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Sample records for major domains evidence

  1. Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. PMID:24253356

  2. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Using the domain identification model to study major and career decision-making processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendhar, Chosang; Singh, Kusum; Jones, Brett D.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which (1) a domain identification model could be used to predict students' engineering major and career intentions and (2) the MUSIC Model of Motivation components could be used to predict domain identification. The data for this study were collected from first-year engineering students. We used a structural equation model to test the hypothesised relationship between variables in the partial domain identification model. The findings suggested that engineering identification significantly predicted engineering major intentions and career intentions and had the highest effect on those two variables compared to other motivational constructs. Furthermore, results suggested that success, interest, and caring are plausible contributors to students' engineering identification. Overall, there is strong evidence that the domain identification model can be used as a lens to study career decision-making processes in engineering, and potentially, in other fields as well.

  4. Evidence of benzenoid domains in nanographenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoni, Matteo; Mercuri, Francesco

    2015-01-21

    Calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate the occurrence of local deformations of the perfect honeycomb lattice in nanographenes to form arrangements, with triangular symmetry, composed of six-membered ring patterns. The formation of these locally regular superstructures, which can be considered as benzenoid-like domains on the 2D graphene lattice, is ascribed to the gain in resonance energy deriving from aromaticity. The relationship between the atomic morphology of nanographenes and details of the relaxed structure is rationalized in terms of Clar's theory of the aromatic sextet and by extending concepts borrowed from valence bond theory to 2D carbon nanostructures. Namely, two regular arrangements can be evidenced, defined as Clar (fully benzenoid) and Kekulé domains, which correspond to two different regular bond patterns in sets of adjacent six-membered rings. Our findings are compatible with recent experiments and have potentially relevant consequences in the development of novel electronic devices based on graphene materials.

  5. Using the Domain Identification Model to Study Major and Career Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendhar, Chosang; Singh, Kusum; Jones, Brett D.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which (1) a domain identification model could be used to predict students' engineering major and career intentions and (2) the MUSIC Model of Motivation components could be used to predict domain identification. The data for this study were collected from first-year engineering students. We…

  6. Charting the internal landscape: Affect associated with thoughts about major life domains explains life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Miron-Shatz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of happiness have examined the impact of demographics, personality and emotions accompanying daily activities on life satisfaction. We suggest that how people feel while contemplating aspects of their lives, including their weight, children and future prospects, is a promising yet uncharted territory within the internal landscape of life satisfaction. In a sample of 811 American women, we assessed women's feelings when thinking about major life domains and frequency of thoughts about each domain. Regression and dominance analyses showed that emotional valence of thoughts about major life domains was an important predictor of current and prior life satisfaction, surpassing, in descending order, demographics, participants' feelings during recent activities, and their neuroticism and extraversion scores. Domains thought about more frequently were often associated with greater emotional valence. These results suggest that life satisfaction may be improved by modifying emotional valence and frequency of thoughts about life domains. Moreover, these thoughts appear to be an important and relatively stable component of well-being worthy of further study.

  7. Evidence for The Domains Supporting The Construct of Intrinsic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Matteo; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Cooper, Cyrus; Martin, Finbarr C; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Vellas, Bruno; Beard, John R

    2018-02-02

    Healthy ageing can be defined as "the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables wellbeing in older age". Functional ability (i.e., the health-related attributes that enable people to be and to do what they have reason to value) is determined by intrinsic capacity (i.e., the composite of all the physical and mental capacities of an individual), the environment (i.e., all the factors in the extrinsic world that form the context of an individual's life), and the interactions between the two. This innovative model recently proposed by the World Health Organization has the potential to substantially modify the way in which clinical practice is currently conducted, shifting from disease-centered towards function-centered paradigms. By overcoming the multiple limitations affecting the construct of disease, this novel framework may allow the worldwide dissemination of a more proactive and function-based approach towards achieving optimal health status.In order to facilitate the translation of the current theoretical model into practice, it is important to identify the inner nature of its constituting constructs. In this paper, we consider intrinsic capacity. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as background and taking into account available evidence, five domains (i.e., locomotion, vitality, cognition, psychological, sensory) are identified as pivotal for capturing the individual's intrinsic capacity (and therefore also reserves) and, through this, pave the way for its objective measurement. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. How does processing affect storage in working memory tasks? Evidence for both domain-general and domain-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D; Harvey, Caroline E

    2011-05-01

    Two studies that examine whether the forgetting caused by the processing demands of working memory tasks is domain-general or domain-specific are presented. In each, separate groups of adult participants were asked to carry out either verbal or nonverbal operations on exactly the same processing materials while maintaining verbal storage items. The imposition of verbal processing tended to produce greater forgetting even though verbal processing operations took no longer to complete than did nonverbal processing operations. However, nonverbal processing did cause forgetting relative to baseline control conditions, and evidence from the timing of individuals' processing responses suggests that individuals in both processing groups slowed their responses in order to "refresh" the memoranda. Taken together the data suggest that processing has a domain-general effect on working memory performance by impeding refreshment of memoranda but can also cause effects that appear domain-specific and that result from either blocking of rehearsal or interference.

  9. Domains within domains and walls within walls: Evidence for polar domains in cryogenic SrTiO.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salje, E.K.H.; Aktas, O.; Carpenter, M.A.; Laguta, Valentyn; Scott, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 24 (2013), "247603-1"-"247603-5" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric domains * SrTiO 3 * phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  10. The Prevalence, Measurement, and Treatment of the Cognitive Dimension/Domain in Major Depressive Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Xiao, Holly X; Syeda, Kahlood

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient outcomes amongst adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) provide the impetus to identify and refine therapeutic targets that are most critical to outcome from patient, provider, and societal perspectives. Towards this aim, a pivotal shift towards the transnosological domain...... depressive disorder, depression, unipolar depression, cognition, cognitive dysfunction, cognitive deficit, and cognitive function. The search was supplemented with a manual review of relevant references. The selection of articles for inclusion in this review was based on overall methodological quality...... are currently under investigation for possible benefit in mitigating cognitive deficits and improving cognitive performance (e.g., intranasal insulin, erythropoietin, anti-inflammatory agents). Non-pharmacological approaches including, but not limited to, cognitive remediation (CR), aerobic exercise...

  11. The interdependence of major european stock markets: evidence for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Καινούργιος, Δημήτριος Φ.; Σαμίτας, Αριστείδης Γ.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between the Greek "blue chip" stock market and the six relative European markets by applying cointegration tests. The time period examined is 1998 to 2000, which marks the entry of Greece to the European Exchange Rates Mechanism II. The empirical results indicate that the Athens Stock Exchange has no considerable links, except for one case, with any other European developed markets examined. These findings have some significa...

  12. Promoting business with corporate gifts: major issues and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2006-01-01

    Corporate gifts are an important tool in the marketing communication mix. This paper is divided into two parts. It first reviews the literature of corporate gifts and incentives, focusing on major issues in the use of corporate gifts: marketing issues, practical considerations, and ethical and cultural concerns. In the second part, it presents a survey in the UK airline industry. Corporate gifts are found to be used mainly as a means of enhancing corporate image and creating goodwill. They ar...

  13. Collaboration Expertise in Medicine - No Evidence for Cross-Domain Application from a Memory Retrieval Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kiesewetter

    Full Text Available Is there evidence for expertise on collaboration and, if so, is there evidence for cross-domain application? Recall of stimuli was used to measure so-called internal collaboration scripts of novices and experts in two studies. Internal collaboration scripts refer to an individual's knowledge about how to interact with others in a social situation. METHOD—Ten collaboration experts and ten novices of the content domain social science were presented with four pictures of people involved in collaborative activities. The recall texts were coded, distinguishing between superficial and collaboration script information. RESULTS—Experts recalled significantly more collaboration script information (M = 25.20; SD = 5.88 than did novices (M = 13.80; SD = 4.47. Differences in superficial information were not found.Study 2 tested whether the differences found in Study 1 could be replicated. Furthermore, the cross-domain application of internal collaboration scripts was explored. METHOD—Twenty collaboration experts and 20 novices of the content domain medicine were presented with four pictures and four videos of their content domain and a video and picture of another content domain. All stimuli showed collaborative activities typical for the respective content domains. RESULTS—As in Study 1, experts recalled significantly more collaboration script information of their content domain (M = 71.65; SD = 33.23 than did novices (M = 54.25; SD = 15.01. For the novices, no differences were found for the superficial information nor for the retrieval of collaboration script information recalled after the other content domain stimuli.There is evidence for expertise on collaboration in memory tasks. The results show that experts hold substantially more collaboration script information than did novices. Furthermore, the differences between collaboration novices and collaboration experts occurred only in their own content domain, indicating that internal

  14. Collaboration Expertise in Medicine - No Evidence for Cross-Domain Application from a Memory Retrieval Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Fischer, Frank; Fischer, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Is there evidence for expertise on collaboration and, if so, is there evidence for cross-domain application? Recall of stimuli was used to measure so-called internal collaboration scripts of novices and experts in two studies. Internal collaboration scripts refer to an individual's knowledge about how to interact with others in a social situation. METHOD— Ten collaboration experts and ten novices of the content domain social science were presented with four pictures of people involved in collaborative activities. The recall texts were coded, distinguishing between superficial and collaboration script information. RESULTS— Experts recalled significantly more collaboration script information (M = 25.20; SD = 5.88) than did novices (M = 13.80; SD = 4.47). Differences in superficial information were not found. Study 2 tested whether the differences found in Study 1 could be replicated. Furthermore, the cross-domain application of internal collaboration scripts was explored. METHOD— Twenty collaboration experts and 20 novices of the content domain medicine were presented with four pictures and four videos of their content domain and a video and picture of another content domain. All stimuli showed collaborative activities typical for the respective content domains. RESULTS— As in Study 1, experts recalled significantly more collaboration script information of their content domain (M = 71.65; SD = 33.23) than did novices (M = 54.25; SD = 15.01). For the novices, no differences were found for the superficial information nor for the retrieval of collaboration script information recalled after the other content domain stimuli. There is evidence for expertise on collaboration in memory tasks. The results show that experts hold substantially more collaboration script information than did novices. Furthermore, the differences between collaboration novices and collaboration experts occurred only in their own content domain, indicating that internal collaboration scripts

  15. Theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongmei M.; Wang, Yu U.; Ren, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-martensitic phenomena, also called martensite precursor effects, have been known for decades while yet remain outstanding issues. This paper addresses pre-martensitic phenomena from new theoretical and experimental perspectives. A statistical mechanics-based Grüneisen-type phonon theory is developed. On the basis of deformation-dependent incompletely softened low-energy phonons, the theory predicts a lattice instability and pre-martensitic transition into elastic-phonon domains via 'phonon spinodal decomposition.' The phase transition lifts phonon degeneracy in cubic crystal and has a nature of phonon pseudo-Jahn-Teller lattice instability. The theory and notion of phonon domains consistently explain the ubiquitous pre-martensitic anomalies as natural consequences of incomplete phonon softening. The phonon domains are characterised by broken dynamic symmetry of lattice vibrations and deform through internal phonon relaxation in response to stress (a particular case of Le Chatelier's principle), leading to previously unexplored new domain phenomenon. Experimental evidence of phonon domains is obtained by in situ three-dimensional phonon diffuse scattering and Bragg reflection using high-energy synchrotron X-ray single-crystal diffraction, which observes exotic domain phenomenon fundamentally different from usual ferroelastic domain switching phenomenon. In light of the theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena, currently existing alternative opinions on martensitic precursor phenomena are revisited.

  16. Major achievements of evidence-based traditional Chinese medicine in treating major diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Dai, Yuntao; Verpoorte, Robert; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Pao, Li-Heng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2017-09-01

    A long history of use and extensive documentation of the clinical practices of traditional Chinese medicine resulted in a considerable number of classical preparations, which are still widely used. This heritage of our ancestors provides a unique resource for drug discovery. Already, a number of important drugs have been developed from traditional medicines, which in fact form the core of Western pharmacotherapy. Therefore, this article discusses the differences in drug development between traditional medicine and Western medicine. Moreover, the article uses the discovery of artemisinin as an example that illustrates the "bedside-bench-bedside" approach to drug discovery to explain that the middle way for drug development is to take advantage of the best features of these two distinct systems and compensate for certain weaknesses in each. This article also summarizes evidence-based traditional medicines and discusses quality control and quality assessment, the crucial steps in botanical drug development. Herbgenomics may provide effective tools to clarify the molecular mechanism of traditional medicines in the botanical drug development. The totality-of-the-evidence approach used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for botanical products provides the directions on how to perform quality control from the field throughout the entire production process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Finding Relevance, Competence, and Enjoyment: The Development of Domain Identification and Interest in First-Year Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Chloe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how first-year college students perceive their development of domain identification with, and interest in, their prospective science major during their initial year of college. Four themes emerged from the coding and analysis of interviews with eight first-year science students: Self-Definition…

  18. Functional role of the cytoplasmic tail domain of the major envelope fusion protein of group II baculoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, G.; Pan, M.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    F proteins from baculovirus nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) group II members are the major budded virus (BV) viral envelope fusion proteins. They undergo furin-like proteolysis processing in order to be functional. F proteins from different baculovirus species have a long cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD),

  19. Expanding the domains of attitudes towards evidence-based practice: the evidence based practice attitude scale-50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Cafri, Guy; Lugo, Lindsay; Sawitzky, Angelina

    2012-09-01

    Mental health and social service provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice have been measured through the development and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, Ment Health Serv Res 6(2):61-74, 2004). Scores on the EBPAS scales are related to provider demographic characteristics, organizational characteristics, and leadership. However, the EBPAS assesses only four domains of attitudes toward EBP. The current study expands and further identifies additional domains of attitudes towards evidence-based practice. A qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach was used to: (1) generate items from multiples sources (researcher, mental health program manager, clinician/therapist), (2) identify potential content domains, and (3) examine the preliminary domains and factor structure through exploratory factor analysis. Participants for item generation included the investigative team, a group of mental health program managers (n = 6), and a group of clinicians/therapists (n = 8). For quantitative analyses a sample of 422 mental health service providers from 65 outpatient programs in San Diego County completed a survey that included the new items. Eight new EBPAS factors comprised of 35 items were identified. Factor loadings were moderate to large and internal consistency reliabilities were fair to excellent. We found that the convergence of these factors with the four previously identified evidence-based practice attitude factors (15 items) was small to moderate suggesting that the newly identified factors represent distinct dimensions of mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. Combining the original 15 items with the 35 new items comprises the EBPAS 50-item version (EBPAS-50) that adds to our understanding of provider attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Clustering of double strand break-containing chromosome domains is not inhibited by inactivation of major repair proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, P. M.; Stap, C.; Van Oven, C.; Hoebe, R.; Aten, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    For efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) cells rely on a process that involves the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex, which may help to protect non-repaired DNA ends from separating until they can be rejoined by DNA repair proteins. It has been observed that as a secondary effect, this process can lead to unintended clustering of multiple, initially separate, DSB-containing chromosome domains. This work demonstrates that neither inactivation of the major repair proteins XRCC3 and the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) nor inhibition of DNA-PK by vanillin influences the aggregation of DSB-containing chromosome domains. (authors)

  1. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  2. Frequency Domain Response at Pacific Coast Harbors to Major Tsunamis of 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiuying; Kou, Zhiqing; Huang, Ziyi; Lee, Jiin-Jen

    2013-06-01

    Tsunamis waves caused by submarine earthquake or landslide might contain large wave energy, which could cause significant human loss and property damage locally as well as in distant region. The response of three harbors located at the Pacific coast (i.e. Crescent City Harbor, Los Angeles/Long Beach Port, and San Diego Harbor) to six well-known tsunamis events generated (both near-field and far-field) between 2005 and 2011 are examined and simulated using a hybrid finite element numerical model in frequency domain. The model incorporated the effects of wave refraction, wave diffraction, partial wave reflection from boundaries, entrance and bottom energy dissipation. It can be applied to harbor regions with arbitrary shapes and variable water depth. The computed resonant periods or modes of oscillation for three harbors are in good agreement with the energy spectral analysis of the time series of water surface elevations recorded at tide gauge stations inside three harbors during the six tsunamis events. The computed wave induced currents based on the present model are also in qualitative agreement with some of the reported eye-witness accounts absence of reliable current data. The simulated results show that each harbor responded differently and significantly amplified certain wave period(s) of incident wave trains according to the shape, topography, characteristic dimensions and water depth of the harbor basins.

  3. How Does Processing Affect Storage in Working Memory Tasks? Evidence for Both Domain-General and Domain-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D.; Harvey, Caroline E.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies that examine whether the forgetting caused by the processing demands of working memory tasks is domain-general or domain-specific are presented. In each, separate groups of adult participants were asked to carry out either verbal or nonverbal operations on exactly the same processing materials while maintaining verbal storage items.…

  4. Revised Mimivirus major capsid protein sequence reveals intron-containing gene structure and extra domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan-Monti Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus (APM is the largest known dsDNA virus. The viral particle has a nearly icosahedral structure with an internal capsid shell surrounded with a dense layer of fibrils. A Capsid protein sequence, D13L, was deduced from the APM L425 coding gene and was shown to be the most abundant protein found within the viral particle. However this protein remained poorly characterised until now. A revised protein sequence deposited in a database suggested an additional N-terminal stretch of 142 amino acids missing from the original deduced sequence. This result led us to investigate the L425 gene structure and the biochemical properties of the complete APM major Capsid protein. Results This study describes the full length 3430 bp Capsid coding gene and characterises the 593 amino acids long corresponding Capsid protein 1. The recombinant full length protein allowed the production of a specific monoclonal antibody able to detect the Capsid protein 1 within the viral particle. This protein appeared to be post-translationnally modified by glycosylation and phosphorylation. We proposed a secondary structure prediction of APM Capsid protein 1 compared to the Capsid protein structure of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1, another member of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA virus family. Conclusion The characterisation of the full length L425 Capsid coding gene of Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus provides new insights into the structure of the main Capsid protein. The production of a full length recombinant protein will be useful for further structural studies.

  5. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N

    1985-01-01

    or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...... that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... that encode these biochemical activities are located upstream from the major variable region. In the context of transformation, we propose that the region of sequence heterogeneity serves principally to connect the N-terminal catalytic domain with amino acids at the C terminus that are required to anchor...

  6. Visualization studies on evidence-based medicine domain knowledge (series 3): visualization for dissemination of evidence based medicine information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiantong; Yao, Leye; Li, Youping; Clarke, Mike; Gan, Qi; Li, Yifei; Fan, Yi; Gou, Yongchao; Wang, Li

    2011-05-01

    treatment, nursing, health economic and management, and medical education. Internationally, EBM research topics have begun to shift, from drug treatment to surgery or other non-pharmacological treatments; from therapy to diagnosis, rehabilitation, and prevention; from evidence based clinical practice to evidence based management and policymaking. The philosophy and method of EBM, evidence production and translation are also shifting from well resourced settings to low- and middle-income countries, especially those in which English is not a major language. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  7. Big domains are novel Ca²+-binding modules: evidences from big domains of Leptospira immunoglobulin-like (Lig proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Raman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many bacterial surface exposed proteins mediate the host-pathogen interaction more effectively in the presence of Ca²+. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig proteins, LigA and LigB, are surface exposed proteins containing Bacterial immunoglobulin like (Big domains. The function of proteins which contain Big fold is not known. Based on the possible similarities of immunoglobulin and βγ-crystallin folds, we here explore the important question whether Ca²+ binds to a Big domains, which would provide a novel functional role of the proteins containing Big fold. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected six individual Big domains for this study (three from the conserved part of LigA and LigB, denoted as Lig A3, Lig A4, and LigBCon5; two from the variable region of LigA, i.e., 9(th (Lig A9 and 10(th repeats (Lig A10; and one from the variable region of LigB, i.e., LigBCen2. We have also studied the conserved region covering the three and six repeats (LigBCon1-3 and LigCon. All these proteins bind the calcium-mimic dye Stains-all. All the selected four domains bind Ca²+ with dissociation constants of 2-4 µM. Lig A9 and Lig A10 domains fold well with moderate thermal stability, have β-sheet conformation and form homodimers. Fluorescence spectra of Big domains show a specific doublet (at 317 and 330 nm, probably due to Trp interaction with a Phe residue. Equilibrium unfolding of selected Big domains is similar and follows a two-state model, suggesting the similarity in their fold. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the Lig are Ca²+-binding proteins, with Big domains harbouring the binding motif. We conclude that despite differences in sequence, a Big motif binds Ca²+. This work thus sets up a strong possibility for classifying the proteins containing Big domains as a novel family of Ca²+-binding proteins. Since Big domain is a part of many proteins in bacterial kingdom, we suggest a possible function these proteins via Ca²+ binding.

