosis and movement of the cells as well as the cell division. As Tetrahymena can recognize both related and hostile cells by the help of lectins and surface sugars, it could be surmised a complex predator-prey system. This could determine the survival of the population as well as the nourishment conditions. When Tetrahymena is pathogenic, it can use lectins as virulence factors.

  11. Unique posttranslational modifications of chitin-binding lectins of Entamoeba invadens cyst walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dellen, Katrina L; Chatterjee, Anirban; Ratner, Daniel M; Magnelli, Paula E; Cipollo, John F; Steffen, Martin; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2006-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses, is spread via chitin-walled cysts. The most abundant protein in the cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens, a model for amebic encystation, is a lectin called EiJacob1. EiJacob1 has five tandemly arrayed, six-Cys chitin-binding domains separated by low-complexity Ser- and Thr-rich spacers. E. histolytica also has numerous predicted Jessie lectins and chitinases, which contain a single, N-terminal eight-Cys chitin-binding domain. We hypothesized that E. invadens cyst walls are composed entirely of proteins with six-Cys or eight-Cys chitin-binding domains and that some of these proteins contain sugars. E. invadens genomic sequences predicted seven Jacob lectins, five Jessie lectins, and three chitinases. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that mRNAs encoding Jacobs, Jessies, and chitinases are increased during E. invadens encystation, while mass spectrometry showed that the cyst wall is composed of an approximately 30:70 mix of Jacob lectins (cross-linking proteins) and Jessie and chitinase lectins (possible enzymes). Three Jacob lectins were cleaved prior to Lys at conserved sites (e.g., TPSVDK) in the Ser- and Thr-rich spacers between chitin-binding domains. A model peptide was cleaved at the same site by papain and E. invadens Cys proteases, suggesting that the latter cleave Jacob lectins in vivo. Some Jacob lectins had O-phosphodiester-linked carbohydrates, which were one to seven hexoses long and had deoxysugars at reducing ends. We concluded that the major protein components of the E. invadens cyst wall all contain chitin-binding domains (chitinases, Jessie lectins, and Jacob lectins) and that the Jacob lectins are differentially modified by site-specific Cys proteases and O-phosphodiester-linked glycans.

  12. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    OpenAIRE

    Menjívar Marta; Barbachano-Esparza Laura; Albarrán Gabriela; Gil-Ortiz Mariana; Pedraza-Chaverrí José; Medina-Campos Omar N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled...

  13. NATURAL HEALING AGENT: GARLIC, AN APPROACH TO HEALTHY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagori B.P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have grown up in the era of so-called wonder drugs. Garlic is one such drug which is grown globally. China is by far the largest producer of garlic, with approximately 10.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds annually, accounting for over 77% of world output. This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produces less than 2% of global output. The purpose of this study is to highlight new applications of cultivated as well as wild garlic in medicine. Areas of beneficial activity include anti-AIDS, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-infectious properties, amongst others. Garlic is uniquely the richest dietary source of many otherwise rare healthful sulphur compounds, plus organic selenium and germanium besides other essential nutrients and active health-promoting phytochemicals. Various forms of garlic are available, the most effective being fresh, powdered, distilled and especially aged garlic, which later lacks the irritant effect of fresh garlic, yet possesses equal or greater bio-active range and potency.Since many years cultivated garlic (Allium sativum has served the medicinal purpose. As demand of garlic is continuously increasing due to its valuable features, other garlic species are screened for potential benefits of cultivated garlic with less side effects. Wild garlic grows abundantly in many areas of country. It is a plant that seldom needs to be cultivated. They have a distinct garlic flavor, though are milder than garlic cloves. Hence extensive study is required for both cultivated and wild species so as to establish them as a future wonder drug.

  14. Use of lectins in immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit C Gorakshakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins present in seeds of many plants, especially corals and beans, in fungi and bacteria, and in animals. Apart from their hemagglutinating property, a wide range of functions have been attributed to them. Their importance in the area of immunohematology is immense. They are used to detect specific red cell antigens, to activate different types of lymphocytes, in order to resolve problems related to polyagglutination and so on. The introduction of advanced biotechnological tools generates new opportunities to exploit the properties of lectins, which were not used earlier. Stem cell research is a very important area in transplant medicine. Certain lectins detect surface markers of stem cell. Hence, they are used to understand the developmental biology of stem cells. The role of various lectins in the areas of transfusion and transplant medicine is discussed in detail in this review.

  15. Electronic Nose Study of Powdered Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E. Baby

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose was used to study the odour profile of garlic, separating the powered samples of eight cultivars and proving to be useful to discriminate garlic specimen dried by lyophilization and oven-dried and humidified specimen (before dried by both techniques for each cultivar. Pattern recognition and multivariate analysis of the electronic nose data has enabled to easily separate the garlic cultivars, to clearly discriminate the lyophilized or oven-dried specimen and the non humidified samples from the humidified powders maintaining, in every case, the cultivars identification. The humidification of lyophilized powders has shown a sharp separation of cultivars, otherwise, in the humidified oven-dried powders, their identification resulted less precise. This fact enabled to infer that lyophilized powders (either dry or humidified better retained their odour profile than oven-dried powders, maintaining the properties of each cultivar.

  16. Garlic attenuates cardiac oxidative stress via activation of PI3K/AKT/Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in fructose-fed diabetic rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Padiya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complication due to diabetes has remained a major cause of death. There is an urgent need to intervene the cardiac complications in diabetes by nutritional or pharmacological agents. Thus the present study was designed to find out the effectiveness of garlic on cardiac complications in insulin-resistant diabetic rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: SD rats were fed high fructose (65% diet alone or along with raw garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg/day or nutrient-matched (65% corn starch control diet for 8 weeks. Fructose-fed diabetic rats showed cardiac hypertrophy, increased NFkB activity and increased oxidative stress. Administration of garlic significantly decreased (p<0.05 cardiac hypertrophy, NFkB activity and oxidative stress. Although we did not observe any changes in myocardial catalase, GSH and GPx in diabetic heart, garlic administration showed significant (p<0.05 increase in all three antioxidant/enzymes levels. Increased endogenous antioxidant enzymes and gene expression in garlic treated diabetic heart are associated with higher protein expression of Nrf2. Increased myocardial H2S levels, activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and decreased Keap levels in fructose-fed heart after garlic administration might be responsible for higher Nrf2 levels. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that raw garlic homogenate is effective in reducing cardiac hypertrophy and fructose-induced myocardial oxidative stress through PI3K/AKT/Nrf2-Keap1 dependent pathway.

  17. 贵州白蒜生产现状及发展对策%Status and Development Countermeasures of Guizhou White Garlic Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周启江; 陈勇; 彭晓丹; 黄勇

    2014-01-01

    Guizhou white garlic was a traditional famous agricultural products, and was once a major export commodity, but due to the scale development and export competition of emerging regions, the development of Guizhou white garlic was faced with severe situations. According to the development characteristics and existing problems of Guizhou white garlic industry, we put forward related countermeasures, including strength the brand construction of white garlic, establishing China Garlic Seed Breeding Center, developing green-food industry zone for garlic, and promoting the rapid development of related industry of garlic.%贵州白蒜是贵州传统名特优农产品,曾经是当地的主要出口商品,由于新兴产区的规模化发展和出口竞争,贵州白蒜发展形势严峻。为此,针对贵州白蒜发展特点和存在的问题,提出了恢复利用贵州白蒜的名特优效应、建设“中国大蒜良种繁育中心”、发展绿色食品大蒜产业带、建设贵州白蒜品牌、带动大蒜相关产业快速发展的思考。

  18. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material.

  20. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Elosta, A; Slevin, M; Rahman, K; Ahmed, N.

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (g...

  1. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  2. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  3. Structural and functional similarities of breadfruit seed lectin and jacalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, N; Pousset, J L; Preud'Homme, J L; Aucouturier, P

    1990-03-01

    Aquous extracts from seeds of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) were compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two bands of the same size (12 and 15 kD) as the jacalin subunits were the major components in breadfruit seed extract. They strongly reacted with anti-jacalin antibodies by western blotting. The breadfruit lectin displayed the same IgAl and IgD precipitation specificity as jacalin in gel double diffusion experiments. It also stimulated in vitro proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggest that lectins from both species of Artocarpus are very similar.

  4. Identification of a Novel Garlic Cellulase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aeri; Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Dae-Won; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Kang, Aram; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Park, Hong-Seog

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoding cellulase enzymes have been investigated in various plants due to the importance of cellulase enzymes in industrial applications, especially in the conversion of biomass into biofuels. Although several cellulase genes have been cloned and characterized, little is known about cellulase genes from garlic or enzyme activities of their gene products. In this study, a cellulase gene from garlic was cloned and characterized in gene and protein levels for the first time. The DNA sequence of the garlic cellulase gene showed 81% identity with the sequence of the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase of Pisum sativum. The open reading frame of this gene is 1,506 bp, which corresponds to 501 deduced amino acids. We identified the novel ORF region, which was translated into a 55.2 kDa protein using the protein expression vector, pET28a, in Escherichia coli and we confirmed that this protein has cellulase activity in vitro. Our study demonstrates that garlic is very useful, not only for the culinary and pharmaceutical industries, but also as an excellent natural source of various kinds of important genes and enzymes.

  5. Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) against experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maha Reda Gaafar

    2012-01-18

    Jan 18, 2012 ... dial agents, trials were designed to test the potency of tradi- tional medicinal plants for treating ... diagnostic techniques, were pooled, and were used for the com- pletion of the study. ..... bad breath. Also, if garlic is taken in a ...

  6. GARLIC - GAmma Reconstruciton for the LInear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    In order to profit from the high granularity of the calorimeters proposed for the ILC that are suitable for the Particle Flow Approach, specialised clustering algorithms have to be developped. GARLIC is such an algorithm with the goal to find and identify pointing photons in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This would help to improve the energy resolution on the photon contribution in jets.

  7. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was perform...

  8. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure; Monir Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was perform...

  9. Black garlic: A critical review of its production, bioactivity, and application

    OpenAIRE

    Shunsuke Kimura; Yen-Chen Tung; Min-Hsiung Pan; Nan-Wei Su; Ying-Jang Lai; Kuan-Chen Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Black garlic is obtained from fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.) that has been fermented for a period of time at a controlled high temperature (60–90°C) under controlled high humidity (80–90%). When compared with fresh garlic, black garlic does not release a strong offensive flavor owing to the reduced content of allicin. Enhanced bioactivity of black garlic compared with that of fresh garlic is attributed to its changes in physicochemical properties. Studies concerning the fundamental findings...

  10. Lectin-probed western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Lectin-probed western blot analysis, the so-called lectin blot analysis, is a useful method to yield basic information on the glycan structures of glycoproteins, based on the carbohydrate-binding specificities of lectins. By lectin blot analysis, researchers can directly analyze the glycan structures without releasing the glycans from glycoproteins. Here, the author describes protocols for standard analysis, and applies analysis in combination with glycosidase digestion of blot.

  11. Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Henry; Uykimpang, Rolando; Alconcel, Marcionila; Takasu, Junichiro; Razon, Rafael; Amagase, Harunobu; Niihara, Yutaka

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been known to have antiplatelet properties. Because of the lack of major clinical data regarding the safety of concomitant use of garlic supplements and anticoagulants, we decided to evaluate the safety of using garlic extract along with oral anticoagulation therapy. During this project we tested aged garlic extract (AGE), a commercial garlic preparation, with warfarin (Coumadin). Sixty-six (66) patients were screened for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Fifty-two (52) patients were randomized for the project. Forty-eight patients (30 men and 18 women, with a mean age of 56+/-10 years) completed the study. Eighteen patients (14 before randomization, 4 after randomization) were dropped from the study. The study medication (AGE or placebo) was administered at a dose of 5 mL twice a day for 12 wk. Potential bleeding and thromboembolic episodes were monitored. There was no evidence of increased hemorrhage in either the placebo or the AGE group. Adverse events included headache, fatigue, colds, and dizziness. However, no significant difference was found in the incidence of these minor adverse events between the groups. Thus, the adverse events are unlikely to be attributable to AGE. The results suggest that AGE is relatively safe and poses no serious hemorrhagic risk for closely monitored patients on warfarin oral anticoagulation therapy. Although the risk-benefit ratio of AGE use needs to be considered carefully when warfarin therapy is necessary, its positive effects may be beneficial to people with a high-risk background or who are taking cardiovascular medications.

  12. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum essential oil and ethanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zouari Chekki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish some nutritional properties of garlic cultivated in Tunisia and to evaluate the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activites of its essential oil and ethanol extract. Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum was characterized for moisture, ash and protein contents which were determined as 66%, 1.4% and 5.2% respectively. In addition, Fe (5.90 mg/kg, Cu (1.61 mg/kg, Mg (15 mg/kg and P (140 mg/kg were reported such as the major minerals in garlic. The fat profile of tunisian garlic was conducted, the main fatty acids identified were lauric acid (49.3% and linoleic acid (20.4%. Essential oil obtained from A. sativum was analysed by capillary GCMS. Diallyl disulfide (49.1% and diallyl trisulfide (30.38% were the main components of the five identified components. The phenolic content of The ethanol extract are analysed for its phenolic profiles, colorimetric analysis revealed that the total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins contents were respectively 43.63 mg GA/g, 13.18 mg quercetin/g and 24.24 mg of catechin/g. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, essential oil presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to its ethanolic extract. IC50 values observed for the essential oil and ethanol extract were 300 μg/ml and 600 µg/ml respectively. The essential oil and ethanol extract from raw garlic were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven microorganisms. The results showed that ethanol extract was active against all tested strains: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogene, Yersinia enterocolitica and Bacillus cereus.

  13. Biological role of lectins: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kiran Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a stracturally vary diverse class of proteins charecterized by their ability to selectively bind carbohydrate moieties of the glycoproteins of the cell surface. Lectins may be derived from plants, microbial or animal sources and may be soluble or membrane bound. Lectins is a tetramer made up of four nearly identical subunits. In human, lectins have been reported to cause food poisoning, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, digestive distress, protein and carbohydrate malabsorption and type I allergies. The present review focuses on the classification, structures, biological significance and application of lectins.

  14. NATURAL HEALING AGENT: GARLIC, AN APPROACH TO HEALTHY LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We have grown up in the era of so-called wonder drugs. Garlic is one such drug which is grown globally. China is by far the largest producer of garlic, with approximately 10.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually, accounting for over 77% of world output. This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produces less than 2% of global output. The purpose of this study is to highlight new applications of cultivated as well as wild garlic in medicine. Areas of beneficial...

  15. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  16. NATURAL HEALING AGENT: GARLIC, AN APPROACH TO HEALTHY LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Nagori B.P.; Solanki Renu; Sharma Neha

    2010-01-01

    We have grown up in the era of so-called wonder drugs. Garlic is one such drug which is grown globally. China is by far the largest producer of garlic, with approximately 10.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually, accounting for over 77% of world output. This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produces less than 2% of global output. The purpose of this study is to highlight new applications of cultivated as well as wild garlic in medicine. Areas of beneficial...

  17. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  18. Composition analysis of black garlics prepared by different garlic types of and processing technologies%不同品种和加工工艺制得黑蒜的成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 张继珑; 景浩

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo compare the compositions of black garlics prepared by different garlic types of and processing technologies.MethodsDifferent black garlics prepared by two types of garlics (single-clove and multi-clove garlics) and two types of processing technologies (wet- and dry-heat processing methods) were compared to analyze their composition changes. Phenol-sulfuric method was used for total sugar assessment; Folin-Ciocalteu assay was used for detection of polyphenol content; DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging, and FRAP ability tests were used to detect antioxidant activity; BaSO4 method was used for detection of total sulfur; HPLC was used for detection of sulfur-containing substances.ResultsTotal sugar content was higher in single-clove garlic than multi-clove garlic, while no significant difference for polyphenol-like substances was observed; DPPH radical scavenging rate (DPPH RSR) was lower in single-clove garlic than multi-clove garlic, while no significant difference for ABTS radical scavenging rate (ABTS RSR), superoxide RSR, and FRAP activity were observed. Alliin in single-clove garlic was higher than that in multi-clove garlic, while total sulfur, diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) had no significant difference. No matter single- or multi-clove garlics, when processed into black garlic, the content of total sugar and polyphenol-like substances increased;DPPH RSR,ABTS RSR,superoxide RSR, andFRAP activity increased, S-allyl cysteine (S-AC) also increased, while alliin, DADS, and DATS decreased, while no difference was observed for total sulfur content. In comparison of black garlics made from wet-heat and dry-heat processing, polyphenol-like substances,DPPH RSR, ABTS RSR, superoxide RSR, FRAP activity, alliin, DADS, and DATS were all higher, while total sugar content and S-AC were lower in black garlic made from wet-heat processing than those from dry-heat processing.ConclusionMajor components of black garlics were similar

  19. Composition analysis of black garlics prepared by different garlic types of and processing technologies%不同品种和加工工艺制得黑蒜的成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 张继珑; 景浩

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the compositions of black garlics prepared by different garlic types of and processing technologies. Methods Different black garlics prepared by two types of garlics (single-clove and multi-clove garlics) and two types of processing technologies (wet-and dry-heat processing methods) were compared to analyze their composition changes. Phenol-sulfuric method was used for total sugar assessment; Folin-Ciocalteu assay was used for detection of polyphenol content; DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging, and FRAP ability tests were used to detect antioxidant activity;BaSO4 method was used for detection of total sulfur;HPLC was used for detection of sulfur-containing substances. Results Total sugar content was higher in single-clove garlic than multi-clove garlic, while no significant difference for polyphenol-like substances was observed; DPPH radical scavenging rate (DPPH RSR) was lower in single-clove garlic than multi-clove garlic, while no significant difference for ABTS radical scavenging rate (ABTS RSR), superoxide RSR, and FRAP activity were observed. Alliin in single-clove garlic was higher than that in multi-clove garlic, while total sulfur, diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) had no significant difference. No matter single-or multi-clove garlics, when processed into black garlic, the content of total sugar and polyphenol-like substances increased;DPPH RSR, ABTS RSR, superoxide RSR, and FRAP activity increased, S-allyl cysteine (S-AC) also increased, while alliin, DADS, and DATS decreased, while no difference was observed for total sulfur content. In comparison of black garlics made from wet-heat and dry-heat processing, polyphenol-like substances, DPPH RSR, ABTS RSR, superoxide RSR, FRAP activity, alliin, DADS, and DATS were all higher, while total sugar content and S-AC were lower in black garlic made from wet-heat processing than those from dry-heat processing. Conclusion Major components of black garlics were

  20. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology "Genotyping-by-Sequencing" Platform (DArTseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Leticia A; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  1. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Leticia A.; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming. PMID:28775737

  2. 微波辅助丙酮提取大蒜油工艺的研究%Study on the Microwave-Assisted Acetone Extraction of Garlic Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金华; 陈莫林; 董加宝; 胡娜

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the garlic oil yield and add value of garlic,this article made a study on the extraction technology of garlic oil by using microwave-assisted acetone extraction method.Through single factor and orthogonal design of microwave power,garlic and acetone ratio,microwave extraction time and acetone concentration on garlic oil extraction rate effects.The results showed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of garlic oil were the microwave power of 100W,microwave extraction time of 75s,ratio of solvent to material of 25∶1 and acetone concentration of 90%,and the highest rate of the garlic oil was 3.85%,and the ratio of solvent to material was a major influence factor for the extraction yield of garlic oil.%为提高大蒜油的得率,增加大蒜的附加值,采用微波辅助、丙酮提取的方法进行大蒜油提取工艺.通过单因素和正交试验考察微波的功率、大蒜和丙酮的配比、微波提取的时间和丙酮的浓度对大蒜油提取得率的影响.结果表明,大蒜和丙酮的配比为大蒜油提取工艺的最显著影响因素;最佳的工艺条件是,微波功率100 W、微波提取时间75 s、液料比25∶1、丙酮体积分数为90%时,大蒜油的提取率最高,提取率为3.85%.

  3. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia A. Egea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions; (ii create a core collection; (iii relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  4. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Il Sook; Cha, Han Sam; Lee, Young Soon

    2014-10-20

    Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  5. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Sook Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic (BG is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05 and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  6. Comparative Study of Lectin Domains in Model Species: New Insights into Evolutionary Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Van Holle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are present throughout the plant kingdom and are reported to be involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we provide a comparative analysis of the lectin families from model species in a phylogenetic framework. The analysis focuses on the different plant lectin domains identified in five representative core angiosperm genomes (Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Cucumis sativus, Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa ssp. indica. The genomes were screened for genes encoding lectin domains using a combination of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, hidden Markov models, and InterProScan analysis. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships were investigated by constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees. The results demonstrate that the majority of the lectin families are present in each of the species under study. Domain organization analysis showed that most identified proteins are multi-domain proteins, owing to the modular rearrangement of protein domains during evolution. Most of these multi-domain proteins are widespread, while others display a lineage-specific distribution. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analyses reveal that some lectin families evolved to be similar to the phylogeny of the plant species, while others share a closer evolutionary history based on the corresponding protein domain architecture. Our results yield insights into the evolutionary relationships and functional divergence of plant lectins.

  7. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. A digital method was designed for color analysis. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of (p≤0.05.Results and Conclusion: Fresh garlic extract had the highest inhibitory effect (mean 27.7 mm against tested bacteria; kombucha fermented garlic showed bigger inhibition zone (mean 21.7 mm than vinegar fermented garlic (mean 17.9 mm. Anti-staphylococcus aureus activity of fresh garlic was stronger than gentamycin and amoxicillin; inhibitory effect of garlic extracts against tested bacteria was significant in comparison with standard antibiotics. Fresh-garlic extract contained highest amount of phenolic contents; fermentation of garlic in kombucha decreased phenolic content of garlic bulbs by 1.92% and IC50 factor for antioxidant activity was 10.25% higher than fresh garlic; fermentation in vinegar reduced 21% of phenolic contents and IC50 obtained 47.4% higher than fresh garlic. Fermentation of garlic reduces the density of colors and luminosity, but the reduction in garlics fermented in vinegar is more than in kombucha. Appearance of vinegar fermented garlic changed to yellowish and kombucha inclined the color to reddish. Fermentation of garlic in kombucha provides better preservation of biological properties of

  8. Lectins as markers for blood grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fauzia; Khan, Rizwan H; Sherwani, Asma; Mohmood, Sameena; Azfer, Md A

    2002-12-01

    Lectins are unique proteins of varying biological importance. They are characterized by specific binding to carbohydrate residues, whether monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides. The sugar heads on the surface of the erythrocyte specify the different blood groups. Lectins, as an antigenic determinant of blood group, have come to be an important tool in the identification of different blood groups. A handful of lectins may be considered excellent reagents for anti-A, anti-B, anti-N etc, but the anti-A and anti-M are not yet regarded as commercially suitable antisera. Lectin from Vicia cracca has been proved to be a good anti-A, lectin from Dolichus biflorus can be used as anti-A1, and lectin from Griffonia simplicifolia as anti-B. Lectin from Vicia graminea is said to be a good typing reagent as Anti-N. On the other hand, the lectins involved in polyagglutination are absolutely essential as the reagent of choice and these cannot as yet be replaced by antibodies of any kind. Erythrocytes with exposed cryptantigens are significantly more sensitive to agglutination by certain lectins than by polyclonal antibodies. Peanut agglutinin (PNA), Polybrene, and Glycine max lectins are frequently used for the identification of different cryptantigens. The application of lectins as an anti-B reagent has proven to be as useful as human polyclonal or mouse monoclonal antibodies. Besides their specificity, lectins are excellent reagents because of their lower cost and indigenous production. The importance of various lectins used as markers for blood grouping is discussed.

  9. 75 FR 22788 - Garlic Oil and Capsaicin; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... AGENCY Garlic Oil and Capsaicin; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability AGENCY... decisions. Garlic oil is the volatile oil extracted from the bulb of the garlic plant or the entire plant. Garlic oil is used as a repellent for the control of insects, mites, birds, deer, rabbits and...

  10. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  11. Allylation of intraerythrocytic hemoglobin by raw garlic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Joseph; Rodriguez, Eva N; Beyley, Veronica; Vega, Irving E

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that deoxygenated human red blood cells (RBCs) converted garlic-derived polysulfides into hydrogen sulfide, which in turn produced vasorelaxation in aortic ring preparations. The vasoactivity was proposed to occur via glucose- and thiol-dependent acellular reactions. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of garlic extracts with human deoxygenated RBCs and its effect on intracellular hemoglobin molecules. The results showed that garlic extract covalently modified intraerythrocytic deoxygenated hemoglobin. The modification identified consisted of an addition of 71 atomic mass units, suggesting allylation of the cysteine residues. Consistently, purified human deoxyhemoglobin reacted with chemically pure diallyl disulfide, showing the same modification as garlic extracts. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that garlic extract and diallyl disulfide modified hemoglobin's beta-chain at cysteine-93 (beta-93C) or cysteine-112 (beta-112C). These results indicate that garlic-derived organic disulfides as well as pure diallyl disulfide must permeate the RBC membrane and modified deoxyhemoglobin at beta-93C or beta-112C. Although the physiological role of the reported garlic extract-induced allyl modification on human hemoglobin warrants further study, the results indicate that constituents of natural products, such as those from garlic extract, modify intracellular proteins.

  12. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health.

  13. Antifungal effect and mechanism of garlic oil on Penicillium funiculosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Liang, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Chen, Yi-Ben

    2014-10-01

    Garlic oil is a kind of fungicide, but little is known about its antifungal effects and mechanism. In this study, the chemical constituents, antifungal activity, and effects of garlic oil were studied with Penicillium funiculosum as a model strain. Results showed that the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs, v/v) were 0.125 and 0.0313 % in agar medium and broth medium, respectively, suggesting that the garlic oil had a strong antifungal activity. The main ingredients of garlic oil were identified as sulfides, mainly including disulfides (36 %), trisulfides (32 %) and monosulfides (29 %) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which were estimated as the dominant antifungal factors. The observation results by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that garlic oil could firstly penetrate into hyphae cells and even their organelles, and then destroy the cellular structure, finally leading to the leakage of both cytoplasm and macromolecules. Further proteomic analysis displayed garlic oil was able to induce a stimulated or weakened expression of some key proteins for physiological metabolism. Therefore, our study proved that garlic oil can work multiple sites of the hyphae of P. funiculosum to cause their death. The high antifungal effects of garlic oil makes it a broad application prospect in antifungal industries.

  14. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Garlic (Allium sativum L.: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae, one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase, sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin. Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacterial, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipidaemic, anticarcinogenic, immunostimulant and hypoglycaemic properties. Clinically, garlic has been investigated for a variety of indications, namely, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidaemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  16. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  17. [Lectins of Dryopteris Adans fern species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheka, O V; Stetsenko, N M; Pogorila, N F

    1999-01-01

    Lectin activity of three ferns species (Dryopteris bushiana Fom., D. laeta (Kom.) C. Chr, D. pseudomas (Wollaston) Holub et Pouzar) has been studied. We used hemagglutination reaction albumin and globulin fractions of fronds and rhizomes extracts with rat erythrocytes. The frond extract of D. pseudomas have shown higher activity as compared with other extracts. The lectin activity of D. laeta leaves was absent. The rhizomes of all three fern species could be characterized as high activity. Based on lectin activity the species were placed as follows order: D. buschiana > D. pseudomas > D. laeta. The dependence with lectin activity and elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr) content were not found.

  18. Construction and immunogenicity of a codon-optimized Entamoeba histolytica Gal-lectin-based DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Denis; Chadee, Kris

    2002-09-10

    Invasive amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is the third leading parasitic cause of mortality, and there are no vaccines available to help control the disease. The galactose-adherence lectin (Gal-lectin) is the parasite's major molecule allowing it to adhere to colonic mucin for colonization and to target cells for tissue destruction. It is immunodominant and is regarded as the most promising candidate molecule to be included in a subunit vaccine against amebiasis. In this study, we are reporting the construction of a codon-optimized DNA vaccine encoding a portion of the Gal-lectin heavy subunit that includes the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), and its in vivo testing in mice. The vaccine stimulated a Th1-type Gal-lectin-specific cellular immune response as well as the development of serum antibodies that recognized a recombinant portion of the heavy subunit, and that inhibited the adherence of trophozoites to target cells in vitro.

  19. Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by increased levels of the 11S globulin legumin and residual lectins. Legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were previously identified as contributing to the increased sulfur amino acid content in the mutant line, on the basis of similarity to proteins from other legumes. Results Profiling of free amino acid in developing seeds of the BAT93 reference genotype revealed a biphasic accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine, the main soluble form of S-methyl-cysteine, with a lag phase occurring during storage protein accumulation. A collection of 30,147 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from four developmental stages, corresponding to distinct phases of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine accumulation, and covering the transitions to reserve accumulation and dessication. Analysis of gene ontology categories indicated the occurrence of multiple sulfur metabolic pathways, including all enzymatic activities responsible for sulfate assimilation, de novo cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. Integration of genomic and proteomic data enabled the identification and isolation of cDNAs coding for legumin, albumin-2, defensin D1 and albumin-1A and -B induced in the absence of phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin. Their deduced amino acid sequences have a higher content of cysteine than methionine, providing an explanation for the preferential increase of cysteine in the mutant line. Conclusion The EST collection provides a foundation to further investigate sulfur metabolism and the differential accumulation of sulfur amino acids in seed

  20. Analysis of common bean expressed sequence tags identifies sulfur metabolic pathways active in seed and sulfur-rich proteins highly expressed in the absence of phaseolin and major lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is associated with a near doubling of sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, particularly cysteine, elevated by 70%, and methionine, elevated by 10%. This mostly takes place at the expense of an abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methyl-cysteine. The deficiency in phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin is mainly compensated by increased levels of the 11S globulin legumin and residual lectins. Legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were previously identified as contributing to the increased sulfur amino acid content in the mutant line, on the basis of similarity to proteins from other legumes. Results Profiling of free amino acid in developing seeds of the BAT93 reference genotype revealed a biphasic accumulation of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine, the main soluble form of S-methyl-cysteine, with a lag phase occurring during storage protein accumulation. A collection of 30,147 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was generated from four developmental stages, corresponding to distinct phases of gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine accumulation, and covering the transitions to reserve accumulation and dessication. Analysis of gene ontology categories indicated the occurrence of multiple sulfur metabolic pathways, including all enzymatic activities responsible for sulfate assimilation, de novo cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. Integration of genomic and proteomic data enabled the identification and isolation of cDNAs coding for legumin, albumin-2, defensin D1 and albumin-1A and -B induced in the absence of phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin. Their deduced amino acid sequences have a higher content of cysteine than methionine, providing an explanation for the preferential increase of cysteine in the mutant line. Conclusion The EST collection provides a foundation to further investigate sulfur metabolism and the differential accumulation of

  1. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  2. Garlic Sulfur Compounds Suppress Cancerogenesis and Oxidative Stress: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořáková M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has long been considered a food with many health benefits. Several studies have confirmed that sulfur compounds are responsible for the positive effects of garlic on organisms. Garlic acts as an antioxidant by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, reducing reactive oxygen species generation, and protecting proteins and lipids from oxidation. Garlic suppresses carcinogenesis through several mechanisms: (1 it reduces oxidative stress, and therefore, prevents damage to DNA; (2 it induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in cancer cells; and (3 it modifies gene expression through histon acetylation. The positive effects of garlic could be mediated by several mechanisms. It influences signalling pathways of gasotransmitters such as hydrogen sulfide. Garlic enhances hydrogen sulfide production both through its direct release and through an increase in activity of enzymes which produce hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a signalling molecule in various tissues and participates in the regulation of many physiological processes. We can presume that garlic, which is able to release hydrogen sulfide, exhibits effects similar to those of this gasotransmitter.

  3. Efficacy of garlic as an anthelmintic in adult Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worku Mulumebet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum L. for controlling gastroin­testinal parasites in adult female Boer goats. The impact of garlic treatment in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia was evaluated by measuring fecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA scores, and body weight. Goats were exposed to four dosage levels of concentrated (99.3% garlic juice (2.5 ml, 5 ml, and 10 ml during four weeks. There was a significant decrease in fecal counts of Coccidia eggs in goats treated with 10 ml of garlic juice (group 4; p<0.05. Garlic extract did not reduce fecal egg counts or alleviate anemia associated with H. contortus infection at the concentrations tested (p>0.05. However, at the intermediate dose of garlic (5 ml, goat body weight was significantly increased (group 3; p<0.05. Packed cell volume and FAMACHA scores did not show significant changes. These studies have implications for the control of Coccidia in goats. Garlic extract contributes to the alleviation of gastrointestinal infections in goats by reducing the Coccidia burden and may enhance animal performance in adult goats.

  4. Design and testing of head-stem segregation equipment for garlic%大蒜果秧分离试验装置的设计与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于昭洋; 胡志超; 王海鸥; 彭宝良; 谢焕雄; 吴峰

    2013-01-01

    Garlic is one of the major cash crops in China. Production, acreage, and exports of garlic in China are the highest in the world. As a seasonal operation, garlic harvesting in China is still mainly manual work, having the problems of low efficiency, high labor intensity, and huge occupation of farming season, which has constrained the further development of the garlic industry. The current domestic garlic harvesters are basically simple segmented machinery. The techniques of garlic combine harvesting is still in its infancy. Picking is the core technology on garlic combine harvesting, but it has not been refined well. In order to enhance operational performance of picking, a new kind of garlic picking testbed was designed to carry out the studies on optimization design on structural and working parameters of a garlic-picking device. Lower damage and less stem are the two primary objectives in garlic harvesting. The garlic picking testbed consists of a clamping delivery device, a ranking/alignment device, a cutter, and an electric control system, which carry out garlic clamping, transport, ranking, alignment, and cutting at one time. The clamping delivery device of which core components are front track and middle track uses two tooth-shaped chains. Through the guidance of the two tracks, the trajectory and clamping style of the chains is changed, achieveing the transition from double chain clamping to chain-board-hairbrush clamping, The core components of the ranking/alignment devices are guidance rods, a ranking disk, finger, an alignment chain, and a hairbrush. In the test, the garlic was artificially fed. First, garlic plants are gripped by the clamping delivery device and transported backward. Under the interaction of ranking/alignment devices and clamping/delivery devices, garlic plants are ranked automatically and garlic bulbs are aligned automatically. After the garlic bulbs are aligned, garlic stems are cut by disc cutters to achieve garlic bulbs whose stems

  5. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR.

  6. Garlic as an anti-diabetic agent: recent progress and patent reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews recent literature on the usage and relevance of garlic and its bioactive components in controlling diabetes and diabetes-associated pathologies; and also updates recent patents on the subject. Antidiabetic effect of garlic is well documented even in ancient medical literature. Garlic and its active ingredients have been extensively studied for their antidiabetic efficacies in either experimentally induced or genetic animal models of diabetes. Human studies are also available where hypoglycemic effect of garlic was reported. The beneficial effects of garlic are mainly attributed to the presence of volatile sulfur compounds like alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine, ajoene and allyl mercaptan. Garlic and garlic extracts have been shown to be effective in reducing insulin resistance. Therefore, considering the importance of garlic in controlling diabetic complications, several preparations and food processes containing garlic have been patented. This review discusses some of the recent progresses made in this field and consolidates the results.

  7. Black garlic: A critical review of its production, bioactivity, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Kimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic is obtained from fresh garlic (Allium sativum L. that has been fermented for a period of time at a controlled high temperature (60–90°C under controlled high humidity (80–90%. When compared with fresh garlic, black garlic does not release a strong offensive flavor owing to the reduced content of allicin. Enhanced bioactivity of black garlic compared with that of fresh garlic is attributed to its changes in physicochemical properties. Studies concerning the fundamental findings of black garlic, such as its production, bioactivity, and applications, have thus been conducted. Several types of black garlic products are also available in the market with a fair selling volume. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of changes in the components, bioactivity, production, and applications of black garlic, as well as the proposed future prospects on their possible applications as a functional food product.

  8. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled...

  9. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjívar Marta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a aqueous garlic extracts or (b garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Methods Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37°C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. Conclusions (a the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of multiple isoforms of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.) lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, E J; De Clercq, N; Claessens, F; Hemschoote, K; Peeters, B; Peumans, W J

    1991-12-01

    Screening of a copy-DNA (cDNA) library constructed from RNA isolated from young developing ovaries of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) resulted in the isolation of five lectin clones which clearly differed from each other with regard to their nucleotide sequence and deduced amino-acid sequence. Sequence comparison between the coding regions of different lectin cDNAs revealed the highest homology between lectin clones LECGNA 3 and LECGNA 5, showing 96.4% and 93.6% similarity at the nucleotide level and at the deduced amino-acid level, respectively, whereas lectin clones LECGNA 1 and LECGNA 3 showed the lowest homology of 81.6% and 68.6% for the nucleotide sequence and the amino-acid sequence, respectively. Only very few lectin cDNA clones containing a polyadenylated tail could be isolated. Moreover all these cDNA clones were derived from isolectin 3 and showed some variability within the length of the 3' untranslated region. The major transcription initiation site was located 30 bases upstream from the AUG codon as could be deduced from primer-extension analysis. Taking into account the small 5' untranslated region of the lectin clones, the size of the lectin mRNA, which is approx. 780 nucleotides as determined by Northern blot analysis, is in good agreement with the length of the cDNA clones isolated. Besides the ovary tissue, both the leaf and the flower tissue were also shown to express the lectin mRNA in a flowering snowdrop plant.

  11. Isolation and antiproliferative activity of Lotus corniculatus lectin towards human tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Shaista; Majeed, Rabiya; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Ishfak; Rakhshanda, Syed; Qurishi, Yasrib; Sharma, P R; Hamid, Abid; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Rabia

    2013-12-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the anti cancer activity of a lectin isolated from Lotus corniculatus seeds. A tetrameric 70kDa galactose specific lectin was purified using two step simple purification protocol which involved affinity chromatography on AF-BlueHC650M and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The lectin was adsorbed on AF-BlueHC650M and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 yielded a major peak absorbance that gave two bands of 15kDa and 20kDa in SDS PAGE. Hemagglutination activity was completely preserved, when the temperature was in the range of 20-60°C. However, drastic reduction in activity occurred at temperatures above 60°C. Full hemagglutination activity was retained at ambient pH 4-12. Thereafter no activity was observed above pH 13. Hemaglutination of the lectin was inhibited by d-galactose. The lectin showed a strong antiproliferative activity towards human leukemic (THP-1) cancer cells followed by lung cancer (HOP62) cells and HCT116 with an IC50 of 39μg/ml and 50μg/ml and 60μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in the percentage of cells in sub G0G1 phase confirming that Lotus corniculatus lectin induced apoptosis. Morphological observations showed that Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) treated THP-1 cells displayed apparent apoptosis characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of membrane enclosed apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) effectively inhibits the cell migration in a dose dependent manner as indicated by the wound healing assay.

  12. effects of garlic on some haematological and biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Influence of garlic on some haematological and plasma biochemical parameters were studied in rats that had different doses and duration ... certain haematological parameters and plasma .... and its constituents (Review). ... chemistry, 1st ed.

  13. Flowering and the Pollen Fertility in Iranian Garlic Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abbasifar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. cannot produce seed because it is a sterile plant. For studying bolting and determination of pollen fertility, 68 Iranian garlic clones were gathered from different parts of Iran and evaluated in Research Field of Horticultural Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. For determining the pollen fertility, some tests including specific RAPD marker, pollen germination, pollen viability detection using acetocarmine and in vitro culture of ovules and fruits were used. Results showed that 37 of Iranian garlic clones could produce scape and inflorescence. The percentage range of pollen stained with acetocarmine was from 0.5 up to 20 percent showing infertility of pollens. Lack of two markers (OPJ121300 and OPJ121700 and pollen tube growth proved the infertility of garlic clones pollen. Fruits and embryo sac were alive for more than two months, showing their potential for producing seeds following pollination with fertile pollens.

  14. Preparation of Garlic Powder with High Allicin Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; XU Shi-ying

    2007-01-01

    Garlic powder with high allicin content was prepared using microwave-vacuum and vacuum drying as well as microencapsulation to protect alliinase activity throughout the stomach and improve the ratio of alliin transforming into allicin. The results showed that the optimal drying condition was 376.1 W for 3 min, 282.1 W for 3 min, 188 W for 9 min, and 94 W for 3 min. The thiosulfinates retention after drying was 90.2%. Following drying, the garlic powder was microencapsulated by modified fluidized bed technique. Scanning electron microscope revealed good integrity and core materials that were embedded in the microcapsules. Studies on the release kinetics of microencapsulated garlic granulates in vitro using simulated intestinal fluid indicated that release of garlic powder could be controlled in the intestine by passing stomach conditions.

  15. Effect of garlic's mode of administration on erythrocytes and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP HP

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... ... administration on erythrocytes and plasma parameters in Wistar rat .... the ability of garlic in decreasing membrane rigidity inhe- rent to its cholesterol ... deformability property which is essential for their function; and survival ...

  16. Managing diseases in seed garlic: What are the options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) causing diseases of seed garlic are discussed in terms of their pathogenic abilities, aggressiveness, management constraints and management options. Management options for vectors (for viral diseases) are placed in context. Concise and general manag...

  17. Acute Lymphangitis Treated by Moxibustion with Garlic in 118 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韦

    2003-01-01

    @@ In recent years, the author has treated 118 cases of acute lymphangitis (usually called red-thread furuncle in TCM) by moxibustion with garlic and achieved good therapeutic results. It is briefly introduced as follows.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L.), have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cult...

  19. Lectins in human cancer: both a devil and an angel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Xiu Li; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-09-01

    Lectins are a group of proteins which could recognize different sugar structures and specifically initiate reversible binding with them. Lectins are universally expressed in different organisms and undertake important biological roles. Understanding of their inherent roles and mechanisms that they employ has inspired researches with new ideas and applications. For example, along with the revelation of their anti-insect function, plant lectins exhibit great potential in agriculture. In human beings, lectins shoulder great missions in cell communication, differentiation and vesicle trafficking etc., aberrant expression of lectins is always associated with diseases. Mannan-binding lectin deficiency leads to immune disorder and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell lectin is involved in colorectal carcinoma liver metastasis. In this review, we present two contradictory roles of lectins in human cancer: the promotive roles of homologous lectins and suppressive roles of heterologous lectins in cancer development. Hopefully, this review will facilitate a better understanding of tumorigenesis and provide references for cancer treatment.

  20. Kinematic analysis and parameter optimized experiment of garlic box putting process%蒜种盒机械投放过程运动学分析与参数优化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿爱军; 张兆磊; 宋占华; 杨建宁; 李汝莘; 侯加林; 刘世琦

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is one of the major cash crops in China. Because of the special requirements of garlic planting, for which there isn’t mature machine at home and aboard, and garlic planting is still done by worker. According to the fact that the planting state of garlic, this paper designed the garlic box and garlic planting test bed with tilt conveying belt. The garlic box was made of degradable protection material such as waste paper pulp and plant straw. The test bed consisted of frame, tilt conveying belt, guiding device, adjustable speed motor, transmission system, pulley, axle of pulley, ground wheel, angle adjusting device of tilt conveying belt, and so on.The garlic planting test bed was powered by adjustable speed motor. According to the garlic box dropping requirements end to end, the transmission ratio between conveyor belt and planting test bed was determined and its value was 1. When the test bed worked, the garlics were put into the garlic box by worker or machine at first, and the boxes were then put on the tilt conveying belt and conveyed to the ground. This paper analyzed the conveying process of the garlic box, and established the mathematical and graphic model about moving velocity of garlic box and clearance of adjacent garlic boxes.The result showed that the clearance of adjacent garlic boxes decreased first and then increased with the tilt angle of belt rising, and the relationship between the clearance of adjacent garlic boxes and the guide plate was positive correlation as the tilt angle of conveying belt was the fixed value. This paper also researched the force condition of garlic box when dropping, made clear the relative motion state between garlic and ground, and analyzed the conditions that could avoid relative sliding between garlic box and ground taking the 30° tilt angle of belt as the example. The analysis result showed the garlic box slided along the belt and the sliding could be avoided by adjusting the connecting position between guide

  1. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-06-06

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

  2. Formula optimization for garlic and pepper-flavoured puffed snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Wilkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbs show high potential as functional ingredients in Thai snacks. Garlic was the most preferred herb in snacks, followed by holy basil, and pepper. This study was to determine the amount of spices such as garlic and pepper to be added to the products to beneficially improve the health status of the consumer without detrimental effect on the flavour and taste. The Box-Behnken (k = 3, nc = 3 response surface design was used to create a model to determine the optimum garlic and pepper flavour for puffed snacks. Specified quantities of salt (1-2 %(w/w, garlic (0-4 %(w/w, and pepper (0-4 %(w/w were used in the design. Fifteen spiced snacks were evaluated by 30 Thai panelists. The model showed the optimum pepper quantity of 0.7 % (w/w and salt and garlic of no more than 1.10 and 2.80 %(w/w, respectively. If 25 g of the puffed snacks were eaten daily the consumer would get enough garlic to satisfy its daily requirements, but not enough pepper to get its purported health benefits. However, as the Thais use copious quantities of pepper in most other dishes, it is likely that eating 25 g of the proposed functional snack with their other dishes would more than likely provide enough pepper to give them the health benefits from this herb.

  3. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheffler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O, as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS, allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2. Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

  4. A Natural Wonder Drug Helps to Prevent Cancer: Garlic Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is one of the oldest and popular spices in the World that also contain very good nutritional value. Garlic has a wide spectrum of actions not only is it antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoan but it also has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. They contain unique oil which is very easily digested and is stable to oxidative stress and for this reasons they are useful and healthy for consumption. Several epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that garlic oil has been thought to bring about its anticarcinogenic effect and other pharmacological properties through a number of mechanisms, such as the scavenging of radicals, increasing glutathione levels, increasing the activities of enzymes such as glutathione S transferase, catalase, incubation of cytochrome p450 2E1, DNA repair mechanisms, prevention of chromosomal damage etc. Future research should standardize the dosage of garlic and type. Several hypotheses suggest that the anticancer mechanism may be due to DNA repair mechanism, prevention of chromosomal damage, antiproliferative effect and alteration of the cell cycle. Garlic and garlic oil should be considered as one of the most valuable food for good quality of life in general.

  5. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal, coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH, green leafhopper (GLH and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH. Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice

  6. The areas of application for plant lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnykova N. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lectins, in particular from plants, are proteins of non-immune origin that are able to bind carbohydrates with high specificity. Due to their properties, phytolectins are of great interest in practical applications. They were shown to play an important role in forming strategies for treatment of disease including cancer and HIV. Plant lectins are an important tool in glycomic studies. Plant lectins with fungicidal and insecticidal activities are used in transgenic technologies to increase plant resistance to pests and phytopathogens. The introduction of lectin-like kinases genes into plant genome was shown to be perspective way to protect plants against environmental stresses and regulate plant growth. Engineering of phytolectins allows obtaining molecules with known carbohydrate specificity that can be applied in various areas. The studies are underway with the aim of design of lectin-based drug delivery systems as well as the pharmaceutical drugs containing plant lectins. Because of the ability of phytolectins to bind to different substances they can be more widely used in the future. The review focuses on current data and future possibilities in the application of plant lectins.

  7. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mar Mar Khin; Jie Song Hua; Hah Cong Ng; Bow Ho; Torkel Wadstrorr

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms.METHODS Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A ),fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas ( Lotus A ) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori-lectin agglutination. Interestingly, heating of H.pylori cells at 60℃ for 1 hour was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during theevents of morphological transformation,resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection.This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease.

  8. Assessing biosafety of GM plants containing lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    of the lectins that are potentially useful for insect resistance will pose no health risk in genetically modified (GM) plants. Since some lectins are known for their toxicity to humans, the insertion of lectin genes in food crop plants will have to be assessed carefully. It is expected that in some cases...... there will be a need to perform animal tests of such GM plants in order to eliminate any uncertainties about potential safety issues for these plants. A 90-day study designed and optimized for this purpose is suggested as one way to cope with these uncertainties....

  9. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  10. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Doc No: E9-31316] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the statutory and regulatory requirements... INFORMATION: [[Page 344

  11. Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharko-Siembida Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR enterochromaffin cells (EC were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

  12. Inter simple sequence repeat fingerprints for assess genetic diversity of tunisian garlic populations

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbes, Naouel; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Le Clerc, Valérie; Dridi, Boutheina; Hannechi, Chérif

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) that is cultivated in Tunisia is heterogeneous and unclassified with no registered local cultivars. At present, the level of genetic diversity in Tunisian garlic is almost unknown. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) genetic markers were therefore used to assess the genetic diversity and its distribution in 31 Tunisian garlic accessions with 4 French classified clones used as control. It was the first time that ISSR markers were used to detect diversity in garlic. ...

  13. Diversity of the arthropod fauna in organically grown garlic intercropped with fodder radish.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, André Wagner Barata; Haro, Marcelo Mendes; Silveira, Luís Cláudio Paterno

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of garlic faces several problems, which include pest attack, and the diversification of habitat through intercropping with attractive plants comes up as a method to pest management. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of the association of garlic with fodder radish on richness, abundance and diversity of arthropods under organic production system in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The treatments were composed of garlic in monoculture and garlic in association with fodd...

  14. Theranostic carbon dots derived from garlic with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Hansen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages.......Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages....

  15. Lectin binding in normal donkey eyeball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Aly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the distribution of various sugar residues in the eyeball tissues of sexually mature donkey was examined by employing fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectins. Our results revealed the presence of mannose (labeled by lectins ConA, galactose (labeled by PNA, GSAI, ECA, GalNAc (labeled by SBA, VVA, and GlcNAc (labeled by WGA residues in the donkey ocular tissues. The epithelium and stroma of the ocular tissues were labeled with mannose (ConA and GlcNAc (WGA binding lectins. Binding sites for WGA and PNA to the rod and cone cells of the retina were evident. The lectins Con A, WGA and GSAI are bound strongly to the endothelium of blood vessels and to smooth muscle cells of the iris. In conclusion, the findings of the present study clearly indicate that the donkey eyeball contains a wide range of glycoconjugates (bearing mannosyl, galactosyl and glucosly residues, and it lacks fucosyl residues.

  16. Legume Lectins: Proteins with Diverse Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarda-Diaz, Irlanda; Guzman-Partida, Ana Maria; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are a diverse class of proteins distributed extensively in nature. Among these proteins; legume lectins display a variety of interesting features including antimicrobial; insecticidal and antitumor activities. Because lectins recognize and bind to specific glycoconjugates present on the surface of cells and intracellular structures; they can serve as potential target molecules for developing practical applications in the fields of food; agriculture; health and pharmaceutical research. This review presents the current knowledge of the main structural characteristics of legume lectins and the relationship of structure to the exhibited specificities; provides an overview of their particular antimicrobial; insecticidal and antitumor biological activities and describes possible applications based on the pattern of recognized glyco-targets. PMID:28604616

  17. Lectin Complement Pathway Proteins in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Anne; Hansen, Annette; Hansen, Søren W K

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the lectin pathway of complement activation, numerous clinical cohorts have been examined for one or more of the proteins, with the intention of uncovering the functions of the proteins or with the aim of discovering new biomarkers or diagnostic tools. To unveil the abnormal......, it is pivotal to know the normal. Our aim was to describe the concentrations of the eleven known proteins of the lectin pathway in serum and plasma and to uncover possible gender differences, age and diurnal variations, which must be taken into account for investigations in different cohorts. We examined...... the concentrations of all lectin pathway proteins (mannan-binding lectin (MBL), H-ficolin, L-ficolin, M-ficolin, collectin-K1, collectin-L1, MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2), MASP-3, MBL associated protein of 44 kDa (MAp44) and MAp19 in 300 Danish blood donors in serum and EDTA plasma in established assays...

  18. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010...'' section below. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  19. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... administrative review (AR) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... withdrawn. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the...

  20. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...-purpose subzone at the garlic products manufacturing facility of Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., located in... to the manufacture of garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located...

  1. 77 FR 28355 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the...

  2. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  3. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper...) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the... published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal Register on November...

  4. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC was published on November 16, 1994....

  5. Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Garlic is rich in polysulfides, and some of them can be H2S donors. This study was conducted to explore the effect of cooking on garlic's organopolysulfides and H2S-releasing activity. Garlic bulbs were crushed and boiled for a period ranging from 3 to 30 min and the solvent extracts were analyzed b

  6. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  7. Lectin interactions with alpha-galactosylated xenoantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    alpha-Galactosylated xenoantigens (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1 and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc) are often detected with the alpha-Gal specific lectin Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4). However, this lectin exhibits a broad and variable specificity for carboh...

  8. 77 FR 11486 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Final Results and Partial Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Final Results and... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC. See Fresh Garlic From...

  9. 76 FR 45230 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... the new shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jining Yifa Garlic... Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews,...

  10. 大蒜含硫化合物及风味研究进展%Advances in sulfur compounds and garlic flavor research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 邢效娟; 景浩

    2014-01-01

    Garlic has been used as foods and herbal remedy, which has many biological activities such as inhi-bition of bacteria growth. Sulfur compounds are the major bioactive compounds in garlic, and also contribute to garlic pungent flavor. Alliin, precursor of these sulfur compounds, could be transformed to allicin by allinase. Allicin is very unstable and easy to be converted to other sulfur compounds. This article describes the sulfur compounds associated with garlic flavor, transformations between sulfur compounds, and biological activity of sulfur compounds. The influences of different processing technologies on sulfur compounds and garlic flavor have also been addressed, especially the processing for black garlic and associated flavor change.%大蒜是生活中必不可少的食品,也是中药材,具有抗菌等多种功能性。含硫化合物是大蒜中的主要活性成分,也是大蒜具有刺激性气味的主要原因。蒜氨酸作为这些含硫化合物的前体物质,在蒜氨酸酶的酶解催化下生成大蒜素,随后大蒜素降解为其他含硫化合物。本文介绍了大蒜中与风味相关的含硫化合物,含硫化合物转化的关系及其具有的生物活性。介绍了不同加工处理方法对大蒜中含硫化合物及风味的影响,以及黑蒜的制备及风味改变。

  11. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  12. Effect of Packaging materials on Quality Parameters of Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Singh Grewal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of storage period and different packaging material on the quality of garlic flakes dried by convective-cum-microwave (CCM and fluidized-cum-microwave (FCM hybrid drying. Garlic flakes were packaged and stored in high density polyethylene (HDPE, low density polyethylene (LDPE and laminated aluminium foil for 3 months under ambient conditions. Samples were investigated to observe for change in rehydration ratio, colour, physiological loss in weight % and overall acceptability. Among the hybrid drying techniques adopted, the garlic flakes developed under optimized condition of fluidized bedcum-microwave was found better in terms of shelf life and quality attributes. The aluminium packaging was adjudged to be the best in retaining the quality of dried garlic flakes up to 3 months of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that the fluidized bed cum microwave dried garlic flakes packed in Aluminium package were the best, and can be stored safely up to 3 months.

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L., have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cultivars of winter Slavonian garlic were spectrophotometrically determined. Genetic diversity of winter Slavonian garlic cultivars significantly affected the content of ascorbic acid and the total antioxidant activity. The total antioxidant activity significantly positively correlated with the content of ascorbic acid (r2 = 0.64, p = 0.006, while the content of total phenols and total antioxidant activity were not significantly related. Cultivar PFO 1 had the highest antioxidant activity (8.006 μmol Trolox /g FW and the highest ascorbic acid content (8.57 mg /100 g FW, thus, the best quality of the four tested garlic cultivars.

  14. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-02-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides.

  15. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides. PMID:26764335

  16. Mannan-binding lectin in astma and allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, S.; Thiel, Steffen; Sarma, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a vital and versatile component of innate immunity. It is present in serum and may bind to a plethora of microbial pathogens and mediate opsonization of these by complement-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Low-MBL levels in serum, attributed to certain genetic...... polymorphisms, constitute a major factor predisposing to several infectious diseases. However, recent studies propose that MBL extends beyond its classic role as a first-line host-defense molecule to a modulator of inflammation. In this review, we summarize and explore this potential and a possible novel role...

  17. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Bauer Petrovska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time when antibiotics and other pharmacy products did not exist, a bulb of garlic itself represented a whole pharmacy industry due to the broad spectrum of effects. Most different suppositions involving this herb are mentioned; some of them were so pointless that they disappeared in time, but some of them have remained until the present days. The garlic was given different names that are still in use such as ′Russian penicillin′, ′natural antibiotic′, ′vegetable viagra′, ′plant talisman′, ′rustic′s theriac′, ′snake grass′ etc. Presentation of the development of ideas associated with garlic and the evolution of the notions increased the ability of the pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges of their professional services in facilitating human life.

  18. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  19. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska, Biljana Bauer; Cekovska, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    At the time when antibiotics and other pharmacy products did not exist, a bulb of garlic itself represented a whole pharmacy industry due to the broad spectrum of effects. Most different suppositions involving this herb are mentioned; some of them were so pointless that they disappeared in time, but some of them have remained until the present days. The garlic was given different names that are still in use such as 'Russian penicillin', 'natural antibiotic', 'vegetable viagra', 'plant talisman', 'rustic's theriac', 'snake grass' etc. Presentation of the development of ideas associated with garlic and the evolution of the notions increased the ability of the pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges of their professional services in facilitating human life.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwantoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef in garlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 that beef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature (25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters was conducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria, total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P0.05 by the treatments. As a conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and water holding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  2. Insecticidal activities of garlic substances against adults of grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Lian Yang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The angoumois grain moth,Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier),is one of the most serious stored grain pests around the world.In attempts to reduce the losses caused by the moth and to suppress its populations,the fumigant activities,behavioral influence and ovipositional inhibition of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil and its two major components,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,were investigated against the adult grain moth.Their effects on reduction in survival of first instar larvae to adult emergence were also evaluated.Results showed that these three materials (garlic essential oil,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide) had significant fumigant activity with 50% lethal concentration values at 1.33,0.99,and 1.02μL/L air space,respectively; meanwhile,the three materials possessed high behavioral deterrent activities against adults in the Y-tube olfactometer.When applied to rice grains,these materials reduced adult longevity and inhibited oviposition,with ovipositional inhibition above 70% at a concentration of 1.5 tL/25 g in either no-choice or two-choice tests.In short,the study showed that both diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,like garlic essential oil,acted as fumigants,produced behavioral deterfence and inhibited oviposition against angoumois grain moth.Our work here indicates that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide may serve as potential alternatives for grain protectants since both of them can be prepared easily from readily available chemicals.