  8. Big domains are novel Ca²+-binding modules: evidences from big domains of Leptospira immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajeev; Rajanikanth, V; Palaniappan, Raghavan U M; Lin, Yi-Pin; He, Hongxuan; McDonough, Sean P; Sharma, Yogendra; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2010-12-29

    Many bacterial surface exposed proteins mediate the host-pathogen interaction more effectively in the presence of Ca²+. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins, LigA and LigB, are surface exposed proteins containing Bacterial immunoglobulin like (Big) domains. The function of proteins which contain Big fold is not known. Based on the possible similarities of immunoglobulin and βγ-crystallin folds, we here explore the important question whether Ca²+ binds to a Big domains, which would provide a novel functional role of the proteins containing Big fold. We selected six individual Big domains for this study (three from the conserved part of LigA and LigB, denoted as Lig A3, Lig A4, and LigBCon5; two from the variable region of LigA, i.e., 9(th) (Lig A9) and 10(th) repeats (Lig A10); and one from the variable region of LigB, i.e., LigBCen2. We have also studied the conserved region covering the three and six repeats (LigBCon1-3 and LigCon). All these proteins bind the calcium-mimic dye Stains-all. All the selected four domains bind Ca²+ with dissociation constants of 2-4 µM. Lig A9 and Lig A10 domains fold well with moderate thermal stability, have β-sheet conformation and form homodimers. Fluorescence spectra of Big domains show a specific doublet (at 317 and 330 nm), probably due to Trp interaction with a Phe residue. Equilibrium unfolding of selected Big domains is similar and follows a two-state model, suggesting the similarity in their fold. We demonstrate that the Lig are Ca²+-binding proteins, with Big domains harbouring the binding motif. We conclude that despite differences in sequence, a Big motif binds Ca²+. This work thus sets up a strong possibility for classifying the proteins containing Big domains as a novel family of Ca²+-binding proteins. Since Big domain is a part of many proteins in bacterial kingdom, we suggest a possible function these proteins via Ca²+ binding.

  9. Durations and domains of daily aerobic activity: evidence from the 2010 Canadian time-use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh; Spinney J, E L; Scott, Darren

    2014-07-01

    This study employs national time-diary data to evaluate how much aerobic activity Canadians engage in on a daily basis, how that activity is apportioned by activity domain, and how subgroups within the population vary in their aerobic attainment. The study employs time-use data from the 2010 General Social Survey of Canada, for 15,390 respondents aged 15 and older. To estimate effort levels, the authors harmonized survey codes with those in the Compendium of Physical Activities. Aerobic activity was defined as moderate or vigorous effort at 3.5 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) or higher. Among the 4 activity domains, aerobic participation is highest in leisure activities, followed by chores, paid work, and active transportation (AT). Only a minority (42%) of respondents recorded at least 20 mins/day of aerobic activity. Aerobic totals were particularly low for women and those in poor or fair health, and low for students, 15- to 24-year-olds, and those residing in Quebec, Ontario, and larger cities. The majority of Canadian adults are failing to meet recommended aerobic activity levels. However, there is considerable opportunity to increase aerobic participation for some groups, particularly women and young adults, especially in the leisure and AT domains.

  10. Spatializing Emotion: No Evidence for a Domain-General Magnitude System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Benjamin; Casasanto, Daniel

    2017-11-22

    People implicitly associate different emotions with different locations in left-right space. Which aspects of emotion do they spatialize, and why? Across many studies people spatialize emotional valence, mapping positive emotions onto their dominant side of space and negative emotions onto their non-dominant side, consistent with theories of metaphorical mental representation. Yet other results suggest a conflicting mapping of emotional intensity (a.k.a., emotional magnitude), according to which people associate more intense emotions with the right and less intense emotions with the left - regardless of their valence; this pattern has been interpreted as support for a domain-general system for representing magnitudes. To resolve the apparent contradiction between these mappings, we first tested whether people implicitly map either valence or intensity onto left-right space, depending on which dimension of emotion they attend to (Experiments 1a, b). When asked to judge emotional valence, participants showed the predicted valence mapping. However, when asked to judge emotional intensity, participants showed no systematic intensity mapping. We then tested an alternative explanation of findings previously interpreted as evidence for an intensity mapping (Experiments 2a, b). These results suggest that previous findings may reflect a left-right mapping of spatial magnitude (i.e., the size of a salient feature of the stimuli) rather than emotion. People implicitly spatialize emotional valence, but, at present, there is no clear evidence for an implicit lateral mapping of emotional intensity. These findings support metaphor theory and challenge the proposal that mental magnitudes are represented by a domain-general metric that extends to the domain of emotion. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Evidence of positive selection at codon sites localized in extracellular domains of mammalian CC motif chemokine receptor proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzger Kelsey J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CC chemokine receptor proteins (CCR1 through CCR10 are seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors whose signaling pathways are known for their important roles coordinating immune system responses through targeted trafficking of white blood cells. In addition, some of these receptors have been identified as fusion proteins for viral pathogens: for example, HIV-1 strains utilize CCR5, CCR2 and CCR3 proteins to obtain cellular entry in humans. The extracellular domains of these receptor proteins are involved in ligand-binding specificity as well as pathogen recognition interactions. In mammals, the majority of chemokine receptor genes are clustered together; in humans, seven of the ten genes are clustered in the 3p21-24 chromosome region. Gene conversion events, or exchange of DNA sequence between genes, have been reported in chemokine receptor paralogs in various mammalian lineages, especially between the cytogenetically closely located pairs CCR2/5 and CCR1/3. Datasets of mammalian orthologs for each gene were analyzed separately to minimize the potential confounding impact of analyzing highly similar sequences resulting from gene conversion events. Molecular evolution approaches and the software package Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximum Likelihood (PAML were utilized to investigate the signature of selection that has acted on the mammalian CC chemokine receptor (CCR gene family. The results of neutral vs. adaptive evolution (positive selection hypothesis testing using Site Models are reported. In general, positive selection is defined by a ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous nucleotide changes (dN/dS, or ω >1. Results Of the ten mammalian CC motif chemokine receptor sequence datasets analyzed, only CCR2 and CCR3 contain amino acid codon sites that exhibit evidence of positive selection using site based hypothesis testing in PAML. Nineteen of the twenty codon sites putatively indentified as likely to be under positive

  12. Evidence for increased glutamatergic cortical facilitation in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croarkin, Paul E; Nakonezny, Paul A; Husain, Mustafa M; Melton, Tabatha; Buyukdura, Jeylan S; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Kozel, F Andrew; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-03-01

    Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents. To compare measures of cortical excitability and inhibition with 4 different paradigms in a group of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder vs healthy controls. Cross-sectional study examining medication-free children and adolescents (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. Cortical excitability was assessed with motor threshold and intracortical facilitation measures. Cortical inhibition was measured with cortical silent period and intracortical inhibition paradigms. University-based child and adolescent psychiatry clinic and neurostimulation laboratory. Twenty-four participants with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Patients with major depressive disorder were medication naive and had moderate to severe symptoms based on an evaluation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition. Compared with healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly increased intracortical facilitation at interstimulus intervals of 10 and 15 milliseconds bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in cortical inhibition measures. These findings suggest that major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with increased intracortical facilitation and excessive glutamatergic activity.

  13. Behavioral and fMRI evidence of the differing cognitive load of domain-specific assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S J; Burianová, H; Ehrich, J; Kervin, L; Calleia, A; Barkus, E; Carmody, J; Humphry, S

    2015-06-25

    Standards-referenced educational reform has increased the prevalence of standardized testing; however, whether these tests accurately measure students' competencies has been questioned. This may be due to domain-specific assessments placing a differing domain-general cognitive load on test-takers. To investigate this possibility, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and quantify the neural correlates of performance on current, international standardized methods of spelling assessment. Out-of-scanner testing was used to further examine differences in assessment results. Results provide converging evidence that: (a) the spelling assessments differed in the cognitive load placed on test-takers; (b) performance decreased with increasing cognitive load of the assessment; and (c) brain regions associated with working memory were more highly activated during performance of assessments that were higher in cognitive load. These findings suggest that assessment design should optimize the cognitive load placed on test-takers, to ensure students' results are an accurate reflection of their true levels of competency. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence of a major gene from Bayesian segregation analyses of liability to osteochondral diseases in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadarmideen, Haja N; Janss, Luc L G

    2005-11-01

    Bayesian segregation analyses were used to investigate the mode of inheritance of osteochondral lesions (osteochondrosis, OC) in pigs. Data consisted of 1163 animals with OC and their pedigrees included 2891 animals. Mixed-inheritance threshold models (MITM) and several variants of MITM, in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, were developed for the analysis of these (categorical) data. Results showed major genes with significant and substantially higher variances (range 1.384-37.81), compared to the polygenic variance (sigmau2). Consequently, heritabilities for a mixed inheritance (range 0.65-0.90) were much higher than the heritabilities from the polygenes. Disease allele frequencies range was 0.38-0.88. Additional analyses estimating the transmission probabilities of the major gene showed clear evidence for Mendelian segregation of a major gene affecting osteochondrosis. The variants, MITM with informative prior on sigmau2, showed significant improvement in marginal distributions and accuracy of parameters. MITM with a "reduced polygenic model" for parameterization of polygenic effects avoided convergence problems and poor mixing encountered in an "individual polygenic model." In all cases, "shrinkage estimators" for fixed effects avoided unidentifiability for these parameters. The mixed-inheritance linear model (MILM) was also applied to all OC lesions and compared with the MITM. This is the first study to report evidence of major genes for osteochondral lesions in pigs; these results may also form a basis for underpinning the genetic inheritance of this disease in other animals as well as in humans.

  15. Prediction and Experimental Evidence for Thermodynamically Stable Charged Orbital Domain Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing’an; Gray, K. E.; Wilkins, S. B.; Garcia Fernandez, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2014-08-01

    The quest for miniaturization is prevalent in many fields of modern science and technology. The ultimate limit for conduction would be a one-dimensional (1D) chain of atoms and, for example, carbon nanotubes are a notable approximation to this ideal. Here we present strong evidence for an unexpected phenomenon—a sliding charge-density wave along pseudo-1D, atomically homogeneous orbital domain walls (ODWs) in insulating bilayer manganite crystals. At a threshold electric field, crystals exhibit abrupt transformations to higher conductance, while x-ray diffraction confirms that these are not due to heating or melting of charge order. The conductance data resemble those of well-known pseudo-1D sliding-charge-density waves, in particular the presence of a depinning voltage. The vital link is our theoretical insight that ODWs must be partially charged due to competition between orbital-induced strain and Coulomb repulsion. The ideas found here embody a new principle for creating ultra-nano conductive paths in other materials and devices.

  16. Assembly of proteins and 5 S rRNA to transcripts of the major structural domains of 23 S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, P; Phan, H; Johansen, L B

    1998-01-01

    The six major structural domains of 23 S rRNA from Escherichia coli, and all combinations thereof, were synthesized as separate T7 transcripts and reconstituted with total 50 S subunit proteins. Analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of at least one prim...... approach was used to map the putative binding regions on domain V of protein L9 and the 5 S RNA-L5-L18 complex....

  17. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  18. Evidence that Autophosphorylation of the Major Sporulation Kinase in Bacillus subtilis Is Able To Occur in trans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Seram Nganbiton; Kiehler, Brittany; Haggett, Lindsey; Fujita, Masaya

    2015-08-01

    Entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is governed by a multicomponent phosphorelay, a complex version of a two-component system which includes at least three histidine kinases (KinA to KinC), two phosphotransferases (Spo0F and Spo0B), and a response regulator (Spo0A). Among the three histidine kinases, KinA is known as the major sporulation kinase; it is autophosphorylated with ATP upon starvation and then transfers a phosphoryl group to the downstream components in a His-Asp-His-Asp signaling pathway. Our recent study demonstrated that KinA forms a homotetramer, not a dimer, mediated by the N-terminal domain, as a functional unit. Furthermore, when the N-terminal domain was overexpressed in the starving wild-type strain, sporulation was impaired. We hypothesized that this impairment of sporulation could be explained by the formation of a nonfunctional heterotetramer of KinA, resulting in the reduced level of phosphorylated Spo0A (Spo0A∼P), and thus, autophosphorylation of KinA could occur in trans. To test this hypothesis, we generated a series of B. subtilis strains expressing homo- or heterogeneous KinA protein complexes consisting of various combinations of the phosphoryl-accepting histidine point mutant protein and the catalytic ATP-binding domain point mutant protein. We found that the ATP-binding-deficient protein was phosphorylated when the phosphorylation-deficient protein was present in a 1:1 stoichiometry in the tetramer complex, while each of the mutant homocomplexes was not phosphorylated. These results suggest that ATP initially binds to one protomer within the tetramer complex and then the γ-phosphoryl group is transmitted to another in a trans fashion. We further found that the sporulation defect of each of the mutant proteins is complemented when the proteins are coexpressed in vivo. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results reinforce the evidence that KinA autophosphorylation is able to occur in a trans fashion

  19. Escitalopram—translating molecular properties into clinical benefit: reviewing the evidence in major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Brian; Taylor, David

    2010-01-01

    The majority of currently marketed drugs contain a mixture of enantiomers; however, recent evidence suggests that individual enantiomers can have pharmacological properties that differ importantly from enantiomer mixtures. Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, displays markedly different pharmacological activity to the R-enantiomer. This review aims to evaluate whether these differences confer any significant clinical advantage for escitalopram over either citalopram or other frequently used antidepressants. Searches were conducted using PubMed and EMBASE (up to January 2009). Abstracts of the retrieved studies were reviewed independently by both authors for inclusion. Only those studies relating to depression or major depressive disorder were included. The search identified over 250 citations, of which 21 studies and 18 pooled or meta-analyses studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. These studies reveal that escitalopram has some efficacy advantage over citalopram and paroxetine, but no consistent advantage over other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Escitalopram has at least comparable efficacy to available serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine XR and duloxetine, and may offer some tolerability advantages over these agents. This review suggests that the mechanistic advantages of escitalopram over citalopram translate into clinical efficacy advantages. Escitalopram may have a favourable benefit-risk ratio compared with citalopram and possibly with several other antidepressant agents. PMID:20147575

  20. Escitalopram--translating molecular properties into clinical benefit: reviewing the evidence in major depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Brian

    2010-08-01

    The majority of currently marketed drugs contain a mixture of enantiomers; however, recent evidence suggests that individual enantiomers can have pharmacological properties that differ importantly from enantiomer mixtures. Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, displays markedly different pharmacological activity to the R-enantiomer. This review aims to evaluate whether these differences confer any significant clinical advantage for escitalopram over either citalopram or other frequently used antidepressants. Searches were conducted using PubMed and EMBASE (up to January 2009). Abstracts of the retrieved studies were reviewed independently by both authors for inclusion. Only those studies relating to depression or major depressive disorder were included. The search identified over 250 citations, of which 21 studies and 18 pooled or meta-analyses studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. These studies reveal that escitalopram has some efficacy advantage over citalopram and paroxetine, but no consistent advantage over other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Escitalopram has at least comparable efficacy to available serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine XR and duloxetine, and may offer some tolerability advantages over these agents. This review suggests that the mechanistic advantages of escitalopram over citalopram translate into clinical efficacy advantages. Escitalopram may have a favourable benefit-risk ratio compared with citalopram and possibly with several other antidepressant agents.

  1. Is Economics a Good Major for Future Lawyers? Evidence from Earnings Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports descriptive data on earnings differences for practicing lawyers by undergraduate major with a focus on economics majors. Some majors do much better than others. Economics majors tend to do very well in both median and mean earnings. Electrical engineering, accounting, finance, and some other majors also do relatively well. This…

  2. Evidence of chemical exchange in recombinant Major Urinary Protein and quenching thereof upon pheromone binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perazzolo, Chiara, E-mail: Chiara.Perazzolo@epfl.ch; Verde, Mariachiara [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (Switzerland); Homans, Steve W. [University of Leeds, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology (United Kingdom); Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (Switzerland)

    2007-05-15

    The internal dynamics of recombinant Major Urinary Protein (rMUP) have been investigated by monitoring transverse nitrogen-15 relaxation using multiple-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiments. While the ligand-free protein (APO-rMUP) features extensive evidence of motions on the milliseconds time scale, the complex with 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (HOLO-rMUP) appears to be much less mobile on this time scale. At 308 K, exchange rates k{sub ex} = 500-2000 s{sup -1} were typically observed in APO-rMUP for residues located adjacent to a {beta}-turn comprising residues 83-87. These residues occlude an entry to the binding pocket and have been proposed to be a portal for ligand entry in other members of the lipocalin family, such as the retinol binding protein and the human fatty-acid binding protein. Exchange rates and populations are largely uncorrelated, suggesting local 'breathing' motions rather than a concerted global conformational change.

  3. Abnormal functional brain asymmetry in depression: evidence of biologic commonality between major depression and dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J

    2012-04-30

    Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having "pure" dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or "pure" dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence of chemical exchange in recombinant Major Urinary Protein and quenching thereof upon pheromone binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perazzolo, Chiara; Verde, Mariachiara; Homans, Steve W.; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The internal dynamics of recombinant Major Urinary Protein (rMUP) have been investigated by monitoring transverse nitrogen-15 relaxation using multiple-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiments. While the ligand-free protein (APO-rMUP) features extensive evidence of motions on the milliseconds time scale, the complex with 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (HOLO-rMUP) appears to be much less mobile on this time scale. At 308 K, exchange rates k ex = 500-2000 s -1 were typically observed in APO-rMUP for residues located adjacent to a β-turn comprising residues 83-87. These residues occlude an entry to the binding pocket and have been proposed to be a portal for ligand entry in other members of the lipocalin family, such as the retinol binding protein and the human fatty-acid binding protein. Exchange rates and populations are largely uncorrelated, suggesting local 'breathing' motions rather than a concerted global conformational change

  5. A Time-Space Domain Information Fusion Method for Specific Emitter Identification Based on Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Cao, Ying; Yang, Lin; He, Zichang

    2017-08-28

    Specific emitter identification plays an important role in contemporary military affairs. However, most of the existing specific emitter identification methods haven't taken into account the processing of uncertain information. Therefore, this paper proposes a time-space domain information fusion method based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, which has the ability to deal with uncertain information in the process of specific emitter identification. In this paper, radars will generate a group of evidence respectively based on the information they obtained, and our main task is to fuse the multiple groups of evidence to get a reasonable result. Within the framework of recursive centralized fusion model, the proposed method incorporates a correlation coefficient, which measures the relevance between evidence and a quantum mechanical approach, which is based on the parameters of radar itself. The simulation results of an illustrative example demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively deal with uncertain information and get a reasonable recognition result.

  6. Polarized sphingolipid transport from the subapical compartment : Evidence for distinct sphingolipid domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Hoekstra, D

    1999-01-01

    In polarized HepG2 cells, the sphingolipids glucosylceramide and sphingomyelin (SM), transported along the reverse transcytotic pathway, are sorted in subapical compartments (SACs), and subsequently targeted to either apical or basolateral plasma membrane domains, respectively. In the present study,

  7. Pharmacological Interventions for the MATRICS Cognitive Domains in Schizophrenia: What’s the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Wilhelmina A. M.; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Bakker, Geor; van Amelsvoort, Therese A. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling, chronic psychiatric disorder with a prevalence rate of 0.5–1% in the general population. Symptoms include positive (e.g., delusions, hallucinations), negative (e.g., blunted affect, social withdrawal), as well as cognitive symptoms (e.g., memory and attention problems). Although 75–85% of patients with schizophrenia report cognitive impairments, the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms are not well understood and currently no effective treatment is available for these impairments. This has led to the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative, which established seven cognitive domains that are fundamentally impaired in schizophrenia. These domains include verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, working memory, attention and vigilance, processing speed, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. Recently, a growing number of studies have been conducted trying to identify the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia patients. Specific cognitive impairments seem to arise from different underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms. However, most review articles describe cognition in general and an overview of the mechanisms involved in these seven separate cognitive domains is currently lacking. Therefore, we reviewed the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms focusing on the domains as established by the MATRICS initiative which are considered most crucial in schizophrenia. PMID:24363646

  8. The effect of individual HR domains on financial performance : Evidence from Belgian small businesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, D; Sels, L; De Winne, S; Maes, J

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of this study, which assesses the influence of HRM on financial performance, is fourfold. (1) We assess the relative contribution of different HR domains to organizational performance. By controlling for the overall HRM intensity in all analyses we try to meet one of the most

  9. Pharmacological interventions for the MATRICS cognitive domains in schizophrenia: what's the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina A.M. Vingerhoets

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a disabling, chronic psychiatric disorder with a prevalence rate of 0.5-1% in the general population. Symptoms include positive (e.g. delusions, hallucinations, negative (e.g. blunted affect, social withdrawal, as well as cognitive symptoms (e.g. memory and attention problems. Although 75-85% of patients with schizophrenia report cognitive impairments, the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms are not well understood and currently no effective treatment is available for these impairments. This has led to the MATRICS initiative (Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia, which established seven cognitive domains that are fundamentally impaired in schizophrenia. These domains include verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, working memory, attention and vigilance, processing speed, reasoning and problem solving, and social cognition. Recently, a growing number of studies have been conducted trying to identify the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia patients. Specific cognitive impairments seem to arise from different underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms. However, most review articles describe cognition in general and an overview of the mechanisms involved in these seven separate cognitive domains is currently lacking. Therefore, we reviewed the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms focussing on the domains as established by the MATRICS initiative which are considered most crucial in schizophrenia.