  3. Experimental study on the optimization of extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yajie

    2014-01-01

    Garlic oil which is the main active constituent of garlic has a wide range of pharmacological activities, and a broad antibacterial spectrum. It also has a strong anti-cancer activity, and can significantly inhibit a variety of tumors such as liver cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects. CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of garlic oil. In the CO2 supercritical extraction experiment, factors influencing the yield of garlic oil were: extraction pressure > extraction temperature > extraction time in descending order. Range analysis showed that the optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h. Different concentrations of garlic oil could all inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that garlic oil has an antibacterial effect. The optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were: extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h; garlic oil has an antibacterial effect.

  4. Cardiovascular Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic: An Evidence-Based Review

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    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used since time immemorial as a culinary spice and medicinal herb. Garlic has been cultivated in the Middle East for more than 5,000 years and has been an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The region with the largest commercial garlic production is central California. China is also a supplier of commercial garlic. The bulb is used medicinally. Garlic has been touted as an herb with numerous health benefits, from treating the common cold to serving as an anticancer agent. Research has proven that garlic is beneficial for those with hypertension. By thinning the blood garlic can lower blood pressure by 5 to 10 percent. It can also lower cholesterol and discourage clot formation. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic or by taking powdered garlic products with allicin potential, in turn produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. In this review, we focused on the cardiovascular effects of garlic.

  5. Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Rasmussen, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated....... P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic......-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology...

  6. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-21

    Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic.

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Kh I; Ishioroshi, M; Samejima, K

    2004-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP) and garlic oil (GO) were investigated against lipid oxidation and microbial growth in raw chicken sausage during storage at 3 degrees C. The antioxidant activities were compared to that of a standard synthetic antioxidant; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The initial mean levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value (POV) were 0.140 and 6.32, respectively. However after 21 days of storage, TBA and POV ranged from 0.151 to 4.92, respectively, in FG (50 g/kg) formulated samples to 0.214 and 8.64, respectively, in GO (0.06 g/ kg) formulation. Addition of either garlic or BHA (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with control. The antioxidant activities of the various materials added followed the order FG>GP>BHA>GO. On the other hand, the initial aerobic plate count (APC) in the samples was 4.41 log(10) CFU/g. Addition of FG (30 g/kg) or GP (9 g/kg) significantly reduced the APC and, subsequently, the shelf-life of the product was extended to 21 days. However, addition of GO or BHA resulted in no significant difference in APC when compared with control. Sensory analysis indicated that FG had a significant stronger flavor than the other sausage formulations. The results suggest that fresh garlic and garlic powder, through their combined antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are potentially useful in preserving meat products.

  8. Pharmacokinetic interaction of garlic and atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rats

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    G Dilip Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess pharmacokinetic interaction of garlic with atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats with induced dyslipidemia were divided into five groups of eight rats each. Group 1 was given atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight (b.wt orally, group 2 was given atorvastatin (10 mg/kg b.wt orally+garlic (1% w/w in feed, group 3 was maintained on atorvastatin (5 mg/kg b.wt orally+garlic (0.5% w/w in feed, group 4 was maintained on atorvastatin (7.5 mg/kg b.wt orally+garlic (0.25% w/w in feed, and group 5 was maintained on atorvastatin (2.5 mg/kg b.wt orally+garlic (0.75% w/w in feed for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time intervals for kinetic analysis after the first and last oral dosing of atorvastatin for single and multiple dose studies, respectively. Plasma samples were assayed for atorvastatin concentration by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and then the concentration-time data were analyzed. Results: Maximum observed plasma concentration (C max , half-life, Area Under Plasma Concentration Time Curve (AUC, and Mean Resident Time (MRT were significantly (P<0.05 increased during multiple dose kinetic study and elimination rate constant was significantly (P<0.05 decreased in comparison with their respective single-dose values, while there was no significant difference in time to achieve maximum concentration (t max in all groups during both phases of the study. The highest values for kinetic parameters were observed in group 2 with correspondingly low activity of Cytochrome P 450 (CYP 450 . Conclusion: The study revealed higher values [C max , AUC, Area Under The Moment Curve (AUMC, MRT, and half-life] of atorvastatin in garlic-treated groups.

  9. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardères, Johan; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-07

    An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  10. Garlic (Alium sativum) preservation by application of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina P, M.C.; Casas G, L. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones)

    1984-04-01

    Garlic preservation was studied during a period of eleven months using doses of gamma radiation of 0,06 and 0,12 kGy. The product was stored in netted mesh bags, at room temperature and relative humidity. Sprouting, weight losses, microbiological damages, decoloration and emaciation were controlled periodically. The results of this study permit to conclude that with a dose of 0,06 kGy it is possible to preserve garlic for a period up to ten months, with market quality.

  11. Allium Sativum (Garlic Extract as Nontoxic Corrosion Inhibitor

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    K. Rajam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of garlic in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in well water in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by mass-loss method. The formulation consisting of 2 mL of garlic extract and 25 ppm Zn2+ offers 70% inhibition efficiency to carbon steel immersed in well water. Polarization study reveals that this formulation controls the anodic reaction predominantly. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-allicin complex and Zn(OH2.

  12. Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

  13. Comparison of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Free and Encapsulated Garlic Oil with Beta-cyclodextrin

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    Khadijeh Khoshtinat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Application of garlic oil in food industry can be improved by encapsulation. There is no study about the formation of inclusion complex of garlic oil by beta-cyclodextrin. The aim of the present study is comparison of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of free and encapsulated garlic oil with beta-cyclodextrin.Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl assay, and antibacterial properties by agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and bacterial growth assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Minitab statistical software.Results and conclusion: Garlic oil had poor antioxidant activity (EC50, 5222 µg ml-1 and EC50 because garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin (containing 1495 µg ml-1 released garlic oil was achieved after 5 h and 25 min. Agar well diffusion showed no inhibition zone on Muller Hinton Agar for garlic oil and garlic oil/betacyclodextrin (with initial release (shaking at 150 rpm for 24 h at 37ºC and without initial release. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible bacterium to garlic oil, and garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin with and without initial release (minimum inhibitory concentration 10-5 , 10-4 and 10-3 % w v -1 , respectively; however, Bacillus cereus was the most resistant. The effect of initial release for garlic oil/betacyclodextrin on inhibiting the growth of all four bacteria was significant. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 between the inhibitory effect of garlic oil and garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin with initial release on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, also Salmonella entrica and Escherichia coli. Garlic oil showed a weak antioxidant activity in 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. Garlic oil and its complex were not able to penetrate to the solid media; therefore, no inhibition zone and no antibacterial activity in the agar well diffusion assay were

  14. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant:Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytopthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064 and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7 and 3.66 mg g-1 respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4 and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. Leaf disc bioassay against Phytophthora capsici and Verticillium dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and Allicin aqueous standard (AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating ROS at mild concentrations. However, at higher concentrations, it might cause lipid peroxidation and membrane damage which temper the

  15. Chemical properties and mechanisms determining the anti-cancer action of garlic-derived organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerella, Claudia; Dicato, Mario; Jacob, Claus; Diederich, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Organic sulfur compounds (OSCs) derived from plants, fungi or bacteria can serve as chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agents and have been attracting medical and research interest as a promising source for novel anti-cancer agents. Garlic, which has long been used as a medicinal plant in different cultures due to its multiple beneficial effects, contains a consistent number of OSCs, the majority of which are currently under investigation for their biological activities. Experimental animal and laboratory studies have shown strong evidence that garlic OSCs may affect cancer cells by promoting early mitotic arrest followed by apoptotic cell death without affecting healthy cells. The ability of OSCs to hinder cancer cell proliferation and viability tightly correlates with the length of the sulfur chain. Current data support a mechanism of mitotic arrest of cancer cells due to the alteration of the microtubule network, possibly as a consequence of the high reactivity of sulfur atoms against the thiol groups of different cellular macromolecules controlling crucial regulatory functions. Taken together, these findings indicate a promising potential for the use of garlic-derived sulfur compounds in chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

  16. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is impaired by the garlic volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in vitro and in-feed garlic alleviates pleuropneumonia in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Petra M; van Wikselaar, Piet G; Mul, Monique F; Pol, Arjan; Engel, Bas; Wijdenes, Jan W; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola M C; Wisselink, Henk J; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2012-01-27

    Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) as a lead compound of volatile garlic metabolites was shown to exhibit an antibacterial effect against the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. AMS caused a delay in the appearance of the optical density-monitored growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in medium when compared to unaffected growth curves, yet without lowering the stationary phase yield at the concentration range tested. At 1.1mM, AMS impaired the in vitro growth rate of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 by 8% compared to unimpeded growth. In an animal trial, a garlic-fed group of 15 pigs that received a diet with 5% garlic feed component and a control group of 15 pigs that received a diet without garlic were infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 via an aerosol and subsequently followed for 4 days. At the day of the challenge, blood AMS in the garlic-fed group amounted to 0.32 ± 0.13 μM. A beneficial, alleviating effect of garlic on the course and severity of an A. pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs. 47% in the control group) and a near to significant (p=0.06) lower relative lung weight post mortem in the garlic-fed group.

  17. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  18. Changes in blood profile in sheep receiving raw garlic, garlic oil or monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anassori, E; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Pirmohammadi, R; Hadian, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing a basal diet (CTR) with raw garlic (GAR) or garlic oil (GAO) on blood profile in sheep. Monensin (MON, 33 mg/kg DM) was used as positive control. Four ruminally fistulated rams were used in three experiments each arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Experiments 1 and 2 differed in the dose of GAR (75 vs. 100 g/kg DM) and GAO (500 vs. 750 mg/kg DM), while experiment 3 was designed to compare the two doses of each additive (GAR and GAO). The animals were fed a basal diet as TMR consisting of 77.83% forage (alfalfa hay and corn silage) and 22.17% concentrate, providing 10.50 MJ/kg DM (metabolizable energy) and 16.5% crude protein to cover maintenance energy and protein requirements. Supplementation of monensin decreased (P < 0.05) β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in the blood compared with other treatments. There was no significant effect of additives on serum concentration of glucose, total triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Although the serum insulin concentration was elevated in sheep receiving MON and GAO (P < 0.01), no change was observed in blood glucose concentration. No significant effect of GAO and GAR was observed in key energy and protein-related blood metabolites. However, administration of monensin had a positive influence on energy indices. In conclusion, whereas parameters characterizing the energy balance did not show a significant effect of GAR supplementation, a higher insulin concentration in GAO-treated animals was observed.

  19. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÉSSICA F. RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1 were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3 were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1. Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  20. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  1. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  2. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  3. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  4. Enrichment of African catfish with functional selenium originating from garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Pedrero, Z.; Camara, C.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to create functional seafood with high concentrations of organic selenium (seleno-methyl-selenocysteine and ¿-glutamyl-seleno-methyl-selenocysteine) with anti-carcinogenic properties for human consumers. Garlic containing high concentrations of these organic selenium compounds was used as

  5. Cooked garlic and antioxidant activity: Correlation with organosulfur compound composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, D A; Nazareno, M A; Fusari, C M; Camargo, A B

    2017-04-01

    The antioxidant properties and the main beneficial organosulphur compounds of home-cooked garlic samples were studied in order to establish relationships between them. Antioxidant activity was tested by free radical scavenging against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(+)), Fe(III) reducing ability (FRAP) and linoleic acid co-oxidation initiated by soybean lipoxygenase in a micelle system. DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays showed the highest activity for raw garlic samples, while β-carotene bleaching assay yielded the highest activity for stir-fried garlic. Pure organosulphur compounds tested by DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays showed that allicin had an antiradical action mechanism, as well as iron reducing capacity; while antioxidant activity was the main mechanism for ajoenes and 2-VD. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration that home-cooked garlic retains its antioxidant activity, and, at the same time, elucidates the mechanisms involved in this activity.

  6. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  7. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  8. Enrichment of African catfish with functional selenium originating from garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Pedrero, Z.; Camara, C.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to create functional seafood with high concentrations of organic selenium (seleno-methyl-selenocysteine and ¿-glutamyl-seleno-methyl-selenocysteine) with anti-carcinogenic properties for human consumers. Garlic containing high concentrations of these organic selenium compounds was used as

  9. Composition analysis and antioxidant properties of black garlic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic produced from fresh garlic under controlled high temperature and humidity has strong antioxidant properties. To determine these compounds, five fractions (from F1 to F5 were separated and purified by elution with chloroform:methanol at different ratios (8:1, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 0:1; v/v. The antioxidant activity of each fraction was analyzed. The results showed that F3 and F4 had higher phenolic contents and stronger 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than the others. Seven purified individual components were further separated using semipreparation high-performance liquid chromatography from these two intensely antioxidant fractions (F3 and F4, their structures were elucidated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Three compounds including adenosine, uridine, and 2-acetylpyrrole were first identified in black garlic, except for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, (1S, 3S-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R, 3S-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid. The cellular antioxidant activities of uridine, adenosine, carboline alkaloids, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and ethyl acetate extracts were consistent with the results of in vitro experimental antioxidant properties. The results provide useful information for understanding the health benefits of black garlic products.

  10. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  11. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  12. Physical stability, antioxidative properties, and photoprotective effects of a functionalized formulation containing black garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Kang, Duk Ho; Chang, Un Jae; Hong, Yang-Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2012-12-05

    When garlic is fermented, certain aspects of its bioactivity are changed. Black garlic is a type of fermented garlic used as a food ingredient in Asian cuisine. Black garlic's popularity has spread around the world as it has become a sought-after ingredient used in high-end cuisine. The formulations containing 10% black garlic extract or 10% normal garlic extract showed stable pH, color, precipitation, and organoleptic features, although these characteristics changed slightly. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of the black garlic formulation were significantly (pgarlic formulation. Mice treated with the black garlic formulation (119.63 μM/g) had significant (pgarlic formulation treated mice (vehicle: 3.46 mM/g vs. black garlic: 5.60mM/g). The formulation containing 10% black garlic extract retained physical stability and had high anti-radical efficiencies. Furthermore, it is possible to suggest that this formulation may be effective in protecting skin from UVB photodamage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge.

  15. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  16. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiating [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yuanxing [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Zhifang, E-mail: chaizf@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  17. Insilico studies of organosulfur-functional active compounds in garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogendra P; Singh, Ram A

    2010-01-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity because of its antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, ability to reduce cardiovascular diseases, improving immune functions, and antidiabetic activities and also in reducing cardiovascular diseases and improving immune functions. Recent studies identify that the wide variety of medicinal functions are attributed to the sulfur compounds present in garlic. Epidemiological observations and laboratory studies in animal models have also showed anticarcinogenic potential of organosulfur compounds of garlic. In this study, in silico analysis of organosulfur compounds is reported using the methods of theoretical chemistry to elucidate the molecular properties of garlic as it is more time and cost efficient, reduces the number of wet experiments, and offers the possibility of replacing some animal tests with suitable in silico models. The analysis of molecular descriptors defined by Lipinski has been done. The solubility of drug in water has been determined as it is of useful importance in the process of drug discovery from molecular design to pharmaceutical formulation and biopharmacy. All toxicities associated with candidate drug have been calculated. P-Glycoprotein expressed in normal tissues as a cause of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been examined. Drug-plasma protein binding and volume of distribution have also been calculated. To avoid rejection of drugs, it is becoming more important to determine pK(a), absorption, polar surface area, and other physiochemical properties associated with a drug, before synthetic work is undertaken. The present in silico study is aimed at examining these compounds of garlic to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans.

  18. Rapid identification of Mycobacterium species by lectin agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamna, Abed; Cohen, Dani; Athamna, Muhammad; Ofek, Itzhak; Stavri, Henriette

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the possibility that plant lectins can be used for the development of rapid and inexpensive technique for differentiation of mycobacterial species. The method is based on interaction between mycobacteria and lectins as visualized by agglutination in a microtiter plate. We employed 18 mycobacterium species and determined the minimal lectin concentration (MLC) of 23 different lectins. For some of the bacteria as a high as 1000 microg/ml of one or more lectins were required to induce agglutination, while for other strains as low as 1.95 microg/ml of the lectin were needed. A unique pattern of agglutination was observed for each species over a range of 62-1000 microg/ml lectin concentrations. There were little or no variations in MLC within strains (intraspecies) of each of two species tested. In contrast, there were marked interspecies variations in MLC. Analysis of the MLC showed that the highest score of interspecies differences with 23 lectins was obtained at 125 microg/ml lectin concentration. At this concentration it was found that the pattern of agglutinations with only two lectins was sufficient to differentiate mycobacterium species from each other. Because the bacteria-lectin interaction is adaptable to various methods of visualization, our findings may set the stage for developing a rapid and reliable tool to differentiate mycobacterium species.

  19. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  20. Identification of the site of human mannan-binding lectin involved in the interaction with its partner serine proteases: the essential role of Lys55

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teillet, F; Lacroix, M; Thiel, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an oligomeric lectin that binds neutral carbohydrates on pathogens, forms complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP)-1, -2, and -3 and 19-kDa MBL-associated protein (MAp19), and triggers the complement lectin pathway through activation of MASP-2. To ident...... centered on residue Lys(55), which may form an ionic bond representing the major component of the MBL-MASP interaction. The binding sites for MASP-2/MAp19 and MASP-1/3 have common features but are not strictly identical....

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF LECTINS OF ZEA MAYS RAW MATERIAL AND THE STUDY OF LECTIN ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiuk UV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aime of the study was to identify lectins in the Zea mays raw material: roots, stems, heads, leaves and corn silk and study their activity. Lectins activity has been studied using the biological method of ratuserytroagglutination. This method is based on formation of aggregates of lectins and rats erythrocytes. The activity unit was the floor amount of lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes. The protein nature of extracts that agglutinate has been determined using Bradford method. The lectins activity of Zea mays roots was 6,21±0,11 unit/mg of protein; of heads – 2,61±0,17 unit/mg of protein; of leaves – 0,62 ±0,05 unit/mg of protein; of corn silk – 1,06±0,08 unit/mg of protein; of stems – 0,97±0,09 unit/mg of protein. The greatest lectins activity was in leaves, stems and corn silk.

  2. Animal lectins: potential receptors for ginseng polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hee Loh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng Meyer, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae, is known for its human immune system-related effects, such as immune-boosting effects. Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs are the responsible ingredient of ginseng in immunomodulation, and are classified as acidic and neutral GPs. Although GPs participate in various immune reactions including the stimulation of immune cells and production of cytokines, the precise function of GPs together with its potential receptor(s and their signal transduction pathways have remained largely unknown. Animal lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar moieties. Among many different biological functions in vivo, animal lectins especially play important roles in the immune system by recognizing carbohydrates that are found exclusively on pathogens or that are inaccessible on host cells. This review summarizes the immunological activities of GPs and the diverse roles of animal lectins in the immune system, suggesting the possibility of animal lectins as the potential receptor candidates of GPs and giving insights into the development of GPs as therapeutic biomaterials for many immunological diseases.

  3. BAD-lectins: boronic acid-decorated lectins with enhanced binding affinity for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Lin, Po-Chiao; Huang, Li-De; Chen, Chang-Yang; Wu, Sz-Wei; Han, Chia-Li; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2013-09-03

    The weak and variable binding affinities exhibited by lectin-carbohydrate interactions have often compromised the practical utility of lectin in capturing glycoproteins for glycoproteomic applications. We report here the development and applications of a new type of hybrid biomaterial, namely a boronic acid-decorated lectin (BAD-lectin), for efficient bifunctional glycoprotein labeling and enrichment. Our binding studies showed an enhanced affinity by BAD-lectin, likely to be mediated via the formation of boronate ester linkages between the lectin and glycan subsequent to the initial recognition process and thus preserving its glycan-specificity. Moreover, when attached to magnetic nanoparticles (BAD-lectin@MNPs), 2 to 60-fold improvement on detection sensitivity and enrichment efficiency for specific glycoproteins was observed over the independent use of either lectin or BA. Tested at the level of whole cell lysates for glycoproteomic applications, three different types of BAD-lectin@MNPs exhibited excellent specificities with only 6% overlapping among the 295 N-linked glycopeptides identified. As many as 236 N-linked glycopeptides (80%) were uniquely identified by one of the BAD-lectin@MNPs. These results indicated that the enhanced glycan-selective recognition and binding affinity of BAD-lectin@MNPs will facilitate a complementary identification of the under-explored glycoproteome.

  4. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lectin-mediated drug delivery: the second generation of bioadhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, C M

    2000-03-01

    This paper reviews some recent developments in the area of bioadhesive drug delivery systems. The area of bioadhesion in drug delivery had started some 20 years ago by using so-called mucoadhesive polymers. Many of these polymers were already used as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. This has facilitated the development of the first bioadhesive drug products, which are now commercially available. A major disadvantage of the hitherto known mucoadhesives, however, is their non-specificity with respect to the substrate. In particular for gastro-intestinal applications, this may cause some premature inactivation and moreover limits the duration of mucoadhesive bonds to the relatively fast mucus turnover. Nevertheless, for some mucoadhesive polymers other interesting functionalities were discovered, such as their ability to modulate epithelial permeability and to inhibit proteolytic enzymes. In contrast to the mucoadhesive polymers, lectins and some other adhesion molecules specifically recognize receptor-like structures of the cell membrane and therefore bind directly to the epithelial cells themselves ("cytoadhesion") rather than to the mucus gel layer. Furthermore, when bioadhesion is receptor-mediated, it is not only restricted to mere binding, but may subsequently trigger the active transport of large molecules or nanoscalic drug carrier systems by vesicular transport processes (endo-/transcytosis). Rather than only acting as a platform for controlled release systems, the concept of lectin-mediated bioadhesion therefore bears the potential for the controlled delivery of macromolecular biopharmaceuticals at relevant biological barriers, such as the epithelia of the intestinal or respiratory tract.

  6. Comparison of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Free and Encapsulated Garlic Oil with Beta-cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Application of garlic oil in food industry can be improved by encapsulation. There is no study about the formation of inclusion complex of garlic oil by beta-cyclodextrin. The aim of the present study is comparison of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of free and encapsulated garlic oil with beta-cyclodextrin.Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl assay, and antibacterial properties by agar well dif...

  7. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pgarlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (pgarlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (pgarlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy.

  8. Comparison of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Free and Encapsulated Garlic Oil with Beta-cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijeh Khoshtinat; Mohsen Barzegar; Mohammad Ali Sahari; Zohreh Hamidi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Application of garlic oil in food industry can be improved by encapsulation. There is no study about the formation of inclusion complex of garlic oil by beta-cyclodextrin. The aim of the present study is comparison of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of free and encapsulated garlic oil with beta-cyclodextrin.Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl assay, and antibacterial properties by agar well dif...

  9. The search for lectin isolated from the mycelial cultures of Laetiporus sulphureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Końska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proved the presence of lectin in mycelial cultures of Laetiporus sulphureus. Lectin was excreted into the medium and its erythroagglutinating activity was not high. No active lectin was detected in hyphae using both extraction and immunofluorescence method. Comparative studies based on immunological methods indicate~ that the lectin synthesised in vitro differed from the lectin produced in fruit-bodies.

  10. Novel Sulfur Metabolites of Garlic Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling through Induction of Na+/K+-ATPase Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Tarak N.; Borkar, Roshan M.; Mohammed, Soheb A.; Dinda, Amit K.; Srinivas, R.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of garlic on the heart is not known. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to (1) investigate the effect of raw garlic on isoproterenol (Iso) induced cardiac hypertrophy (2) find the active metabolites of garlic responsible for the beneficial effect. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by subcutaneous single injection of Iso 5 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days and the effect of garlic (250 mg/kg/day orally) was evaluated. Garlic metabolites in in vivo were identified by LC/MS study. The effect of garlic and its metabolites were evaluated against hypertrophy in H9C2 cells. Garlic normalized cardiac oxidative stress after Iso administration. Cardiac pathology and mitochondrial enzyme activities were improved in hypertrophy heart after garlic administration. Decreased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. We identified three garlic metabolites in rat serum. To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na+/K+-ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor. In conclusion, garlic and its active metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase in rat heart, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and associated remodeling. Our data suggest that identified new garlic metabolites may be useful for therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28194108

  11. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M; Ryan, Christopher M; Johnson, Patricia J; O'Keefe, Barry R; Secor, W Evan; Anderson, Deborah J; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas.

  12. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans, like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas.

  13. The pungency of garlic: activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Lindsey J; Geierstanger, Bernhard H; Viswanath, Veena; Bandell, Michael; Eid, Samer R; Hwang, SunWook; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2005-05-24

    Garlic's pungent flavor has made it a popular ingredient in cuisines around the world and throughout history. Garlic's health benefits have been elevated from folklore to clinical study. Although there is some controversy as to the efficacy of garlic, garlic products are one of the most popular herbal supplements in the U.S. Chemically complex, garlic contains different assortments of sulfur compounds depending on whether the cloves are intact, crushed, cooked, or raw. Raw garlic, when cut and placed on the tongue or lips, elicits painful burning and prickling sensations through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that raw but not baked garlic activates TRPA1 and TRPV1, two temperature-activated ion channels that belong to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family. These thermoTRPs are present in the pain-sensing neurons that innervate the mouth. We further show that allicin, an unstable component of fresh garlic, is the chemical responsible for TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation and is therefore likely to cause garlic's pungency.

  14. To study the hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects of garlic in smokers in the North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayballabh Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Results: Garlic has a significant hypotensive effect by lowering DBP, SBP also lowered but it was not statistically significant. Also hypolipidemic effects of garlic were found to be statically significant in cases of triglyceride, HDL and LDL, but changes in cases of cholesterol and VLDL are not statically significant. Conclusions: Garlic being hypotensive and hypolipidemic in nature as shown in our study, therefore it can be concluded that garlic is beneficial for human beings. Its main beneficial effect for decreasing the lipid levels as well as the blood pressure in smokers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2053-2057

  15. Grape seed and skin extract mitigates garlic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlaoui-Gasmi, Sonia; Mokni, Meherzia; Limam, Nadia; N'guessan, Prudence; Carrier, Alice; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Aouani, Ezzedine; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2012-05-01

    Garlic is a commonly used spice in folk medicine that can exert adverse health effects when given at a high dose. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibits a variety of beneficial effects even at a high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxicity of high-dose garlic treatment on liver and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally administered either with garlic extract (5 g·(kg body weight)(-1)) or GSSE (500 mg·(kg body weight)(-1)) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for 1 month. Plasma and hepatic levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and transaminases and liver antioxidant status were evaluated. Data showed that a high garlic dose induced liver toxicity and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Garlic increased intracellular H(2)O(2) but decreased free iron and Ca(2+). GSSE alone or in co-treatment with garlic had the reverse effect and counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious impacts to near control levels. In conclusion, a high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, inducing Ca(2+) depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca(2+) repletion.

  16. Lipid Profiles are Altered in Rats Fed with Different Garlic Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Yoshie Yosino da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties that are attributed to its organosulfur compounds being allicin, which is reported to be the most active of these compounds. We hypothesized that allicin content could reduce plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, HDL (high density lipoproteins, VLDL (very low density lipoproteins, and glucose. Two different cultivars of commercial garlic, Peruano and Jinxiang, were used. Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed into 6 groups and fed for 15 days with standard diet (Control, Control with Peruano garlic treatment (CGP, Control with Jinxiang garlic treatment (CGCH, cholesterol-added control diet (CholC, cholesterol-added diet with Peruano garlic treatment (CholGP, and cholesterol-added diet with Jinxiang garlic treatment (CholGCH. Garlic treatment consisted of a daily oral dose of 1ml of lyophilized garlic. We observed that garlic treatment in Control group significantly reduced plasma TG and VLDL concentrations. The CGCH group presented a significant increase in plasma TC levels (25.5% and glucose (11%. No significant changes in TC, HDL, TG and VLDL were observed in CholGP and CholGCH, but levels of fasting plasma glucose were increased: CholGP (23% and CholGCH (27.5%. Results suggested allicin treatments alter lipid profile in rats. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to address the increase in plasma glucose levels.

  17. Lectins, Interconnecting Proteins with Biotechnological/Pharmacological and Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations. Lectins revealed healing effect through induction of reepithelialization and cicatrization of wounds. Some lectins have been efficient agents against virus, fungi, bacteria, and helminths at low concentrations. Lectin-mediated bioadhesion has been an interesting characteristic for development of drug delivery systems. Lectin histochemistry and lectin-based biosensors are useful to detect transformed tissues and biomarkers related to disease occurrence; antitumor lectins reported are promising for cancer therapy. Here, we address lectins from distinct sources with some biological effect and biotechnological potential in the diagnosis and therapeutic of diseases, highlighting many advances in this growing field.