  10. Major adverse cardiovascular event reduction with GLP-1 and SGLT2 agents: evidence and clinical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røder, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes is directed against treating symptoms of hyperglycemia, minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia, and the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes die from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. Future therapies should therefore focus on reducing cardiovascular morbidity in this high-risk population. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are two drug classes with proven antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetes. However, these drugs seem to have other effects such as weight reduction, low risk of hypoglycemia, and blood pressure reduction. Emerging evidence suggests pleiotropic effects, which potentially could be important in reducing cardiovascular risk. Prompted by regulatory authorities demanding cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) assessing the cardiovascular safety of new antihyperglycemic drug candidates, many CVOTs are ongoing and a few of these are finalized. Somewhat surprising recent CVOTs in both drug classes have shown promising data on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with a very high risk of cardiovascular events. It is uncertain whether this is a class effect of the two drug classes, and it is yet unproven whether long-term cardiovascular benefits of these drugs can be extrapolated to populations at lower risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present review is to give an overview of our current knowledge of the GLP-1RA and SGLT2-i classes, with specific focus on mechanisms of action, effects on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality from the CVOTs presently available. The clinical potential of these data is discussed. PMID:29344329

  11. Further evidence of emotional allodynia in unmedicated young adults with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ushinsky

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that sensitivity to the emotional sequela of experimental thermal pain(measured by emotional unpleasantness is heightened in individuals with major depressive disorder(MDD, a phenomenon we termed "emotional allodynia". The aim of this study was to examine whether acute happy and sad mood induction alters emotional allodynia in MDD. We hypothesized that emotional allodynia will be a robust characteristic of individuals with MDD compared to healthy controls. Thus, it would remain following acute mood induction, independent of valence.Twenty-one subjects with current MDD and 21 well-matched healthy subjects(HC received graded brief temperature stimuli following happy and sad mood inductions procedures(MIP. All subjects rated the intensity and affect(pleasantness/unpleasantness of each stimulus. Sensory(pain intensity and affective(pain unpleasantness thresholds were determined by methods of constant stimuli.The MIPs reliably induced happy and sad mood and the resulting induced mood and subjective arousal were not different between the groups at the time of temperature stimulation. Compared to HC, MDD individuals demonstrated emotional allodynia. We found significantly decreased affective pain thresholds whereby significantly lower temperatures became unpleasant in the MDD compared to the HC group. This was not observed for the sensory pain thresholds. Within the MDD, the affective pain thresholds were significantly lower than the corresponding pain intensity thresholds, whereby non-painful temperatures were already unpleasant for the MDD irrespective of the induced mood. This was not observed for the HC groups where the affective and pain intensity thresholds were comparable.These findings suggest that emotional allodynia may be a chronic characteristic of current MDD. Future studies should determine if emotional allodynia persists after psychological or pharmacological interventions. Finally, longitudinal work should

  12. Three-dimensional structures of the mammalian multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein demonstrate major conformational changes in the transmembrane domains upon nucleotide binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Callaghan, Richard; Higgins, Christopher F; Ford, Robert C

    2003-03-07

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that is associated with multidrug resistance and the failure of chemotherapy in human patients. We have previously shown, based on two-dimensional projection maps, that P-glycoprotein undergoes conformational changes upon binding of nucleotide to the intracellular nucleotide binding domains. Here we present the three-dimensional structures of P-glycoprotein in the presence and absence of nucleotide, at a resolution limit of approximately 2 nm, determined by electron crystallography of negatively stained crystals. The data reveal a major reorganization of the transmembrane domains throughout the entire depth of the membrane upon binding of nucleotide. In the absence of nucleotide, the two transmembrane domains form a single barrel 5-6 nm in diameter and about 5 nm deep with a central pore that is open to the extracellular surface and spans much of the membrane depth. Upon binding nucleotide, the transmembrane domains reorganize into three compact domains that are each 2-3 nm in diameter and 5-6 nm deep. This reorganization opens the central pore along its length in a manner that could allow access of hydrophobic drugs (transport substrates) directly from the lipid bilayer to the central pore of the transporter.

  13. Scientific reasoning in early and middle childhood: the development of domain-general evidence evaluation, experimentation, and hypothesis generation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation, and non-covariation evidence emerges, (b) when experimentation emerges, (c) when hypothesis generation skills emerge, and (d), whether these abilities develop synchronously during childhood. We administered three scientific reasoning tasks referring to the three components to 223 children of five age groups (from age 4.0 to 13.5 years). Our results show that the three cognitive components of domain-general scientific reasoning emerge asynchronously. The development of domain-general scientific reasoning begins with the ability to handle unambiguous data, progresses to the interpretation of ambiguous data, and leads to a flexible adaptation of hypotheses according to the sufficiency of evidence. When children understand the relation between the level of ambiguity of evidence and the level of confidence in hypotheses, the ability to differentiate conclusive from inconclusive experiments accompanies this development. Implications of these results for designing science education concepts for young children are briefly discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Truncating variants in the majority of the cytoplasmic domain of PCDH15 are unlikely to cause Usher syndrome 1F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault-Micale, Cynthia; Frieden, Alexander; Kennedy, Caleb J; Neitzel, Dana; Sullivan, Jessica; Faulkner, Nicole; Hallam, Stephanie; Greger, Valerie

    2014-11-01

    Loss of function variants in the PCDH15 gene can cause Usher syndrome type 1F, an autosomal recessive disease associated with profound congenital hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. The Ashkenazi Jewish population has an increased incidence of Usher syndrome type 1F (founder variant p.Arg245X accounts for 75% of alleles), yet the variant spectrum in a panethnic population remains undetermined. We sequenced the coding region and intron-exon borders of PCDH15 using next-generation DNA sequencing technology in approximately 14,000 patients from fertility clinics. More than 600 unique PCDH15 variants (single nucleotide changes and small indels) were identified, including previously described pathogenic variants p.Arg3X, p.Arg245X (five patients), p.Arg643X, p.Arg929X, and p.Arg1106X. Novel truncating variants were also found, including one in the N-terminal extracellular domain (p.Leu877X), but all other novel truncating variants clustered in the exon 33 encoded C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (52 patients, 14 variants). One variant was observed predominantly in African Americans (carrier frequency of 2.3%). The high incidence of truncating exon 33 variants indicates that they are unlikely to cause Usher syndrome type 1F even though many remove a large portion of the gene. They may be tolerated because PCDH15 has several alternate cytoplasmic domain exons and differentially spliced isoforms may function redundantly. Effects of some PCDH15 truncating variants were addressed by deep sequencing of a panethnic population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic approach for safety evidence collection in the safety-critical domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, H.; Wu, Ji; Yuan, C.; Luo, Y.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Engelen, L.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to show that the required safety objectives are met, it is necessary to collect safety evidence in the form of consistent and complete data. However, manual safety evidence collection is usually tedious and time-consuming, due to a large number of artifacts and implicit relations between

  16. Composition, structure and properties of POPC–triolein mixtures. Evidence of triglyceride domains in phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Lars; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian

    2013-01-01

    We have in this study investigated the composition, structure and spectroscopical properties of multilamellar vesicles composed of a phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and up to 10mol% of triolein (TO), a triglyceride. We found in agreement with previous results...... as vesicular structures containing entrapped water. Bilayer structure of the membranes was supported by small angle X-ray scattering that showed the membranes to form a lamellar phase. Fluorescence spectroscopy with the polarity sensitive dye Nile red revealed, that the LF samples with more than 5mol......% TO contained pure TO domains. These observations are consistent with an earlier MD simulation study by us and our co-workers suggesting triglycerides to be located in lens shaped, blister-like domains between the two lipid bilayer leaflets (Khandelia et al. (2010) [26])....

  17. Where do bright ideas occur in our brain? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies of domain-specific creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Palermo, Liana; Nori, Raffaella; Palmiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the neural underpinnings of creativity, failing to find a clear anatomical localization. We aimed to provide evidence for a multi-componential neural system for creativity. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 45 fMRI studies. Three individual ALE analyses were performed to assess creativity in different cognitive domains (Musical, Verbal, and Visuo-spatial). The general ALE revealed that creativity relies on clusters of activations in the bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes. The individual ALE revealed different maximal activation in different domains. Musical creativity yields activations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, in the left cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral and fusiform gyri. Verbal creativity yields activations mainly located in the left hemisphere, in the prefrontal cortex, middle and superior temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral and supramarginal gyri, middle occipital gyrus, and insula. The right inferior frontal gyrus and the lingual gyrus were also activated. Visuo-spatial creativity activates the right middle and inferior frontal gyri, the bilateral thalamus and the left precentral gyrus. This evidence suggests that creativity relies on multi-componential neural networks and that different creativity domains depend on different brain regions. PMID:26322002

  18. SEE: structured representation of scientific evidence in the biomedical domain using Semantic Web techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölling, Christian; Weidlich, Michael; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Accounts of evidence are vital to evaluate and reproduce scientific findings and integrate data on an informed basis. Currently, such accounts are often inadequate, unstandardized and inaccessible for computational knowledge engineering even though computational technologies, among them those of the semantic web, are ever more employed to represent, disseminate and integrate biomedical data and knowledge. We present SEE (Semantic EvidencE), an RDF/OWL based approach for detailed representation of evidence in terms of the argumentative structure of the supporting background for claims even in complex settings. We derive design principles and identify minimal components for the representation of evidence. We specify the Reasoning and Discourse Ontology (RDO), an OWL representation of the model of scientific claims, their subjects, their provenance and their argumentative relations underlying the SEE approach. We demonstrate the application of SEE and illustrate its design patterns in a case study by providing an expressive account of the evidence for certain claims regarding the isolation of the enzyme glutamine synthetase. SEE is suited to provide coherent and computationally accessible representations of evidence-related information such as the materials, methods, assumptions, reasoning and information sources used to establish a scientific finding by adopting a consistently claim-based perspective on scientific results and their evidence. SEE allows for extensible evidence representations, in which the level of detail can be adjusted and which can be extended as needed. It supports representation of arbitrary many consecutive layers of interpretation and attribution and different evaluations of the same data. SEE and its underlying model could be a valuable component in a variety of use cases that require careful representation or examination of evidence for data presented on the semantic web or in other formats.

  19. Buckwheat: a crop from outside the major Chinese domestication centres? A review of the archaeobotanical, palynological and genetic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Harriet Vaughan; Shang, X; Jones, Martin Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The two cultivated species of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat) and F. tataricum (Tartary buckwheat) are Chinese domesticates whose origins are usually thought to lie in upland southwestern China, outside the major centres of agricultural origins associated with rice and millet. Synthesis of the macro- and microfossil evidence for buckwheat cultivation in China found just 26 records across all time periods, of which the majority are pollen finds. There are few or no identifyi...

  20. Life Domain Satisfactions as Predictors of Overall Life Satisfaction Among Workers: Evidence from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Nicolas; Bagherzadeh, Mehdi; Araya-Castillo, Luis; Thieme, Claudio; Batista-Foguet, Joan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the subjective antecedents of life satisfaction of workers. Adopting a 'bottom-up' perspective, we assessed the unique influence that satisfaction with multiple life domains have on evaluative judgments of overall life satisfaction. Based on a nationwide sample of 530 Chilean workers, we simultaneously tested the effects of seven life domain satisfactions that have been consistently included in extant models of life satisfaction and subjective well-being. These were satisfaction with health, financial situation, social relationships, one's self-worth, leisure-time, family, and work. Having controlled for age and gender, results showed that satisfaction with one's financial situation was the dominant predictor of overall life satisfaction of workers, with a weight of .36. Satisfaction with family, work, and health had effects of .25, .14, and .14, respectively. Interestingly, satisfaction with one's self-worth, leisure-time, and social relationships did not have statistically significant effects on life satisfaction, although the first two showed t values near the critical value.

  1. Youth civic development: theorizing a domain with evidence from different cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A; Martínez, M Loreto; Cumsille, Patricio; Ngomane, Tsakani

    2011-01-01

    The authors use examples of youth civic engagement from Chile, South Africa, Central/Eastern Europe, and the United States--and also emphasize diversities among youth from different subgroups within countries--to illustrate common elements of the civic domain of youth development. These include the primacy of collective activity for forming political identities and ideas and the greater heterogeneity of civic compared to other discretionary activities, the groupways or accumulated opportunities for acting due to the groups (social class, gender, ethnic, caste, etc.) to which a young person belongs, and the role of mediating institutions (schools, community-based organizations, etc.) as spaces where youths' actions contribute to political stability and change. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. Structure validation of the Josephin domain of ataxin-3: Conclusive evidence for an open conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicastro, Giuseppe; Habeck, Michael; Masino, Laura; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Pastore, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    The availability of new and fast tools in structure determination has led to a more than exponential growth of the number of structures solved per year. It is therefore increasingly essential to assess the accuracy of the new structures by reliable approaches able to assist validation. Here, we discuss a specific example in which the use of different complementary techniques, which include Bayesian methods and small angle scattering, resulted essential for validating the two currently available structures of the Josephin domain of ataxin-3, a protein involved in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and responsible for neurodegenerative spinocerebellar ataxia of type 3. Taken together, our results demonstrate that only one of the two structures is compatible with the experimental information. Based on the high precision of our refined structure, we show that Josephin contains an open cleft which could be directly implicated in the interaction with polyubiquitin chains and other partners

  3. A dedicated system for topographical working memory: evidence from domain-specific interference tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L; Nori, R; Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Verde, P; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we used single- and dual-task conditions to investigate the nature of topographical working memory to better understand what type of task can hamper performance during navigation. During dual-task conditions, we considered four different sources of interference: motor (M), spatial motor (SM), verbal (i.e. articulatory suppression AS) and spatial environmental (SE). In order to assess the nature of topographical working memory, we used the Walking Corsi Test, asking the participants to perform two tasks simultaneously (M, SM, AS and SE). Our results showed that only spatial-environmental interference hampers the execution of a topographical working memory task, suggesting a task-domain-specific effect. We also found general gender differences in the topographical working memory capabilities: men were more proficient than women, regardless of the type of interferences. However, like men, women performed worse when a spatial-environmental interference was present.

  4. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  5. Examining the evidence for major histocompatibility complex-dependent mate selection in humans and nonhuman primates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Abbate, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, 13 May (2015), s. 73-88 ISSN 1179-7274 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : major histocompatibility complex * sexual selection * olfaction * facial attraction * parasite resistance * inbreeding avoidance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of major depressive disorder: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). rTMS is a noninvasive way to stimulate nerve cells in areas of the brain. During rTMS, an electrical current passes through a wire coil placed over the scalp. The current induces a magnetic field that produces an electrical field in the brain that then causes nerve cells to depolarize, resulting in the stimulation or disruption of brain activity. Researchers have investigated rTMS as an option to treat MDD, as an add-on to drug therapy, and, in particular, as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for patients with treatment-resistant depression. The advantages of rTMS over ECT for patients with severe refractory depression are that general anesthesia is not needed, it is an outpatient procedure, it requires less energy, the simulation is specific and targeted, and convulsion is not required. The advantages of rTMS as an add-on treatment to drug therapy may include hastening of the clinical response when used with antidepressant drugs. The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from January 1996 to March 2004. Some early meta-analyses suggested rTMS might be effective for the treatment of MDD (for treatment-resistant MDD and as an add-on treatment to drug therapy for patients not specifically defined as treatment resistant). There were, however, several crucial methodological limitations in the included studies that were not critically assessed. These are discussed below. Recent meta-analyses (including 2 international health technology assessments) have done evidence-based critical analyses of studies that have assessed rTMS for MDD. The 2 most recent health technology assessments (from the Oxford Cochrane Collaboration and the Norwegian Centre for Health Technology

  7. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis and Probabilistic Inference: Evidence from the Domain of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Emily; Xu, Yang; Austerweil, Joseph L; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis holds that our thoughts are shaped by our native language, and that speakers of different languages therefore think differently. This hypothesis is controversial in part because it appears to deny the possibility of a universal groundwork for human cognition, and in part because some findings taken to support it have not reliably replicated. We argue that considering this hypothesis through the lens of probabilistic inference has the potential to resolve both issues, at least with respect to certain prominent findings in the domain of color cognition. We explore a probabilistic model that is grounded in a presumed universal perceptual color space and in language-specific categories over that space. The model predicts that categories will most clearly affect color memory when perceptual information is uncertain. In line with earlier studies, we show that this model accounts for language-consistent biases in color reconstruction from memory in English speakers, modulated by uncertainty. We also show, to our knowledge for the first time, that such a model accounts for influential existing data on cross-language differences in color discrimination from memory, both within and across categories. We suggest that these ideas may help to clarify the debate over the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

  8. Do Persistence and Passion Matter: Evidence from the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, David; Nigro, Peter; Roberto, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the determinants of success on the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test in Business. The authors find that gender, SAT performance, and concentration are significant predictors of performance. Additionally, they derive proxies for student passion and persistence, and find that the greater the student's passion for…

  9. Evidence for multiple major histocompatibility class II X-box binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Celada, A; Maki, R

    1989-01-01

    The X box is a loosely conserved DNA sequence that is located upstream of all major histocompatibility class II genes and is one of the cis-acting regulatory elements. Despite the similarity between all X-box sequences, each promoter-proximal X box in the mouse appears to bind a separate nuclear factor.

  10. The PAS domains of the major sporulation kinase in Bacillus subtilis play a role in tetramer formation that is essential for the autokinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehler, Brittany; Haggett, Lindsey; Fujita, Masaya

    2017-08-01

    Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is induced upon starvation. In a widely accepted model, an N-terminal "sensor" domain of the major sporulation kinase KinA recognizes a hypothetical starvation signal(s) and autophosphorylates a histidine residue to activate the master regulator Spo0A via a multicomponent phosphorelay. However, to date no confirmed signal has been found. Here, we demonstrated that PAS-A, the most N-terminal of the three PAS domains (PAS-ABC), is dispensable for the activity, contrary to a previous report. Our data indicated that the autokinase activity is dependent on the formation of a functional tetramer, which is mediated by, at least, PAS-B and PAS-C. Additionally, we ruled out the previously proposed notion that NAD + /NADH ratio controls KinA activity through the PAS-A domain by demonstrating that the cofactors show no effects on the kinase activity in vitro. In support of these data, we found that the cofactors exist in approximately 1000-fold excess of KinA in the cell and the cofactors' ratio does not change significantly during growth and sporulation, suggesting that changes in the cofactor ratio might not play a role in controlling KinA activity. These data may refute the widely-held belief that the activity of KinA is regulated in response to an unknown starvation signal(s). © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Visualization of evidence-based medicine domain knowledge: production and citation of Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiantong; Li, Youping; Clarke, Mike; Du, Liang; Wang, Li; Zhong, Dake

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the production and utilization of Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) and to analyze its influential factors, so as to improve the capacity of translating CSRs into practice. All CSRs and protocols were retrieved from the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2011) and citation data were retrieved from SCI database. Citation analysis was used to analyze the situation of CSRs production and utilization. CSR publication had grown from an annual average of 32 to 718 documents. Only one developing country was among the ten countries with the largest amount of publications. High-income countries accounted for 83% of CSR publications and 90.8% of cited counts. A total 34.7% of CSRs had a cited count of 0, whereas only 0.9% had been cited more than 50 times. Highly cited CSRs were published in England, Australia, Canada, USA and other high-income countries. The countries with a Cochrane center or a Cochrane methodology group had a greater capability of CSRs production and citing than others. The CSRs addressing the topics of diseases were more than those targeted at public health issues. There was a big gap in citations of different interventions even on the same topic. The capability of CSR production and utilization grew rapidly, but varied among countries and institutions, which was affected by several factors such as the capability of research, resources and the applicability of evidence. It is important to improve evidence translation through educating, training and prioritizing the problems based on real demands of end users. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  12. The linker domain of poly(rC) binding protein 2 is a major determinant in poliovirus cap-independent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean, Polen; Nguyen, Joseph H C; Semler, Bert L

    2008-09-01

    Poliovirus, a member of the enterovirus genus in the family Picornaviridae, is the causative agent of poliomyelitis. Translation of the viral genome is mediated through an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) encoded within the 5' noncoding region (5' NCR). IRES elements are highly structured RNA sequences that facilitate the recruitment of ribosomes for translation. Previous studies have shown that binding of a cellular protein, poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2), to a major stem-loop structure in the genomic 5' NCR is necessary for the translation of picornaviruses containing type I IRES elements, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and human rhinovirus. PCBP1, an isoform that shares approximately 90% amino acid identity to PCBP2, cannot efficiently stimulate poliovirus IRES-mediated translation, most likely due to its reduced binding affinity to stem-loop IV within the poliovirus IRES. The primary differences between PCBP1 and PCBP2 are found in the so-called linker domain between the second and third K-homology (KH) domains of these proteins. We hypothesize that the linker region of PCBP2 augments binding to poliovirus stem-loop IV RNA. To test this hypothesis, we generated six PCBP1/PCBP2 chimeric proteins. The recombinant PCBP1/PCBP2 chimeric proteins were able to interact with poliovirus stem-loop I RNA and participate in protein-protein interactions. We demonstrated that the PCBP1/PCBP2 chimeric proteins with the PCBP2 linker, but not with the PCBP1 linker, were able to interact with poliovirus stem-loop IV RNA, and could subsequently stimulate poliovirus IRES-mediated translation. In addition, using a monoclonal anti-PCBP2 antibody (directed against the PCBP2 linker domain) in mobility shift assays, we showed that the PCBP2 linker domain modulates binding to poliovirus stem-loop IV RNA via a mechanism that is not inhibited by the antibody.