  18. Lectins, Interconnecting Proteins with Biotechnological/Pharmacological and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscila Marcelino dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations. Lectins revealed healing effect through induction of reepithelialization and cicatrization of wounds. Some lectins have been efficient agents against virus, fungi, bacteria, and helminths at low concentrations. Lectin-mediated bioadhesion has been an interesting characteristic for development of drug delivery systems. Lectin histochemistry and lectin-based biosensors are useful to detect transformed tissues and biomarkers related to disease occurrence; antitumor lectins reported are promising for cancer therapy. Here, we address lectins from distinct sources with some biological effect and biotechnological potential in the diagnosis and therapeutic of diseases, highlighting many advances in this growing field. PMID:28367220

  19. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jaeyoun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL, mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA, galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL, complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L, and fucose (UEA-I. Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3.

  20. Interaction of hamster submaxillary sialyl-Tn and Tn glycoproteins with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Shen, F; Herp, A; Wu, J H

    1994-04-01

    Hamster submaxillary glycoprotein (HSM), one of the simplest glycoproteins among mammalian salivary mucins, is composed of approximately equivalent amounts of protein, hexosamine and sialic acid. The Thr and Ser residues in the protein core account for more than half of all of the amino acid residues, while Lys, Glu, Pro and Ala are the major components of the remaining portion of amino acids. The carbohydrate side chains of this mucous glycoprotein have mainly the NeuAc-GalNAc-(sialyl-Tn) sequence (HSM), and those of the desialylated product (HSM-Tn) are almost exclusively unsubstituted GalNAc residues (Tn determinants). The binding properties of sialyl-Tn (HSM) and asialo-HSM (HSM-Tn) glycoproteins were tested by precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins. The HSM-Tn completely precipitated Vicia villosa (VVL both B4 and mixture of A and B), Maclura pomifera (MPL), and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin) lectins; less than 2 micrograms of HSM-Tn were required for precipitating 50% of 5.0-6.3 micrograms lectin nitrogen added. HSM-Tn also reacted well with Helix pomatia lectin (HPL), Wistaria floribunda lectin (WFL) and Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and precipitated in each case over 81% of the lectin nitrogen added. The reactivity of HSM-Tn with other lectins (Ricinus communis, RCA1; Dolichol biflorus, DBL; Viscum album, ML-I; Arachis hypogaea, PNA, and Triticum vulgaris, WGA) was weak or negligible. The activity of sialyl-Tn (HSM) was more restricted; HSM reacted well with Jacalin, moderately with MPL and VVL-B4, but was inactive or only weakly with the other lectins used. These findings indicate that HSM and its desialylated product (HSM-Tn) are highly useful reagents for the differentiation of Tn and T/Gal specific lectins and for anti-T, Tn and Af monoclonal antibodies.

  1. Detection of garlic gamma-irradiated by assay comet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Miranda, Enrique F. Prieto; Carro, Sandra; Iglesias Enrique, Isora; Matos, Wilberto [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)], e-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    The garlic samples were irradiated in a facility with {sup 60}Co sources, at absorbed dose values of 0-0,15 kGy. The detection method utilized for the identification of the irradiated garlic was biological comet assay. The samples were classified post-irradiation several times. The irradiated samples showed high strand breaks of DNA exhibiting comets of several forms, while the not irradiated and lower dose samples showed a behavior like round shape and light comets. Significant differences were found for higher absorbed dose values at 0.06 kGy, this absorbed dose value is corresponding with the applied dose value at this food in order to avoid the germination. (author)

  2. Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Chong Kil; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-05-01

    The medicinal properties of functionally active organosulfur compounds such as allin, diallyl disulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-trityl-L-cysteine isolated from garlic have received great attention from a large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. These organosulfur compounds are able to prevent for development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have been also many reports on toxicities and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The aim of this study is to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports, and describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigations for garlic oil content of garlic in various areas%不同地区大蒜中大蒜油含量调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭尉

    2001-01-01

    The contents of garlic oil were investigated in various sorts of garlic in main garlic product areas of our country.We found that the highest produce oil rate of the garlic were the sorts of Ershuizao,Sanyuehuang and Dongdongqing produced in Dafen county,Jiangsu province,the lowest produce oil rate of the garlic was non-liverwort garlic produced in Zhongmu county,Henan province.It can be regarded as a theoretical base for buying raw material or developing product of garlic product unites.%通过对国内主要大蒜产区不同品种的大蒜中大蒜油的含量测定,发现大蒜的出油率以江苏省大丰县产的二水早、三月黄、冬冬青等品种最高,河南省中牟县的无苔蒜出油率最低。可作为大蒜油生产单位购进原料或发展生产的依据。

  4. Composition analysis and antioxidant properties of black garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Li, Ningyang; Qiao, Xuguang; Qiu, Zhichang; Liu, Pengli

    2017-04-01

    Black garlic produced from fresh garlic under controlled high temperature and humidity has strong antioxidant properties. To determine these compounds, five fractions (from F1 to F5) were separated and purified by elution with chloroform:methanol at different ratios (8:1, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 0:1; v/v). The antioxidant activity of each fraction was analyzed. The results showed that F3 and F4 had higher phenolic contents and stronger 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than the others. Seven purified individual components were further separated using semipreparation high-performance liquid chromatography from these two intensely antioxidant fractions (F3 and F4), their structures were elucidated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Three compounds including adenosine, uridine, and 2-acetylpyrrole were first identified in black garlic, except for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, (1S, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid. The cellular antioxidant activities of uridine, adenosine, carboline alkaloids, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and ethyl acetate extracts were consistent with the results of in vitro experimental antioxidant properties. The results provide useful information for understanding the health benefits of black garlic products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Von White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature, where Allium sativum (garlic extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the postsynthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray chemical analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that allicin and other carbohydrates in the garlic extract are the primary nanoparticle stabilizing moieties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomedical applications, owing to (1 enhanced stability in biological media, (2 resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, (3 ease and scalability of synthesis, and (4 lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/mL, confirming that silver nanoparticles synthesized with garlic extract are potential candidates for future experimentation and implementation in the biomedical field.

  6. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Lin Chu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic 大 蒜 Dà Suàn; Allium sativum, is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  7. Molecular targets of cancer chemoprevention by garlic-derived organosulfides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna HERMAN-ANTOSIEWICZ; Anna A POWOLNY; Shivendra V SINGH

    2007-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of Allium vegetables, especially garlic, have been noted throughout recorded history. The known health benefits of Allium vegetables and their constituents include cardiovascular protective effects, stimulation of immune function, reduction of blood glucose level, radioprotection, improvement of memory loss, protection against microbial, viral and fungal infections, as well as anticancer effects. Population-based case control studies have suggested an inverse correlation between dietary intake of Allium vegetables and the risk of different types of cancers. The anticarcinogenic effect of Allium vegetables in-eluding garlic is attributed to organosulfur compounds (OSC), which are highly effective in affording protection against cancer in animal models induced by a variety of chemical carcinogens. More recent studies have shown that certain naturally occurring OSC analogues can suppress proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. The OSC-induced changes in the proliferation of cancer Cellsare frequently associated with perturbations in cell cycle progression and induc-tion of G2/M phase arrest. The OSC have also been demonstrated to induce apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by altering the ratio of the Bc1-2 family of proteins both in cell culture and in in vivo models. Anti-angiogenic activity for garlic-derived OSC has also been documented. This article summarizes current knowledge on molecular targets of cancer chemoprevention by OSC.

  8. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  9. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Chen

    Full Text Available Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and MCA (metal chelating activity were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC, followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA. The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  10. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  11. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1994-01-04

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  12. Lectin histochemistry of the boar bulbourethral glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Badia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes, for the first time, the glycosidic content of boar bulbourethral glands using lectin histochemistry. Fourteen horseradish peroxidase- or digoxigeninlabelled lectins with different carbohydrate specificities were used in samples obtained from 3 healthy Landrace boars. The results obtained indicate that endpiece and duct cells synthesize and secrete mainly O-glycoproteins with a- and b-D-N-acetylgalactosamine, b-D-galactose-b(1®3-D-Nacetylgalactosamine, D-N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid residues. Glycoproteins secreted by bulbourethral glands have a role in the protection and lubrication of the urethra. In addition, they may be also involved in the regulation of the sperm metabolic activity and in the maintenance of the structural integrity of acrosomal and plasma membranes.

  13. The Lectin Pathway of Complement and Biocompatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Estrid; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In modern health technologies the use of biomaterials in the form of stents, haemodialysis tubes, artificial implants, bypass circuits etc. is rapidly expanding. The exposure of synthetic, foreign surfaces to the blood and tissue of the host, calls for strict biocompatibility in respect to contac...... been broadly documented. However, the specific role of lectin pathway and the pattern recognition molecules initiating the pathway has only been transiently investigated. Here we review the current data on the field....... activation, the coagulation system and the complement system. The complement system is an important part of the initial immune response and consists of fluid phase molecules in the blood stream. Three different activation pathways can initiate the complement system, the lectin, the classical...

  14. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... No. APHIS-2011-0015] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European... United States of garlic from the European Union and other countries. Based on the findings of a commodity... importation of garlic from the European Union and other countries. DATES: Effective Date: July 27, 2011....

  15. 76 FR 37321 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission, in Part, of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final... duty order on Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR... the 2008-2009 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC....

  16. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other... document (CIED) that evaluates the phytosanitary measures under which garlic may be imported into the continental United States from the European Union and several other countries. Currently, garlic may...

  17. 76 FR 19322 - Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... International Trade Administration Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... results for the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. See Fresh Garlic From...

  18. 77 FR 17409 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for.... \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Preliminary Results, Rescission of...). \\2\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

  19. 76 FR 775 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jinxiang Chengda Imp.... covering the period November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. See Fresh Garlic From the People's...

  20. 76 FR 54487 - Fresh Garlic From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Fresh Garlic From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  1. 77 FR 36480 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the 2010-2011 Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the... review of, inter alia, the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... Department received review requests from PRC producers/exporters of fresh garlic \\2\\ and the Fresh...

  2. 77 FR 36255 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision... notifying the public that the final judgment in this case is not in harmony with Garlic AR8 Final Results \\3... garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period of review (``POR'') of...

  3. 76 FR 68128 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary Results of... (Department) published a notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's... extended the time limit to issue the preliminary results by 100 days. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  4. 75 FR 34976 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of November 1, 2007, through October 31, 2008. See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic...

  5. 76 FR 10335 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... of the 2008-2009 administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China. See... preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic from the...

  6. 75 FR 61130 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New...-line Trading Co. Ltd. (Qingdao Sea- line) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the... its eligibility for separate rate. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China:...

  7. 75 FR 19364 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty... Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of, and Intent To Rescind, in...

  8. 75 FR 29314 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits...) published the initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of, and...

  9. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited...) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order fresh garlic from the People's Republic of... fresh garlic from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year...

  10. 77 FR 65171 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of... shipper reviews (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... covered by the order includes all grades of garlic, whole or separated into constituent cloves....

  11. 76 FR 52315 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Bainong Co., Ltd., and Yantai Jinyan... the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering...

  12. 78 FR 40428 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping... shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal Register on November 16, 1994.\\1\\ On May 8 and 24, 2013,...

  13. 75 FR 38778 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Doc No: 2010-16355] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic... garlic from the People's Republic of China for Qingdao Sea-line International Trade Co. Ltd. (Qingdao Sea-line), covering the period of review of November 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009. See Fresh Garlic...

  14. 78 FR 18316 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) \\1\\ covering the period of review (POR) November... and Maycarrier. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission...

  15. 76 FR 13983 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in... duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period of review (``POR'') of November 1, 2006, through October 31, 2007 with respect to Greening. See Fresh Garlic...

  16. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  17. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review of November 1, 2007.... Coalition v. United States, 626 F.3d 1374 (Fed. Cir. 2010) (Diamond Sawblades). \\6\\ See Fresh Garlic...

  18. 76 FR 65172 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Preliminary Results, Rescission of, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Preliminary Results... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review... Information for Partial Preliminary Results of Administrative Review for Fresh Garlic from the...

  19. 75 FR 74002 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...: Jacqueline Arrowsmith (Yantai Jinyan Trading, Inc.), Milton Koch (Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for three exporters:...

  20. 78 FR 44928 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision... redetermination \\1\\ relating to the ninth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from... garlic from the PRC covering the period of review (``POR'') of November 1, 2002 ] through October...

  1. 78 FR 88 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping... new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic... published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal Register on ] November...

  2. 76 FR 24857 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To... (NSRs) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The NSRs cover Shenzhen Bainong Co., Ltd. (Shenzhen Bainong) and Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co.,...

  3. 76 FR 76375 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2009-2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the... fresh garlic from People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of November 1..., the Department published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  4. A thermostable lectin from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkumnerd, Wichchulada; Karnchanatat, Aphichart; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2010-08-30

    Kaempferia parviflora, or black galingale (Kra-Chai-Dam), belongs to the Zingiberaceae family and is used as both a food ingredient and a medicinal plant. There are diverse reports on the biological activities of compounds extracted from the plant, such as antimalarial, antifungal and an effective sexual-enhancing role, but not on the lectins. A lectin was isolated from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora using affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100. The molecular weight of the purified lectin was about 41.7 kDa. This lectin showed haemagglutinating activity against erythrocytes from several sources, with the highest level being against those from rabbits. Moreover, the lectin was thermostable, with significant haemagglutinating activity detectable up to 75 degrees C. The results of trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis suggested that this protein could be a member of the lectin/endochitnase1 family. A lectin that showed thermotolerant haemagglutinating activity against erythrocytes from several sources was successfully purified from K. paviflora rhizomes. Peptide sequence analysis indicated that this lectin is similar to lectin/endochitinase 1 (Urtica dioica) or Hevein-like protein (Hevea brasiliensis). Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Plant lectin can target receptors containing sialic acid, exemplified by podoplanin, to inhibit transformed cell growth and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alberto Ochoa-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death of men and women worldwide. Tumor cell motility contributes to metastatic invasion that causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. Extracellular receptors modified by α2,3-sialic acids that promote this motility can serve as ideal chemotherapeutic targets. For example, the extracellular domain of the mucin receptor podoplanin (PDPN is highly O-glycosylated with α2,3-sialic acid linked to galactose. PDPN is activated by endogenous ligands to induce tumor cell motility and metastasis. Dietary lectins that target proteins containing α2,3-sialic acid inhibit tumor cell growth. However, anti-cancer lectins that have been examined thus far target receptors that have not been identified. We report here that a lectin from the seeds of Maackia amurensis (MASL with affinity for O-linked carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid targets PDPN to inhibit transformed cell growth and motility at nanomolar concentrations. Interestingly, the biological activity of this lectin survives gastrointestinal proteolysis and enters the cardiovascular system to inhibit melanoma cell growth, migration, and tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate how lectins may be used to help develop dietary agents that target specific receptors to combat malignant cell growth.

  6. Characterization of the okra mucilage by interaction with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Jiang, Y J; Hwang, P Y; Shen, F S

    1995-02-23

    A bio-active polysaccharide, which was the major component of the extract of the common okra, Hibiscus esculentus, was isolated from the extract by precipitation with ethanol between 28.5 to 45%. According to a previous report (Whistler, R.L. and Conrad, H.E. (1954) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1673-1674), this polysaccharide contains the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal sequence, which is the ligand for the uropathogenic Escherichia coli and toxic lectins. Analysis of the binding property of the okra polysaccharide by precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins showed that this okra mucilage reacted best with Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I) and precipitated over 80% of the ML-I nitrogen (5.1 micrograms N) added. It also precipitated well with Abrus precatorius (APA), Momordica charantia (MCA) and Ricinus communis (RCA1) agglutinins, but poorly with other lectins. The results obtained suggest that this polysaccharide is a valuable reagent to differentiate Gal specific lectins from the GalNAc and/or GlcNAc specific series.

  7. Algal Lectins as Potential HIV Microbicide Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Schols

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development and use of topical microbicides potentially offers an additional strategy to reduce the spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs that show specificity for high mannose carbohydrates on the surface of the heavily glycosylated envelope of HIV are endowed with potent anti-HIV activity. In fact, a number of algal lectins such as cyanovirin-N, microvirin, microcystis viridis lectin, scytovirin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin and griffithsin are considered as potential microbicide candidates to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV through topical applications. They not only inhibit infection of cells by cell-free virus but they can also efficiently prevent virus transmission from virus-infected cells to uninfected CD4+ target T-lymphocytes and DC-SIGN-directed capture of HIV-1 and transmission to CD4+ T lymphocytes. This review focuses on the structural properties and carbohydrate specificity of these algal lectins, their antiviral activity against HIV and several other enveloped viruses, their safety profile and viral resistance patterns.

  8. Plant Lectins and Lectin Receptor-Like Kinases: How Do They Sense the Outside?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bellande

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are fundamental to plant life and have important roles in cell-to-cell communication; development and defence strategies. At the cell surface; lectins are present both as soluble proteins (LecPs and as chimeric proteins: lectins are then the extracellular domains of receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs and receptor-like proteins (LecRLPs. In this review; we first describe the domain architectures of proteins harbouring G-type; L-type; LysM and malectin carbohydrate-binding domains. We then focus on the functions of LecPs; LecRLKs and LecRLPs referring to the biological processes they are involved in and to the ligands they recognize. Together; LecPs; LecRLKs and LecRLPs constitute versatile recognition systems at the cell surface contributing to the detection of symbionts and pathogens; and/or involved in monitoring of the cell wall structure and cell growth.

  9. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  10. Pharmacodynamic interaction study of Allium sativum (garlic with cilostazol in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Mateen

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Coadministration of aged garlic extract and cilostazol did not enhance the antiplatelet activity compared with individual drugs. Large randomized trials are needed to further evaluate the possible interaction of garlic in higher doses and in combination with other antiplatelet activity drugs.

  11. Garlic extract exhibits antiamyloidogenic activity on amyloid-beta fibrillogenesis: relevance to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Veer Bala; Indi, S S; Rao, K S J

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized pathologically by the deposition of amyloid plaques. Fibrillar Abeta is the principal component of amyloid plaques in the brain of AD patients. The prevention of Abeta aggregation or dissolution of fibrillar Abeta has clinical significance. The present communication examined in vitro the antiamyloidogenic properties of garlic extract. The effects of aqueous garlic extract (both fresh and boiled) on Abeta aggregation and defibrillation were studied by thioflavin-T based fluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The aqueous fresh garlic extract not only inhibited Abeta fibril formation in a concentration and time dependent manner but was also able to defibrillate Abeta preformed fibrils. The maximum defibrillization was observed after 2-3 days of incubation. The boiled aqueous garlic extract also retained its antiamyloidogenic activity. This indicated that antiamyloidogenic activity of garlic extract is non-enzymatic, i.e. proteases present in garlic did not degrade Abeta in solution. However, the fibril degrading ability of boiled garlic extract was significantly lost. The findings suggest that consumption of garlic may lead to inhibition of Abeta aggregation in human brain.

  12. Purified Aged Garlic Extract Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation in Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Ahad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is known as a potent spice and a medicinal herb with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer and anticoagulant. Our previous studies have shown some immunoregulatory effects for aged garlic extract, suggesting a key role for 14-kD glycoprotein of garlic in shifting the cytokine pattern to T helper-1. In present study, we investigated the effect of 1, 2, and 3 times intraperitoneal injections of aged garlic extract on an established allergic airway inflammation in murine model (BALB/c mice. The garlic extract, isolated by biochemical method, includes proteins precipitation by ammonium sulfate. After injection of the aged garlic extract, IFN-g, anti allergen specific IgE and IgG1 were measured in lavage and serum by ELISA and histological assessment was performed on the lung tissues. The results indicated that three-time intra peritoneal injections of the aged garlic extract caused a significant decrease in the hallmark criteria of allergic airway inflammation levels which included eosinophil percentage in lavage, peribronchial lung eosinophils, IgG1 level in lavage and serum, mucous producing goblet cells grade and peribronchial and perivascular inflammation. Our findings in the present research suggested that aged garlic extract has the potential of attenuation of inflammatory features of allergic airway inflammation in murine model.

  13. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  14. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-05-15

    A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  15. The Analysis of Saccharide in Black Garlic and its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic was created by keeping whole ordinary garlic in a humidity controlled room at 70-80°C for 10-15 days without any artificial treatments and additives. The black garlic was extracted with 80% ethanol and concentrated to obtain black garlic ethanol extracts. The saccharides of the extracts were analyzed according to the method of Phenol Sulphate colorimetry, DNS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The antioxidant capacity in vitro of the extracts was assessed by measuring the scavenging activities on 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Drosophila melanogaster were employed to explore the effect of black garlic extract on lifespan and antioxidant index in vivo. The results showed that the total sugar content in the black garlic extracts was 55.5% including monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide, the content of reducing sugar was 25.22%. The results from this study demonstrated black garlic extracts possessed strong antioxidant capacity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, the longevity of Drosophila melanogaster treated with black garlic extract was prolonged evidently and the content of MDA was decreased by improving SOD (including CuZn-SOD and Mn-SOD and CAT activities.

  16. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  17. Unlocking variability: inherent variation and developmental traits of garlic plants originated from sexual reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, E.; Scholten, O.E.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent collections of fertile garlic (Allium sativum) accessions from Central Asia allow a detailed study of seedling developments and the evaluation of inherent variations. We hereby provide a comprehensive account of the ontogenesis of a population of garlic seedlings and their vegetative and repr

  18. Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lai, Abigail Nianci; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of p

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel markers from the transcriptome of garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is cultivated world-wide and widely appreciated for its culinary uses. In spite of primarily being asexually propagated, garlic shows great diversity for adaptation to diverse production environments and bulb phenotypes. Anonymous molecular markers have been used to assess...

  20. The atherosclerotic heart disease and protecting properties of garlic: contemporary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Namiesnik, Jacek; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2007-11-01

    This article reviews the contemporary data concerning atherosclerosis and protecting properties of garlic. Recent advances in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation in mediating all stages of this disease from initiation through progression and, ultimately, the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. These new findings provide important links between risk factors and the mechanisms of atherogenesis and garlic properties. Numerous in vitro studies have confirmed the ability of garlic to reduce the parameters of the risk of atherosclerosis: total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, oxidized LDL. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentials in fresh, cooked, boiled and commercial garlic from different regions are presented, using beta-carotene, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with K2S2O8 or MnO2, ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and others assays for antioxidant status. In vivo studies were reviewed on with garlic and cholesterol supplemented diets. The positive influences of garlic on plasma lipids, proteins, antioxidant activity, and some indices of blood coagulation are dose dependent. Garlic could be a valuable component of atherosclerosis-preventing diets only in optimal doses. Many recently published reports show that garlic possesses plasma lipid-lowering and plasma anticoagulant and antioxidant properties and improves impaired endothelial function.

  1. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

    2012-08-01

    High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties.

  2. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  3. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  4. Risk of infection and sepsis in severely injured patients related to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lectin pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.G.A. Bronkhorst (Maarten); M.A.Z. Lomax (Miranda); R. Vossen (Rolf); J. Bakker (Jan); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Infectious complications remain a serious threat to patients with multiple trauma. Susceptibility and response to infection is, in part, heritable. The lectin pathway plays a major role in innate immunity. The aim of this study was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorph

  5. Inhibition of Haemonchus contortus larval development by fungal lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Christian; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Butschi, Alex; Bleuler-Martinez, Silvia; Aebi, Markus; Deplazes, Peter; Künzler, Markus; Štefanić, Saša

    2015-08-19

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in fundamental intra- and extracellular biological processes. They occur ubiquitously in nature and are especially abundant in plants and fungi. It has been well established that certain higher fungi produce lectins in their fruiting bodies and/or sclerotia as a part of their natural resistance against free-living fungivorous nematodes and other pests. Despite relatively high diversity of the glycan structures in nature, many of the glycans targeted by fungal lectins are conserved among organisms of the same taxon and sometimes even among different taxa. Such conservation of glycans between free-living and parasitic nematodes is providing us with a useful tool for discovery of novel chemotherapeutic and vaccine targets. In our study, a subset of fungal lectins emanating from toxicity screens on Caenorhabditis elegans was tested for their potential to inhibit larval development of Haemonchus contortus. The effect of Coprinopsis cinerea lectins - CCL2, CGL2, CGL3; Aleuria aurantia lectin - AAL; Marasmius oreades agglutinin - MOA; and Laccaria bicolor lectin - Lb-Tec2, on cultivated Haemonchus contortus larval stages was investigated using a larval development test (LDT). To validate the results of the toxicity assay and determine lectin binding capacity to the nematode digestive tract, biotinylated versions of lectins were fed to pre-infective larval stages of H. contortus and visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Lectin histochemistry on fixed adult worms was performed to investigate the presence and localisation of lectin binding sites in the disease-relevant developmental stage. Using an improved larval development test we found that four of the six tested lectins: AAL, CCL2, MOA and CGL2, exhibited a dose-dependent toxicity in LDT, as measured by the number of larvae developing to the L3 stage. In the case of AAL, CGL2 and MOA lectin, doses as low as 5 μg/ml caused >95 % inhibition of larval

  6. Isolation of a glucosamine binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity towards splenocytes and anti-proliferative activity towards tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Sang Chan

    Full Text Available A dimeric 64-kDa glucosamine-specific lectin was purified from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. "brown kidney bean." The simple 2-step purification protocol involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The lectin was absorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a major absorbance peak that gave a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Hemagglutinating activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was in the range of 20 °C-60 °C. However, drastic reduction of the activity occurred at temperatures above 65 °C. Full hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was observed at an ambient pH of 3 to 12. About 50% activity remained at pH 0-2, and only residual activity was observed at pH 13-14. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucosamine. The brown kidney bean lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes at 2.5 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly completely eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucosamine. The lectin also increased mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The lectin exhibited antiproliferative activity toward human breast cancer (MCF7 cells, hepatoma (HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE1 and CNE2 cells with IC(50 of 5.12 µM, 32.85 µM, 3.12 µM and 40.12 µM respectively after treatment for 24 hours. Flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidum iodide staining indicated apoptosis of MCF7 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining also indicated formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF7 cells after exposure to brown kidney bean lectin. Western blotting revealed that the lectin-induced apoptosis involved ER stress and unfolded protein response.

  7. Isolation of a glucosamine binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity towards splenocytes and anti-proliferative activity towards tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa glucosamine-specific lectin was purified from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. "brown kidney bean." The simple 2-step purification protocol involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The lectin was absorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a major absorbance peak that gave a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Hemagglutinating activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was in the range of 20 °C-60 °C. However, drastic reduction of the activity occurred at temperatures above 65 °C. Full hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was observed at an ambient pH of 3 to 12. About 50% activity remained at pH 0-2, and only residual activity was observed at pH 13-14. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucosamine. The brown kidney bean lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes at 2.5 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly completely eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucosamine. The lectin also increased mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The lectin exhibited antiproliferative activity toward human breast cancer (MCF7) cells, hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE1 and CNE2) cells with IC(50) of 5.12 µM, 32.85 µM, 3.12 µM and 40.12 µM respectively after treatment for 24 hours. Flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidum iodide staining indicated apoptosis of MCF7 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining also indicated formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF7 cells after exposure to brown kidney bean lectin. Western blotting revealed that the lectin-induced apoptosis involved ER stress and unfolded protein response.

  8. Negligible effect of oral garlic oil on the oral absorption of pyridoxine in metadoxine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Young; Kang, Hee Eun; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Myung Gull

    2010-07-01

    Metadoxine [an ion-pair between pyridoxine and pyrrolidone carboxylate (PCA)] plus garlic oil treatment synergistically reduces alcoholic steatosis compared to each agent alone. We evaluated the effect of garlic oil on the pharmacokinetics of pyridoxine. After the oral administration of metadoxine, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of pyridoxine were significantly greater (by 40.6%) and higher (by 63.9%), respectively, than after oral administration of pyridoxine plus PCA. Oral metadoxine plus garlic oil also gave larger AUC (31.8%) and higher C(max) (64.9%) than pyridoxine plus PCA. However, garlic oil did not change the AUC or C(max) of pyridoxine in metadoxine. Thus, garlic oil does not enhance the metadoxine activity by affecting the absorption of pyridoxine.

  9. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  10. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment.

  11. Effects of garlic oil on tumoragenecity and intercellular communication in human gastric cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) and its anti-tumor compound could inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis in human cancer cells.In order to explore the effects of garlic oil on carcinoma cells,a gastric carcinoma cell line,BGC-823 was studied at cellular and molecular levels after garlic oil treatment.Data showed that the cell differentiation and suppression of tumorigenicity were significantly induced in tumor cells after garlic oil treatment.There was a correlation between the cell-cell communication recovery and the increase of p53 and waf1/p21 gene expression in garlic oil-treated cells.This result suggested that tumor suppressor gene waf1/p21 and wt p53 might play an important role in this effect.