  13. Evidence for glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchoring of Toxoplasma gondii major surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomavo, S.; Schwarz, R.T.; Dubremetz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The four major surface antigens of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (P43, P35, P30, and P22) were made water soluble by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). These antigens were biosynthetically labeled with 3 H-fatty acids, [ 3 H]ethanolamine, and [ 3 H]carbohydrates. Treatment of 3 H-fatty-acid-labeled parasite lysates with PI-PLC removed the radioactive label from these antigens. A cross-reacting determinant was exposed on these antigens after PI-PLC treatment

  14. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Shanghai, China: Evidence for an autosomal major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marazita, M.L. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)); Hu, Dan-Ning; Liu, You-E. (Zhabei Eye Institute, Shanghai (China)); Spence, A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Melnick, M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Orientals are at higher risk for cleft lip with our without cleft palate (CL[+-] P) than Caucasians or blacks. The authors collected demographic and family data to study factors contributing to the etiology of CL[+-]P in Shanghai. The birth incidence of nonsyndromic CL[+-]P (SHanghai 1980-87) was 1.11/1,000, with a male/female ratio of 1.42. Almost 2,000 nonsyndromic CL[+-]P probands were ascertained from individuals operated on during the years 1956-83 at surgical hospitals in Shanghai. Detailed family histories and medical examinations were obtained for the probands and all available family members. Genetic analysis of the probands' families were performed under the mixed model with major locus (ML) and multifactorial (MFT) components. The hypothesis of no familial transmission and of MFT alone could be rejected. Of the ML models, the autosomal recessive was significantly most likely and was assumed for testing three complex hypothesis: (1) ML and sporadics; (2) ML and MFT; (3) ML, MFT, and sporadics. None of the complex models were more likely than the ML alone model. In conclusion, the best-fitting, most parsimonious model for CL[+-]P in Shanghai was that of an autosomal recessive major locus. 37 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Suicide attempts in major depressive episode: evidence from the BRIDGE-II-Mix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dina; Vieta, Eduard; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Angst, Jules; Bowden, Charles L; Mosolov, Sergey; Young, Allan H; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-11-01

    The Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance, and Education (BRIDGE-II-Mix) study aimed to estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients with a major depressive episode (MDE) according to different definitions and to compare their clinical validity, looking into specific features such as suicidality. A total of 2,811 subjects were enrolled in this multicenter cross-sectional study. Psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. The analysis compared the characteristics of patients with MDE with (MDE-SA group) and without (MDE-NSA) a history of suicide attempts. The history of suicide attempts was registered in 628 patients (22.34%). In the MDE-SA group, women (72.5%, p = 0.028), (hypo)mania in first-degree relatives (20.5%, p suicide attempts. In the MDE-SA group, 75 patients (11.9%) fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 criteria for MDE with mixed features, and 250 patients (39.8%) fulfilled research-based diagnostic criteria for a mixed depressive episode. Important differences between MDE-SA and MDE-NSA patients have emerged. Early identification of symptoms such as risky behavior, psychomotor agitation, and impulsivity in patients with MDE, and treatment of mixed depressive states could represent a major step in suicide prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evidence of abnormal left ventricular function in patients with thalassaemia major: an echocardiography based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Hyder, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Thalassaemia represent one of the most common single gene disorder causing a major public health problem in Pakistan. Nearly 100,000 people are born worldwide with this severe blood disorder every year. Over the last 3 decades, the development of regular transfusion therapy and iron chelation has dramatically improved the quality of life and transformed thalassaemia from a rapidly fatal disease to a chronic disease compatible with prolonged survival. Objective of this observational cross sectional study was to determine the effects of chronic anaemia and transfusional iron overload on the left ventricular function using Doppler echocardiography. This study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Cardiology, The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan from first April 2006 to September 30, 2007. The study comprised of 50 consecutive cases of beta-Thalassaemia major and 30 controls with normal haemoglobin and electrophoresis pattern. beta- Thalassaemia major patients were diagnosed on the basis of haemoglobin electrophoresis. Patients with any congenital or acquired heart disease, concurrent infective disorder and with history of cardiac surgery were excluded from the study. 2-D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed in all the study cases and controls. Statistical comparison of study cases and controls was conducted by using unpaired t-test. The age of the patients ranged from 2 years to 25 years with mean age of 9.65 years. Males were 34 (68%) and females were 16 (32%). None of the study cases was on regular chelation programme while 31 (62%) patients were on irregular chelation with single dose of intravenous desferrioxamine only at the time of blood transfusion. 19 (38%) of the patients had LV dysfunction in the form of isolated systolic dysfunction in 2 (4%), isolated diastolic dysfunction in 15 (30%) while global dysfunction in 2 (4%) of the patients. Left ventricular dimensions, stroke volume and E/A ratio were

  17. Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705

  18. Observational evidence for supernova-induced star formation: Canis Major R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, W.; Assousa, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The R association CMa R1, which contains two classical Herbig emission stars (Z CMa and HD 53367) and several other extremely young stellar objects, is found to lie at the edge of a large-scale ring of emission nebulosity. The form of the ring, which is also seen at radio wavelengths, and the absence of luminous stellar objects at its center suggest that it may be a relatively old supernova remnant (SNR). This suggestion is greatly strengthened by the discovery of an expanding H I shell coincident with the optical feature and the discovery of a runaway star, HD 54662, in CMa OB1. An age of order 5 x 10 5 years is derived for the SNR by comparing its properties with theoretical expectation based on models of SNRs evolving in a uniform medium. The close agreement between the likely ages of the stars and the age of the SNR, as well as the location of the recently formed objects with respect to the supernova shell, strongly support the hypothesis that a supernova event triggered star formation in CMa R1. Several other cases where evidence exists for supernova-induced star formation are briefly discussed, the most interesting being the Orion region where the hypothesis may provide a simple explanation for such diverse features as the runaway stars, Barnard's loop, and the gas kinematics and recent star formation in the Trapezium region

  19. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: a user's guide, content overview, and review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Yao, Christopher A

    2015-02-07

    There is a growing concern among researchers with the limited effectiveness and yet subsequent stagnation of theories applied to physical activity (PA). One of the most highlighted areas of concern is the established gap between intention and PA, yet the considerable use of models that assume intention is the proximal antecedent of PA. The objective of this review was to: 1) provide a guide and thematic analysis of the available models that include constructs that address intention-behavior discordance and 2) highlight the evidence for these structures in the PA domain. A literature search was conducted among 13 major databases to locate relevant models and PA studies published before August 2014. Sixteen models were identified and nine overall themes for post-intentional constructs were created. Of the 16 models, eight were applied to 36 PA studies. Early evidence supported maintenance self-efficacy, behavioral regulation strategies, affective judgments, perceived control/opportunity, habit, and extraversion as reliable predictors of post-intention PA. Several intention-behavior discordance models exist within the literature, but are not used frequently. Further efforts are needed to test these models, preferably with experimental designs.

  20. Caution Is Required in Interpretation of Mutations in the Voltage Sensing Domain of Voltage Gated Channels as Evidence for Gating Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisher M. Kariev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gating mechanism of voltage sensitive ion channels is generally considered to be the motion of the S4 transmembrane segment of the voltage sensing domains (VSD. The primary supporting evidence came from R→C mutations on the S4 transmembrane segment of the VSD, followed by reaction with a methanethiosulfonate (MTS reagent. The cys side chain is –SH (reactive form –S−; the arginine side chain is much larger, leaving space big enough to accommodate the MTS sulfonate head group. The cavity created by the mutation has space for up to seven more water molecules than were present in wild type, which could be displaced irreversibly by the MTS reagent. Our quantum calculations show there is major reorientation of three aromatic residues that face into the cavity in response to proton displacement within the VSD. Two phenylalanines reorient sufficiently to shield/unshield the cysteine from the intracellular and extracellular ends, depending on the proton positions, and a tyrosine forms a hydrogen bond to the cysteine sulfur with its side chain –OH. These could produce the results of the experiments that have been interpreted as evidence for physical motion of the S4 segment, without physical motion of the S4 backbone. The computations strongly suggest that the interpretation of cysteine substitution reaction experiments be re-examined in the light of these considerations.

  1. Does psychomotor agitation in major depressive episodes indicate bipolarity? Evidence from the Zurich Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Benazzi, Franco; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-02-01

    Kraepelin's partial interpretation of agitated depression as a mixed state of "manic-depressive insanity" (including the current concept of bipolar disorder) has recently been the focus of much research. This paper tested whether, how, and to what extent both psychomotor symptoms, agitation and retardation in depression are related to bipolarity and anxiety. The prospective Zurich Study assessed psychiatric and somatic syndromes in a community sample of young adults (N = 591) (aged 20 at first interview) by six interviews over 20 years (1979-1999). Psychomotor symptoms of agitation and retardation were assessed by professional interviewers from age 22 to 40 (five interviews) on the basis of the observed and reported behaviour within the interview section on depression. Psychiatric diagnoses were strictly operationalised and, in the case of bipolar-II disorder, were broader than proposed by DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. As indicators of bipolarity, the association with bipolar disorder, a family history of mania/hypomania/cyclothymia, together with hypomanic and cyclothymic temperament as assessed by the general behavior inventory (GBI) [15], and mood lability (an element of cyclothymic temperament) were used. Agitated and retarded depressive states were equally associated with the indicators of bipolarity and with anxiety. Longitudinally, agitation and retardation were significantly associated with each other (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.2), and this combined group of major depressives showed stronger associations with bipolarity, with both hypomanic/cyclothymic and depressive temperamental traits, and with anxiety. Among agitated, non-retarded depressives, unipolar mood disorder was even twice as common as bipolar mood disorder. Combined agitated and retarded major depressive states are more often bipolar than unipolar, but, in general, agitated depression (with or without retardation) is not more frequently bipolar than retarded depression (with or without agitation), and

  2. [Evidence-based quality assessment of 10-year orthodontic clinical trials in 4 major dental journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-nan; Lei, Fei-fei; Cao, Yan-li; Fu, Min-kui

    2010-02-01

    To assess the quality of orthodontic clinical trials published in 4 major dental journals in the past 10 years and establish the reference standard for orthodontic clinical trials and quality control of dental journals. All the clinical trials published in Chinese Journal of Stomatology, West China Journal of Stomatology, Journal of Practice Stomatology and Chinese Journal of Orthodontics from 1999 to 2008 were searched. The demographic information of the papers was extracted and the quality of the clinical trials according to the consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) was assessed. Four hundred and ninety-four clinical trials were retrieved, and 21.3% (105/494) of them were supported by grants. For the study design, only 26.1% (129/494) were prospective studies, and 3.8% (19/494) were randomized clinical trials. It was hard to evaluate precisely due to the lack of information about the details of the study designs. For the randomized clinical trials, the lack of details for randomization, allocation concealment, blinding and intention to treat compromised the quality. The general quality of clinical trials in orthodontics is poor. It needs to be improved both in the clinical study design and the paper writing.

  3. Major depression is not associated with blunting of aversive responses; evidence for enhanced anxious anticipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Grillon

    Full Text Available According to the emotion-context insensitivity (ECI hypothesis, major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a diminished ability to react emotionally to positive stimuli and with blunting of defensive responses to threat. That defensive responses are blunted in MDD seems inconsistent with the conceptualization and diagnostic nosology of MDD. The present study tested the ECI hypothesis in MDD using a threat of shock paradigm. Twenty-eight patients with MDD (35.5±10.4 years were compared with 28 controls (35.1±7.4 years. Participants were exposed to three conditions: no shock, predictable shock, and unpredictable shock. Startle magnitude was used to assess defensive responses. Inconsistent with the ECI hypothesis, startle potentiation to predictable and unpredictable shock was not reduced in the MDD group. Rather, MDD patients showed elevated startle throughout testing as well as increased contextual anxiety during the placement of the shock electrodes and in the predictable condition. A regression analysis indicated that illness duration and Beck depression inventory scores explained 37% (p<.005 of the variance in patients' startle reactivity. MDD is not associated with emotional blunting but rather enhanced defensive reactivity during anticipation of harm. These results do not support a strong version of the ECI hypothesis. Understanding the nature of stimuli or situations that lead to blunted or enhanced defensive reactivity will provide better insight into dysfunctional emotional experience in MDD.

  4. Major Depression Is Not Associated with Blunting of Aversive Responses; Evidence for Enhanced Anxious Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillon, Christian; Franco-Chaves, Jose A.; Mateus, Camilo F.; Ionescu, Dawn F.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the emotion-context insensitivity (ECI) hypothesis, major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a diminished ability to react emotionally to positive stimuli and with blunting of defensive responses to threat. That defensive responses are blunted in MDD seems inconsistent with the conceptualization and diagnostic nosology of MDD. The present study tested the ECI hypothesis in MDD using a threat of shock paradigm. Twenty-eight patients with MDD (35.5±10.4 years) were compared with 28 controls (35.1±7.4 years). Participants were exposed to three conditions: no shock, predictable shock, and unpredictable shock. Startle magnitude was used to assess defensive responses. Inconsistent with the ECI hypothesis, startle potentiation to predictable and unpredictable shock was not reduced in the MDD group. Rather, MDD patients showed elevated startle throughout testing as well as increased contextual anxiety during the placement of the shock electrodes and in the predictable condition. A regression analysis indicated that illness duration and Beck depression inventory scores explained 37% (p<.005) of the variance in patients’ startle reactivity. MDD is not associated with emotional blunting but rather enhanced defensive reactivity during anticipation of harm. These results do not support a strong version of the ECI hypothesis. Understanding the nature of stimuli or situations that lead to blunted or enhanced defensive reactivity will provide better insight into dysfunctional emotional experience in MDD. PMID:23951057

  5. The integration of major fuel source markets in China. Evidence from panel cointegration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hengyun; Oxley, Les

    2010-01-01

    The paper tests for energy price co-movement in China over the 'new regime' as part of a strategy to test for the existence of a national energy market. Panel cointegration test statistics suggest that not all energy commodities are spatially homogenous in prices and the processes of energy price cointegration are different over time and over groups of fuels. The statistics demonstrate China's gradual, spatially partial and idiosyncratic energy reform process. Coal and electricity price series have co-moved since 2003, while the national panel cointegration test statistics suggest that gasoline and diesel price series have co-moved since 1997. Regional panel tests also show that there are apparently differences in the emergence of energy price co-movement. This suggests that regional energy markets have emerged in China. One of the important lessons of the research is that an energy market has, to some extent, already emerged in China and, as a consequence, energy prices are much less distorted than previously. If correct, this fact is of major global significance both in terms of future environmental effects and future trade and investment negotiations as China is seen internationally as a 'market driven economy'. (author)

  6. Oxygen infrared spectra of oxyhemoglobins and oxymyoglobins. Evidence of two major liganded O2 structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.T.; Tucker, M.P.; Houtchens, R.A.; Caughey, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The dioxygen stretch bands in infrared spectra for solutions of oxy species of human hemoglobin A and its separated subunits, human mutant hemoglobin Zurich (β63His to Arg), rabbit hemoglobin, lamprey, hemoglobin, sperm whale myoglobin, bovine myoglobin, and a sea worm chlorocruorin are examined. Each protein exhibits multiple isotope-sensitive bands between 1160 and 1060 cm -1 for the liganded 16 O 2 , 17 O 2 , and 18 O 2 . The O-O stretch bands for each of the mammalian myoglobins and hemoglobins are similar, with frequencies that differ between proteins by only 3-5 cm -1 . The spectra for the lamprey and sea worm hemoglobins exhibit greater diversity. For all proteins an O-O stretch band expected to occur near 1125 cm -1 for 16 O 2 and 17 O 2 , but not 18 O 2 , appears split by ∼25 cm -1 due to an unidentified perturbation. The spectrum for each dioxygen isotope, if unperturbed, would contain two strong bands for the mammalian myoglobins (1150 and 1120 cm -1 ) and hemoglobins (1155 and 1125 cm -1 ). Two strong bands separated by ∼30 cm -1 for each oxy heme protein subunit indicate that two major protein conformations (structure) that differ substantially in O 2 bonding are present. The two dioxygen structures can result from a combination of dynamic distal and proximal effects upon the O 2 ligand bound in a bent-end-on stereochemistry

  7. Evidence for major input of riverine organic matter into the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Balch, William M.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The changes in the structure of XAD-8 isolated dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples along a river (Penobscot River) to estuary (Penobscot Bay) to ocean (across the Gulf of Maine) transect and from the Pacific Ocean were investigated using selective and two dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with elemental and carbon isotope analysis. The results provide important insights into the nature of relatively stable structures in the river-to-ocean continuum and the enigma of the fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine system. First, lignin and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAMs), which are indistinguishable from mass spectrometry, were clearly differentiated with NMR spectroscopy. NMR unambiguously showed that CRAMs persisted along the river-to-ocean transect and in the Pacific Ocean, while lignin residues dramatically decreased in abundance from the river to the coastal ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The results challenge a previous conclusion that lignin-derived compounds are refractory and can accumulate in the coastal ocean. The loss of terrestrial plant-derived aromatic compounds such as lignin and tannin residues throughout the sequence of riverine, coastal, and open ocean DOM extracts could also partially explain the decreasing organic carbon recovery by XAD-8 isolation and the change in carbon stable isotope composition from riverine DOM (δ13C −27.6‰) to ocean DOM (δ13C −23.0‰) extracts. The observation, from advanced NMR, of similar CRAM molecules in XAD-8 isolated DOM samples from the Penobscot River to the Penobscot Bay and from the ocean refutes a previous conclusion that XAD-isolated DOM samples from seawater and river are distinctly different. The alicyclic structural features of CRAMs and their presence as the major structural units in DOM extracts from the Penobscot River to Gulf of Maine transect, together with the deduced old 14C age of CRAMs in the ocean, imply that terrestrial CRAMs may persist on

  8. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simon D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s of delivery could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be

  9. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; O'Connor, Denise A; McKenzie, Joanne E; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Schattner, Peter; Spike, Neil; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2012-04-24

    There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a

  10. Energy consumption and economic growth for selected OECD countries: Further evidence from the Granger causality test in the frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoklu, Seref; Yilanci, Veli

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to reexamine the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 20 OECD countries. To that end, we employ a Granger causality test in the frequency domain which allows us to distinguish short (temporary) and long-run (permanent) causality. The empirical results could be summarized as following. First, in terms of causality running from GDP to energy consumption, there is a temporary relationship for Australia, Austria, Canada, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Portugal, the UK, the USA, and a permanent relationship for Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, and the USA. Second, in terms of causality running from energy consumption to GDP, there is a temporary relationship for Austria, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Portugal, and a permanent relationship for Belgium, Finland, Greece, Italy, Japan, and Portugal. The main implication of our finding is that the energy policies should take into consideration not only the causality direction between economic growth and energy consumption but also whether it is temporal or permanent and furthermore authorities must design policy actions accordingly. - Highlights: • This study reexamines the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. • We employ frequency causality analysis to determine temporary and permanent causality. • The results provide evidence of both temporary and permanent causality relationships for countries examined. • Energy policies should consider whether the causality is temporal or permanent

  11. Radiometric, magnetic, and gravity study of the Quixadá batholith, central Ceará domain (NE Brazil): evidence for Pan-African/Brasiliano extension-controlled emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Mariano Gomes Castelo Branco, Raimundo; Martins, Guttenberg; Araújo de Castro, Neivaldo

    2002-10-01

    A geophysical survey was conducted in the central Ceará domain of the Borborema Province (NE Brazil). The aim of this investigation was to find geophysical evidence for the emplacement of the Quixadá batholith, which is a granitic body probably situated in the local extensional site in the oblique collisional regime of the Pan-African/Brasiliano collage. Remote sensing and airborne geophysical data provided information on the regional deformation that affected the intrusion and surrounding country rocks. In addition, a gravity study was used to determine the three-dimensional geometry and constrain the emplacement model of the Quixadá granite at depth. The trajectories of structural and magnetic lineaments suggest that the regional deformation is strongly influenced by dextral transcurrent movements of the major shear zones. The batholith, which shows an unusual positive gravity anomaly and a low U counts, displays a subhorizontal floor with several gently dipping areas, which are interpreted as magma feeder channels. The 2300 m thick root zones are roughly aligned with NE-SW-trending shear zones. Finally, the internal architecture of the pluton suggests that the Quixadá batholith was emplaced in a dilational shear zone tip area at the north end of Quixeramobim shear zone.

  12. Articulating the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikozho, C.; Danga, L.; Saruchera, D.

    2017-08-01

    Governance of the water sector in South Africa has reflected the political changes taking place in society. For instance, due to apartheid policies of segregation, inequality of access to water resources marks South Africa's history in a very profound way and redistribution of rights to water to redress the results of past discrimination became an explicit purpose of the post-apartheid water governance policy and legislative regime. In this paper, we articulate the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law. This includes documenting and reflecting on most of the available information that shows how the new water policy and law were developed. Findings from the study show that the key players active in the water law review process deliberately took into account the political goals and dynamics of power asymmetry within which the law was being articulated. Therefore, the water law as it stands today and in the past must be understood within the context of the socio-economic and political landscape that has prevailed in South Africa at different historical junctures. We contend that a detailed examination and articulation of the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law enables practitioners and scholars to better understand the main motivations behind the water sector reforms and the then prevailing thinking behind the policy and legislation eventually promulgated. The present water law must be understood in the context of these reforms and the objectives they sought to achieve.

  13. Correlated Longitudinal Changes across Linguistic, Achievement, and Psychomotor Domains in Early Childhood: Evidence for a Global Dimension of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemtulla, Mijke; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    An important question within developmental psychology concerns the extent to which the maturational gains that children make across multiple diverse domains of functioning can be attributed to global (domain-general) developmental processes. The present study investigated this question by examining the extent to which individual differences in…

  14. In Sickness but Not in Wealth: Field Evidence on Patients' Risk Preferences in Financial and Health Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo M; Miraldo, Marisa; Stavropoulou, Charitini

    2016-05-01

    We present results from a hypothetical framed field experiment assessing whether risk preferences significantly differ across the health and financial domains when they are elicited through the same multiple price list paired-lottery method. We consider a sample of 300 patients attending outpatient clinics in a university hospital in Athens during the Greek financial crisis. Risk preferences in finance were elicited using paired-lottery questions with hypothetical payments. The questions were adapted to the health domain by framing the lotteries as risky treatments in hypothetical health care scenarios. Using maximum likelihood methods, we estimated the degree of risk aversion, allowing for the estimates to be dependent on domain and individual characteristics. The subjects in our sample, who were exposed to both health and financial distress, tended to be less risk averse in the financial domain than in the health domain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Cooperativity in the two-domain arginine kinase from the sea anemone Anthopleura japonicus. II. Evidence from site-directed mutagenesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2010-08-01

    The arginine kinase (AK) from the sea anemone Anthopleura japonicus has an unusual two-domain structure (contiguous dimer; denoted by D1-D2). In a previous report, we suggested cooperativity in the contiguous dimer, which may be a result of domain-domain interactions, using MBP-fused enzymes. To further understand this observation, we inserted six-Lys residues into the linker region of the two-domain AK (D1-K6-D2 mutant) using His-tagged enzyme. The dissociation constants, K(a) and K(ia), of the mutant were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme but the catalytic constant, k(cat), was decreased to 28% that of the wild-type, indicating that some of the domain-domain interactions are lost due to the six-Lys insertion. Y68 plays a major role in arginine binding in the catalytic pocket in Limulus AK, and introduction of mutation at the Y68 position virtually abolishes catalytic activity. Thus, the constructed D1(Y68G)-D2 and D1-D2(Y68G) mutants mimic the D1(inactive)-D2(active) and D1(active)-D2(inactive) enzymes, respectively. The k(cat) values of both Y68 mutants were decreased to 13-18% that of the wild-type enzyme, which is much less than the 50% level of the two-domain enzyme. Thus, it is clear that substrate-binding to both domains is necessary for full expression of activity. In other words, substrate-binding appears to act as the trigger of the functional cooperativity in two-domain AK. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic variation in the extended major histocompatibility complex and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Y Urayama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The enduring suspicion that infections and immunologic response may play a role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, is now supported, albeit still indirectly, by numerous epidemiological studies. The cumulative evidence includes, for example, descriptive observations of a peculiar peak incidence at age 2-5 years for ALL in economically developed countries, clustering of cases in situations of population mixing associated with unusual patterns of personal contacts, associations with various proxy measures for immune modulatory exposures early in life, and genetic susceptibility conferred by variation in genes involved in the immune system. In this review, our focus is the extended major histocompatibility complex (xMHC, an approximately 7.6 megabase region that is well-known for its high density of expressed genes, extensive polymorphisms exhibiting complex linkage disequilibrium patterns, and its disproportionately large number of immune-related genes, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA. First discovered through the role they play in transplant rejection, the classical HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C and class II (HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP molecules reside at the epicenter of the immune response pathways and are now the targets of many disease susceptibility studies, including those for childhood leukemia. The genes encoding the HLA molecules are only a minority of the over 250 expressed genes in the xMHC, and a growing number of studies are beginning to evaluate other loci through targeted investigations or utilizing a mapping approach with a comprehensive screen of the entire region. Here, we review the current epidemiologic evidence available to date regarding genetic variation contained within this highly unique region of the genome and its relationship with childhood ALL risk.

  17. Source of boron in the Palokas gold deposit, northern Finland: evidence from boron isotopes and major element composition of tourmaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Jukka-Pekka; Hanski, Eero; Cook, Nick; Lahaye, Yann

    2017-06-01

    The recently discovered Palokas gold deposit is part of the larger Rompas-Rajapalot gold-mineralized system located in the Paleoproterozoic Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland. Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in the Palokas gold mineralization. It occurs as tourmalinite veins and as tourmaline crystals in sulfide-rich metasomatized gold-bearing rocks. In order to understand the origin of tourmaline in the gold-mineralized rocks, we have investigated the major element chemistry and boron isotope composition of tourmaline from three areas: (1) the Palokas gold mineralization, (2) a pegmatitic tourmaline granite, and (3) the evaporitic Petäjäskoski Formation. Based on textural evidence, tourmaline in gold mineralization is divided into two different types. Type 1 is located within the host rock and is cut by rock-forming anthophyllite crystals. Type 2 occurs in late veins and/or breccia zones consisting of approximately 80% tourmaline and 20% sulfides, commonly adjacent to quartz veins. All the studied tourmaline samples belong to the alkali-group tourmaline and can be classified as dravite and schorl. The δ11B values of the three localities lie in the same range, from 0 to -4‰. Tourmaline from the Au mineralization and from the Petäjäskoski Formation has similar compositional trends. Mg is the major substituent for Al; inferred low Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios and Na values (molybdenite related to the tourmaline-sulfide-quartz veins, we propose that the tourmaline-forming process is a result of a single magmatic-hydrothermal event related to the extensive granite magmatism at around 1.79-1.77 Ga. Tourmaline was crystallized throughout the hydrothermal process, which resulted in the paragenetic variation between type 1 and type 2. The close association of tourmaline and gold suggests that the gold precipitated from the same boron-rich source as tourmaline.

  18. The major-effect quantitative trait locus CsARN6.1 encodes an AAA ATPase domain-containing protein that is associated with waterlogging stress tolerance by promoting adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Weng, Yiqun; Chen, Xuehao

    2018-03-01

    In plants, the formation of hypocotyl-derived adventitious roots (ARs) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis remains fragmentary. Here, through combined use of bulked segregant analysis-based whole-genome sequencing, SNP haplotyping and fine genetic mapping, we identified a candidate gene for a major-effect QTL, ARN6.1, that was responsible for waterlogging tolerance due to increased AR formation in the cucumber line Zaoer-N. Through multiple lines of evidence, we show that CsARN6.1 is the most possible candidate for ARN6.1 which encodes an AAA ATPase. The increased formation of ARs under waterlogging in Zaoer-N could be attributed to a non-synonymous SNP in the coiled-coil domain region of this gene. CsARN6.1 increases the number of ARs via its ATPase activity. Ectopic expression of CsARN6.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in better rooting ability and lateral root development in transgenic plants. Transgenic cucumber expressing the CsARN6.1 Asp allele from Zaoer-N exhibited a significant increase in number of ARs compared with the wild type expressing the allele from Pepino under waterlogging conditions. Taken together, these data support that the AAA ATPase gene CsARN6.1 has an important role in increasing cucumber AR formation and waterlogging tolerance. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evidence of Bos javanicus x Bos indicus hybridization and major QTLs for birth weight in Indonesian Peranakan Ongole cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Hartati; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Sonstegard, Tad Stewart; Garcia, José Fernando; Jakaria, Jakaria; Muladno, Muladno

    2015-07-04

    Peranakan Ongole (PO) is a major Indonesian Bos indicus breed that derives from animals imported from India in the late 19(th) century. Early imports were followed by hybridization with the Bos javanicus subspecies of cattle. Here, we used genomic data to partition the ancestry components of PO cattle and map loci implicated in birth weight. We found that B. javanicus contributes about 6-7% to the average breed composition of PO cattle. Only two nearly fixed B. javanicus haplotypes were identified, suggesting that most of the B. javanicus variants are segregating under drift or by the action of balancing selection. The zebu component of the PO genome was estimated to derive from at least two distinct ancestral pools. Additionally, well-known loci underlying body size in other beef cattle breeds, such as the PLAG1 region on chromosome 14, were found to also affect birth weight in PO cattle. This study is the first attempt to characterize PO at the genome level, and contributes evidence of successful, stabilized B. indicus x B. javanicus hybridization. Additionally, previously described loci implicated in body size in worldwide beef cattle breeds also affect birth weight in PO cattle.

  20. Evidence-based selection of theories for designing behaviour change interventions: using methods based on theoretical construct domains to understand clinicians' blood transfusion behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jill J; Stockton, Charlotte; Eccles, Martin P; Johnston, Marie; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hyde, Chris; Tinmouth, Alan; Stanworth, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    Many theories of behaviour are potentially relevant to predictive and intervention studies but most studies investigate a narrow range of theories. Michie et al. (2005) agreed 12 'theoretical domains' from 33 theories that explain behaviour change. They developed a 'Theoretical Domains Interview' (TDI) for identifying relevant domains for specific clinical behaviours, but the framework has not been used for selecting theories for predictive studies. It was used here to investigate clinicians' transfusion behaviour in intensive care units (ICU). Evidence suggests that red blood cells transfusion could be reduced for some patients without reducing quality of care. (1) To identify the domains relevant to transfusion practice in ICUs and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), using the TDI. (2) To use the identified domains to select appropriate theories for a study predicting transfusion behaviour. An adapted TDI about managing a patient with borderline haemoglobin by watching and waiting instead of transfusing red blood cells was used to conduct semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with 18 intensive care consultants and neonatologists across the UK. Relevant theoretical domains were: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, social influences, behavioural regulation. Further analysis at the construct level resulted in selection of seven theoretical approaches relevant to this context: Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Control Theory, Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness and Action Planning Approaches. This study illustrated, the use of the TDI to identify relevant domains in a complex area of inpatient care. This approach is potentially valuable for selecting theories relevant to predictive studies and resulted in greater breadth of potential explanations than would be achieved if a single theoretical model had been adopted.

  1. Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Hutka, Stefanie; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese) speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory). While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language.

  2. Tone Language Speakers and Musicians Share Enhanced Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities for Musical Pitch: Evidence for Bidirectionality between the Domains of Language and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Hutka, Stefanie; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese) speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory). While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language. PMID:23565267

  3. Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M Bidelman

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory. While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language.

  4. Long-lasting Cadomian magmatic activity along an active northern Gondwana margin: U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Brunovistulian Domain, eastern Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Žáčková, Eliška; Sláma, Jiří; Konopásek, Jiří; Machek, Matěj; Hanžl, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    Cadomian magmatic complexes of the Brunovistulian Domain crop out at the eastern termination of the Bohemian Massif. However, the age, nature and geotectonic affinity of some of pre-Variscan (meta-)igneous rock complexes from this domain are still unknown. Geochronological and geochemical study of the granitic rocks across the Brunovistulian Domain reveals new information about the timing and nature of this magmatic activity originally situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. Zircon U-Pb data (601 ± 3 Ma, Brno Massif; 634 ± 6 Ma, paraautochtonous core of the Svratka Dome; 568 ± 3 Ma, Bíteš orthogneiss) from the allochtonous Moravicum indicate the prolonged magmatic activity within the Brunovistulian Domain during the Ediacaran. The major- and trace-element and Sr-Nd isotopic signatures show heterogeneous geochemical characteristics of the granitic rocks and suggest a magmatic-arc geotectonic setting. The two-stage Depleted Mantle Nd model ages ( c. 1.3-2.0 Ga) indicate derivation of the granitic rocks from a relatively primitive crustal source, as well as from an ancient and evolved continental crust of the Brunovistulian Domain. These results constrain the magmatic-arc activity to c. 635-570 Ma and provide a further evidence for a long-lived (at least c. 65 Myr) and likely episodic subduction-related magmatism at the northern margin of Gondwana. The presence of granitic intrusions derived from variously mature crustal sources at different times suggests heterogeneous crustal segments to having been involved in the magmatic-arc system during its multistage evolution.

  5. Integrated cross-domain object storage in working memory: evidence from a verbal-spatial memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Candice C

    2009-11-01

    Working-memory theories often include domain-specific verbal and visual stores (e.g., the phonological and visuospatial buffers of Baddeley, 1986), and some also posit more general stores thought to be capable of holding verbal or visuospatial materials (Baddeley, 2000; Cowan, 2005). However, it is currently unclear which type of store is primarily responsible for maintaining objects that include components from multiple domains. In these studies, a spatial array of letters was followed by a single probe identical to an item in the array or differing systematically in spatial location, letter identity, or their combination. Concurrent verbal rehearsal suppression impaired memory in each of these trial types in a task that required participants to remember verbal-spatial binding, but did not impair memory for spatial locations if the task did not require verbal-spatial binding for a correct response. Thus, spatial information might be stored differently when it must be bound to verbal information. This suggests that a cross-domain store such as the episodic buffer of Baddeley (2000) or the focus of attention of Cowan (2001) might be used for integrated object storage, rather than the maintenance of associations between features stored in separate domain-specific buffers.

  6. Integrated cross-domain object storage in working memory : Evidence from a verbal-spatial memory task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Working-memory theories often include domain-specific verbal and visual stores (e.g., the phonological and visuospatial buffers of Baddeley, 1986), and some also posit more general stores thought to be capable of holding verbal or visuospatial materials (Baddeley, 2000; Cowan, 2005). However, it is

  7. Evidence for functional interaction between domains II and V of 23S ribosomal RNA from an erythromycin-resistant mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Prince, J B; Noller, H F

    1985-01-01

    A mutation affording low levels of erythromycin resistance has been obtained by in vitro hydroxylamine mutagenesis of a cloned ribosomal RNA operon from Escherichia coli. The site of the mutational event responsible for antibiotic resistance was localized to the gene region encoding domain II of ...

  8. Comparing Cognitive Models of Domain Mastery and Task Performance in Algebra: Validity Evidence for a State Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Zachary B.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared an expert-based cognitive model of domain mastery with student-based cognitive models of task performance for Integrated Algebra. Interpretations of student test results are limited by experts' hypotheses of how students interact with the items. In reality, the cognitive processes that students use to solve each item may be…

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of the Domains of Satisfaction before and after Disability: Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of the onset of disability on life satisfaction and five different domains of satisfaction (health, household income, housing, job, leisure) for German individuals. Particular attention is paid to examining whether individuals can adapt to disability over time before and after its onset in terms of…

  10. Evolution of GHF5 endoglucanase gene structure in plant-parasitic nematodes: no evidence for an early domain shuffling event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Tina; Haegeman, Annelies; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2008-11-03

    Endo-1,4-beta-glucanases or cellulases from the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5) have been found in numerous bacteria and fungi, and recently also in higher eukaryotes, particularly in plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN). The origin of these genes has been attributed to horizontal gene transfer from bacteria, although there still is a lot of uncertainty about the origin and structure of the ancestral GHF5 PPN endoglucanase. It is not clear whether this ancestral endoglucanase consisted of the whole gene cassette, containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM, type 2 in PPN and bacteria) or only of the catalytic domain while the CBM2 was retrieved by domain shuffling later in evolution. Previous studies on the evolution of these genes have focused primarily on data of sedentary nematodes, while in this study, extra data from migratory nematodes were included. Two new endoglucanases from the migratory nematodes Pratylenchus coffeae and Ditylenchus africanus were included in this study. The latter one is the first gene isolated from a PPN of a different superfamily (Sphaerularioidea); all previously known nematode endoglucanases belong to the superfamily Tylenchoidea (order Rhabditida). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted with the PPN GHF5 endoglucanases and homologous endoglucanases from bacterial and other eukaryotic lineages such as beetles, fungi and plants. No statistical incongruence between the phylogenetic trees deduced from the catalytic domain and the CBM2 was found, which could suggest that both domains have evolved together. Furthermore, based on gene structure data, we inferred a model for the evolution of the GHF5 endoglucanase gene structure in plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data confirm a close relationship between Pratylenchus spp. and the root knot nematodes, while some Radopholus similis endoglucanases are more similar to cyst nematode genes. We conclude that the ancestral PPN GHF5 endoglucanase gene most probably consisted of

  11. Evolution of GHF5 endoglucanase gene structure in plant-parasitic nematodes: no evidence for an early domain shuffling event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheysen Godelieve

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endo-1,4-beta-glucanases or cellulases from the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5 have been found in numerous bacteria and fungi, and recently also in higher eukaryotes, particularly in plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN. The origin of these genes has been attributed to horizontal gene transfer from bacteria, although there still is a lot of uncertainty about the origin and structure of the ancestral GHF5 PPN endoglucanase. It is not clear whether this ancestral endoglucanase consisted of the whole gene cassette, containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM, type 2 in PPN and bacteria or only of the catalytic domain while the CBM2 was retrieved by domain shuffling later in evolution. Previous studies on the evolution of these genes have focused primarily on data of sedentary nematodes, while in this study, extra data from migratory nematodes were included. Results Two new endoglucanases from the migratory nematodes Pratylenchus coffeae and Ditylenchus africanus were included in this study. The latter one is the first gene isolated from a PPN of a different superfamily (Sphaerularioidea; all previously known nematode endoglucanases belong to the superfamily Tylenchoidea (order Rhabditida. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted with the PPN GHF5 endoglucanases and homologous endoglucanases from bacterial and other eukaryotic lineages such as beetles, fungi and plants. No statistical incongruence between the phylogenetic trees deduced from the catalytic domain and the CBM2 was found, which could suggest that both domains have evolved together. Furthermore, based on gene structure data, we inferred a model for the evolution of the GHF5 endoglucanase gene structure in plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data confirm a close relationship between Pratylenchus spp. and the root knot nematodes, while some Radopholus similis endoglucanases are more similar to cyst nematode genes. Conclusion We conclude that the ancestral

  12. What does brain response to neutral faces tell us about major depression? evidence from machine learning and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leticia; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Phillips, Mary L; Brammer, Michael; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina

    2013-01-01

    A considerable number of previous studies have shown abnormalities in the processing of emotional faces in major depression. Fewer studies, however, have focused specifically on abnormal processing of neutral faces despite evidence that depressed patients are slow and less accurate at recognizing neutral expressions in comparison with healthy controls. The current study aimed to investigate whether this misclassification described behaviourally for neutral faces also occurred when classifying patterns of brain activation to neutral faces for these patients. TWO INDEPENDENT DEPRESSED SAMPLES: (1) Nineteen medication-free patients with depression and 19 healthy volunteers and (2) Eighteen depressed individuals and 18 age and gender-ratio-matched healthy volunteers viewed emotional faces (sad/neutral; happy/neutral) during an fMRI experiment. We used a new pattern recognition framework: first, we trained the classifier to discriminate between two brain states (e.g. viewing happy faces vs. viewing neutral faces) using data only from healthy controls (HC). Second, we tested the classifier using patterns of brain activation of a patient and a healthy control for the same stimuli. Finally, we tested if the classifier's predictions (predictive probabilities) for emotional and neutral face classification were different for healthy controls and depressed patients. Predictive probabilities to patterns of brain activation to neutral faces in both groups of patients were significantly lower in comparison to the healthy controls. This difference was specific to neutral faces. There were no significant differences in predictive probabilities to patterns of brain activation to sad faces (sample 1) and happy faces (samples 2) between depressed patients and healthy controls. Our results suggest that the pattern of brain activation to neutral faces in depressed patients is not consistent with the pattern observed in healthy controls subject to the same stimuli. This difference in

  13. What does brain response to neutral faces tell us about major depression? evidence from machine learning and fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Oliveira

    Full Text Available A considerable number of previous studies have shown abnormalities in the processing of emotional faces in major depression. Fewer studies, however, have focused specifically on abnormal processing of neutral faces despite evidence that depressed patients are slow and less accurate at recognizing neutral expressions in comparison with healthy controls. The current study aimed to investigate whether this misclassification described behaviourally for neutral faces also occurred when classifying patterns of brain activation to neutral faces for these patients.TWO INDEPENDENT DEPRESSED SAMPLES: (1 Nineteen medication-free patients with depression and 19 healthy volunteers and (2 Eighteen depressed individuals and 18 age and gender-ratio-matched healthy volunteers viewed emotional faces (sad/neutral; happy/neutral during an fMRI experiment. We used a new pattern recognition framework: first, we trained the classifier to discriminate between two brain states (e.g. viewing happy faces vs. viewing neutral faces using data only from healthy controls (HC. Second, we tested the classifier using patterns of brain activation of a patient and a healthy control for the same stimuli. Finally, we tested if the classifier's predictions (predictive probabilities for emotional and neutral face classification were different for healthy controls and depressed patients.Predictive probabilities to patterns of brain activation to neutral faces in both groups of patients were significantly lower in comparison to the healthy controls. This difference was specific to neutral faces. There were no significant differences in predictive probabilities to patterns of brain activation to sad faces (sample 1 and happy faces (samples 2 between depressed patients and healthy controls.Our results suggest that the pattern of brain activation to neutral faces in depressed patients is not consistent with the pattern observed in healthy controls subject to the same stimuli. This

  14. The Persistence of Traditional Gender Stereotypes: Evidence from the Distribution of Academic Honors at a Female-Majority University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. Lynn; Phillips, G. Michael

    2010-01-01

    A shift from male-majority to female-majority university campuses has opened up new areas for research on gender bias, stereotypes, and discrimination. At one large state university on the west coast, there were more female than male graduates in Spring, 2008 in 7 out of 8 colleges, including the traditionally male-majority areas of business and…

  15. A synthesis of evidence on inhibitory control and auditory hallucinations based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Mental Health initiative called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC project aims to provide a new approach to understanding mental illness grounded in the fundamental domains of human behaviour and psychological functioning. To this end the RDoC framework encourages researchers and clinicians to think outside the [diagnostic]box, by studying symptoms, behaviours or biomarkers that cut across traditional mental illness categories. In this article we examine and discuss how the RDoC framework can improve our understanding of psychopathology by zeroing in on hallucinations- now widely recognized as a symptom that occurs in a range of clinical and non-clinical groups. We focus on a single domain of functioning - namely cognitive [inhibitory] control - and assimilate key findings structured around the basic RDoC units of analysis, which span the range from observable behaviour to molecular genetics. Our synthesis and critique of the literature provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of auditory hallucinations, linked to the individual dynamics of inhibitory development before and after puberty; favours separate developmental trajectories for clinical and nonclinical hallucinations; yields new insights into co-occurring emotional and behavioural problems; and suggests some novel avenues for treatment.