  12. Effects of garlic oil on tumoragenecity and intercellular communication in human gastric cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓光; 谢锦玉; 李文梅; 季加孚; 崔建涛; 赵敏; 孙梅; 吕有勇

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) and its anti-tumor compound could inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis in human cancer cells. In order to explore the effects of garlic oil on carcinoma cells, a gastric carcinoma cell line, BGC-823 was studied at cellular and molecular levels after garlic oil treatment. Data showed that the cell differentiation and suppression of tumorigenicity were significantly induced in tumor cells after garlic oil treatment. There was a correlation between the cell-cell communication recovery and the increase of p53 and waf1/p21 gene expression in garlic oil-treated cells. This result suggested that tumor suppressor gene waf1/p21 and wt p53 might play an important role in this effect.

  13. [Comparative study on FTIR spectra of garlic from different geographical populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ming; Li, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Yong; Lu, Hai-Bo; Du, Wei-Jun; Chen, Jian

    2011-06-01

    In the present paper, 25 garlic samples from different geographical populations were studied. FTIR spectra for each sample were obtained by using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and the similarity of garlic samples from different geographical populations was compared through "quick comparison" function in software of the spectrometer. The results showed that there are differences among FTIR spectra of garlic samples from different geographical populations. The quick comparison showed that the similarity is from 76.3% to 99.8% and the diversity of differentiation is more obvious. To some extent, the results reflected the effects of populations environment on physical and chemical properties of garlic. The study provided a simple, rapid, non-destructive and new methods for identification and evaluation of garlic germplasm resources.

  14. Biosynthesis of the Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) Lectin in Ripening Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J

    1988-03-01

    The biosynthesis and processing of the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin were studied in vivo in ripening snowdrop ovaries. Using labeling and pulse chase labeling experiments it could be demonstrated that the snowdrop lectin is synthesized as a precursor of relative molecular weight (M(r)) 15,000 which is posttranslationally converted into the authentic lectin polypeptide of M(r) 13,000 with a half-life of about 6 hours. Gel filtration of an extract of [(3)H]leucine labeled ovaries on Sepharose 4B showed that a significant portion of the newly synthesized lectin is associated with the particulate fraction. When the organellar fraction was fractionated on isopycnic sucrose gradients this lectin banded in the same density region as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker enzyme NADH cytochrome c reductase. Both radioactivity in lectin and in enzyme activity shifted towards a higher density in the presence of 2 millimolar Mg-acetate indicating that the labeled lectin was associated with the rough ER. Labeled lectin could be chased from the ER with a half-life of 4 hours and then accumulated in the soluble fraction. Whereas the ER-associated lectin contains exclusively polypeptides of M(r) 15,000 the soluble fraction contains both precursor molecules and mature lectin polypeptides. The snowdrop lectin in the ER is fully capable of binding immobilized mannose. It is associated into tetramers with an appropriate molecular weight of 60,000. These results indicate that newly synthesized snowdrop lectin is transiently associated with the ER before transport and processing.

  15. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum in Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O, as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS, allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2, confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet.

  16. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum) in Human Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2), confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet. PMID:27916960

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  18. Combined biochemical and cytological analysis of membrane trafficking using lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth W; Kail, Mark; Hollinshead, Michael; Vaux, David J

    2013-10-01

    We have tested the application of high-mannose-binding lectins as analytical reagents to identify N-glycans in the early secretory pathway of HeLa cells during subcellular fractionation and cytochemistry. Post-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pre-Golgi intermediates were separated from the ER on Nycodenz-sucrose gradients, and the glycan composition of each gradient fraction was profiled using lectin blotting. The fractions containing the post-ER pre-Golgi intermediates are found to contain a subset of N-linked α-mannose glycans that bind the lectins Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) but not lectins binding Golgi-modified glycans. Cytochemical analysis demonstrates that high-mannose-containing glycoproteins are predominantly localized to the ER and the early secretory pathway. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that GNA colocalizes with the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and the COPI coat protein β-COP. In situ competition with concanavalin A (ConA), another high-mannose specific lectin, and subsequent GNA lectin histochemistry refined the localization of N-glyans containing nonreducing mannosyl groups, accentuating the GNA vesicular staining. Using GNA and treatments that perturb ER-Golgi transport, we demonstrate that lectins can be used to detect changes in membrane trafficking pathways histochemically. Overall, we find that conjugated plant lectins are effective tools for combinatory biochemical and cytological analysis of membrane trafficking of glycoproteins.

  19. Interaction of native and asialo rat sublingual glycoproteins with lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Herp, A; Song, S C; Wu, J H; Chang, K S

    1995-01-01

    The binding properties of the rat sublingual glycoprotein (RSL) and its asialo product with lectins were characterized by quantitative precipitin(QPA) and precipitin inhibition(QPIA) assays. Among twenty lectins tested for QPA, native RSL reacted well only with Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin), but weakly or not at all with the other lectins. However, its asialo product (asialo-RSL) reacted strongly with many Gal and GalNAc specific lectins-it bound best to three of the GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr (Tn) and/or Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc (II) active lectins [jacalin, Wistaria floribunda and Ricinus communis agglutinins] and completely precipitated each of these three lectins. Asialo-RSL also reacted well with Abrus precatorius, Glycine max, Bauhinia purpurea alba, and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and abrin-a, but not with Arachis hypogeae and Dolichos biflorus agglutinins. The interaction between asialo-RSL and lectins were inhibited by either Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc, p-NO2-phenyl alpha-GalNAc or both. The mapping of the precipitation and inhibition profiles leads to the conclusion that the asialo rat sublingual glycoprotein provides important ligands for II (Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->) and Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr) active lectins.

  20. Mannose-binding lectin genetics: from A to Z

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garred, Peter

    2008-01-01

    MBL (mannose-binding lectin) is primarily a liver-derived collagen-like serum protein. It binds sugar structures on micro-organisms and on dying host cells and is one of the four known mediators that initiate activation of the complement system via the lectin pathway. Common variant alleles...

  1. Porifera Lectins: Diversity, Physiological Roles and Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Gardères

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the diversity of 39 lectins from the phylum Porifera is presented, including 38 lectins, which were identified from the class of demosponges, and one lectin from the class of hexactinellida. Their purification from crude extracts was mainly performed by using affinity chromatography and gel filtration techniques. Other protocols were also developed in order to collect and study sponge lectins, including screening of sponge genomes and expression in heterologous bacterial systems. The characterization of the lectins was performed by Edman degradation or mass spectrometry. Regarding their physiological roles, sponge lectins showed to be involved in morphogenesis and cell interaction, biomineralization and spiculogenesis, as well as host defense mechanisms and potentially in the association between the sponge and its microorganisms. In addition, these lectins exhibited a broad range of bioactivities, including modulation of inflammatory response, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, as well as anticancer and neuromodulatory activity. In view of their potential pharmacological applications, sponge lectins constitute promising molecules of biotechnological interest.

  2. Lessons learned from mice deficient in lectin complement pathway molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, Ninette; Takahashi, Minoru; Sekine, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    in complement activation, pathogen infection, coagulation, host tissue injury and developmental biology have been revealed by in vivo investigations. This review provides an overview of the mice deficient in lectin pathway molecules and highlights some of the most important findings that have resulted from......The lectin pathway of the complement system is initiated when the pattern-recognition molecules, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin-11, bind to invading pathogens or damaged host cells. This leads to activation of MBL/ficolin/collectin-11 associated serine proteases (MASPs), which...... in turn activate downstream complement components, ultimately leading to elimination of the pathogen. Mice deficient in the key molecules of lectin pathway of complement have been generated in order to build knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the lectin pathway in health and disease. Despite...

  3. Diversified Carbohydrate-Binding Lectins from Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Ogawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioresources produce a great variety of specific and potent bioactive molecules including natural organic compounds such as fatty acids, polysaccharides, polyether, peptides, proteins, and enzymes. Lectins are also one of the promising candidates for useful therapeutic agents because they can recognize the specific carbohydrate structures such as proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, resulting in the regulation of various cells via glycoconjugates and their physiological and pathological phenomenon through the host-pathogen interactions and cell-cell communications. Here, we review the multiple lectins from marine resources including fishes and sea invertebrate in terms of their structure-activity relationships and molecular evolution. Especially, we focus on the unique structural properties and molecular evolution of C-type lectins, galectin, F-type lectin, and rhamnose-binding lectin families.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations and MM-PBSA calculations of the lectin from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yizheng

    2009-12-01

    Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), a mannose-specific lectin from snowdrop bulbs, is a member of the monocot mannose-specific lectin family and exhibits antiviral activity toward HIV. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study the interaction between GNA and its carbohydrate ligand over a specific time span. By analysis of the secondary structures, it was observed that the GNA conformation maintains rather stable along the trajectories and the high fluctuations were only centered on the carbohydrate recognition domains. Our MD simulations also reproduced most of the hydrogen bonds observed in the x-ray crystal structure. Furthermore, the obtained MD trajectories were used to estimate the binding free energy of the complex using the molecular mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. It was revealed by the inspection of the binding free energy components that the major contributions to the complex stability arose from electrostatic interactions.

  5. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up with a comprehensive conclusion.

  6. Ureaplasma urealyticum binds mannose-binding lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstein, Barbara D; Ourth, Donald D; Crouse, Dennis T; Shanklin, D Radford

    2004-10-01

    Mannose-binding C-type lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity in mammals. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an acute phase protein, acts as an opsonin for phagocytosis and also activates the mannan-binding lectin complement pathway. It may play a particularly significant role during infancy before adequate specific protection can be provided by the adaptive immune system. Ureaplasma urealyticum has been linked to several diseases including pneumonia and chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants. We therefore investigated the ability of U. urealyticum to bind MBL. A guinea pig IgG anti-rabbit-MBL antiserum was produced. An immunoblot (dot-blot) assay done on nitrocellulose membrane determined that the anti-MBL antibody had specificity against both rabbit and human MBL. Pure cultures of U. urealyticum, serotype 3, were used to make slide preparations. The slides containing the organisms were then incubated with nonimmune rabbit serum containing MBL. Ureaplasma was shown to bind rabbit MBL with an immunocytochemical assay using the guinea pig IgG anti-rabbit MBL antiserum. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-guinea pig IgG was used to localize the reaction. The anti-MBL antiserum was also used in an immunocytochemical assay to localize U. urealyticum in histological sections of lungs from mice specifically infected with this organism. The same method also indicated binding of MBL by ureaplasma in human lung tissue obtained at autopsy from culture positive infants. Our results demonstrate that ureaplasma has the capacity to bind MBL. The absence of MBL may play a role in the predisposition of diseases related to this organism.

  7. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Molecular characterization of a saline-soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus: Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, S.; Kata, M.; Persson, Y.; Lipniunas, P.H.; Wikström, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Brink, J.M. van den; Rask, L.; Hedén, L.O.; Tunlid, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the interactions between several parasite and pathogenic fungi and their hosts are mediated by soluble lectins present in the fungus. We have cloned and analyzed a gene encoding such a lectin (AOL) from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (deuteromycete). The d

  9. Molecular characterization of a saline-soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus: Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, S.; Kata, M.; Persson, Y.; Lipniunas, P.H.; Wikström, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Brink, J.M. van den; Rask, L.; Hedén, L.O.; Tunlid, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the interactions between several parasite and pathogenic fungi and their hosts are mediated by soluble lectins present in the fungus. We have cloned and analyzed a gene encoding such a lectin (AOL) from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (deuteromycete). The

  10. Mannose Binding Lectin Deficiency and Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Erken

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity consists of macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, mucosal immunuglobulins and the comlement system. Mannose binding lectin (MBL takes part in innate immunity through opsonisation and complement activation. MBL deficiency is associated with some infections and autoimmune disorders. However some studies indicate that MBL deficiency alone is not essential for immunity but it may intensify the clinic picture of an immune deficiency that already exists. This article refers to clincal studies related to MBL and brings up the clinical importance of MBL deficiency. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 565-574

  11. GARLIC: GAmma Reconstruction at a LInear Collider experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jeans, Daniel; Reinhard, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The precise measurement of hadronic jet energy is crucial to maximise the physics reach of a future Linear Collider. An important ingredient required to achieve this is the efficient identification of photons within hadronic showers. One configuration of the ILD detector concept employs a highly granular silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeter to identify and measure photons, and the GARLIC algorithm described in this paper has been developed to identify photons in such a calorimeter. We describe the algorithm and characterise its performance using events fully simulated in a model of the ILD detector.

  12. GARLIC: GAmma Reconstruction at a LInear Collider experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, D.; Brient, J.-C.; Reinhard, M.

    2012-06-01

    The precise measurement of hadronic jet energy is crucial to maximise the physics reach of a future Linear Collider. An important ingredient required to achieve this is the efficient identification of photons within hadronic showers. One configuration of the ILD detector concept employs a highly granular silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeter to identify and measure photons, and the GARLIC algorithm described in this paper has been developed to identify photons in such a calorimeter. We describe the algorithm and characterise its performance using events fully simulated in a model of the ILD detector.

  13. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.

  14. Tetrahydro-beta-carboline derivatives in aged garlic extract show antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Jiro; Ide, Nagatoshi; Sasaoka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2006-03-01

    This study used the hydroden peroxide scavenging assay to investigate antioxidant chemical constituents derived and separated from aged garlic extract, a unique garlic extract produced by soaking sliced garlic in an aqueous ethanol solution for >10 mo. Four types of 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline derivatives (THbetaCs); 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid (MTCdiC), from both diastereoisomers, were isolated and identified by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All these compounds indicate strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and inhibit 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride-induced lipid peroxidation. Particularly, (1S, 3S)-MTCdiC had the most potent hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, more than ascorbic acid. The (1R, 3S)- and (1S, 3S)-MTCdiC at 50-100 micromol/L and 10-100 micromol/L inhibited LPS-induced nitrite production. Interestingly, THbetaCs were not detected in raw garlic and other processed garlic preparations, but they were generated and increased during the natural aging garlic extraction process. These data suggest that THbetaCs, which are formed during the natural aging process, are potent antioxidants in aged garlic extract and thus may be useful for the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative damage.

  15. The effect of garlic supplements and phytochemicals on the ADMET properties of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginc, Katja; Kristl, Albin

    2012-03-01

    Garlic supplements have received wide public attention because of their health-beneficial effects. Although these products are considered as innocuous, several case reports and studies have shown the capacity of individual garlic phytochemicals/supplements to interfere with drug pharmacokinetics. This review covers recently published literature on garlic chemistry and composition, and provides a thorough review of published studies evaluating drug-garlic interactions. The authors illustrate the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic interactions, which could serve as important highlights in further research to explain results for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices or for drugs, utilizing multiple absorption, distribution and metabolism pathways. To increase the relevance of further research on safety and efficacy of garlic supplements and phytochemicals, their composition should be addressed before conducting in vitro or in vivo research. It is also strongly recommended to characterize in vitro formulation performance to assess the rate and extent of garlic phytochemical release in order to anticipate the in vivo impact on the pharmacokinetics of concomitantly consumed drugs. The main conclusion of this review is that the impact of garlic on different stages of pharmacokinetics, especially on drug absorption and metabolism, is drug specific and dependent on the type/quality of utilized supplement.

  16. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  17. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  18. Mercury modulates selenium activity via altering its accumulation and speciation in garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiating; Hu, Yi; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Dong, Yuanxing; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-06-01

    Combined pollution of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) has been known in Wanshan district (Guizhou Province, China). A better understanding of how Se and Hg interact in plants and the phytotoxicity thereof will provide clues about how to avoid or mitigate adverse effects of Se/Hg on local agriculture. In this study, the biological activity of Se has been investigated in garlic with or without Hg exposure. Se alone can promote garlic growth at low levels (1 mg L(-1)). The promotive effect of Se in garlic can be enhanced by low Hg exposure (<0.1 mg L(-1)). When both Se and Hg are at high levels, there is a general antagonistic effect between these two elements in terms of phytotoxicity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data suggest that Se is mainly concentrated in garlic roots, compared to the leaves and the bulbs. Se uptake by garlic in low Se medium (<0.1 mg L(-1)) can be significantly enhanced as Hg exposure levels increase (P < 0.05), while it can be inhibited by Hg when Se exposure levels exceed 1 mg L(-1). The synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) mapping further shows that Se is mainly concentrated in the stele of the roots, bulbs and the veins of the leaves, and Se accumulation in garlic can be reduced by Hg. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study indicates that Se is mainly formed in C-Se-C form in garlic. Hg can decrease the content of inorganic Se mainly in SeO3(2-) form in garlic while increasing the content of organic Se mainly in C-Se-C form (MeSeCys and its derivatives). Hg-mediated changes in Se species along with reduced Se accumulation in garlic may account for the protective effect of Hg against Se phytotoxicity.

  19. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

  20. Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, R T; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, various epidemiological studies investigated whether garlic can positively modify the risk of gastric cancer. Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE to June 2014 was completed. There were 14 case control studies, 2 randomized controlled studies, and 1 cohort study that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of gastric cancer with garlic consumption. Meta-analysis of a total of 8,621 cases and 14,889 controls was conducted. Significant variability in duration of garlic intake and reference categories for amount of intake was noted. High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I² = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively). Garlic intake appears to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Further high quality studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess the amount of garlic that needs to be consumed for protective effect.

  1. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose–response trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, K; Frank, O R; Stocks, N P

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: Hypertension affects about 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic has blood pressure-lowering properties and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial assessed the effect, dose–response, tolerability and acceptability of different doses of aged garlic extract as an adjunct treatment to existing antihypertensive medication in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Subjects/methods: A total of 79 general practice patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension participated in a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose–response trial of 12 weeks. Participants were allocated to one of three garlic groups with either of one, two or four capsules daily of aged garlic extract (240/480/960 mg containing 0.6/1.2/2.4 mg of S-allylcysteine) or placebo. Blood pressure was assessed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks and compared with baseline using a mixed-model approach. Tolerability was monitored throughout the trial and acceptability was assessed at 12 weeks by questionnaire. Results: Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced by 11.8±5.4 mm Hg in the garlic-2-capsule group over 12 weeks compared with placebo (P=0.006), and reached borderline significant reduction in the garlic-4-capsule group at 8 weeks (−7.4±4.1 mm Hg, P=0.07). Changes in systolic blood pressure in the garlic-1-capsule group and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly different to placebo. Tolerability, compliance and acceptability were high in all garlic groups (93%) and highest in the groups taking one or two capsules daily. Conclusions: Our trial suggests aged garlic extract to be an effective and tolerable treatment in uncontrolled hypertension, and may be considered as a safe adjunct treatment to conventional antihypertensive therapy. PMID:23169470

  2. Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, K; Frank, O R; Stocks, N P

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension affects about 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic has blood pressure-lowering properties and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial assessed the effect, dose-response, tolerability and acceptability of different doses of aged garlic extract as an adjunct treatment to existing antihypertensive medication in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. A total of 79 general practice patients with uncontrolled systolic hypertension participated in a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled dose-response trial of 12 weeks. Participants were allocated to one of three garlic groups with either of one, two or four capsules daily of aged garlic extract (240/480/960 mg containing 0.6/1.2/2.4 mg of S-allylcysteine) or placebo. Blood pressure was assessed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks and compared with baseline using a mixed-model approach. Tolerability was monitored throughout the trial and acceptability was assessed at 12 weeks by questionnaire. Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced by 11.8±5.4 mm Hg in the garlic-2-capsule group over 12 weeks compared with placebo (P=0.006), and reached borderline significant reduction in the garlic-4-capsule group at 8 weeks (-7.4±4.1 mm Hg, P=0.07). Changes in systolic blood pressure in the garlic-1-capsule group and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly different to placebo. Tolerability, compliance and acceptability were high in all garlic groups (93%) and highest in the groups taking one or two capsules daily. Our trial suggests aged garlic extract to be an effective and tolerable treatment in uncontrolled hypertension, and may be considered as a safe adjunct treatment to conventional antihypertensive therapy.

  3. Influence of garlic or its main active component diallyl disulfide on iron bioavailability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahdi, Afef; Hammami, Imen; Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Pilard, Nathalie; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hedi; Beaumont, Carole; El May, Michèle

    2010-02-01

    Garlic is regularly consumed and is known to have diverse biologic activities, particularly due to its antioxidant properties. In this study, we hypothesized that crude garlic can prevent iron-mediated oxidative stress in a rat model of nutritional iron overload, and we used an in vitro model to confirm the results. For the in vivo studies, rats received a basal diet supplemented with or without carbonyl iron (3%) and were fed distilled water or garlic solution (1g/kg body weight) by gavage for 3 weeks. The presence of both garlic and iron led to a 2-fold increase in plasma iron and a 50% increase in liver iron as compared with iron alone. However, garlic did not offer any protection against iron-induced oxidative stress. Duodenal divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA expression was fully repressed by iron and by the combined treatments but was also reduced by garlic alone. To confirm these data, we tested the effect of diallyl disulfide, one of the active components in garlic, in vitro on polarized Caco-2 cells. A 24-hour treatment decreased iron uptake at the apical side of Caco-2 cells but increased the percentage of iron transfer at the basolateral side. This probably resulted from a modest induction of ferroportin mRNA and protein expression. These results suggest that garlic, when given in the presence of iron, enhances iron absorption by increasing ferroportin expression. The presence of garlic in the diet at the dose studied does not seem to protect against iron-mediated oxidative stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Noncovalent PEGylation via Lectin-Glycopolymer Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonik, Paweł M; Eissa, Ahmed M; Round, Adam R; Cameron, Neil R; Crowley, Peter B

    2016-08-08

    PEGylation, the covalent modification of proteins with polyethylene glycol, is an abundantly used technique to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic proteins. The drawback with this methodology is that the covalently attached PEG can impede the biological activity (e.g., reduced receptor-binding capacity). Protein therapeutics with "disposable" PEG modifiers have potential advantages over the current technology. Here, we show that a protein-polymer "Medusa complex" is formed by the combination of a hexavalent lectin with a glycopolymer. Using NMR spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), size exclusion chromatography, and native gel electrophoresis it was demonstrated that the fucose-binding lectin RSL and a fucose-capped polyethylene glycol (Fuc-PEG) form a multimeric assembly. All of the experimental methods provided evidence of noncovalent PEGylation with a concomitant increase in molecular mass and hydrodynamic radius. The affinity of the protein-polymer complex was determined by ITC and competition experiments to be in the micromolar range, suggesting that such systems have potential biomedical applications.

  5. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  6. Diagnosis of the Nutritional Status of Garlic Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Lúcio Pereira Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Univariate methods for diagnosing nutritional status such as the sufficiency range and the critical level for garlic crops are very susceptible to the effects of dilution and accumulation of nutrients. Therefore, this study aimed to establish bivariate and multivariate norms for this crop using the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS and Nutritional Composition Diagnosis (CND, respectively. The criteria used were nutritional status and the sufficiency range, and then the diagnoses were compared. The study was performed in the region of Alto Paranaíba, MG, Brazil, during the crop seasons 2012 and 2013. Samples comprised 99 commercial fields of garlic, cultivated with the cultivar “Ito” and mostly established in Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico (Oxisol. Copper and K were the nutrients with the highest number of fields diagnosed as limiting by lack (LF and limiting by excess (LE, respectively. The DRIS method presented greater tendency to diagnose LF, while the CND tended towards LE. The sufficiency range of both methods presented narrow ranges in relation to those suggested by the literature. Moreover, all ranges produced by the CND method provided narrower ranges than the DRIS method. The CND method showed better performance than DRIS in distinguishing crop yield covered by different diagnoses. Turning to the criterion of evaluation, the study found that nutritional status gave a better performance than sufficiency range in terms of distinguishing diagnoses regarding yield.

  7. Do garlic-derived allyl sulfides scavenge peroxyl radicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Pedulli, Gian Franco

    2008-03-21

    The chain-breaking antioxidant activities of two garlic-derived allyl sulfides, i.e. diallyl disulfide (1), the main component of steam-distilled garlic oil, and allyl methyl sulfide (3) were evaluated by studying the thermally initiated autoxidation of cumene or styrene in their presence. Although the rate of cumene oxidation was reduced by addition of both 1 and 3, the dependence on the concentration of the two sulfides could not be explained on the basis of the classic antioxidant mechanism as with phenolic antioxidants. The rate of oxidation of styrene, on the other hand, did not show significant changes upon addition of either 1 or 3. This unusual behaviour was explained in terms of the co-oxidant effect, consisting in the decrease of the autoxidation rate of a substrate forming tertiary peroxyl radicals (i.e. cumene) upon addition of little amounts of a second oxidizable substrate giving rise instead to secondary peroxyl radicals. The relevant rate constants for the reaction of ROO(.) with 1 and 3 were measured as 1.6 and 1.0 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, fully consistent with the H-atom abstraction from substituted sulfides. It is therefore concluded that sulfides 1 and 3 do not scavenge peroxyl radicals and therefore cannot be considered chain-breaking antioxidants.

  8. New sensitive detection method for lectin hemagglutination using microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, Lenka; Malinovská, Lenka; Wimmerová, Michaela

    2014-10-01

    The blood group system AB0 is determined by the composition of terminal oligosaccharides on red blood cells. Thanks to this structural feature, these groups can be recognized by saccharide-recognizing compounds. Lectins are proteins that are able to reversibly bind saccharide structures. They generally occur as multimers and are known as hemagglutination agents. Hemagglutination is a process in which blood cells are cross-linked via multivalent molecules. Apart from lectins, hemagglutination can also be caused by antibodies or viruses. A hemagglutination assay is commonly used for the detection of multivalent molecules that recognize blood cells, in order to search for their sugar specificity. It is traditionally performed on a microtiter plate, where the lectin solution is serially diluted and the lowest concentration of lectin causing agglutination is detected. This experimental set-up is utilized further for testing lectin specificity via a hemagglutination inhibition assay. We have developed a new way of detecting hemagglutination using microscopy, which was tested on purified lectins as well as cell lysates. Hemagglutination was performed on a microscope slide directly and detected using a microscope. Comparison with the standard hemagglutination assay using microtiter plates revealed that microscopic approach is faster and more robust and allows fast determination of lectin activities immediately in bacterial cytosols.

  9. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol, and stimulation of immunity. Future long-term trials are needed to elucidate the effect of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Effects of dietary garlic powder and {alpha}-tocopherol supplementation on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Park, W Y; Kim, Y J

    2010-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 5 diet treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5% garlic powder and 3% garlic powder + 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg) with 3 replications of 20 birds for 35 d. There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. Moisture and crude ash contents of chicken thigh muscle were not different among all treatments, but dietary garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in significantly higher CP and lower crude fat contents in comparison with control (P garlic powder and applying garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in broiler blood (P garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. However, no significant differences in water-holding capacity or shear force values were observed among the treatments. For broiler thigh muscle color, L* (lightness) values were decreased (P garlic powder levels and the combination of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. In terms of fatty acid composition in thigh muscle, unlike saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid, dietary garlic powder or garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation increased unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, and total unsaturated fatty acid:total saturated fatty acid ratios. These results suggest that 5% garlic powder or 3% garlic powder plus 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol antioxidant properties were effective for enhancing lipid and color stability.

  11. Self-assembled carbohydrate-based vesicles for lectin targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Marinalva Cardoso; Micheletto, Yasmine Miguel Serafini; da Silveira, Nadya Pesce; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Giacomelli, Fernando Carlos; de Lima, Vânia Rodrigues; Frizon, Tiago Elias Allievi; Dal-Bó, Alexandre Gonçalves

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the physicochemical interactions between vesicles formed by phosphatidylcholine (PC) and glycosylated polymeric amphiphile N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminyl-PEG900-docosanate (C22PEG900GlcNAc) conjugated with Bauhinia variegata lectin (BVL). Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins capable of binding glycosylated membrane components. Accordingly, the surface functionalization by such entities is considered a potential strategy for targeted drug delivery. We observed increased hydrodynamic radii (RH) of PC+C22PEG900GlcNAc vesicles in the presence of lectins, suggesting that this aggregation was due to the interaction between lectins and the vesicular glycosylated surfaces. Furthermore, changes in the zeta potential of the vesicles with increasing lectin concentrations implied that the vesicular glycosylated surfaces were recognized by the investigated lectin. The presence of carbohydrate residues on vesicle surfaces and the ability of the vesicles to establish specific interactions with BVL were further explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. The results indicated that the thickness of the hydrophilic layer was to some extent influenced by the presence of lectins. The presence of lectins required a higher degree of polydispersity as indicated by the width parameter of the log-normal distribution of size, which also suggested more irregular structures. Reflectance Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis.) analyses revealed that the studied lectin preferentially interacted with the choline and carbonyl groups of the lipid, thereby changing the choline orientation and intermolecular interactions. The protein also discretely reduced the intermolecular communication of the hydrophobic acyl chains, resulting in a disordered state.

  12. The properties of lectins and cells surface biopolymers of non-pathogenic corynebacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashschuk E. V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study lectin properties of non-pathogenic corynebacteria cells and preparations of their surface biopolymers (SBP, extracted by SDS. Methods. SBP were extracted from intact cells by 0.15 M solution of NaCl contains 1 % SDS. Protein content was determined using Lowry method, carbohydrates – with anthrone method. Electrophoresis was performed in SDS-PAGE according to Lemmli. Hemagglutinating activity (HAA was studied using rabbit erythrocytes. The lectin carbohydrate specificity was determined by reaction of inhibition of hemagglutination. Results. Electrophoretic set of SBP preparations contained the proteins and carbohydrates biopolymers with molecular mass of 10.0–120.0 kDa which did not possess HAA. After extraction of SBP the corynebacteria cells remained viable and have HAA higher than intact cells (64–2048 units. The hemagglutinins of the majority of corynebacteria strains after treatment of cells with SDS exhibited the highest affinity to the bovine submandibular gland mucin and N-acetylneuraminic acid. Conclusions. The examined non-pathogenic strains of corynebacteria were found to contain the lectins, associated with internal layers of a cell wall, which showed a predominant specificity to sialic acids.

  13. Design of planting mechanism for garlic planter%大蒜播种机种植机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学虎; 张永; 刘召; 程永健; 刘彩霞; 毕力格图

    2015-01-01

    为了满足大蒜在栽植过程中保持蒜瓣鳞芽朝上垂直入土且蒜瓣弓背面朝向一致的农艺要求,该文根据蒜瓣的外形特征,设计了一种大蒜播种机种植机构并对该机构进行详细的理论分析,运用Solidworks软件对该机构进行建模并通过3D打印机打印出零件,然后组建试验台对该种植机构进行试验。试验数据显示采用该种植机构不但可以确保大蒜弓背面朝向一致,而且播种机前进速度的变化对蒜瓣垂直度的影响较小。该文为大蒜种植机械种植机构的设计提供了一种设计方法,为研究大蒜播种机和同类机具提供了参考。%Garlic planters developed relatively late and its technology is not matured in the agricultural machinery. However, due to the growing demand for garlic, intensive planting of garlic has become the trend in modern agriculture. The restricting factor of garlic intensive planting is delayed garlic planting machinery development. This paper proposed two key problems of developing garlic planting machinery:garlic cloves insert vertically and the cloves face towards consistent. To solve these two problems, we designed a garlic planting mechanism which can meet the garlic agricultural cultivation requirement. Based on the study of garlic planter at home and abroad, we designed a mechanism and analyzed it in detailed according to the shape characteristics of garlic cloves. The software of Solidworks was used for modeling the mechanism and the parts were printed by 3D printer, and then the garlic cultivation mechanism was built and tested. The test bench includes mobile platform which can control the speed, stepper motor, garlic planting mechanism, bracket, soil and 10 different sizes of garlic cloves. The garlic cultivation mechanism is fixed on the mobile platform through the bracket and steeper motor is fixed on the mobile platform. The rope of garlic cultivation mechanism is winded up onto the stepper

  14. Identification of IgM as a contaminant in lectin-FLISA assays for HCC detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjun; Comunale, Mary Ann; Herrera, Harmin; Betesh, Lucy; Kono, Yuko; Mehta, Anand

    2016-07-29

    Liver disease, in the form of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for > 700,000 deaths worldwide. A major reason for this is late diagnosis of HCC. The currently used biomarker, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is elevated in 40-60% of those with HCC and other markers that can either compliment or replace AFP are desired. Our previous work has identified a number of proteins that contain altered glycans in HCC. Specifically, these altered glycans were increased levels of core and outer arm fucosylation. To determine the clinical usefulness of those identified glycoproteins, a plate based assay was developed that allowed for the detection of fucosylated glycoforms. While this method was applicable to a number of independent patient sets, it was unable to specifically detect fucosylated glycoforms in many patient samples. That is, some material was present in serum that led to non-specific signal in the lectin- fluorescence -linked immunosorbent assay (lectin-FLISA). To address this issue, a systematic process was undertaken to identify the material. This material was found to be increased levels of lectin reactive IgM. Removal of both IgG and IgM using a multi-step protein A/G incubation and filtration step removed the contaminating signal and allowed for the analysis of specific protein glycoforms. This assay was subsequently used on two sample sets, one that was shown previously to be unable to be tested via a lectin FLISA and in a larger independent sample set. The clinical usefulness of this assay in the early detection of HCC is discussed.

  15. Plant lectins and their blastogenic and mitogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, S.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A.

    1981-01-01

    The lectins can stimulate the transformation of lymphocytes from small resting cells into large blast-like cells which may ultimately undergo mitotic division. The stimulation of lymphocytes by lectins is also an important tool for the examination of biochemical events involved in the conversion of a resting cell into an actively growing one. Properties of mitogenic phytolectins and metabolic changes associated with stimulation are examined. Although mitogenic lectins have been obtained from a variety of different plants, most of our knowledge concerning the biochemical properties and mechanism of their activation in different test systems has been gathered from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA) and Canavalia ensiformis (Con-A) as group prototypes.

  16. Fine specificities of two lectins from Cymbosema roseum seeds: a lectin specific for high-mannose oligosaccharides and a lectin specific for blood group H type II trisaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Tarun K; Cavada, Benildo S; Nagano, Celso S; Rocha, Bruno Am; Benevides, Raquel G; Nascimento, Kyria S; de Sousa, Luiz Ag; Oscarson, Stefan; Brewer, C Fred

    2011-07-01

    The legume species of Cymbosema roseum of Diocleinae subtribe produce at least two different seed lectins. The present study demonstrates that C. roseum lectin I (CRL I) binds with high affinity to the "core" trimannoside of N-linked oligosaccharides. Cymbosema roseum lectin II (CRL II), on the other hand, binds with high affinity to the blood group H trisaccharide (Fucα1,2Galα1-4GlcNAc-). Thermodynamic and hemagglutination inhibition studies reveal the fine binding specificities of the two lectins. Data obtained with a complete set of monodeoxy analogs of the core trimannoside indicate that CRL I recognizes the 3-, 4- and 6-hydroxyl groups of the α(1,6) Man residue, the 3- and 4-hydroxyl group of the α(1,3) Man residue and the 2- and 4-hydroxyl groups of the central Man residue of the trimannoside. CRL I possesses enhanced affinities for the Man5 oligomannose glycan and a biantennary complex glycan as well as glycoproteins containing high-mannose glycans. On the other hand, CRL II distinguishes the blood group H type II epitope from the Lewis(x), Lewis(y), Lewis(a) and Lewis(b) epitopes. CRL II also distinguishes between blood group H type II and type I trisaccharides. CRL I and CRL II, respectively, possess differences in fine specificities when compared with other reported mannose and fucose recognizing lectins. This is the first report of a mannose-specific lectin (CRL I) and a blood group H type II-specific lectin (CRL II) from seeds of a member of the Diocleinae subtribe.

  17. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Shiju

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.

  18. Identification, pathogenicity and distribution of Penicillium spp. isolated from garlic in two regions in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdez, Jorge G.; Makuch, M. A.; Ordovini, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 147 samples of garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs affected by blue mould were obtained from a variety of agroclimatic districts between December 1999 and February 2000. Penicillium species were identified using both morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Penicillium allii...

  19. Rsearch of haw thorn garlic sauce%山楂蒜蓉酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎海彬

    2001-01-01

    In order to make a kind of product of mashed garlic with rich garlic sweet smell,the fresh garlic and hawthorn should be used as raw materials.By using microwave heating,polymer absorption and covering was the unpleasant smell of garlic removed with added and mixed tastes and flavor.%以新鲜大蒜和山楂果为主要原料,采用微波加热法、吸附法及掩蔽法相结合对大蒜进行脱臭,并添加焦糖和食盐调色调味制成一种具有浓郁蒜香味的蒜蓉调味品。

  20. Think Yellow and Keep Green—Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Anwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a “green pesticide”.

  1. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  2. Fresh garlic extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panan Ratthawongjirakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the leading aetiological pathogens of nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces causing biofilm-associated infections. Within the biofilm, these bacteria might develop persistent and antimicrobial resistant characteristics resulting in chronic infections and treatment failures. Garlic exhibits broad pharmaceutical properties and inhibitory activities against S. aureus. We investigated the effects of aqueous fresh garlic extract on biofilm formation in S. aureus ATCC25923 and MRSA strains under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions. The viable bacteria and biofilm levels were quantified through colony count and crystal violet staining, respectively. The use of fresh garlic extract under both conditions significantly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus strains ATCC25923 and MRSA. Garlic could be developed as either a prophylactic or therapeutic agent to manage S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  3. Think Yellow and Keep Green—Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Awais; Gould, Emma; Tinson, Ryan; Groom, Murree; Hamilton, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a “green pesticide”. PMID:28042817

  4. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum on growth factors, some hematological parameters and body compositions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Farahi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic (Allium sativum on growth factors,some hematological parameters and body compositions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. A totalnumber of 360 fish (average weight 20.88±0.25 g was used. Fish were divided into four groups fed ondiets containing garlic in different levels; 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group dietwas without garlic. The experiment extended for two months. The results showed that, weight gain andgrowth performance of O. mykiss significantly (p-1 diet of garlic than all other groups. Total lipids content in fish body decreased in treatments and itwas lower in fish fed on 30 g kg-1 diet of garlic. The results of this study show that addition of garlicAllium sativum to fish diet can promote growth and improve fish health.

  5. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meyer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic...... in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content...... in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few...

  6. Targeting the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Cell Wall Using Lectins: Study of the Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella de Brito Ximenes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is considered to be the major cause of cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients. Understanding cell wall glycoproteins using lectins is of medical interest and can contribute to specific therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carbohydrates on the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin binding protocol. Thirty yeast strains stocked in the culture collection were cultivated for 2 days at 30 °C with shaking. Cells were obtained by centrifugation, washed in phosphate-buffered saline, and a suspension of 107 cells/mL was obtained. To determine the binding profile of lectins, concanavalin A (Con A, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, and peanut agglutinin (PNA conjugated to fluorescein were used. All the tested clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii were intensely stained by WGA, moderately stained by Con A, and weakly stained by PNA and UEA-I. Thus, Cryptococcus can be detected in clinical specimens such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid using the fluorescent lectin WGA, which may be considered as an option for detection in cases of suspected cryptococcosis with low laboratory sensitivity. Future applications may be developed using this basic tool.

  7. Synthesis of high-mannose oligosaccharide analogues through click chemistry: true functional mimics of their natural counterparts against lectins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    François-Heude, Marc; Méndez-Ardoy, Alejandro; Cendret, Virginie; Lafite, Pierre; Daniellou, Richard; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José M; Moreau, Vincent; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence

    2015-01-26

    Terminal "high-mannose oligosaccharides" are involved in a broad range of biological and pathological processes, from sperm-egg fusion to influenza and human immunodeficiency virus infections. In spite of many efforts, their synthesis continues to be very challenging and actually represents a major bottleneck in the field. Whereas multivalent presentation of mannopyranosyl motifs onto a variety of scaffolds has proven to be a successful way to interfere in recognition processes involving high-mannose oligosaccharides, such constructs fail at reproducing the subtle differences in affinity towards the variety of protein receptors (lectins) and antibodies susceptible to binding to the natural ligands. Here we report a family of functional high-mannose oligosaccharide mimics that reproduce not only the terminal mannopyranosyl display, but also the core structure and the branching pattern, by replacing some inner mannopyranosyl units with triazole rings. Such molecular design can be implemented by exploiting "click" ligation strategies, resulting in a substantial reduction of synthetic cost. The binding affinities of the new "click" high-mannose oligosaccharide mimics towards two mannose specific lectins, namely the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and the human macrophage mannose receptor (rhMMR), have been studied by enzyme-linked lectin assays and found to follow identical trends to those observed for the natural oligosaccharide counterparts. Calorimetric determinations against ConA, and X-ray structural data support the conclusion that these compounds are not just another family of multivalent mannosides, but real "structural mimics" of the high-mannose oligosaccharides.

  8. AMELIORATION OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS BY GARLIC EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami, N; Jagadeeswari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of Garlic against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of mercuric chloride (100mg/kg/p.o) for 30 days resulted in significant increase in LPO Basal level and LPO FeSO4 induced and significant decrease in GSH (Glutathione) and Vit C as compared to the normal and control group. Simultaneous administration of Garlic along with Mercuric chloride, produced a pronounced neproprotective effect against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in rats by...

  9. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  10. [Does garlic influence rheologic properties and blood flow in progressive systemic sclerosis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander; Grohmann, Gerald; Oelzner, Peter; Uehleke, Bernhard; Uhlemann, Christine

    2006-06-01

    According to traditional European naturopathy garlic is an agent that increases perfusion. In studies with healthy subjects and in-vitro research garlic has shown influences on erythrocyte and thrombocyte aggregation as well as on vasoregulation. However, data on its effects in clinical populations are still lacking. Garlic may be useful for systemic sclerosis which is characterised by impaired perfusion that often cannot sufficiently be influenced by standard treatment. We investigated if dried garlic powder can influence rheologic properties and vasomotor function in systemic sclerosis. During a randomised, double blind pilot study, 20 female inpatients with systemic sclerosis received a 7 day add-on therapy with either 900 mg dried garlic powder or placebo. Rheologic properties (erythrocyte aggregation, ADP-induced thromboycyte aggregation, plasma viscosity, fibrinogenous plasma level, blood sedimentation rate) were assessed initially as well as after 1 and 7 days of treatment. Vasomotor function was evaluated using near-infrared red photoplethysmography, a new diagnostic tool to assess microcirculation. Furthermore, acral skin temperature was measured. After 7 days, only the verum treatment had induced a significant reduction of ADP-induced thrombocyte aggregation and a decrease in erythrocyte aggregation. Results showed no significant effects on vasomotor function, but an immediate effect of garlic on acral skin temperature. According to the 'Qualitatenlehre' of traditional European naturopathy, garlic is classified as a 'heating agent'. Our results suggest that the improvement of rheologic properties could be a possible biological correlate for this. Although further research is required, we conclude garlic could be a rational add-on therapy in the 'Kaltekrankheit' ('cold disease') of systemic sclerosis.

  11. [Galectins, a class of unconventional lectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advedissian, Tamara; Deshayes, Frédérique; Poirier, Françoise; Grandjean, Cyrille; Viguier, Mireille

    2015-05-01

    Galectins constitute a family of soluble animal lectins defined by their evolutionary conserved carbohydrate recognition domain and their affinity for β-galactosides containing glycoconjugates. Each galectin is characterized by a specific spatio-temporal distribution and a unique set of ligands and molecular partners. Interestingly, galectins are found both extracellularly and intracellularly and modulate various cellular processes. Knock-out mutant mice for galectins-1, 3 or 7 are viable but display a wide range of defects under various stress conditions. Indeed, galectins are multifunctional proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, organization of membrane domains, cell signalling and also in intracellular trafficking, apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle. Galectins represent potential therapeutic targets, especially in the context of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  12. Insights into Animal and Plant Lectins with Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. The glyco -binding and diverse molecular structures observed in these protein classes make them a large and heterogeneous group with a wide range of biological activities in microorganisms, animals and plants. Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. In summary, this work focuses on structural-functional elucidation of diverse lectin groups, shedding some light on host-pathogen interactions; it also examines their emergence as biotechnological tools through gene manipulation and development of new drugs.

  13. The role of thrombomodulin lectin-like domain in inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi-Heng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thrombomodulin (TM is a cell surface glycoprotein which is widely expressed in a variety of cell types. It is a cofactor for thrombin binding that mediates protein C activation and inhibits thrombin activity. In addition to its anticoagulant activity, recent evidence has revealed that TM, especially its lectin-like domain, has potent anti-inflammatory function through a variety of molecular mechanisms. The lectin-like domain of TM plays an important role in suppressing inflammation independent of the TM anticoagulant activity. This article makes an extensive review of the role of TM in inflammation. The molecular targets of TM lectin-like domain have also been elucidated. Recombinant TM protein, especially the TM lectin-like domain may play a promising role in the management of sepsis, glomerulonephritis and arthritis. These data demonstrated the potential therapeutic role of TM in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  14. Human Lectins and Their Roles in Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Mason

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate recognition of virus proteins is an important component of the immune response to viral pathogens. A component of this immune recognition is the family of lectins; pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that recognise viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs including viral glycoproteins. In this review we discuss the contribution of soluble and membrane-associated PRRs to immunity against virus pathogens, and the potential role of these molecules in facilitating virus replication. These processes are illustrated with examples of viruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and Ebola virus (EBOV. We focus on the structure, function and genetics of the well-characterised C-type lectin mannose-binding lectin, the ficolins, and the membrane-bound CD209 proteins expressed on dendritic cells. The potential for lectin-based antiviral therapies is also discussed.

  15. Comparing mannose binding lectin genetic diversity in intracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... mannose binding lectin level for susceptibility to intracellular pathogens. Key words: .... The distribution of alleles and genotypes between groups were compared using ... Frequency of promoter variants and position +4 (Table.

  16. Lentinula edodes Biotechnology – From Lentinan to Lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina E. Nikitina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes was the first medicinal macrofungus to enter the realm of modern biotechnology. The present paper briefly reviews the history of the modern biotechnology of this mushroom starting with the production of the polysaccharide preparation lentinan, and ending with an overview of our own work regarding the production of lectins. Our work with lectins has involved studies of the effect of initial pH, carbon and nitrogen sources and the C:N ratio on lectin production in both the mycelium and culture medium. We have shown that lectin activity is related to morphological development, with the activity being highest in extracts of the pigmented mycelial films that precede fruiting body production.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a lectin from Annona muricata seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, D C S; Freire, M G M; Gomes, V M; Toyama, M H; Marangoni, S; Novello, J C; Macedo, M L R

    2003-11-01

    A lectin with a high affinity for glucose/mannose was isolated from Annona muricata seeds (Annonaceae) by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE SP-5 PW column, and molecular exclusion on a Protein Pak Glass 300 SW column. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) yielded two protein bands of approximately 14 kDa and 22 kDa. However, only one band was seen in native PAGE. The Mr of the lectin estimated by fast-performance liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75 was 22 kDa. The lectin was a glycoprotein with 8% carbohydrate (neutral sugar) and required divalent metal cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+) for full activity. Amino acid analysis revealed a large content of Glx, Gly, Phe, and Lys. The lectin agglutinated dog, chicken, horse, goose, and human erythrocytes and inhibited the growth of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Colletotrichum musae.

  18. Detection of Lectins by Saccharide-gold Nanoparticle Conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qiong; WANG Jin-e; LIU Xia; LI Xiao-kun; MA Li-na; DUAN Wu-biao; WANG Zhen-xin

    2012-01-01

    A general functionalization strategy was reported,which enables one to conjugate saccharide(SA) on gold nanoparticle(GNP) surface without affecting SA properties.First,disulfide phenylboronic acid(Bor) functionalized GNPs(Bor@GNPs) were synthesized by the reaction of citrate stabilized GNPs of 13 nm in diameter with the mixture of Bor and pentapeptide(Cys-Ala-Leu-Asn-Asn,CALNN).Subsequently,the SA-GNP conjugates(SA@GNPs) were prepared by coupling SA to the GNP surface via the reaction of phenylboronic acid(PBA) with the cis-diol configuration in SA.The interactions of three SA@GNPs with three lectins have been analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopic and transmission electronic microscopic(TEM) techniques,respectively.The experimental results demonstrate that SA@GNPs can efficiently bind to lectins and show a great promise as optical probes for monitoring specific affinities of lectins for SA,and detecting lectins with high sensitivity.

  19. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  20. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  1. Bactericidal Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic Against Multidrug Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 Epidemic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emerging trend of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae associated with cholera epidemics is a matter of serious concern for the management of the disease. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics generally results in selection of antibiotic resistant strains. Introduction of newer antibiotics is a challenging task for the researchers as bacteria soon attain resistance. Therefore, identifying natural compounds of medicinal importance for control of cholera would be the best alternative. Garlic (Allium sativum was recognised for many centuries in early Chinese, Egyptian and Indian civilisations as an herbal or traditional medicine. In present study, garlic was selected for screening of antimicrobial efficacy against V. cholerae. A total of 55 V. cholerae strains isolated from various outbreaks/epidemics were subjected to antimicrobial testing as per CLSI, USA 2010 guidelines. Antimicrobial screening of garlic extract was performed against all the multidrug resistant strains of V. cholerae. The garlic extracts showed antibacterial activity against all the V. cholerae strains tested, irrespective of their origin, multidrug resistance and virulence. Antibacterial efficacy of garlic on V. cholerae was also evident from in vivo study on sealed adult mice model. Thus, the Garlic extract harnesses the potential to control infection of multidrug resistant V. cholerae, especially in outbreak like situations in remote and under developed areas where drug supply itself is a challenge

  2. Fusarium proliferatum isolated from garlic in Spain: identification, toxigenic potential and pathogenicity on related Allium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel PALMERO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum has been reported on garlic in the Northwest USA, Spain and Serbia, causing water-soaked tan-colored lesions on cloves. In this work, Fusarium proliferatum was isolated from 300 symptomatic garlic bulbs. Morphological identification of Fusarium was confirmed using species-specific PCR assays and EF-1α sequencing. Confirmation of pathogenicity was conducted with eighteen isolates. Six randomly selected F. proliferatum isolates from garlic were tested for specific pathogenicity and screened for fusaric acid production. Additionally, pathogenicity of each F. proliferatum isolate was tested on healthy seedlings of onion (Allium cepa, leek (A. porrum, scallions (A. fistulosum, chives (A. schoenoprasum and garlic (A. sativum. A disease severity index (DSI was calculated as the mean severity on three plants of each species with four test replicates. Symptoms on onion and garlic plants were observed three weeks after inoculation. All isolates tested produced symptoms on all varieties inoculated. Inoculation of F. proliferatum isolates from diseased garlic onto other Allium species provided new information on host range and pathogenicity. The results demonstrated differences in susceptibility with respect to host species and cultivar. The F. proliferatum isolates tested all produced fusaric acid (FA; correlations between FA production and isolate pathogenicity are discussed. Additionally, all isolates showed the presence of the FUM1 gene suggesting the ability of Spanish isolates to produce fumonisins.

  3. Garlic extract attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficit in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Supakul, Luerat; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the obese-insulin resistant condition has been shown to affect cognitive as well as brain mitochondrial functions. Garlic extract has exerted a potent antioxidant effect. However, the effects of garlic extract on the brain of obese-insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesized that garlic extract improves cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats induced by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 24/group). At week 12, rats in each dietary group received either vehicle or garlic extract (250 and 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days. Learning and memory behaviors, metabolic parameters, and brain mitochondrial function were determined at the end of treatment. HFD led to increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicating the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD rats had cognitive deficit and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. HFD rats treated with both doses of garlic extract had decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma cholesterol, and MDA levels. Garlic extract also improved cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function, which were impaired in obese-insulin resistant rats caused by HFD consumption.

  4. AN ESTIMATION OF TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF GARLIC PRODUCTION IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Hussain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the technical efficiency of farmers in garlic production in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Data was randomly collected from 110 farmers using multistage sampling technique. Maximum likelihood estimation technique was used to estimate Cob-Douglas frontier production function. The analysis revealed that the estimated mean technical efficiency was 77 percent indicating that total output can be further increased with efficient use of resources and technology. The estimated gamma value was found to be 0.93 which shows 93% variation in garlic output due to inefficiency factors. The analysis further revealed that seed rate, tractor hours, fertilizer, FYM and weedicides were positive and statistically significant production factors. The results also show that age and education were statistically significant inefficiency factors, age having positive and education having negative relationship with the output of garlic. This study suggests that in order to increase the production of garlic by taking advantage of their high efficiency level, the government should invest in the research and development aspects for introducing good quality seeds to increase garlic productivity and should organize training programs to educate farmers about garlic production.

  5. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Karin Ried, Peter Fakler National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic's BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO, which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Keywords: garlic, S-allylcysteine, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, nitric oxide (NO, redox signaling, hypertension

  6. The potential benefits of a garlic and hydrochlorothiazide combination as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of combined therapy of garlic homogenate and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in animals with hypertension and myocardial damage. Three weeks of high fructose (10% w/v) in fluid to albino rats resulted in hypertension. They were subsequently administered garlic (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, 3 weeks in separate groups) and HCTZ (10 mg/kg, 6th week) once daily in their respective groups. At the end of 6 weeks, myocardial damage was induced by subcutaneous administration of isoproterenol (175 mg/kg) for 2 consecutive days. The results showed that garlic and HCTZ increase the lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in heart homogenate when used concurrently or separately. Further, restoration of normal values in fluid/food intake, body weight, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and histopathological scores were observed in all treated groups. Furthermore, histological disturbances and hypertension were significantly ameliorated in treated animals. Moreover, moderate dose of garlic was more effective than low dose, while a high dose of garlic was least effective in correcting electrocardiographic changes. Thus it is concluded that garlic in moderate dose (250 mg/kg) with added HCTZ possesses synergistic cardioprotective and antihypertensive properties against fructose- and isoproterenol-induced toxicities.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer action of garlic compounds in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Surajit; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2011-05-01

    The medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been well known and widely used since historical times. Garlic compounds have received increasing attention during the last few years due to their cancer chemopreventive properties. The anti-cancer activity of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are extensively reported in many cancers but only a few in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma, which warrants exploration of new therapy for its management. There are some recent reports suggesting that garlic-derived OSCs cause cell cycle arrest, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), activate stress kinases, and also stimulate the mitochondrial pathway for apoptosis in malignant neuroblastoma. The comprehensive mechanisms of anti-cancer action of OSCs still remain unclear and require more studies in neuroblastoma. This review is designed to highlight the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer actions of garlic-derived OSCs in neuroblastoma and as well as in several other cancers. Further studies should be conducted to establish the clinical expediency of garlic-derived OSCs for treatment of malignant neuroblastoma in humans.

  8. A Lectin from Dioclea violacea Interacts with Midgut Surface of Lutzomyia migonei, Unlike Its Homologues, Cratylia floribunda Lectin and Canavalia gladiata Lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Tínel, Juliana Montezuma Barbosa; Benevides, Melina Fechine Costa; Frutuoso, Mércia Sindeaux; Rocha, Camila Farias; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Pereira-Junior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Martins, Jorge Luiz; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand fly. Susceptibility and refractoriness to Leishmania depend on the outcome of multiple interactions that take place within the sand fly gut. Promastigote attachment to sand fly midgut epithelium is essential to avoid being excreted together with the digested blood meal. Promastigote and gut sand fly surface glycans are important ligands in this attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of three lectins isolated from leguminous seeds (Diocleinae subtribe), D-glucose and D-mannose-binding, with glycans on Lutzomyia migonei midgut. To study this interaction the lectins were labeled with FITC and a fluorescence assay was performed. The results showed that only Dioclea violacea lectin (DVL) was able to interact with midgut glycans, unlike Cratylia floribunda lectin (CFL) and Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL). Furthermore, when DVL was blocked with D-mannose the interaction was inhibited. Differences of spatial arrangement of residues and volume of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) may be the cause of the fine specificity of DVL for glycans in the surface on Lu. migonei midgut. The findings in this study showed the presence of glycans in the midgut with glucose/mannose residues in its composition and these residues may be important in interaction between Lu. migonei midgut and Leishmania. PMID:25431778

  9. Interaction of the tobacco lectin with histone proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schouppe, Dieter; Ghesquière, Bart; Menschaert, Gerben; De Vos, Winnok; Bourque, Stéphane; Trooskens, Geert; Proost, Paul; Gevaert, Kris; Van Damme, Els

    2011-01-01

    The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) agglutinin or Nictaba is a member of a novel class of plant lectins residing in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of tobacco cells. Since tobacco lectin expression is only observed after the plant has been subjected to stress situations such as jasmonate treatment or insect attack, Nictaba is believed to act as a signaling protein involved in the stress physiology of the plant. In this paper, a nuclear proteomics approach was followed to identify the binding partne...

  10. Antiproliferative activity of cytotoxic tuber lectins from Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... STL-S and STL-D showed 79.84 and 83.04% of growth inhibition of EAC cells, respectively. Additionally ... Plant lectins have been widely studied for pharmaco- .... The Artemia cysts were hatched in artificial seawater at. 28°C under .... and lectin-treated mice counted by a light microscope on day. 6 of tumor ...

  11. The aqueous garlic, onion and leek extracts release nitric oxide from S-nitrosoglutathione and prolong relaxation of aortic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grman, Marian; Misak, Anton; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Tomaskova, Zuzana; Bertova, Anna; Ondrias, Karol

    2011-12-01

    Garlic, onion and leek have beneficial effects in treatment of numerous health disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms. To test the potency of the aqueous garlic, onion and leek extracts to release NO from GSNO we have measured NO oxidation product, NO(2)-, by the Griess reagent method. Further, we studied the ability of garlic extract to relax noradrenaline-precontracted rat aortic rings in the presence of GSNO and effects of garlic extract on electrical properties of rat heart intracellular chloride channels. We have observed that: i) garlic, onion and leek extracts released NO from GSNO in the order: garlic > onion > leek; ii) the ability of garlic extract to release NO was pH-dependent (8.0 > 7.4 > 6.0) and potentiated by thiols (Cys > GSH = N-acetyl-cysteine > oxidized glutathione) at concentration 100 µmol/l; iii) the garlic extract (0.045 mg/ml) prolonged relaxation time of aortic rings induced by GSNO (50 nmol/l) and inhibited intracellular chloride channels. We suggest that NO-releasing properties of the garlic, onion and leek extracts and their interaction with Cys and GSH are involved in NO-signalling pathway which contributes to some of its numerous beneficial biological effects.