  16. The role of domain-general frontal systems in language comprehension: evidence from dual-task interference and semantic ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Davis, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) plays a critical role in semantic and syntactic aspects of speech comprehension. It appears to be recruited when listeners are required to select the appropriate meaning or syntactic role for words within a sentence. However, this region is also recruited during tasks not involving sentence materials, suggesting that the systems involved in processing ambiguous words within sentences are also recruited for more domain-general tasks that involve the selection of task-relevant information. We use a novel dual-task methodology to assess whether the cognitive system(s) that are engaged in selecting word meanings are also involved in non-sentential tasks. In Experiment 1, listeners were slower to decide whether a visually presented letter is in upper or lower case when the sentence that they are simultaneously listening to contains words with multiple meanings (homophones), compared to closely matched sentences without homophones. Experiment 2 indicates that this interference effect is not tied to the occurrence of the homophone itself, but rather occurs when listeners must reinterpret a sentence that was initially misparsed. These results suggest some overlap between the cognitive system involved in semantic disambiguation and the domain-general process of response selection required for the case-judgement task. This cognitive overlap may reflect neural overlap in the networks supporting these processes, and is consistent with the proposal that domain-general selection processes in inferior frontal regions are critical for language comprehension. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  18. DNA-binding site of major regulatory protein alpha 4 specifically associated with promoter-regulatory domains of alpha genes of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Kristie, T M; Roizman, B

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 genes form at least five groups (alpha, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 1, and gamma 2) whose expression is coordinately regulated and sequentially ordered in a cascade fashion. Previous studies have shown that functional alpha 4 gene product is essential for the transition from alpha to beta protein synthesis and have suggested that alpha 4 gene expression is autoregulatory. We have previously reported that labeled DNA fragments containing promoter-regulatory domains of thr...

  19. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  20. Scientific Reasoning in Early and Middle Childhood: The Development of Domain-General Evidence Evaluation, Experimentation, and Hypothesis Generation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation,…

  1. Illusory Memories of Emotionally Charged Words in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Further Evidence for Atypical Emotion Processing outside the Social Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with ASD may not accumulate distinct representations of emotional information throughout development. On the basis of this observation we predicted that such individuals would not be any less likely to falsely remember emotionally significant as compared to neutral words when such "illusory memories" are…

  2. Membrane binding properties of EBV gp110 C-terminal domain; evidences for structural transition in the membrane environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jean; Seo, Min-Duk; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Lee, Bong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Gp110 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mainly localizes on nuclear/ER membranes and plays a role in the assembly of EBV nucleocapsid. The C-terminal tail domain (gp110 CTD) is essential for the function of gp110 and the nuclear/ER membranes localization of gp110 is ruled by its C-terminal unique nuclear localization signal (NLS), consecutive four arginines. In the present study, the structural properties of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics were investigated using CD, size-exclusion chromatography, and NMR, to elucidate the effect of membrane environment on the structural transition and to compare the structural feature of the protein in the solution state with that of the membrane-bound form. CD and NMR analysis showed that gp110 CTD in a buffer solution appears to adopt a stable folding intermediate which lacks compactness, and a highly helical structure is formed only in membrane environments. The helical content of gp110 CTD was significantly affected by the negative charge as well as the size of membrane mimics. Based on the elution profiles of the size-exclusion chromatography, we found that gp110 CTD intrinsically forms a trimer, revealing that a trimerization region may exist in the C-terminal domain of gp110 like the ectodomain of gp110. The mutation of NLS (RRRR) to RTTR does not affect the overall structure of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics, while the helical propensity in a buffer solution was slightly different between the wild-type and the mutant proteins. This result suggests that not only the helicity induced in membrane environment but also the local structure around NLS may be related to trafficking to the nuclear membrane. More detailed structural difference between the wild-type and the mutant in membrane environment was examined using synthetic two peptides including the wild-type NLS and the mutant NLS

  3. No evidence for association of dopamine D2 receptor variant (Ser311/Cys311) with major psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tsukasa; Macciardi, F.M.; Badri, F. [Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    We investigated a variant of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (Ser311/Cys311 substitution) in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia (n = 273), delusional disorder (n = 62), bipolar I affective disorder (n = 63), and controls (n = 255). No evidence for association between the receptor variant and any of the diseases was found, even when patients with younger age-of-onset (<25 years) were compared with controls. Futhermore, in a subgroup of schizophrenia patients whom we assessed for negative symptoms, those with the Cys allele did not differ from the remainder of the group. Also, the bipolar affective disorder patients with psychotic features did not show evidence for association with the receptor variant. Thus, our results do not provide evidence for an association between this D2 receptor variant and schizophrenia, or delusional disorder, or bipolar affective disorder. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  4. The impact of chronic kidney disease as a predictor of major cardiac events in patients with no evidence of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Moroi, Masao; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion images (MPI) generally show good prognosis for cardiovascular events. However, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and the interpretation of normal stress MPI has not been well established in CKD patients with no evidence of CAD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of stress MPI in CKD patients with no evidence of myocardial ischemia or infarction. Patients who had no history but were suspected of CAD and had normal stress MPI (n=307, male=208, age=67 years, CKD/non-CKD=46/261) were followed-up for 4.5 years. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration ratio of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina requiring hospitalization were defined as major cardiac events. Major cardiac events were observed in 3 of 261 (1.1%) non-CKD patients and 6 of 46 (13%) CKD patients (p<0.001, with log-rank test). CKD was an independent risk factor for major cardiac events (hazard ratio=13.1, p<0.001, multivariate Cox regression analysis). Normal stress MPI does not always promise a good prognosis for major cardiac events. Even in patients with no evidence of CAD from stress MPI, CKD can be an independent and significant risk factor for major cardiac events. (author)

  5. A Model for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Middle Managers' Training Courses: Evidence from a Major Banking Organization in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanou, Ekaterini; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary management thinking embraces the organizational training theory that sustainable success rests, to a great extent, upon a systematic evaluation of training interventions. However, the evidence indicates that few organizations take adequate steps to assess and analyse the quality and outcomes of their training. The authors seek to…

  6. Evidence for coherent mixing of excited and charge-transfer states in the major plant light-harvesting antenna, LHCII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanan, Charusheela; Ferretti, Marco; van Roon, Henny; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    LHCII, the major light harvesting antenna from plants, plays a dual role in photosynthesis. In low light it is a light-harvester, while in high light it is a quencher that protects the organism from photodamage. The switching mechanism between these two orthogonal conditions is mediated by protein

  7. Evidence of elevated X-ray absorption before and during major flare ejections in GRS 1915+105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punsly, Brian [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 (United States); Rodriguez, Jérôme [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trushkin, Sergei A., E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net, E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com [Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, 369167 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-10

    We present time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the MAXI observatory in order to study the accretion state just before and during the ejections associated with its major flares. Radio monitoring with the RATAN-600 radio telescope from 4.8-11.2 GHz has revealed two large, steep-spectrum major flares in the first eight months of 2013. Since the RATAN has received one measurement per day, we cannot determine the jet-forming time without more information. Fortunately, this is possible since a distinct X-ray light curve signature that occurs preceding and during major ejections has been determined in an earlier study. The X-ray luminosity spikes to very high levels in the hours before ejection, then becomes variable (with a nearly equal X-ray luminosity when averaged over the duration of the ejection) during a brief 3-8 hr ejection process. By comparing this X-ray behavior with MAXI light curves, we can estimate the beginning and end of the ejection episode of the strong 2013 flares to within ∼3 hr. Using this estimate in conjunction with time-resolved spectroscopy from the data in the MAXI archives allows us to deduce that the X-ray absorbing hydrogen column density increases significantly in the hours preceding the ejections and remains elevated during the ejections responsible for the major flares. This finding is consistent with an outflowing wind or enhanced accretion at high latitudes.

  8. Gender Wage Gaps by College Major in Taiwan: Empirical Evidence from the 1997-2003 Manpower Utilization Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the effect of incorporating the fields of study on the explained and unexplained components of the standard Oaxaca decomposition for the gender wage gaps in Taiwan using 1997-2003 Manpower Utilization Survey data. Using several existing and lately developed measures, we inspect the gender wage gap by college major to…

  9. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making: a major challenge to evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaj, F M; Salek, M S; Basra, M K A; Finlay, A Y

    2010-05-01

    This article reviews an aspect of daily clinical practice which is of critical importance in virtually every clinical consultation, but which is seldom formally considered. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making profoundly affect medical decisions. These influences include patient-related factors such as socioeconomic status, quality of life and patient's expectations and wishes, physician-related factors such as personal characteristics and interaction with their professional community, and features of clinical practice such as private versus public practice as well as local management policies. This review brings together the different strands of knowledge concerning non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making. This aspect of decision-making may be the biggest obstacle to the reality of practising evidence-based medicine. It needs to be understood in order to develop clinical strategies that will facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine.

  10. Photoprotection in Plants Involves a Change in Lutein 1 Binding Domain in the Major Light-harvesting Complex of Photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilioaia, C.; Johnson, M.P.; Liao, P.N.; Pascal, A.A.; van Grondelle, R.; Walla, P.J.; Ruban, A.V.; Robert, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) is the fundamental process by which plants exposed to high light intensities dissipate the potentially harmful excess energy as heat. Recently, it has been shown that efficient energy dissipation can be induced in the major light-harvesting complexes of photosystem

  11. Evidence for phase-based psychotherapy as a treatment for dissociative identity disorder comorbid with major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Brianna E; Macfie, Jenny; Elledge, L Christian

    2017-01-01

    We report on the treatment and successful outcome of a 58-year-old Native American male with a history of complex trauma presenting with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and major depressive disorder. The treatment included a trauma-informed phase-based psychotherapy as recommended by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation for treating DID. We assessed symptoms at baseline and at three additional time points over the course of 14 months. We utilized the Reliable Change Index to examine statistically significant change in symptoms over the course of treatment. Significant symptom improvements were realized posttreatment across all measured domains of functioning, including dissociative symptoms, alcohol abuse, depression, anxiety, and emotion regulation skills. Moreover, the client no longer met criteria for DID, major depressive disorder, or alcohol abuse. Results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of trauma-focused, phase-based treatment for DID for cases of complex trauma with comorbid disorders.

  12. Structural Evidence of a Major Conformational Change Triggered by Substrate Binding in DapE Enzymes: Impact on the Catalytic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocek, Boguslaw; Reidl, Cory; Starus, Anna; Heath, Tahirah; Bienvenue, David; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Becker, Daniel P; Holz, Richard C

    2018-02-06

    The X-ray crystal structure of the dapE-encoded N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase from Haemophilus influenzae (HiDapE) bound by the products of hydrolysis, succinic acid and l,l-DAP, was determined at 1.95 Å. Surprisingly, the structure bound to the products revealed that HiDapE undergoes a significant conformational change in which the catalytic domain rotates ∼50° and shifts ∼10.1 Å (as measured at the position of the Zn atoms) relative to the dimerization domain. This heretofore unobserved closed conformation revealed significant movements within the catalytic domain compared to that of wild-type HiDapE, which results in effectively closing off access to the dinuclear Zn(II) active site with the succinate carboxylate moiety bridging the dinculear Zn(II) cluster in a μ-1,3 fashion forming a bis(μ-carboxylato)dizinc(II) core with a Zn-Zn distance of 3.8 Å. Surprisingly, His194.B, which is located on the dimerization domain of the opposing chain ∼10.1 Å from the dinuclear Zn(II) active site, forms a hydrogen bond (2.9 Å) with the oxygen atom of succinic acid bound to Zn2, forming an oxyanion hole. As the closed structure forms upon substrate binding, the movement of His194.B by more than ∼10 Å is critical, based on site-directed mutagenesis data, for activation of the scissile carbonyl carbon of the substrate for nucleophilic attack by a hydroxide nucleophile. Employing the HiDapE product-bound structure as the starting point, a reverse engineering approach called product-based transition-state modeling provided structural models for each major catalytic step. These data provide insight into the catalytic reaction mechanism and also the future design of new, potent inhibitors of DapE enzymes.

  13. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  14. Transcriptome-derived evidence supports recent polyploidization and a major phylogeographic division in Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae, Nymphaeales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Isabel; Montgomery, Sean A; Barker, Michael S; Macfarlane, Terry D; Conran, John G; Catalán, Pilar; Rieseberg, Loren H; Rudall, Paula J; Graham, Sean W

    2016-04-01

    Relatively little is known about species-level genetic diversity in flowering plants outside the eudicots and monocots, and it is often unclear how to interpret genetic patterns in lineages with whole-genome duplications. We addressed these issues in a polyploid representative of Hydatellaceae, part of the water-lily order Nymphaeales. We examined a transcriptome of Trithuria submersa for evidence of recent whole-genome duplication, and applied transcriptome-derived microsatellite (expressed-sequence tag simple-sequence repeat (EST-SSR)) primers to survey genetic variation in populations across its range in mainland Australia. A transcriptome-based Ks plot revealed at least one recent polyploidization event, consistent with fixed heterozygous genotypes representing underlying sets of homeologous loci. A strong genetic division coincides with a trans-Nullarbor biogeographic boundary. Patterns of 'allelic' variation (no more than two variants per EST-SSR genotype) and recently published chromosomal evidence are consistent with the predicted polyploidization event and substantial homozygosity underlying fixed heterozygote SSR genotypes, which in turn reflect a selfing mating system. The Nullarbor Plain is a barrier to gene flow between two deep lineages of T. submersa that may represent cryptic species. The markers developed here should also be useful for further disentangling species relationships, and provide a first step towards future genomic studies in Trithuria. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Gender differences in a cohort of major depressive patients: further evidence for the male depression syndrome hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Belzeaux, Raoul; Fakra, Eric; Kaladjian, Arthur; Hantouche, Elie; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Adida, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that major depressive patients may differ in several features according to gender, but the existence of a specific male depressive syndrome remains controversial. As part of the EPIDEP National Multisite French Study of 493 consecutive DSM-IV major depressive patients evaluated in at least two semi-structured interviews 1 month apart, 125 (27.7%) were of male gender, whereas 317 (72.3%) were female, after exclusion of bipolar I patients. Compared to women, men were more often married, had more associated mixed features, with more bipolar disorder NOS, more hyperthymic temperaments, and less depressive temperaments. Women had an earlier age at onset of depression, more depressive episodes and suicide attempts. A higher family loading was shown in men for bipolar disorder, alcohol use disorder, impulse control disorders and suicide, whereas their family loading for major depressive disorder was lower. Men displayed more comorbidities with alcohol use, impulse control, and cardiovascular disorders, with lower comorbidities with eating, anxiety and endocrine/metabolic disorders. The following independent variables were associated with male gender: hyperthymic temperament (+), alcohol use disorder (+), impulse control disorders (+), and depressive temperament (-). The retrospective design and the lack of specific tools to assess the male depressive syndrome. Study findings may lend support to the male depression syndrome concept and draw attention to the role of hyperthymic temperament, soft bipolarity as well as comorbidities as determinants of this syndrome. The latter could help recognize an entity which is probably underdiagnosed, but conveys a high risk of suicide and cardiovascular morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  17. The stratigraphy of the Steep Rock Group, N.W. Ontario, with evidence of a major unconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, M. E.; Nisbet, E. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Steep Rock Group is exposed 6 km north of Atikokan, 200 km west of Thunder Bay. It is situated on the southern margin of the Wabigoon Belt of the Archaean Superior Province, N. W. Ontario. Reinvestigation of the geology of the Group has shown that the Group lies unconformably on the Tonalite Complex to the east. This unconformity has been previously suspected, from regional and ine mapping but no conclusive outcrop evidence for its existence has as yet been published. The strike of the group, comprised of Basal Conglomerate, Carbonate Member, Ore Zone and Ashrock is generally north-northwest dipping steeply to the southwest. Of the 7 contacts between the Steep Rock Group and the Tonalite Complex, 3 expose the unconformity (The Headland, S. Roberts Pit, Trueman Point), and 4 are faulted. These three outcrops demonstrate unequivocally that the Steep Rock group was laid down unconformably on the underlying Tonalite Complex, which is circa 3 Ga old.

  18. Evidence of major genes affecting stress response in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of complex segregation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallejo, R L; Rexroad III, C E; Silverstein, J T

    2009-01-01

    As a first step toward the genetic mapping of QTL affecting stress response variation in rainbow trout, we performed complex segregation analyses (CSA) fitting mixed inheritance models of plasma cortisol by using Bayesian methods in large full-sib families of rainbow trout. To date, no studies have...... been conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of stress response as measured by plasma cortisol response when using a crowding stress paradigm and CSA in rainbow trout. The main objective of this study was to determine the mode of inheritance of plasma cortisol after a crowding stress....... The results from fitting mixed inheritance models with Bayesian CSA suggest that 1 or more major genes with dominant cortisol-decreasing alleles and small additive genetic effects of a large number of independent genes likely underlie the genetic variation of plasma cortisol in the rainbow trout families...

  19. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand adherence to multiple evidence-based indicators in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca; Heyhoe, Jane; Louch, Gemma; Ingleson, Emma; Glidewell, Liz; Willis, Thomas A; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Foy, Robbie

    2016-08-08

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting posing particular implementation challenges. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high-impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. Here, we explore health professionals' perceived determinants of adherence to these indicators, examining the degree to which determinants were indicator-specific or potentially generalisable across indicators. We interviewed 60 general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers in West Yorkshire, the UK, about adherence to four indicators: avoidance of risky prescribing; treatment targets in type 2 diabetes; blood pressure targets in treated hypertension; and anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Interview questions drew upon the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using framework analysis. Professional role and identity and environmental context and resources featured prominently across all indicators whilst the importance of other domains, for example, beliefs about consequences, social influences and knowledge varied across indicators. We identified five meta-themes representing more general organisational and contextual factors common to all indicators. The TDF helped elicit a wide range of reported determinants of adherence to 'high-impact' indicators in primary care. It was more difficult to pinpoint which determinants, if targeted by an implementation strategy, would maximise change. The meta-themes broadly underline the need to align the design of interventions targeting general practices with higher level supports and broader contextual considerations. However, our findings suggest that it is feasible to develop interventions to promote the uptake of different evidence-based indicators which share common features whilst also including

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of vilazodone for major depressive disorder: evidence from phase III/IV randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi LG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ligen Shi,1,2 Jingyi Wang,1 Shenbin Xu,2 Yunrong Lu1 1Department of Psychiatry, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Yiwu, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Vilazodone is a new molecule approved for major depressive disorder (MDD. This report focuses on the efficacy and tolerability of vilazodone for MDD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched. A total of 1,930 patients from four trials were included. A significant improvement in the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS total score was seen as early as week 2 (P<0.01 in vilazodone-treated patients. The results showed a higher rate of MADRS response with vilazodone compared with placebo (P<0.001. There were also greater improvements in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety as well as the Clinical Global Impressions (severity of illness and improvement of illness scores from baseline in vilazodone-treated patients compared to placebo patients (P<0.001. Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were higher with vilazodone than placebo (P=0.0002. The most common adverse events of vilazodone were vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, somnolence, dizziness, and dry mouth (P<0.05. Treatment-related effects on sexual function were mild compared to placebo in men (P=0.03. In conclusion, 40 mg/day of vilazodone had a rapid onset of response and showed good improvement in anxiety symptoms as well as good tolerability during short-term treatment (8–10 weeks for MDD. Further studies should focus on the efficacy and tolerability of vilazodone over a longer duration and should utilize active comparators. Keywords: vilazodone, major depressive disorder, sexual dysfunction, anxiety

  1. Major depression as a risk factor for high blood pressure: epidemiologic evidence from a national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Campbell, Norman R C; Eliasziw, Michael; Campbell, Tavis S

    2009-04-01

    To determine whether major depression (MD) leads to an increased risk of new-onset high blood pressure diagnoses. The data source was the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). The NPHS included a short-form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF) to assess MD and collected self-report data about professionally diagnosed high blood pressure and the use of antihypertensive medications. The analysis included 12,270 respondents who did not report high blood pressure or the use of antihypertensive medications at a baseline interview conducted in 1994. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the incidence of high blood pressure in respondents with and without MD during 10 years of subsequent follow-up. After adjustment for age, the risk of developing high blood pressure was elevated in those with MD. The hazard ratio was 1.6 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.2-2.1), p = .001, indicating a 60% increase in risk. Adjustment for additional covariates did not alter the association. MD may be a risk factor for new-onset high blood pressure. Epidemiologic data cannot definitely confirm a causal role, and the association may be due to shared etiologic factors. However, the increased risk may warrant closer monitoring of blood pressure in people with depressive disorders.