  12. A lectin with some unique characteristics from the samta tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Ng, T B

    2006-04-01

    A lectin, with a molecular mass of 79 kDa, and with specificity toward rhamnose and O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was isolated from samta tomato fruits. The procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. The lectin was stable up to 70 degrees C. The lectin activity was potentiated by NaOH solutions (25-100 mM), but was reduced by 50 and 100 mM HCl solutions. The activity of the lectin was reduced in the presence of CaCl(2), MgCl(2) and ZnCl(2), but was potentiated by 5 and 10 mM AlCl(3) solutions. The lectin stimulated the mitogenic response in mouse splenocytes and inhibited human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 6.2 microM.

  13. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  14. Structures and binding specificity of galactose- and mannose-binding lectins from champedak: differences from jackfruit lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Othman, Shatrah; Hashim, Onn H; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Galactose-binding and mannose-binding lectins from the champedak fruit, which is native to South-east Asia, exhibit useful potential clinical applications. The specificity of the two lectins for their respective ligands allows the detection of potential cancer biomarkers and monitoring of the glycosylated state of proteins in human serum and/or urine. To fully understand and expand the use of these natural proteins, their complete sequences and crystal structures are presented here, together with details of sugar binding.

  15. Study on the interaction of bioactive compound S-allyl cysteine from garlic with serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-e Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multispectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the interaction of S-allyl cysteine (SAC from garlic with human serum albumin (HSA. UV–Vis absorption measurements prove the formation of the HSA–SAC complex. An analysis of fluorescence spectra revealed that in the presence of SAC, the quenching mechanism of HSA is considered static. The quenching rate constant Kq, KSV, and the binding constant KA were estimated. According to the Van’t Hoff equation, the thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change (ΔH and entropy change (ΔS were calculated to be −1.00×105 J/mol and −255 J/mol/K, respectively. These indicate that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces are the major forces between SAC and HSA. The changes in the secondary structure of HSA, which was induced by SAC, were determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Energy transfer was confirmed and the distance between donor and acceptor was calculated to be 2.83 nm.

  16. Structural analysis of the jacalin-related lectin MornigaM from the black mulberry (Morus nigra) in complex with mannose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijns, Anja; Barre, Annick; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; De Ranter, Camiel J; Rougé, Pierre

    2005-07-01

    The structures of MornigaM and the MornigaM-mannose complex have been determined at 1.8 A and 2.0 A resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the typical beta-prism motif found in other jacalin-related lectins and their tetrameric assembly closely resembles that of jacalin. The carbohydrate-binding cavity of MornigaM readily binds mannose. No major structural rearrangements can be observed in MornigaM upon binding of mannose. These results allow corroboration of the structure-function relationships within the small group of Moraceae lectins.

  17. The mechanisms responsible for garlic - drug interactions and their in vivo relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginc, Katja; Kristl, Albin

    2013-01-01

    Garlic phytochemicals and garlic supplements influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of concomitantly ingested drugs. In this paper we have summarized the mechanisms responsible for first-pass intestinal pharmacokinetic interactions by investigating the intestinal permeability of some cardiovascular, antiviral drugs, their transport with hepatic transporters and CYP3A4 metabolism. Transporter-enzyme interplay was studied with several in vitro models of varying complexity: rat small intestine and Caco-2 cell monolayers were used in studies of intestinal processes, and hepatic pharmacokinetics was monitored in HepG2 cells, isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver slices. Garlic phytochemicals from aged garlic extract modified the activities of secretory and absorptive transporters in both intestine and liver and competitively inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme. The increased activities of the most important intestinal efflux (P-glycoprotein - Pgp, Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 2 - MRP-2, Breast Cancer Resistance Protein - BCRP) and uptake (MonoCarboxylate Transporter 1 - MCT1, Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide - OATP, Peptide transporter 1 - PepT1) transporters were caused by changes in electrophysiological membrane properties and by allosteric modifications. Because clinical studies investigating interactions between garlic and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors saquinavir and ritonavir have already been performed, we used these in vivo data to evaluate the in vitro results and the reliability of the models employed as screening tools for forecasting the potential of first-pass intestinal metabolism changes. We also assessed the probability of pharmacokinetic interactions with garlic of the novel drug darunavir and other cardiovascular drugs. Finally, selected garlic phytochemicals were tested for their ability to influence P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 activities.

  18. Lectin-like molecules in transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbushin, Alexander M; Borisova, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    The common periwinkle Littorina littorea was introduced in the list of models for comparative immunobiology as a representative of phylogenetically important taxon Caenogastropoda. Using Illumina sequencing technology, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of Littorina littorea hemocytes from 182 million mRNA-Seq pair-end 100 bp reads into a total of 15,526 contigs clustered in 4472 unigenes. The transcriptome profile was analyzed for presence of carbohydrate-binding molecules in a variety of architectural contexts. Hemocytes' repertoire of lectin-like proteins bearing conserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) is highly diversified, including 11 of 15 lectin families earlier described in animals, as well as the novel members of lectin family found for the first time in mollusc species. The new molluscan lineage-specific domain combinations were confirmed by cloning and sequencing, including the fuco-lectin related molecules (FLReMs) composed of N-terminal region with no sequence homology to any known protein, a middle Fucolectin Tachylectin-4 Pentaxrin (FTP) domain, and a C-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat region. The repertoire of lectin-like molecules is discussed in terms of their potential participation in the receptor phase of immune response. In total, immune-associated functions may be attributed to 70 transcripts belonging to 6 lectin families. These lectin-like genes show low overlap between species of invertebrates, suggesting relatively rapid evolution of immune-associated genes in the group. The repertoire provides valuable candidates for further characterization of the gene functions in mollusc immunity.

  19. Mannan-binding lectin MBL2 gene polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C: association with the severity of liver fibrosis and response to interferon therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves Pedroso, ML; Boldt, AB; Pereira-Ferrari, L

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of hepatic disease and of liver transplantation worldwide. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), encoded by the MBL2 gene, can have an important role as an opsonin and complement activating molecule in HCV persistence and liver injury. We assessed the MBL2 polymorp...

  20. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. pH d...

  2. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus sou

  3. Lectins binding during alloxan-induced diabetes in rat soleus muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by ... aortic smooth muscle cell of rabbits (Alpui et al., 1993). The mechanism of ... Lectins used and their carbohydrate specificities. Source of lectin.

  4. Mannan-Binding Lectin in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pągowska-Klimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide so research continues into underlying mechanisms. Since innate immunity and its potent component mannan-binding lectin have been proven to play an important role in the inflammatory response during infection and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, attention has been paid to its role in the development of cardiovascular complications as well. This review provides a general outline of the structure and genetic polymorphism of MBL and its role in inflammation/tissue injury with emphasis on associations with cardiovascular disease. MBL appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and, in consequence, coronary artery disease and also inflammation and tissue injury after myocardial infarction and heart transplantation. The relationship between MBL and disease is rather complex and depends on different genetic and environmental factors. That could be why the data obtained from animal and clinical studies are sometimes contradictory proving not for the first time that innate immunity is a “double-edge sword,” sometimes beneficial and, at other times disastrous for the host.

  5. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  6. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M S G Moreira

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1 the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2 the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3 the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  7. Effect of feeding garlic leaves on rumen fermentation, methane emission, plasma glucose kinetics, and nitrogen utilization in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthee, Arvinda; Matsuno, Ayana; Al-Mamun, Mohammad; Sano, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Garlic and its constituents are reported to have been effective in reducing methane emission and also influence glucose metabolism in body; however, studies in ruminants using garlic leaves are scarce. Garlic leaves contain similar compounds as garlic bulbs, but are discarded in field after garlic bulb harvest. We speculate that feeding garlic leaves might show similar effect as garlic constituents in sheep and could be potential animal feed supplement. Thus, we examined the effect of freeze dried garlic leaves (FDGL) on rumen fermentation, methane emission, plasma glucose kinetics and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Six sheep were fed Control diet (mixed hay and concentrate (60:40)) or FDGL diet (Control diet supplemented with FDGL at 2.5 g/kg BW(0.75) of sheep) using a crossover design. Methane gas emission was measured using open-circuit respiratory chamber. Plasma glucose turnover rate was measured using isotope dilution technique of [U-(13)C]glucose. Rumen fluid, feces and urine were collected to measure rumen fermentation characteristics and nitrogen utilization. No significant difference in rumen fermentation parameters was noticed except for rumen ammonia tended to be higher (0.05 glucose concentration was similar between diets and plasma glucose turnover rate tended to be higher in FDGL diet (0.05 glucose turnover rate and microbial nitrogen supply, further studies at higher dose would be necessary to conclude the merit of FDGL as supplement in ruminant feedstuff.

  8. Garlic as an inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing in cystic fibrosis--a pilot randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smyth, Alan R; Cifelli, Paramita M; Ortori, Catharine A

    2010-01-01

    of a QS inhibitor.We randomized 34 patients to garlic or olive oil capsules (both 656 mg daily). Clinical outcomes and safety bloods were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks treatment. In this exploratory study, analysis was per protocol.Eight patients withdrew, leaving 26 for analysis (13 garlic...

  9. 75 FR 80458 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of, Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... transport in India that is published in Doing Business 2010: India, published by the World Bank. See SV... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR), November 1...

  10. Uptake and specification of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, E.H.; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Hansen, M.; Ruzik, R.; Mazurowska, L.; Rasmussen, P.H.; Sloth, J.J.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes

  11. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of garlic preparation in freeze injury model of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Andrianova, Irina V; Lakunin, Konstantin Y; Karagodin, Vasilii P; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-10-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most popular substances used to reduce various risks associated with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known on the direct effects of garlic on atherosclerosis. In the present study we have examined the effect of per oral administration of the time-released garlic herbal preparation on serum atherogenicity and formation of intimal thickening after freeze injury in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Group 1 rabbits maintained on the standard cholesterol-rich diet served as the control. Group 2 rabbits were fed the cholesterol-rich diet and treated with garlic preparation containing 300 mg garlic powder. Local thickening of the aortic media (i.e., the neointima formation) in the freeze injury zone was observed in all the rabbits. Regular garlic preparation therapy prevented the neointima formation and the accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and collagen in the neointima, the effects being statistically significant. Garlic preparation also decreased serum lipid content by 1.5-fold and lowered atherogenic activity of blood serum (ability to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells) induced by cholesterol-rich diet. The results obtained indicate that garlic preparation prevents the development of cholesterol-induced experimental atherosclerosis and possesses the direct anti-atherogenic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 41759 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1, 2009, through October 31,...

  13. A systematic review on the influence of trial quality on the effect of garlic on blood pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.O.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Thien, Th.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Garlic is a widely used herbal product for hypertension. Previous meta-analyses on the effect of garlic on blood pressure (BP) have been contradictory however. We hypothesised that methodological deficiencies may have contributed to this disagreement. We therefore evaluated whether trial

  14. 75 FR 32362 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Jinxiang Chengda Imp & Exp... Co., Ltd. (Huachao) covering the period November 1, 2008 through October 31, 2009. See Fresh...

  15. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  16. 75 FR 32361 - Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1,...

  17. Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

  18. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Koosha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens.Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups. Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+ glucose, D (+ galactose, D (+ mannose, D (- fructose, D (- arabinose, L (- fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin.The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose.The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins.

  19. Lectin Activity in Gut Extract of Culex pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koosha, Mona; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Abolhasani, Mandan; Charedar, Soroor; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of lectins is important in interaction between pathogens and mosquito vectors. This study was performed to identify agglutinin activities of protein molecules on the midgut of Culex pipiens. Methods: Culex pipiens was reared in insectray condition and the midguts of males and females (blood fed and unfed) were dissected separately in Tris-HCl buffer. The extracts of midguts were applied for hemagglutinin assay against red blood cells of rabbit, mouse, rat, dog, horse, sheep, guinea pig, cow, human (A, B, AB, O groups). Then, the RBCs with relatively high agglutinin activity were chosen for carbohydrate inhibition assay. D (+) glucose, D (+) galactose, D (+) mannose, D (−) fructose, D (−) arabinose, L (−) fucose, lactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, sialic acid were used to specify carbohydrate binding lectin. Results: The highest agglutinin activities were found against sheep and rabbits RBCs. Sexual diversity of agglutinin activities was observed among midgut extraction of males and females. In addition, variation in agglutinin activity of blood fed and unfed female mosquitoes were detected. The lectin activity was inhibited highly with glucose, galactose, fucose and fructose but less inhibitor activities was observed by arabinose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, lactose and mannose. Conclusion: The secretion of hemagglutinins (lectins or lectin-like molecules) in the digestive system depends on the type of food in the gut. This suggests that emptying of the gut in preparation for protein rich food probably starts the secretion of hemagglutinins. PMID:23785692

  20. The interaction of fish trypanosome culture forms with some lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajícek, P; Pecková, H

    1990-01-01

    The interactions of fish trypanosome culture forms with 11 purified lectins were compared using the agglutination test in microwell plates. Altogether, ten stocks of ten different freshwater fish species were examined. Three basic types of cell-lectin interactions were observed on the microscopical level. The strong agglutination of all stocks regardless their original host was found in the presence of Con A, PSA, RCA60, and RCA120, which implies the presence of relatively high amounts of sugar residues of D-mannose and D-galactose in the surface of culture forms of these parasites. Weak agglutinations of some stocks were observed in the presence of LCA, PNA, SBA, and WGA lectins, but their low intensity makes them not sufficiently reliable for stock characterization. The lectins UEA I, HPA, and PHA caused no agglutination. In conclusion, in case of unequivocal results no remarkable differences in the interactions of various stocks of trypanosomes culture forms with used lectins were observed. These results imply the high degree of similarity of their main cell surface saccharide structures.

  1. Effects of Plant Lectins on Human Erythrocyte Agglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubcevic Nadja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins or phytohaemagglutinins present in most plants, especially seeds and tubers, which include cereals, potatoes and beans. Lectins have great significance in the diet because of their involvement in gastrointestinal difficulties and erythrocyte agglutination. Blood agglutination activity against A, B, AB and O groups was shown after exposing blood to extracts obtained from 55% of tested plants, while in 45% of plants, agglutination was absent. The results of our study have shown that in humans, 40% of plant extracts exhibited activity against A, 40% of plant extracts exhibited activity against B, and 50% of plant extracts exhibited activity against AB and O groups in humans. The concentration of plant lectins depends on the part of the plant. Lectins from the seeds of certain plants cause the greatest percentage of erythrocyte agglutination, while the lowest agglutination was caused by plant bulbs and leaves. However, lectins derived from all plant species of the family Fabaceae agglutinated erythrocytes of all blood types to some extent.

  2. Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Toben, Catherine; Fakler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. The effect of garlic on blood lipids has been studied in numerous trials and summarized in meta-analyses, with conflicting results. This meta-analysis, the most comprehensive to date, includes 39 primary trials of the effect of garlic preparations on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The findings suggest garlic to be effective in reducing total serum cholesterol by 17 ± 6 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9 ± 6 mg/dL in individuals with elevated total cholesterol levels (>200 mg/dL), provided garlic is used for longer than 2 months. An 8% reduction in total serum cholesterol is of clinical relevance and is associated with a 38% reduction in risk of coronary events at 50 years of age. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels improved only slightly, and triglycerides were not influenced significantly. Garlic preparations were highly tolerable in all trials and were associated with minimal side effects. They might be considered as an alternative option with a higher safety profile than conventional cholesterol-lowering medications in patients with slightly elevated cholesterol. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. [Ajoene the main active compound of garlic (Allium sativum): a new antifungal agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, Eliades; Apitz-Castro, Rafael

    2006-06-01

    The curative properties of garlic in medicine have been known for a long time. But, it was only in the last three decades when garlic properties were seriously investigated confirming its potential as therapeutic agent. Allicin, ajoene, thiosulfinates and a wide range of other organosulphurate compounds, are known to be the constituents linked to the garlic properties. Regarding the biochemical properties of these compounds, ajoene [(E,Z)-4,5,9 Trithiadodeca 1,6,11 Triene 9-oxide] is stable in water, and it can be obtained by chemical synthesis. There is evidence that some of the garlic constituents exert a wide variety of effects on different biological systems. However, ajoene is the garlic compound related to more biological activities, as showed in in vitro and in vivo systems. Those studies found that ajoene has antithrombotic, anti-tumoral,antifungal, and antiparasitic effects. This study deals with a recently described antifungal property of ajoene, and its potential use in clinical trails to treat several fungal infections.

  4. Development and characterization of phosphatidylcholine nanovesicles, containing garlic extract, with antilisterial activity in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Cristian Mauricio Barreto; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Brandelli, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Phospholipid nanovesicles were developed to improve the stability of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract. Electron microscopy of liposomes revealed nanometric and spherical-shaped vesicles with a mean particle size of 174.6±17.3nm and polydispersity index of 0.26±0.02. The entrapment efficiency was 47.5±7.3% and the nanoliposomes had a zeta potential of -16.2±5.5mV. The antimicrobial activity of free and encapsulated garlic extract was evaluated against different strains of Listeria spp. in milk at 37°C for 24h. For free and encapsulated garlic extracts at 5% concentration, a decrease of 4log cycles in viable cell counts was observed at 10h, against four of the five strains of Listeria spp. tested. The results indicate that liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of unstable garlic active compounds and the encapsulation of garlic extract proves to be a promising technology for multiple applications, including antimicrobial agents.

  5. Purification and utilization of garlic processing wastewater in lotus pond wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun PANG; Xue-ling FENG; Xiu-feng WANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experiments of utilization of garlic processing wastewater in a lotus pond, this study demonstrates that lotus pond wetlands have a remarkable ability to remove organic pollutants and decrease chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and suspended substances (SS) in garlic processing wastewater. Results also show evident effects of lotus roots on absorption of NH3-N. The pH value in a lotus pond with wastewater discharged was relatively stable. The water quality in the lotus pond reached the classⅡ emission standard, according to the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996), seven days after pretreated garlic processing wastewater had been discharged into the lotus pond. Garlic processing wastewater irrigation does not produce pollution in the pond sediment and has no negative effect on the growth of lotus roots. Due to utilization of garlic processing wastewater, the output of lotus roots increased by 3.0% to 8.3%, and the quality of lotus roots was improved. Therefore, better purification and utilization results can be achieved.

  6. Soil properties, nutrient dynamics, and soil enzyme activities associated with garlic stalk decomposition under various conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Han

    Full Text Available The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5:100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C, highest concentration (5:100, and shortest duration (10 or 20 days. The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks.

  7. Soil properties, nutrient dynamics, and soil enzyme activities associated with garlic stalk decomposition under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2012-01-01

    The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5:100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C), highest concentration (5:100), and shortest duration (10 or 20 days). The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks.

  8. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (Pgarlic supplementation resulted in lower shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (Pgarlic led to decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in broiler blood, and the greatest level of garlic supplementation decreased saturated fatty acid and increased unsaturated fatty acid levels (%) in broiler thigh muscle (Pgarlic dietary supplementation (Pgarlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  9. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods:Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results: Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25%against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25%against Gram positive and negative were 100%and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25%concentration were 66.6%, 55.6%and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions: This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up

  10. Recombinant lectins: an array of tailor-made glycan-interaction biosynthetic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2013-03-01

    Lectins are a heterogeneous group of proteins found in plants, animals and microorganisms, which possess at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to specific mono- or oligosaccharides. The range of lectins and respective biological activities is unsurprising given the immense diversity and complexity of glycan structures and the multiple modes of interaction with proteins. Recombinant DNA technology has been traditionally used for cloning and characterizing newly discovered lectins. It has also been employed as a means of producing pure and sequence-defined lectins for different biotechnological applications. This review focuses on the production of recombinant lectins in heterologous organisms, and highlighting the Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris expression systems, which are the most employed. The choice of expression host depends on the lectin. Non-glycosylated recombinant lectins are produced in E. coli and post-translational modified recombinant lectins are produced in eukaryotic organisms, namely P. pastoris and non-microbial hosts such as mammalian cells. Emphasis is given to the applications of the recombinant lectins especially (a) in cancer diagnosis and/or therapeutics, (b) as anti-microbial, anti-viral, and anti-insect molecules or (c) in microarrays for glycome profiling. Most reported applications are from recombinant plant lectins. These applications benefit from the tailor-made design associated with recombinant production and will aid in unraveling the complex biological mechanisms of glycan-interactions, bringing recombinant lectins to the forefront of glycobiology. In conclusion, recombinant lectins are developing into valuable biosynthetic tools for biomedical research.

  11. DMPD: C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18160296 C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Willment JA, Brown GD. Tre...nds Microbiol. 2008 Jan;16(1):27-32. Epub 2007 Dec 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show C-type lectin receptors in anti...fungal immunity. PubmedID 18160296 Title C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Author

  12. Effects of Garlic Oil on the Migration of Neutrophil-Like Cell Studied by Using a Chemotactic Gradient Labchip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chen Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have designed and fabricated a novel chemotactic gradient Labchip for studying cell migration quantitatively. Owing to the great potential of garlic and its preparations in developing antiinflammatory drugs, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of garlic oil on the locomotion of a neutrophil-like cell by measuring the dynamic features of cell migration including migration direction, average migration speed, chemotactic index (CI, and motility index (MI with the newly designed Labchip. We found that garlic oil treatment lowered the values of CI and MI and reduced the average speed of cell migration from 13 to 8 μm/min. The results indicate that garlic oil is a potential inhibitor for neutrophil-like cell migration and chemotactic responsiveness. By comparing with the effects of nocodazole and cytochalasin B, we also suggest that the antiinflammatory activity exhibited by garlic oil was mainly through inhibiting the assembly-disassembly processes of the cytoskeleton.

  13. Production and purification of active snowdrop lectin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, M; Powell, K S; Gatehouse, J A; Raemaekers, R; Newell, C A; Hamilton, W D

    1998-02-15

    Recombinant snowdrop lectin was produced in Escherichia coli from a cDNA clone encoding mature Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. After induction with isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside, inclusion bodies from E. coli were solubilised and the G. nivalis agglutinin purified by metal-affinity chromatography using a carboxy-terminal hexahistidine tag. The protein was refolded on the metal-affinity column prior to elution. After purification, the recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes to a dilution similar to that determined for 'native' lectin purified from snowdrop, and showed similar specific binding to mannose. The toxicity of the recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) was shown to be similar to that of 'native' G. nivalis agglutinin when incorporated into an artificial diet. The recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin is thus functionally similar to 'native' snowdrop lectin.

  14. BSA-boronic acid conjugate as lectin mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narla, Satya Nandana; Pinnamaneni, Poornima; Nie, Huan; Li, Yu; Sun, Xue-Long

    2014-01-10

    We report bovine serum albumin (BSA)-boronic acid (BA) conjugates as lectin mimetics and their glyco-capturing capacity. The BSA-BA conjugates were synthesized by amidation of carboxylic acid groups in BSA with aminophenyl boronic acid in the presence of EDC, and were characterized by Alizarin Red S (ARS) assay and SDS-PAGE gel. The BSA-BA conjugates were immobilized onto maleimide-functionalized silica beads and their sugar capturing capacity and specificity were confirmed by ARS displacement assay. Further, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis of the glyco-capturing activity of the BSA-BA conjugates was conducted by immobilizing BSA-BA onto SPR gold chip. Overall, we demonstrated a BSA-BA-based lectin mimetics for glyco-capturing applications. These lectin mimetics are expected to provide an important tool for glycomics and biosensor research and applications.

  15. Parkia pendula lectin as histochemistry marker for meningothelial tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EIC Beltrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins have been intensively used in histochemical techniques for cell surface characterization. These proteins are involved in several biological processes and their use as histochemical markers have been evaluated since they can indicate differences in cell surfaces. Parkia pendula lectin (PpeL was evaluated as histochemical marker for meningothelial meningioma biopsies. Tissue slices were incubated with PpeL conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (PpeL-HRP and Concanavalin A-HRP (ConA-HPR and the binding visualized with diaminobenzidine and hydrogen peroxide. The lectin-tissue binding was inhibited with D-glucose. PpeL showed to be a useful tool for the characterization of meningothelial tumour and clinico-pathological diagnosis.

  16. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Apios Tuber Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Kenmochi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apios tuber lectin, named ATL, was isolated from Apios americana Medikus by two chromatography steps, hydrophobic chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The minimum concentration required for the hemagglutination activity toward rabbit erythrocytes of ATL was 4 μg/mL. ATL was composed of a homodimer of 28.4 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of ATL was similar to those of other legume lectins. The lectin showed moderate stability toward heating and acidic pH, and the binding affinity against several monosaccharides, such as D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine. ATL also bound to desialylated or agalactosylated glycoproteins such as asialo and agalacto transferrin. ATL decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, suggesting the effect on the tight junction-mediated paracellular transport.

  17. The Preventive and Curative Effects of Fresh Garlic Extract And its Aerial Parts on Fibrosarcoma in Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in some studies; however its effect on fibrosarcoma is not evident. This study intends to examine the preventive and curative effects of fresh garlic extract and its aerial parts on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells in Balb/c mice. Methods: In this preclinical study, 48 female inbred Balb/c mice(6 to 7 weeks old were divided in to 6 groups of 8 each. A single aliquot of WEHI-164 cells(5 × 106 cells/100 μl was injected subcutaneously in the chest of animal. Two weeks before or three weeks after cell injection, 0.2 cc of normal saline or 20 mg/kg extract of garlic or its aerial parts were injected intraperitoneally(IP to the Balb/c mice. The tumors sizes were compared with each other, using ANOVA test. The antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of the extracts were also assessed. Results: The mean sizes of tumor growth in groups which received fresh garlic extract or its aerial parts were smaller than that of control group. However this difference was significant on the 21st day only in garlic extract group(p<0.05. The antioxidant power of fresh garlic involved 35.6%, whereas for its aerial parts it was 15.3%. Moreover, the general amount of phenol in fresh garlic was 12.61 mg/g and in its aerial parts was 2.44 mg/g. Conclusion: Garlic consumption might have a crucial role in prevention and control of fibrosarcoma growth. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic aerial parts are less in comparison to garlic itself, however, higher doses might have anticancer activity

  18. Garlic oil polysulfides: H2S- and O2-independent prooxidants in buffer and antioxidants in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Eric R.; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of garlic and other organosulfur-containing foods are well recognized and have been attributed to both prooxidant and antioxidant activities. The effects of garlic are surprisingly similar to those of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is also known to be released from garlic under certain conditions. However, recent evidence suggests that polysulfides, not H2S, may be the actual mediator of physiological signaling. In this study, we monitored formation of H2S and polysulfides from garlic oil in buffer and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells with fluorescent dyes, 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin and SSP4, respectively and redox activity with two redox indicators redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) and DCF. Our results show that H2S release from garlic oil in buffer requires other low-molecular-weight thiols, such as cysteine (Cys) or glutathione (GSH), whereas polysulfides are readily detected in garlic oil alone. Administration of garlic oil to cells rapidly increases intracellular polysulfide but has minimal effects on H2S unless Cys or GSH are also present in the extracellular medium. We also observed that garlic oil and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) potently oxidized roGFP in buffer but did not affect DCF. This appears to be a direct polysulfide-mediated oxidation that does not require a reactive oxygen species intermediate. Conversely, when applied to cells, garlic oil became a significant intracellular reductant independent of extracellular Cys or GSH. This suggests that intracellular metabolism and further processing of the sulfur moieties are necessary to confer antioxidant properties to garlic oil in vivo. PMID:27101293

  19. Application of fluorescently labelled lectins for the study of polysaccharides in biofilms with a focus on biofouling of nanofiltration membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Di Martino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biofilm state is the dominant microbial lifestyle in nature. A biofilm can be defined as cells organised as microcolonies embedded in an organic polymer matrix of microbial origin living at an interface between two different liquids, air and liquid, or solid and liquid. The biofilm matrix is made of extracellular polymeric substances, polysaccharides being considered as the major structural components of the matrix. Fluorescently labelled lectins have been widely used to stain microbial extracellular glycoconjugates in natural and artificial environments, and to study specific bacterial species or highly complex environments. Biofilm development at the membrane surface conducting to biofouling is one of the major problems encountered during drinking water production by filtration. Biofouling affects the durability and effectiveness of filtration membranes. Biofouling can be reduced by pretreatments in order to control two key parameters of water, the bioavailable organic matter concentration and the concentration of live bacteria. Nanofiltration (NF is a high technology process particularly suited to the treatment of surface waters to produce drinking water that is highly sensitive to biofouling. The development of strategies for fouling prevention and control requires characterizing the fouling material composition and organisation before and after NF membrane cleaning. The aim of this review is to present basics of biofilm analyses after staining with fluorescently labelled lectins and to focus on the use of fluorescent lectins and confocal laser scanning microscopy to analyse NF membrane biofouling.

  20. Effect of Lectins from Diocleinae Subtribe against Oral Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Holanda Teixeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface colonization is an essential step in biofilm development. The ability of oral pathogens to adhere to tooth surfaces is directly linked with the presence of specific molecules at the bacterial surface that can interact with enamel acquired pellicle ligands. In light of this, the aim of this study was to verify inhibitory and antibiofilm action of lectins from the Diocleinaesubtribe against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis. The inhibitory action against planctonic cells was assessed using lectins from Canavaliaensi formis (ConA, Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr, Canavalia maritima (ConM, Canavalia gladiata (CGL and Canavalia boliviana (ConBol. ConBol, ConBr and ConM showed inhibitory activity on S. mutans growth. All lectins, except ConA, stimulated significantly the growth of S. oralis. To evaluate the effect on biofilm formation, clarified saliva was added to 96-well, flat-bottomed polystyrene plates, followed by the addition of solutions containing 100 or 200 µg/mL of the selected lectins. ConBol, ConM and ConA inhibited the S. mutans biofilms. No effects were found on S. oralis biofilms. Structure/function analysis were carried out using bioinformatics tools. The aperture and deepness of the CRD (Carbohydrate Recognition Domain permit us to distinguish the two groups of Canavalia lectins in accordance to their actions against S. mutans and S. oralis. The results found provide a basis for encouraging the use of plant lectins as biotechnological tools in ecological control and prevention of caries disease.

  1. Erythrina lectins detect the H/HI blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakevitz, D; Gilboa-Garber, N; Levene, C; Sela, R; Bhattacharyya, L

    1991-08-01

    The lectin purified from Erythrina corallodendron seeds which binds N-acetyllactosamine greater than N-acetyl-D-galactosamine greater than alpha and beta galactosides greater than D-galactose was examined for its ABO(H) blood group specificity. It has been shown that this lectin causes the strongest hemagglutination of O(H) and weakest of Oh(Bombay) red blood cells, and interacts with the H antigen in association with the I antigen. The reactions of Erythrina corallodendron and Erythrina indica lectins (which are similar in sugar specificity) with erythrocytes of different ABO(H) and Ii blood groups (the I bloods were all from adults and the i from either cord or adult bloods) revealed the following order of activity: O(H)I greater than A2 I greater than O(H)i adult greater than A2BI greater than BI greater than O(H)i cord greater than A1I greater than A1i adult greater than Bi cord greater than A1BI greater than Ai cord greater than ABi cord greater than OhI. The Erythrina indica lectin showed a lower differentiation between the agglutination of O(H) and Oh erythrocytes. Both Erythrina lectins exhibited H/HI blood group preference but were not inhibited by the saliva from ABO(H) "secretors". Thus they may be classified with the Cytisus sessilifolius, Lotus tetragonolobus and Laburnum alpinum lectins which are inhibited by lactose but not by H blood group substances in secretions.

  2. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2012-01-01

    the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic...... to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation...... model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections....

  3. Garlic Organosulfur Compounds Reduce Inflammation and Oxidative Stress during Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Troupin, Andrea; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2017-06-22

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease. Garlic has been shown to both reduce inflammation and affect the oxidative stress response. Here, we show that the garlic active compounds diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and alliin reduced inflammation during DENV infection and show that this reduction is due to the effects on the oxidative stress response. These results suggest that garlic could be used as an alternative treatment for DENV infection and for the prevention of severe disease development.

  4. The effect of paprika, garlic and salt on rancidity in dry sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirrezábal, M M; Mateo, J; Domínguez, M C; Zumalacárregui, J M

    2000-01-01

    Eight batches of ground fat and eight batches of a mixture of meat and fat (70 and 30%, respectively), were prepared by adding salt, paprika and garlic, in the proportions used for making chorizo - a dry fermented sausage - stuffed into natural casings and then ripened. The evolution of rancidity in these products was evaluated by means of total free fatty acid content, peroxide value and TBARS during the ripening period. Spanish paprika and salt showed antioxidant and prooxidant properties, respectively. Paprika was even able to inhibit the prooxidant effect of salt. Also, four batches of chorizo were made to compare the antioxidant effect of the spices (garlic and paprika) with a mixture of nitrate, nitrite and ascorbic acid. In this respect, paprika and garlic were as effective as the mixture of additives in inhibiting lipid oxidation.

  5. Garlic attenuates histological and histochemical alterations in livers of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Riad, N H; Taha, H

    2016-08-01

    Interest in screening for new anti-schistosomal agents is growing because of increased concerns about resistance to and safety of praziquantel. We investigated the anti-schistosomal action of prophylactic and therapeutic doses of garlic on the histological and histochemical alterations caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection. Livers of infected mice were characterized by granulomas, periportal inflammation and fibrosis, hepatocyte vacuolation, fatty degeneration and necrosis, and hypertrophy and pigmentation of Kupffer cells. Significant depletion of carbohydrates and increased lipid vacuoles also were observed. All garlic regimens caused suppression of granuloma formation and amelioration of histological and histochemical changes; the continuous treatment protocol produced the best results. Garlic appears to be a safe and economical anti-schistosomal adjuvant for attenuating the pathogenicity of schistosomiasis.

  6. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Kashif; Zaidi; Shakeel; Ahmed; Ansari; Ghulam; Md.Ashraf; Mohammad; Alam; Jafri; Shams; Tabrez; Naheed; Banu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine immobilization stress-induced antioxidant defense alterations in rat kidney and the antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract in pre and post stress extract treatments. Methods: Albino rats were treated with aqueous extract of garlic both before and 6 h of immobilization stress. Pro-oxidant eminence of rat kidney was assessed by determining the levels of glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and antioxidant enzymes activities. Results: In response to 6 h of immobilization stress, a significant rise in the level of kidney enzymes was recorded. However, antioxidant enzyme activities showed a sharp decline. Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  7. Effect of packaging with Chitosan biodegradable films formulated with Garlic essential oil (Allium sativum L. on the chemical properties of chicken fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Molaee Aghaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Considering the environmental problems raised from current plastic packaging, edible and biodegradable films could be developed and also be effective in controlling the chemical and microbial properties of food especially if their effect be strengthened by adding natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents like herbal essential oils. This study aimed at assessing the effect of packaging with chitosan film containing garlic essential oil on the chemical changes of chicken fillet during storage at refrigeration temperature. Materials and Methods: Different levels of garlic essential oil (0, 0.5, 1 and 2% were used in chitosan film preparation. Through casting method and using glycerol as plasticizer and tween 80 as emulsifier, different films were prepared after homogenization and molding. Chemical tests were conducted in days 0, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 on chicken fillets covered with different films and stored at 4 °C. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Samples covered with different films showed lower values for pH, total volatile nitrogen (TVN, Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs, and peroxide index (P.V compared with controls during the study (p &le 0.05. Generally, a dose-dependent trend was observed by essential oil addition. Conclusion: Chicken packaging with chitosan film especially by adding various levels of garlic essential oil could had a preventive effect on major chemical spoilage factors. Considering the relatively similar preventive effect of 1 and 2 % essential oil levels and also economic aspects, optimum dose for essential oil could be 1 % in the film.

  8. Ribosome-inactivating lectins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, M G; Barbieri, L; Bolognesi, A; Buonamici, L; Valbonesi, P; Polito, L; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Stirpe, F

    1997-05-26

    Lectins from Aegopodium podagraria (APA), Bryonia dioica (BDA), Galanthus nivalis (GNA), Iris hybrid (IRA) and Sambucus nigra (SNAI), and a new lectin-related protein from Sambucus nigra (SNLRP) were studied to ascertain whether they had the properties of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP). IRA and SNLRP inhibited protein synthesis by a cell-free system and, at much higher concentrations, by cells and had polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity, thus behaving like non-toxic type 2 (two chain) RIP. APA and SNAI had much less activity, and BDA and GNA did not inhibit protein synthesis.

  9. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE SURFACE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPROPYLENE MEMBRANE AND LECTIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yang; Ling-shu Wan; Zhi-kang Xu

    2008-01-01

    A glycopolymer bearing glucose residues was tethered onto the surface of polypropylene microporous membrane by UV-induced graft polymerization of α-allyl glucoside. Concanavalin A (Con A), a glucose recognizing lectin, could be specifically adsorbed to the membrane surface. On the other hand, the membrane surface showed no recognition ability to another lectin peanut agglutinin. Moreover, the recognition complex between the glycosylated membrane surface and Con Acould be inhibited by glucose and mannose solution. This surface glycosylated membrane could be used as affinity membrane for protein separation and purification.

  10. Tetranectin, a trimeric plasminogen-binding C-type lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtet, T L; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Clemmensen, I

    1997-01-01

    -linking analysis and SDS-PAGE to be a homo-trimer in solution as are other known members of the collectin family of C-type lectins. Biochemical evidence is presented showing that an N-terminal domain encoded within exons 1 and 2 of the tetranectin gene is necessary and sufficient to govern subunit trimerization.......Tetranectin, a plasminogen-binding protein belonging to the family of C-type lectins, was expressed in E. coli and converted to its native form by in vitro refolding and proteolytic processing. Recombinant tetranectin-as well as natural tetranectin from human plasma-was shown by chemical cross...

  11. Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, B.; Martensson, U.; Weintraub, A.;

    2006-01-01

    Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera...... and in sera with other defined defects of complement to assess other mechanisms through which MBL might recruit complement. The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen-specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S...

  12. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Angeli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1,4 did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column.

  13. The Effects of Different Storage Conditions on the Radiometric and Element Content of the Taşköprü Garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Kurnaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is very rich plant in terms of carbohydrates, enzymes, sulphurous and phenolic compounds, proteins and vitamins. At the same time, natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals can be found in the garlic depending on the structure of the cultivated soil. Garlic, used as medicine in the treatment of most diseases, is also consumed as raw, powder, mash and volatile garlic oil. In this study, the effects of different storage conditions on the element and radionuclide content of the garlic were determined. The results obtained from this study were compared with the limit values of international institutions. As a result, the radionuclide concentrations and element contents of Taşköprü Garlic will not pose any threat to human health even if the garlic is exposed to different storage conditions.

  14. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. p......H decreased to 4.5 in 2 days, but omitting garlic resulted in a lack of acidification. LAB were predominant and approximately one third of 234 isolated strains fermented garlic and inulin (the carbohydrate reserve in garlic). These strains were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lact. plantarum...... AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The present study indicates the role of fructans (garlic/inulin) as carbohydrate sources for LAB. Fructan fermenters may have several biotechnological applications, for example, as probiotics....

  15. Assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori using urease breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab; Esmaelian Kaho, Jamil; Hashemi, Sarira Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H. pylori IgG were enrolled. UBT was performed for each patient in three sessions as follows: at the beginning of the study, an initial UBT was performed based on which, the positive cases entered the study and the negative ones were excluded. Second UBT was done three days later in patients who were not receiving any treatment and were considered as the control, whereas the third UBT was performed three days after prescribing two medium-sized cloves of garlic (3 g) with their meal, twice a day (at noon and in the evening). The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: the mean UBT significantly differed before and after treatment with garlic cloves, being significantly lower after garlic consumption. No meaningful difference was observed in the mean UBT without garlic consumption between the first and second steps. Conclusion: Raw garlic has anti-bacterial effects against H. pylori residing in the stomach and may be prescribed along with routine drugs for the treatment of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:27761418

  16. THE EFFECTS OF TIME-RELEASED GARLIC POWDER TABLETS ON ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGOR SOBENIN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of commonly spread positive opinion about the antibacterial and antiviral properties of garlic, very few and fragmented data exist on the benefits of garlic and garlic-based preparations in the prevention of acute respiratory diseases (ARD. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of timereleased garlic powder tablets (Allicor in prevention of ARD in children. At the first stage, in open-labeled 5-months study it has been shown that ARD morbidity was reduced by 2.4-fold in 172 Allicor-treated (600 mg daily schoolchildren aged 7-16 as compared to 468 controls. At the second stage, the effects of Allicor (300 mg daily on ARD morbidity were investigated in the double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized 5-months comparative study in 42 children aged 10-12 in comparison with 41 placebo-treated children and 73 benzimidazole-treated children. Allicor treatment reduced ARD morbidity by 2.4-fold as compared to placebo, and by 1.7-fold as compared to benzimidazole. Health index in Allicor-treated group was 1.5-fold higher as compared either to placebo- or benzimidazole-treated children. The results of this study have demonstrated that garlic powder tablets Allicor are effective in non-specific prevention of acute respiratory infections in children and possess no side effects. Additionally, the commonly used ARD prevention withbenzimidazole turned to be entirely ineffective in placebocontrolled study, so the development of new useful and safe efficient drugs like garlic-based preparations is of ultimate importance.

  17. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  18. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  19. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  20. Garlic powder and wheat bran as fillers: Their effect on the physicochemical properties of edible biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fama, Lucia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bittante, Ana Monica B.Q.; Sobral, Paulo J.A. [Food Engineering Department, FZEA, University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 23, 13635-900 Pirassununga (SP) (Brazil); Goyanes, Silvia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerschenson, Lia N., E-mail: lia@di.fcen.uba.ar [Industry Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-20

    Biocomposites with two different fillers, garlic and wheat bran, were studied. They were based on cassava starch and contained glycerol as a plasticizer and potassium sorbate as an antimicrobial agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The mechanical performance at room and lower temperatures was also studied. SEM micrographies of fractured surfaces of the wheat bran composite films showed some ruptured particles of fiber while fibrils of garlic on the order of nanometers were observed when garlic composite films were studied. Mechanical tests, at room temperature, showed that the addition of wheat bran led to an increment in the storage modulus (E') and hardening and a decrease in Tan {delta}, while the garlic composite showed a diminishing in the E' and hardening and did not produce significant changes in Tan {delta} values when compared with systems without fillers (matrix). In the range between -90 deg. C and 20 deg. C, all the materials studied presented two peaks in the Tan {delta} curve. In the case of the wheat bran composite, both relaxation peaks shifted slightly to higher temperatures, broadened and diminished their intensity when compared with those of the matrix; however garlic composite showed a similar behavior to the matrix. DSC thermograms of aqueous systems showed a slight shift of gelatinization temperature (T{sub gelatinization}) to higher values when the fillers were present. Thermograms of films showed that both, garlic and wheat bran composites, had a lower melting point than the matrix. IR data indicated that interaction between starch and fillers determined an increase in the availability of hydroxyl groups to be involved in a dynamic exchange with water.

  1. Mannan-binding lectin and healing of a radiation-induced chronic ulcer--a case report on mannan-binding lectin replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Bonde, C; Laursen, I

    2011-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin is an important component of innate immunity, and insufficiency is associated with several clinical disorders. Recently, experimental replacement therapy with plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin has become an option. The current article presents the case of a patient with a...... that deficiency of mannan-binding lectin can explain cases of otherwise unexplained impaired healing, and that replacement therapy is considered in such cases.......Mannan-binding lectin is an important component of innate immunity, and insufficiency is associated with several clinical disorders. Recently, experimental replacement therapy with plasma-derived mannan-binding lectin has become an option. The current article presents the case of a patient...... with an insufficient level of mannan-binding lectin and a chronic radiation-induced ulcer following the treatment of breast cancer. After 15 months of initially conservative treatment and thereafter plastic surgery, the healing was still impaired with necrosis in the periphery of the ulcer. Immunological work...

  2. Interplay between metal binding and cis/trans isomerization in legume lectins: structural and thermodynamic study of P. angolensis lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Buts, Lieven; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2006-08-04

    The interplay between metal binding, carbohydrate binding activity, stability and structure of the lectin from Pterocarpus angolensis was investigated. Removal of the metals leads to a more flexible form of the protein with significantly less conformational stability. Crystal structures of this metal-free form show significant structural rearrangements, although some structural features that allow the binding of sugars are retained. We propose that substitution of an asparagine residue at the start of the C-terminal beta-strand of the legume lectin monomer hinders the trans-isomerization of the cis-peptide bond upon demetallization and constitutes an intramolecular switch governing the isomer state of the non-proline bond and ultimately the lectin phenotype.

  3. Galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin: the coordinator of host cell killing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas R Boettner; Christopher Huston; William A Petri Jr

    2002-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric parasite that can kill host cells via a contact-dependent mechanism. This killing involves the amoebic surface protein referred to as the Gal/GalNAc lectin. The Gal/GalNAc lectin binds galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine allowing the adherence of amoebas to host cells. Involvement of the lectin in the pathogenesis of E. histolytica infection will be reviewed in this paper. The lectin has been shown to have very specific and substantial effects on adherence, cytotoxicity, and encystation. There is also possible involvement of the lectin in phagocytosis and caspase activation in host cells.

  4. THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT ON MOUTH MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Mehrabian

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Five strains of mouth normal microflora containing staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus mutant, lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscosos and candida albicans, were isolated and identified then cultured and purified on different media by using routine methods in microbiology. Extract of 3 garlic samples south (Khuzestan, north (Mazanderan and Hamedan garlics, were affected on these microbial cultures using Bauer and Kirby method. The effects were compared with antimicrobial effects of erythromycin. The results show all three used extracts have antimicrobial effects. The extract had a bactericidal effect on bacteria but a fungi static on candida albicans.

  5. Prevention of methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity by concomitantadministration of garlic aqueous extract in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Walaa; ZAKI, AMR; NABIL, TAGHRED

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: Methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for treatment of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, but its use has been limited by its nephrotoxicity. This study was carried out to determine whether garlic exerts a protective effect against MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats after a single i.p. injection of MTX (20 mg/kg). Garlic extract (1 mL/100 g b.w.) was given orally for 7 days before and after MTX administration. Serum samples ...

  6. Genetic influences on mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Petersen, Inge; Thiel, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system is activated when Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in complex with MASP-2 binds microorganisms. Polymorphisms in both genes are responsible for low serum levels, which associate with increased risk of infection and autoimmune disease. The present study...... of additive genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors. The genetic correlation, i.e., common genetic factors affecting MBL and MASP-2 activity was estimated to r(g) = 0.34 [0.25;0.42]. The data indicate a strong genetic influence for the serum levels of MBL...

  7. Genetic influences on mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, GL; Petersen, I; Thiel, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system is activated when Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in complex with MASP-2 binds microorganisms. Polymorphisms in both genes are responsible for low serum levels, which associate with increased risk of infection and autoimmune disease. The present study....... Heritabilites of MBL levels and MASP-2 activity were estimated using structural equation modeling allowing assessment of the contribution of common genes affecting both traits. The estimated heritability was 0.77 [95% CI 0.64;0.91] for MBL levels and 0.75 [95% CI 0.59;0.81] for MASP-2 activity with the presence...

  8. Carbohydrate recognition factors of the lectin domains present in the Ricinus communis toxic protein (ricin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, June H; Singh, Tanuja; Herp, Anthony; Wu, Albert M

    2006-02-01

    Ricin (RCA60) is a potent cytotoxic protein with lectin domains, contained in the seeds of the castor bean Ricinus communis. It is a potential biohazard. To corroborate the biological properties of ricin, it is essential to understand the recognition factors involved in the ricin-glycotope interaction. In previous reports, knowledge of the binding properties of ricin was limited to oligosugars and glycopeptides with different specificities. Here, recognition factors of the lectin domains in ricin were examined by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent (ELLSA) and inhibition assays, using mammalian Gal/GalNAc structural units and corresponding polyvalent forms. Except for blood group GalNAcalpha1-3Gal (A) active and Forssman (GalNAcalpha1-3GalNAc, F) disaccharides, ricin has a broad range of affinity for mammalian disaccharide structural units-Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-(Lbeta), Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II), Galbeta1-3GlcNAc (I), Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-(Talpha), Galbeta1-3GalNAcbeta1-(Tbeta), Galalpha1-3Gal (B), Galalpha1-4Gal (E), GalNAcbeta1-3Gal (P), GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr (Tn) and GalNAcbeta1-4Gal (S). Among the polyvalent glycotopes tested, ricin reacted best with type II-containing glycoproteins (gps). It also reacted well with several T (Thomsen-Friedenreich), tumor-associated Tn and blood group Sd. (a+)-containing gps. Except for bird nest and Tamm-Horsfall gps (THGP), this lectin reacted weakly or not at all with ABH-blood type and sialylated gps. From the present and previous results, it can be concluded that: (i) the combining sites of these lectin domains should be a shallow-groove type, recognizing Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1- and Galbeta1-3(4)GlcNAcbeta- as the major binding site; (ii) its size may be as large as a tetrasaccharide and most complementary to lacto-N-tetraose (Galbeta1-3GlcNAc beta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc) and lacto-N-neotetraose (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc); (iii) the polyvalency of glycotopes, in general, enhances binding; (iv) a hydrophobic interaction in the vicinity

  9. Glycosylation of the major human Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bettina; Koch, C; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt;

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the major rat P. carinii surface antigen is important for initial host-organism attachment, possibly through binding to fibronectin, mannose-binding protein, or surfactant protein A. Since a carbohydrate/lectin interaction may be involved in adhesion, we undertook...

  10. Effect of garlic powder on acrylamide formation in a low-moisture model system and bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinwang; Zuo, Jie; Qiao, Xuguang; Zhang, Yongju; Xu, Zhixiang

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is of concern worldwide because of its neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity. Consequently, methods for minimizing AA formation during food processing are vital. In this study, the formation and elimination of AA in an asparagine/glucose low-moisture model system were investigated by response surface methodology. The effect of garlic powder on the kinetics of AA formation/elimination was also evaluated. The AA content reached a maximum level (674.0 nmol) with 1.2 mmol of glucose and 1.2 mmol of asparagine after heating at 200 °C for 6 min. The AA content was greatly reduced with the addition of garlic powder. Compared to without garlic powder, an AA reduction rate of 43% was obtained with addition of garlic powder at a mass fraction of 0.05 g. Garlic powder inhibited AA formation during the generation-predominant kinetic stage and had no effect on the degradation-predominant kinetic stage. The effect of garlic powder on AA formation in bread and bread quality was also investigated. Adding a garlic powder mass fraction of 15 g to 500 g of dough significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the formation of AA (reduction rate of 46%) and had no obvious effect on the sensory qualities of the bread. This study provides a possible method for reducing the AA content in bread and other heat-treated starch-rich foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. A Study of the Shrinkage Changes and Mathematical Modeling of Garlic (Allium sativumL. During Convective Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rasouli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativumL. is one of the most important Allium spice. From an economic point of view, the dried garlic slices are valuable products. In this research, garlic slices as a thin layer were dried in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer, under air flow of 1.5 m/s, air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70˚C and slice thicknesses of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The mean values of shrinkage of garlic slices obtained 69.8%. In addition, the effects of the drying variables on the shrinkage of dried garlic were evaluated. The ANOVA results indicated that the air temperature and slice thickness had no significant effect on final shrinkage of dried garlic slices. In order to derive and select the appropriate shrinkage model, four mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE & RMSE the best model was found to describe the shrinkage behavior of garlic slice.

  12. Comparative Study on Histopatological and Histomorphometric Effect of Raw and Cooked Garlic on Spermatogenesis in Testis and Epidydims of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khadijeh bahrami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: The present study aims at studying two forms of raw and cooked garlic to identify the effect of this plant on the amount of change in histopatological of spermatogenesis of wistar rat.Materials & Methods: 40 male rats were divided into five equal groups (4 treatment 1 control group the first and second treatment were received palete food consisted of 5% and 15% of raw garlic every day. The third and fourth reatment were received palete food consisted of 5%and 15% of cooked garlic as a food . The control group received standard palete food every day in a month. Finally,the testis were taken out of stomach and after preparing tissue and coloring, they were gone under microscopic studies. Thence, the data were analyzed using SPSS and Duncan test.Results: The study indicated that the amount of sexual cells in the group having cook garlic for 15% compared with that of controlled group had a significant increase and the amount of sexual cells in the group using raw garlic as a food had a significant decrease compared with that of the controlled group.Conclusion: Prescription of cooked garlic has an influence on Proliferation of sexual cells in testicular tubules and epidydymes and so increased spermatogenesis in this group in caparison with the control group. However, prescribing raw garlic has harmful effects on tissue of testis and process of spermatogenes in empric compared with the control group.

  13. Determination of added sulfites in dried garlic with a modified version of the optimized Monier-Williams method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefevre, Stephane; Achouri, Djamila

    2007-01-01

    The optimized Monier-Williams method is slightly modified so that it could be applied for determining sulfite content in dried garlic. Dried garlic sample is directly acidified in a reactor at a pH below 3. At this pH level, the alliinase enzyme activity is irreversibly blocked, and the sulfur-containing amino acids such as alliin (the most abundant) present in dried garlic cannot be transformed into corresponding thiosulfinates such as allicin, which is absent in dried garlic. This prevents allicin from reacting with added sulfites and being probably converted to S-allyl thiosulfate, which is not volatile and has no taste. It is found that at a pH below 2.4 and at boiling water temperature, allicin produces sulfur dioxide in adequate quantity to explain the false-positive results when utilizing the optimized Monier-Williams method with allicin suppression for unsulfited dried garlic samples. Finally, when garlic samples are stabilized in a phosphoric acid buffer at a final pH around 2.4, no sulfite is produced during the Monier-Williams distillation, which is further proof there are no naturally occurring sulfites in unsulfited dried garlic under these mild conditions.

  14. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on high dosage garlic-induced renal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hamlaoui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the protective role of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE against high garlic dose-induced renal toxicity has been evaluated. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with garlic (5 g/kg bw or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for one month. Renal oxidative stress markers and antioxidant status were evaluated. We also measured plasma creatinine and urea. Data showed that high garlic dose induced renal toxicity by increasing creatinine and urea and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein, calcium and H2O2, but decreased free iron. Unexpectedly garlic increased catalase but decreased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. GSSE co-treatment counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H2O2 and free iron, inducing Ca2+ depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca2+ repletion.

  15. Protective effects of garlic extract on cardiac function, heart rate variability, and cardiac mitochondria in obese insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supakul, Luerat; Pintana, Hiranya; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2014-04-01

    Garlic has been shown to exhibit antioxidant effects and cardioprotective properties. However, the effects of garlic extract on the heart in insulin resistance induced by long-term high-fat-diet consumption are not well defined. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of garlic extract in the obese insulin-resistant rats. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were divided into two groups: normal-diet or high-fat-diet (n = 24/group) fed for 12 weeks. Rats in each groups were divided into three subgroups (n = 8 each): vehicle or garlic extract (250 or 500 mg/kg/day, respectively) treated for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Rats that received a high-fat-diet for 12 weeks had increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin levels, total cholesterol, oxidative stress levels, depressed HRV, and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Garlic extract at both concentrations significantly decreased the plasma insulin, total cholesterol, homeostasis model assessment index, and oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, garlic extract at both doses restored the HRV, cardiac function, and cardiac mitochondrial function. We concluded that garlic extract at both concentrations exerted cardioprotective effects against cardiac dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction in obese insulin-resistant rats.

  16. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of low Molecular Weight Compounds in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) with Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorek, Maria; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2017-06-13

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is the subject of many studies due to its numerous beneficial properties. Although compounds of garlic have been studied by various analytical methods, their tissue distributions are still unclear. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) appears to be a very powerful tool for the identification of the localisation of compounds within a garlic clove. Visualisation of the spatial distribution of garlic low-molecular weight compounds with nanoparticle-based MSI. Compounds occurring on the cross-section of sprouted garlic has been transferred to gold-nanoparticle enhanced target (AuNPET) by imprinting. The imprint was then subjected to MSI analysis. The results suggest that low molecular weight compounds, such as amino acids, dipeptides, fatty acids, organosulphur and organoselenium compounds are distributed within the garlic clove in a characteristic manner. It can be connected with their biological functions and metabolic properties in the plant. New methodology for the visualisation of low molecular weight compounds allowed a correlation to be made between their spatial distribution within a sprouted garlic clove and their biological function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  18. Multivalent carbohydrate inhibitors of bacterial lectins and toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and their toxins often carry proteins on their surface binding to specific components of tissue cells or the extracellular matrix. In many cases the components are carbohydrate structures. The adhesion of these carbohydrate-binding proteins, named lectins, to human glycoconjugates is a

  19. Mannose-Binding Lectin Deficiency Is Associated with Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vengen, Inga Thorsen; Madsen, Hans O; Garred, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins activate the complement cascade, which is involved in atherogenesis. Based on a pilot study, we hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in the MBL gene (MBL2) leading to dysfunctional protein are related to development of myocardial infarction (MI...

  20. Cancer Biomarker Discovery: Lectin-Based Strategies Targeting Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker discovery can identify molecular markers in various cancers that can be used for detection, screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease progression. Lectin-affinity is a technique that can be used for the enrichment of glycoproteins from a complex sample, facilitating the discovery of novel cancer biomarkers associated with a disease state.