  2. Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Evidence of Sex Difference during an Affective Go/No-Go Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; Hagan, Cindy C; Murray, Graham K; Graham, Julia M E; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; Elliott, Rebecca; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian M; Suckling, John

    2017-01-01

    Compared to female major depressive disorder (MDD), male MDD often receives less attention. However, research is warranted since there are significant sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and a higher rate of suicide in depressed men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with a large sample addressing putative sex differences in MDD during adolescence, a period when one of the most robust findings in psychiatric epidemiology emerges; that females are twice as likely to suffer from MDD than males. Twenty-four depressed and 10 healthy male adolescents, together with 82 depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 11-18 years, undertook an affective go/no-go task during fMRI acquisition. In response to sad relative to neutral distractors, significant sex differences (in the supramarginal gyrus) and group-by-sex interactions (in the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex) were found. Furthermore, in contrast to the healthy male adolescents, depressed male adolescents showed decreased activation in the cerebellum with a significant group-by-age interaction in connectivity. Future research may consider altered developmental trajectories and the possible implications of sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies for MDD.

  3. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Salim, Mohammad A.; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E.; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Defries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013 - a non-drought year - Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated ``very unhealthy''). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 +/- 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 +/- 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  4. Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Evidence of Sex Difference during an Affective Go/No-Go Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Yu Chuang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to female major depressive disorder (MDD, male MDD often receives less attention. However, research is warranted since there are significant sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and a higher rate of suicide in depressed men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study with a large sample addressing putative sex differences in MDD during adolescence, a period when one of the most robust findings in psychiatric epidemiology emerges; that females are twice as likely to suffer from MDD than males. Twenty-four depressed and 10 healthy male adolescents, together with 82 depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 11–18 years, undertook an affective go/no-go task during fMRI acquisition. In response to sad relative to neutral distractors, significant sex differences (in the supramarginal gyrus and group-by-sex interactions (in the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex were found. Furthermore, in contrast to the healthy male adolescents, depressed male adolescents showed decreased activation in the cerebellum with a significant group-by-age interaction in connectivity. Future research may consider altered developmental trajectories and the possible implications of sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies for MDD.

  5. Abnormal self-schema in semantic memory in major depressive disorder: Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Michael; Farzan, Faranak; Blumberger, Daniel M; Kutas, Marta; McKinnon, Margaret C; Kansal, Vinay; Rajji, Tarek K; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2017-05-01

    An overly negative self-schema is a proposed cognitive mechanism of major depressive disorder (MDD). Self-schema - one's core conception of self, including how strongly one believes one possesses various characteristics - is part of semantic memory (SM), our knowledge about concepts and their relationships. We used the N400 event-related potential (ERP) - elicited by meaningful stimuli, and reduced by greater association of the stimulus with preceding context - to measure association strength between self-concept and positive, negative, and neutral characteristics in SM. ERPs were recorded from MDD patients (n=16) and controls (n=16) who viewed trials comprising a self-referential phrase followed by a positive, negative, or neutral adjective. Participants' task was to indicate via button-press whether or not they felt each adjective described themselves. Controls endorsed more positive adjectives than did MDD patients, but the opposite was true for negative adjectives. Patients had smaller N400s than controls specifically for negative adjectives, suggesting that MDD is associated with stronger than normal functional neural links between self-concept and negative characteristics in SM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L A; Salim, Mohammad A; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; DeFries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-19

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013--a non-drought year--Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated "very unhealthy"). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 ± 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 ± 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  7. Widespread plant specialization in the polyphagous planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae), a major vector of stolbur phytoplasma: Evidence of cryptic speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovac, Andrea; Johannesen, Jes; Krstić, Oliver; Mitrović, Milana; Cvrković, Tatjana; Toševski, Ivo; Jović, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H. obsoletus. Host-plant use was confirmed for Convolvulus arvensis, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus and Crepis foetida. Mitochondrial genetic analysis showed sympatric occurrence of three phylogenetic lineages that were ecologically delineated by host-plant preference, but were morphologically inseparable. Nuclear data supported the existence of three genetic groups (Evanno's ΔK(3) = 803.72) with average genetic membership probabilities > 90%. While populations associated with C. arvensis and U. dioica form a homogenous group, populations affiliated with V. agnus-castus and C. foetida constitute two independent plant-associated lineages. The geographical signal permeating the surveyed populations indicated complex diversification processes associated with host-plant selection and likely derived from post-glacial refugia in the eastern Mediterranean. This study provides evidence for cryptic species diversification within H. obsoletus sensu lato: i) consistent mitochondrial differentiation (1.1-1.5%) among host-associated populations in syntopy and in geographically distant areas, ii) nuclear genetic variance supporting mitochondrial data, and iii) average mitochondrial genetic distances among host-associated meta-populations are comparable to the most closely related, morphologically distinguishable species, i.e., Hyalesthes thracicus (2.1-3.3%).

  8. Widespread plant specialization in the polyphagous planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae, a major vector of stolbur phytoplasma: Evidence of cryptic speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kosovac

    Full Text Available The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H. obsoletus. Host-plant use was confirmed for Convolvulus arvensis, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus and Crepis foetida. Mitochondrial genetic analysis showed sympatric occurrence of three phylogenetic lineages that were ecologically delineated by host-plant preference, but were morphologically inseparable. Nuclear data supported the existence of three genetic groups (Evanno's ΔK(3 = 803.72 with average genetic membership probabilities > 90%. While populations associated with C. arvensis and U. dioica form a homogenous group, populations affiliated with V. agnus-castus and C. foetida constitute two independent plant-associated lineages. The geographical signal permeating the surveyed populations indicated complex diversification processes associated with host-plant selection and likely derived from post-glacial refugia in the eastern Mediterranean. This study provides evidence for cryptic species diversification within H. obsoletus sensu lato: i consistent mitochondrial differentiation (1.1-1.5% among host-associated populations in syntopy and in geographically distant areas, ii nuclear genetic variance supporting mitochondrial data, and iii average mitochondrial genetic distances among host-associated meta-populations are comparable to the most closely related, morphologically distinguishable species, i.e., Hyalesthes thracicus (2.1-3.3%.

  9. Independent walking as a major skill for the development of anticipatory postural control: evidence from adjustments to predictable perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cignetti

    Full Text Available Although there is suggestive evidence that a link exists between independent walking and the ability to establish anticipatory strategy to stabilize posture, the extent to which this skill facilitates the development of anticipatory postural control remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of independent walking on the infants' ability to anticipate predictable external perturbations. Non-walking infants, walking infants and adults were sitting on a platform that produced continuous rotation in the frontal plane. Surface electromyography (EMG of neck and lower back muscles and the positions of markers located on the platform, the upper body and the head were recorded. Results from cross-correlation analysis between rectified and filtered EMGs and platform movement indicated that although muscle activation already occurred before platform movement in non-walking infants, only walking infants demonstrated an adult-like ability for anticipation. Moreover, results from further cross-correlation analysis between segmental angular displacement and platform movement together with measures of balance control at the end-points of rotation of the platform evidenced two sorts of behaviour. The adults behaved as a non-rigid non-inverted pendulum, rather stabilizing head in space, while both the walking and non-walking infants followed the platform, behaving as a rigid inverted pendulum. These results suggest that the acquisition of independent walking plays a role in the development of anticipatory postural control, likely improving the internal model for the sensorimotor control of posture. However, despite such improvement, integrating the dynamics of an external object, here the platform, within the model to maintain balance still remains challenging in infants.

  10. Widespread plant specialization in the polyphagous planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae), a major vector of stolbur phytoplasma: Evidence of cryptic speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovac, Andrea; Johannesen, Jes; Krstić, Oliver; Cvrković, Tatjana; Toševski, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H. obsoletus. Host-plant use was confirmed for Convolvulus arvensis, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus and Crepis foetida. Mitochondrial genetic analysis showed sympatric occurrence of three phylogenetic lineages that were ecologically delineated by host-plant preference, but were morphologically inseparable. Nuclear data supported the existence of three genetic groups (Evanno’s ΔK(3) = 803.72) with average genetic membership probabilities > 90%. While populations associated with C. arvensis and U. dioica form a homogenous group, populations affiliated with V. agnus-castus and C. foetida constitute two independent plant-associated lineages. The geographical signal permeating the surveyed populations indicated complex diversification processes associated with host-plant selection and likely derived from post-glacial refugia in the eastern Mediterranean. This study provides evidence for cryptic species diversification within H. obsoletus sensu lato: i) consistent mitochondrial differentiation (1.1–1.5%) among host-associated populations in syntopy and in geographically distant areas, ii) nuclear genetic variance supporting mitochondrial data, and iii) average mitochondrial genetic distances among host-associated meta-populations are comparable to the most closely related, morphologically distinguishable species, i.e., Hyalesthes thracicus (2.1–3.3%). PMID:29738577

  11. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R., E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  12. A solid majority remit following evidence-based OCD treatments: a 3-year naturalistic outcome study in pediatric OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Karin; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Skärsäter, Ingela; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Ivarsson, Tord

    2018-03-03

    This study reports follow-up 2 and 3 years after the initial assessment of a sample of youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Participants were 109 children and adolescents, aged 5-17 years, recruited from a specialized, outpatient OCD clinic in Sweden. Patients were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), augmented when indicated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). In cases where SSRIs were insufficient, augmentation with a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) was applied. Participants were assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), Children's OCD Impact Scale (COIS), and Children's Depressive Inventory (CDI) at follow-ups 2 and 3 years after baseline assessment. Treatment response was defined as CY-BOCS total score ≤ 15, and remission was defined as CY-BOCS total score ≤ 10. Analyzing the outcomes with linear mixed-effects models (LME) showed a decrease in OCD symptom load from 23 to 6.9 at the 3-year follow-up. Moreover, two of three (66.1%) participants were in remission, and another 19.2% had responded to treatment at the 3-year follow-up. Thus, 85.3% of participants responded to treatment. Moreover, during the follow-up period, participants' psychosocial functioning had significantly improved, and depressive symptoms had significantly decreased. The results suggest that evidence-based treatment for pediatric OCD, following expert consensus guidelines, has long-term positive effects for most children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The results also indicate that improvements are maintained over a 3-year period, at least, and that improvement is also found with regard to psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms.

  13. Interpersonal problems and impacts: further evidence for the role of interpersonal functioning in treatment outcome in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Mainland, Brian J; McBride, Carolina; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-09-05

    Empirical research has converged to support the concurrent association between social difficulties and psychiatric symptoms; yet, longitudinal associations between interpersonal problems and treatment outcome require clarification. The current investigation evaluated the influence of interpersonal problems assessed prior to treatment on interpersonal impacts assessed during treatment as well as on treatment outcome in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). 125 participants with a primary diagnosis of MDD were randomized to receive cognitive behavioural therapy or interpersonal therapy. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex before and after treatment. Therapists completed the Impact Message Inventory during and after treatment. Interpersonal distress improved over the course of treatment; all other interpersonal changes were non-significant when distress was taken into account. Pre-treatment rigidity and agentic problems predicted less reduction in depressive symptoms, whereas agentic and communal impacts upon therapists during treatment predicted greater symptom change. Overall interpersonal distress was only indirectly associated with treatment response later in treatment, through its association with agentic style. Results did not differ across therapy type, and were replicated across self-report and interviewer-rated measures of depression severity. Limitations include the brief duration of treatment, lack of medication arm, and potentially restricted generalizability of patients in a randomized control trial to those in routine practice. Interpersonal style demonstrated a trait-like stability over treatment, and appears to fluctuate due to co-occurring distress. Yet, specific interpersonal styles were negative prognostic indicators, even within therapy specifically targeting interpersonal functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Investigating population differentiation in a major African agricultural pest: evidence from geometric morphometrics and connectivity suggests high invasion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, M; Addison, P; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Terblanche, J S

    2016-07-01

    The distribution, spatial pattern and population dynamics of a species can be influenced by differences in the environment across its range. Spatial variation in climatic conditions can cause local populations to undergo disruptive selection and ultimately result in local adaptation. However, local adaptation can be constrained by gene flow and may favour resident individuals over migrants-both are factors critical to the assessment of invasion potential. The Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) is a major agricultural pest in Africa with a history of island invasions, although its range is largely restricted to south east Africa. Across Africa, C. rosa is genetically structured into two clusters (R1 and R2), with these clusters occurring sympatrically in the north of South Africa. The spatial distribution of these genotypic clusters remains unexamined despite their importance for understanding the pest's invasion potential. Here, C. rosa, sampled from 22 South African locations, were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and assessed morphologically using geometric morphometric wing shape analyses to investigate patterns of population structure and determine connectedness of pest-occupied sites. Our results show little to no intraspecific (population) differentiation, high population connectivity, high effective population sizes and only one morphological type (R2) within South Africa. The absence of the R1 morphotype at sites where it was previously found may be a consequence of differences in thermal niches of the two morphotypes. Overall, our results suggest high invasion potential of this species, that area-wide pest management should be undertaken on a country-wide scale, and that border control is critical to preventing further invasions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease: increasing evidence for a major role of the virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Frances Itzhaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHSV1, when present in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE, has been implicated as a major factor in AD. It is proposed that virus is normally latent in many elderly brains but reactivates periodically (as in the peripheral nervous system under certain conditions, for example stress, immunosuppression, and peripheral infection, causing cumulative damage and eventually development of AD. Diverse approaches have provided data that explicitly support, directly or indirectly, these concepts. Several have confirmed HSV1 DNA presence in human brains, and the HSV1-APOE-ε4 association in AD. Further, studies on HSV1-infected APOE-transgenic mice have shown that APOE-e4 animals display a greater potential for viral damage. Reactivated HSV1 can cause direct and inflammatory damage, probably involving increased formation of beta amyloid (Aβ and of AD-like tau (P-tau - changes found to occur in HSV1-infected cell cultures. Implicating HSV1 further in AD is the discovery that HSV1 DNA is specifically localised in amyloid plaques in AD. Other relevant, harmful effects of infection include the following: dynamic interactions between HSV1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP, which would affect both viral and APP transport; induction of toll-like receptors in HSV1-infected astrocyte cultures, which has been linked to the likely effects of reactivation of the virus in brain. Several epidemiological studies have shown, using serological data, an association between systemic infections and cognitive decline, with HSV1 particularly implicated. Genetic studies too have linked various pathways in AD with those occurring on HSV1 infection. In relation to the potential usage of antivirals to treat AD patients, acyclovir (ACV is effective in reducing HSV1-induced AD-like changes in cell cultures, and valacyclovir, the bioactive form of ACV, might be most effective if combined with an antiviral that acts by a different

  16. Evidence of major genes for plasma HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Després, J-P; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed major gene effects for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, and their training responses (post-training minus baseline) in 527 individuals from 99 White families and 326 individuals from 113 Black families in the HERITAGE Family Study. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, and the training response phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI, and their respective baseline values, within each of the sex-by-generation-by-race groups, prior to genetic analyses. In Whites, we found that LDL-C at baseline and HDL-C training response were under influence of major recessive genes (accounting for 2--30 % of the variance) and multifactorial (polygenic and familial environmental) effects. Interactions of these major genes with sex, age, and BMI were tested, and found to be nonsignificant. In Blacks, we found that baseline HDL-C was influenced by a major dominant gene without a multifactorial component. This major gene effect accounted for 45 % of the variance, and exhibited no significant genotype-specific interactions with age, sex, and BMI. Evidence of major genes for the remaining phenotypes at baseline and in response to endurance training were not found in both races, though some were influenced by major effects that did not follow Mendelian expectations or were with ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring. In summary, major gene effects that influence baseline plasma HDL-C and LDL-C levels as well as changes in HDL-C levels in response to regular exercise were detected in the current study.

  17. Evidence of major genes for exercise heart rate and blood pressure at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Pérusse, L; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2003-10-01

    Major gene effects on exercise heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measured at 50 W and 80 % maximal oxygen uptake (VO (2)max) were assessed in 99 White families in the HERITAGE Family Study. Exercise HR and BP were measured both before and after 20 weeks of endurance training. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, whereas the training responses (post-training minus baseline) were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI and the corresponding baseline values, within four sex-by-generation groups. Baseline exercise HR at 50 W was under the influence of a major recessive gene and a multifactorial component, which accounted for 30 % and 27 % of the variance, respectively. The training response was found to be under the influence of a major dominant gene, which accounted for 27 % of the variance. These significant major gene effects were independent of the effects of cigarette smoking, baseline VO (2)max, and the resting HR levels. No significant interactions were found between genotype and age, sex, or BMI. No major gene effect was found for exercise BP. Instead, we found the baseline exercise BP at 50 W and 80 % VO (2)max and the training response at 50 W were solely influenced by multifactorial effects, which accounted for about 50 %, 40 % and 20 % of the variance, respectively. No familial resemblance was found for training responses in exercise HR or BP at 80 % VO (2)max. Segregation analysis also was carried out for exercise HR in Whites pooled with a small sample of Blacks in HERITAGE. Similar major effects were found, but the transmission from parents to offspring did not follow Mendelian expectations, suggesting sample heterogeneity. In conclusion, submaximal exercise HR at baseline and in response to endurance training was influenced by putative major genes, with no evidence of interactions with sex, age or BMI, in contrast to a multifactorial etiology for exercise BP.

  18. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-10-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is required for Grb2 binding to FAK. Using a tryptic phosphopeptide mapping approach, the in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 binding site on FAK (Tyr-925) was detected after fibronectin stimulation of NIH 3T3 cells and was constitutively phosphorylated in v-Src-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. In vitro, c-Src phosphorylated FAK Tyr-925 in a glutathione S-transferase-FAK C-terminal domain fusion protein, whereas FAK did not. Using epitope-tagged FAK constructs, transiently expressed in human 293 cells, we determined the effect of site-directed mutations on c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK. Mutation of FAK Tyr-925 disrupted Grb2 binding, whereas mutation of the c-Src binding site on FAK (Tyr-397) disrupted both c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK in vivo. These results support a model whereby Src-family PTKs are recruited to FAK and focal adhesions following integrin-induced autophosphorylation and exposure of FAK Tyr-397. Src-family binding and phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-925 creates a Grb2 SH2-domain binding site and provides a link to the activation of the Ras signal transduction pathway. In Src-transformed cells, this pathway may be constitutively activated as a result of FAK Tyr-925 phosphorylation in the absence of integrin stimulation.

  19. Identification of human and mouse CatSper3 and CatSper4 genes: Characterisation of a common interaction domain and evidence for expression in testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Lindsey

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CatSper1 and CatSper2 are two recently identified channel-like proteins, which show sperm specific expression patterns. Through targeted mutagenesis in the mouse, CatSper1 has been shown to be required for fertility, sperm motility and for cAMP induced Ca2+ current in sperm. Both channels resemble a single pore forming repeat from a four repeat voltage dependent Ca2+ /Na+ channel. However, neither CatSper1 or CatSper2 have been shown to function as cation channels when transfected into cells, singly or in conjunction. As the pore forming units of voltage gated cation channels form a tetramer it has been suggested that the known CatSper proteins require additional subunits and/or interaction partners to function. Results Using in silico gene identification and prediction techniques, we have identified two further members of the CatSper family, CatSper3 and Catsper4. Each carries a single channel-forming domain with the predicted pore-loop containing the consensus sequence T×D×W. Each of the new CatSper genes has evidence for expression in the testis. Furthermore we identified coiled-coil protein-protein interaction domains in the C-terminal tails of each of the CatSper channels, implying that CatSper channels 1,2,3 and 4 may interact directly or indirectly to form a functional tetramer. Conclusions The topological and sequence relationship of CatSper1 and CatSper2 to the four repeat Ca2+ /Na+ channels suggested other members of this family may exist. We have identified a further two novel CatSper genes, conserved in both the human and mouse genomes. Furthermore, all four of the CatSper proteins are predicted to contain a common coiled-coil protein-protein interaction domain in their C-terminal tail. Coupled with expression data this leads to the hypothesis that the CatSper proteins form a functional hetero-tetrameric channel in sperm.

  20. Economic evidence for the clinical management of major depressive disorder: a systematic review and quality appraisal of economic evaluations alongside randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyotaki, E; Tordrup, D; Buntrock, C; Bertollini, R; Cuijpers, P

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review of economic evaluations alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence concerning cost-effectiveness analyses of common treatment options for major depression. An existing database was used to identify studies reporting cost-effectiveness results from RCTs. This database has been developed by a systematic literature search in the bibliographic databases of PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase and Cochrane library from database inception to December 2014. We evaluated the quality of economic evaluations using a 10-item short version of the Drummond checklist. Results were synthesised narratively. The risk of bias of the included RCTs was assessed, based on the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Fourteen RCTs were included from the 5580 articles screened on titles and abstracts. The methodological quality of the health economic evaluations was relatively high and the majority of the included RCTs had low risk of bias in most of Cochrane items except blinding of participants and personnel. Cognitive behavioural therapy was examined in seven trials as part of a variety of treatment protocols and seems cost-effective compared with pharmacotherapy in the long-term. However cost-effectiveness results for the combination of psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy are conflicting and should be interpreted with caution due to limited comparability between the examined trials. For several treatments, only a single economic evaluation was reported as part of a clinical trial. This was the case for comparisons between different classes of antidepressants, for several types of psychotherapy (behavioural activation, occupational therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, short-term psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, rational emotive behavioural therapy, solution focused therapy), and for transcranial magnetic stimulation v. electroconvulsive therapy. The limited evidence base for these interventions

  1. Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ling, Tian-You; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-07-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) contains biologically psychoactive ingredients; however, data are limited concerning the symptoms and syndrome of BQ dependence among chewers. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ingredients-associated BQ dependence syndrome and country-specific chewing features and behaviour for BQ dependence among chewers from six Asian communities. An intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study. Six Asian general communities in Taiwan, Mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Six multi-stage random samples of BQ chewers in the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (n = 2078). All chewers were evaluated for BQ dependence using the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 12-month BQ dependence rate was 12.5-92.6% and 47.9-99.3% (P = 0.023) among tobacco-free and tobacco-added BQ chewers across the six Asian communities, with a higher dependence rate in chewers who used tobacco-free BQ with lime added than without (23.3-95.6% versus 4.0%, P ≤ 0.001). Taiwanese and Hunanese BQ chewers both notably endorsed the dependency domain of 'time spent chewing'. 'Tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were the major dependence domains associated with the Nepalese and Indonesian chewers, with high BQ dependence rates. Malaysian and Sri Lankan chewers formed a BQ dependence cluster linked closely to 'craving'. In Sri Lanka, the quantity consumed explained 90.5% (P betel quid users in Asian communities, more so if they use it with tobacco or lime. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Rapid evidence review of the comparative effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics-guided antidepressant treatment versus usual care for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kimberly; Dieperink, Eric; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Ferguson, Lauren; Helfand, Mark

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to conduct an evidence review of the effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics-guided antidepressant treatment for major depressive disorder. We searched MEDLINE®, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO through February 2017. We used prespecified criteria to select studies, abstract data, and rate internal validity and strength of the evidence (PROSPERO number CRD42016036358). We included two randomized trials (RCT), five controlled cohort studies, and six modeling studies of mostly women in their mid-40s with few comorbidities. CNSDose (ABCB1, ABCC1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1) is the only pharmacogenomics test that significantly improved remission (one additional remitting patient in 12 weeks per three genotyped, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.5) and reduced intolerability in an RCT. ABCB1 genotyping leads to one additional remitting patient in 5 weeks per three genotyped (95% CI 3 to 20), but tolerability was not reported. In an RCT, GeneSight (CYP2D6, CYPC19, CYP1A2, SLC6A4, HTR2A) did not statistically significantly improve remission, and evidence is inconclusive about its tolerability. Evidence is generally low strength because RCTs were few and underpowered. Cost-effectiveness is unclear due to lack of directly observed cost-effectiveness outcomes. We found no studies that evaluated whether pharmacogenomics shortens time to optimal treatment, whether improvements were due to switches to genetically congruent medication, or whether effectiveness varies based on test and patient characteristics. Certain pharmacogenomics tools show promise of improving short-term remission rates in women in their mid-40s with few comorbidities. But, important evidence limitations preclude recommending their widespread use and indicate a need for further research.

  3. Symptom-specific course trajectories and their determinants in primary care patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Evidence for two etiologically distinct prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, K J; Monden, R; Conradi, H J; de Jonge, P

    2015-07-01

    The course-heterogeneity of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) hampers development of better prognostic models. Although latent class growth analyses (LCGA) have been used to explain course-heterogeneity, such analyses have failed to also account for symptom-heterogeneity of depressive symptoms. Therefore, the aim was to identify more specific data-driven subgroups based on patterns of course-trajectories on different depressive symptom domains. In primary care MDD patients (n=205), the presence of the MDD criterion symptoms was determined for each week during a year. Weekly 'mood/cognition' (MC) and 'somatic' (SOM) scores were computed and parallel processes-LCGA (PP-LCGA) was used to identify subgroups based on the course on these domains. The classes׳ associations with baseline predictors and 2-/3-year outcomes were investigated. PP-LCGA identified four classes: quick recovery, persisting SOM, persisting MC, and persisting SOM+MC (chronic). Persisting SOM was specifically predicted by higher baseline somatic symptomatology and somatization, and was associated with more somatic depressive symptomatology at long-term follow-up. Persisting MC was specifically predicted by higher depressive severity, thinking insufficiencies, neuroticism, loneliness and lower self-esteem, and was associated with lower mental health related quality of life and more mood/cognitive depressive symptomatology at follow-up. The sample was small and contained only primary care MDD patients. The weekly depression assessments were collected retrospectively at 3-month intervals. The results indicate that there are two specific prototypes of depression, characterized by either persisting MC or persisting SOM, which have different sets of associated prognostic factors and long-term outcomes, and could have different etiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  5. Searching for the Hebb effect in Down syndrome: evidence for a dissociation between verbal short-term memory and domain-general learning of serial order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, E K; Jarrold, C

    2010-04-01

    The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible to demonstrate its preservation in a sample of individuals with Down syndrome, who typically show a verbal short-term memory deficit alongside surprising relative strengths in vocabulary. In two experiments, individuals both with and without Down syndrome (matched for receptive vocabulary) completed immediate serial recall tasks incorporating a Hebb repetition paradigm in either verbal or visuospatial conditions. Both groups demonstrated equivalent benefit from Hebb repetition, despite individuals with Down syndrome showing significantly lower verbal short-term memory spans. The resultant Hebb effect was equivalent across verbal and visuospatial domains. These studies suggest that the Hebb effect is essentially preserved within Down syndrome, implying that explicit verbal short-term memory is dissociable from potentially more implicit Hebb learning. The relative strength in receptive vocabulary observed in Down syndrome may therefore be supported by largely intact long-term as opposed to short-term serial order learning. This in turn may have implications for teaching methods and interventions that present new phonological material to individuals with Down syndrome.

  6. Peptide and nucleotide sequences of rat CD4 (W3/25) antigen: evidence for derivation from a structure with four immunoglobulin-related domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.J.; Jefferies, W.A.; Barclay, A.N.; Gagnon, J.; Williams, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The rat W3/25 antigen was the first marker antigen of helper T lymphocytes to be identified. Subsequently, the human OKT4 antigen (now called CD4) was described, and cell distribution and functional data suggested that W3/25 and OKT4 antigens were homologous. This is now confirmed by the matching of peptide sequences from W3/25 antigen with sequence predicted from rat cDNA clones detected by cross-hybridization with a cDNA probe for human CD4. Analysis of the two sequences suggests an evolutionary origin from a structure with four immunoglobulin-related domains, although only domain 1 at the NH 2 terminus meets the standard criteria for an immunoglobulin-related sequence. CD4 domains 2 and 4 contain disulfide bonds but seem like truncated immunoglobulin domains, whereas domain 3 may have a pattern of β-strands like an immunoglobulin variable domain, but without the disulfide bond

  7. Concrete domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  8. Domain Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  9. Disentangling the impact of artistic creativity on creative thinking, working memory, attention and intelligence:Evidence for domain-specific relationships with a new self-report questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Lunke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to take a new look at the relationship between creativity and cognitive functioning. Based on models that have postulated domain- and sub-domain-structures for different forms of creativity, like scientific, technical or artistic creativity with cognitive functions as important basis, we developed a new questionnaire. The Artistic Creativity Domains Compendium (ACDC assesses interest, ability and performance in a distinct way for different domains of artistic creativity. We present the data of 270 adults tested with the ACDC, standard tests of divergent and convergent thinking, and tests of cognitive functions. We present fine-grained analyses on the internal and external validity of the ACDC and on the relationships between creativity, working memory, attention, and intelligence. Our results indicate domain-specific associations between creativity and attention as well as working memory. We conclude that the ACDC is a valid instrument to assess artistic creativity and that a fine-grained analysis reveals distinct patterns of relationships between separate domains of creativity and cognition.

  10. Disentangling the Impact of Artistic Creativity on Creative Thinking, Working Memory, Attention, and Intelligence: Evidence for Domain-Specific Relationships with a New Self-Report Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunke, Katrin; Meier, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to take a new look at the relationship between creativity and cognitive functioning. Based on models that have postulated domain- and sub-domain-structures for different forms of creativity, like scientific, technical or artistic creativity with cognitive functions as important basis, we developed a new questionnaire. The Artistic Creativity Domains Compendium (ACDC) assesses interest, ability and performance in a distinct way for different domains of artistic creativity. We present the data of 270 adults tested with the ACDC, standard tests of divergent and convergent thinking, and tests of cognitive functions. We present fine-grained analyses on the internal and external validity of the ACDC and on the relationships between creativity, working memory, attention, and intelligence. Our results indicate domain-specific associations between creativity and attention as well as working memory. We conclude that the ACDC is a valid instrument to assess artistic creativity and that a fine-grained analysis reveals distinct patterns of relationships between separate domains of creativity and cognition. PMID:27516745

  11. Disentangling the Impact of Artistic Creativity on Creative Thinking, Working Memory, Attention, and Intelligence: Evidence for Domain-Specific Relationships with a New Self-Report Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunke, Katrin; Meier, Beat

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to take a new look at the relationship between creativity and cognitive functioning. Based on models that have postulated domain- and sub-domain-structures for different forms of creativity, like scientific, technical or artistic creativity with cognitive functions as important basis, we developed a new questionnaire. The Artistic Creativity Domains Compendium (ACDC) assesses interest, ability and performance in a distinct way for different domains of artistic creativity. We present the data of 270 adults tested with the ACDC, standard tests of divergent and convergent thinking, and tests of cognitive functions. We present fine-grained analyses on the internal and external validity of the ACDC and on the relationships between creativity, working memory, attention, and intelligence. Our results indicate domain-specific associations between creativity and attention as well as working memory. We conclude that the ACDC is a valid instrument to assess artistic creativity and that a fine-grained analysis reveals distinct patterns of relationships between separate domains of creativity and cognition.

  12. Glacier melting during lava dome growth at Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico): Evidences of a major threat before main eruptive phases at ice-caped volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Roverato, M.; Groppelli, G.; Caballero, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Norini, G.

    2015-03-01

    Nevado de Toluca volcano is one of the largest stratovolcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. During Late Pleistocene its activity was characterized by large dome growth and subsequent collapse emplacing large block and ash flow deposits, intercalated by Plinian eruptions. Morphological and paleoclimate studies at Nevado de Toluca and the surrounding area evidenced that the volcano was affected by extensive glaciation during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. During the older recognized glacial period (27-60 ka, MIS 3), the glacier was disturbed by the intense magmatic and hydrothermal activity related to two dome extrusion episodes (at 37 ka and 28 ka). Glacier reconstruction indicates maximum ice thickness of 90 m along main valleys, as at the Cano ravines, the major glacial valley on the northern slope of the volcano. Along this ravine, both 37 and 28 ka block-and-ash deposits are exposed, and they directly overlay a fluviatile sequence, up to 40 m-thick, which 14C ages clearly indicate that their emplacement occurred just before the dome collapsed. These evidences point to a clear interaction between the growing dome and its hydrothermal system with the glacier. During dome growth, a large amount of melting water was released along major glacial valleys forming thick fluvioglacial sequences that were subsequently covered by the block-and-ash flow deposits generated by the collapse of the growing dome. Even though this scenario is no longer possible at the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the data presented here indicate that special attention should be paid to the possible inundation areas from fluviatile/lahar activity prior to the main magmatic eruption at ice-capped volcanoes.

  13. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Dato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1 was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64–107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979 associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p<0.022. In addition, we found two SNPs borderline influencing longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505 in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  14. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; De Rango, Francesco; Crocco, Paolina; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1) was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking) and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination) status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64-107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979) associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505) in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  15. The Chinese Version of the Revised Creativity Domain Questionnaire (CDQ-R): First Evidence for Its Factorial Validity and Systematic Association with the Big Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Christian H.; Tang, Min; Kruse, Joachim; Kaufman, James C.; Spörrle, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the factor structure of a Chinese version of the Revised Creativity Domain Questionnaire (CDQ-R; Kaufman, Waterstreet, Ailaouni, Whitcomb, Roe, & Riggs, 2009) as well as its relation to Big Five personality traits within a Chinese sample (N = 787). Analyses indicate the appropriateness of the Chinese version of the…

  16. Structural and functional analysis of the S-layer protein crystallisation domain of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 : evidence for protein : protein interaction of two subdomains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Jager, D.; Martinez, B.; Tielen, F.J.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the crystallisation domain, SAN, of the S A-protein of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was analysed by insertion and deletion mutagenesis, and by proteolytic treatment. Mutant S A-protein synthesised in Escherichia coli with 7-13 amino acid insertions near the N terminus or

  17. Evidence that Self-Affirmation Reduces Body Dissatisfaction by Basing Self-Esteem on Domains Other than Body Weight and Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Body satisfaction interventions have typically been multifaceted and targeted at clinical populations. The aim of the present research was to isolate the effects of self-affirmation on body satisfaction in a community sample and to see whether self-affirmation works by basing one's self-esteem on domains other than body weight and…

  18. Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L. SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of two divergent classes of SUN proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Carl R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear envelope that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm provides a surface for chromatin attachment and organization of the cortical nucleoplasm. Proteins associated with it have been well characterized in many eukaryotes but not in plants. SUN (Sad1p/Unc-84 domain proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and function with other proteins to form a physical link between the nucleoskeleton and the cytoskeleton. These bridges transfer forces across the nuclear envelope and are increasingly recognized to play roles in nuclear positioning, nuclear migration, cell cycle-dependent breakdown and reformation of the nuclear envelope, telomere-led nuclear reorganization during meiosis, and karyogamy. Results We found and characterized a family of maize SUN-domain proteins, starting with a screen of maize genomic sequence data. We characterized five different maize ZmSUN genes (ZmSUN1-5, which fell into two classes (probably of ancient origin, as they are also found in other monocots, eudicots, and even mosses. The first (ZmSUN1, 2, here designated canonical C-terminal SUN-domain (CCSD, includes structural homologs of the animal and fungal SUN-domain protein genes. The second (ZmSUN3, 4, 5, here designated plant-prevalent mid-SUN 3 transmembrane (PM3, includes a novel but conserved structural variant SUN-domain protein gene class. Mircroarray-based expression analyses revealed an intriguing pollen-preferred expression for ZmSUN5 mRNA but low-level expression (50-200 parts per ten million in multiple tissues for all the others. Cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA for a PM3-type maize gene, ZmSUN4, is described. Peptide antibodies to ZmSUN3, 4 were used in western-blot and cell-staining assays to show that they are expressed and show concentrated staining at the nuclear periphery. Conclusions The maize genome encodes and expresses at least five different SUN-domain proteins, of which the PM3

  19. Evidence of a dissociation pattern in resting-state default mode network connectivity in first-episode, treatment-naive major depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueling; Wang, Xiang; Xiao, Jin; Liao, Jian; Zhong, Mingtian; Wang, Wei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2012-04-01

    Imaging studies have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with altered activity patterns of the default mode network (DMN). However, the neural correlates of the resting-state DMN and MDD-related pathopsychological characteristics, such as depressive rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) phenomena, still remain unclear. Using independent component analysis, we analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 35 first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD and from 35 matched healthy control subjects. Patients with MDD exhibited higher levels of rumination and OGM than did the control subjects. We observed increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex regions (especially the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex regions (especially the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus) in MDD patients compared with control subjects. In the depressed group, the increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex correlated positively with rumination score, while the decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex correlated negatively with OGM score. We report dissociation between anterior and posterior functional connectivity in resting-state DMNs of first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD. Increased functional connectivity in anterior medial regions of the resting-state DMN was associated with rumination, whereas decreased functional connectivity in posterior medial regions was associated with OGM. These results provide new evidence for the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of MDD and suggest that abnormal DMN activity may be an MDD trait. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Whole-transcriptome brain expression and exon-usage profiling in major depression and suicide: evidence for altered glial, endothelial and ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazatos, S P; Huang, Y-Y; Rosoklija, G B; Dwork, A J; Arango, V; Mann, J J

    2017-05-01

    Brain gene expression profiling studies of suicide and depression using oligonucleotide microarrays have often failed to distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, next generation sequencing approaches are more accurate in quantifying gene expression and can detect alternative splicing. Using RNA-seq, we examined whole-exome gene and exon expression in non-psychiatric controls (CON, N=29), DSM-IV major depressive disorder suicides (MDD-S, N=21) and MDD non-suicides (MDD, N=9) in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) of sudden death medication-free individuals post mortem. Using small RNA-seq, we also examined miRNA expression (nine samples per group). DeSeq2 identified 35 genes differentially expressed between groups and surviving adjustment for false discovery rate (adjusted Pdepression, altered genes include humanin-like-8 (MTRNRL8), interleukin-8 (IL8), and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade H (SERPINH1) and chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4), while exploratory gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed lower expression of immune-related pathways such as chemokine receptor activity, chemotaxis and cytokine biosynthesis, and angiogenesis and vascular development in (adjusted Psuicide and depression, and provisional evidence for altered DNA-dependent ATPase expression in suicide only. DEXSEq analysis identified differential exon usage in ATPase, class II, type 9B (adjusted Pdepression. Differences in miRNA expression or structural gene variants were not detected. Results lend further support for models in which deficits in microglial, endothelial (blood-brain barrier), ATPase activity and astrocytic cell functions contribute to MDD and suicide, and identify putative pathways and mechanisms for further study in these disorders.

  1. The effect of badminton training on the ability of same-domain action anticipation for adult novices: Evidence from behavior and ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Shao, Mengling; Yin, Desheng; Li, Yongjie; Yang, Nan; Yin, Ruru; Leng, Ying; Jin, Hua; Hong, Haixiao

    2017-11-01

    Many transverse studies have found that athletes can better anticipate the outcome of sequential actions belonging to their domain of motor expertise than non-athletes. However, few studies have causally investigated this issue. Using badminton training as an example, the present study attempted to explore whether sports training affected the same-domain action anticipation ability of adult novices and the related neural mechanisms. To address this issue, participants in the training group attended a 12-week badminton training course (1h/time, 3 times/week). Both the training and control groups were asked to view badminton video clips and predict the landing position of a shuttle before and after 12 weeks. Compared to the control group, the training group showed a decrease in the inverse efficiency score, indicating that badminton training did improve trainees' action anticipation ability. Furthermore, the training group produced larger N2 and P3 components of event-related potential after the training. These findings suggest that sport training may affect inhibitory processes and memory encoding during same-domain action anticipation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  3. Functional evidence for the critical amino-terminal conserved domain and key amino acids of Arabidopsis 4-HYDROXY-3-METHYLBUT-2-ENYL DIPHOSPHATE REDUCTASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2014-09-01

    The plant 4-HYDROXY-3-METHYLBUT-2-ENYL DIPHOSPHATE REDUCTASE (HDR) catalyzes the last step of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway to synthesize isopentenyl diphosphate and its allyl isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate, which are common precursors for the synthesis of plastid isoprenoids. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genomic HDR transgene-induced gene-silencing lines are albino, variegated, or pale green, confirming that HDR is essential for plants. We used Escherichia coli isoprenoid synthesis H (Protein Data Bank code 3F7T) as a template for homology modeling to identify key amino acids of Arabidopsis HDR. The predicted model reveals that cysteine (Cys)-122, Cys-213, and Cys-350 are involved in iron-sulfur cluster formation and that histidine (His)-152, His-241, glutamate (Glu)-242, Glu-243, threonine (Thr)-244, Thr-312, serine-379, and asparagine-381 are related to substrate binding or catalysis. Glu-242 and Thr-244 are conserved only in cyanobacteria, green algae, and land plants, whereas the other key amino acids are absolutely conserved from bacteria to plants. We used site-directed mutagenesis and complementation assay to confirm that these amino acids, except His-152 and His-241, were critical for Arabidopsis HDR function. Furthermore, the Arabidopsis HDR contains an extra amino-terminal domain following the transit peptide that is highly conserved from cyanobacteria, and green algae to land plants but not existing in the other bacteria. We demonstrated that the amino-terminal conserved domain was essential for Arabidopsis and cyanobacterial HDR function. Further analysis of conserved amino acids in the amino-terminal conserved domain revealed that the tyrosine-72 residue was critical for Arabidopsis HDR. These results suggest that the structure and reaction mechanism of HDR evolution have become specific for oxygen-evolving photosynthesis organisms and that HDR probably evolved independently in cyanobacteria versus other prokaryotes. © 2014

  4. Neuroimaging studies of practice-related change: fMRI and meta-analytic evidence of a domain-general control network for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, Jason M; Schneider, Walter

    2005-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging and a meta-analysis of prior neuroimaging studies were used to characterize cortical changes resulting from extensive practice and to evaluate a dual-processing account of the neural mechanisms underlying human learning. Three core predictions of the dual processing theory are evaluated: 1) that practice elicits generalized reductions in regional activity by reducing the load on the cognitive control mechanisms that scaffold early learning; 2) that these control mechanisms are domain-general; and 3) that no separate processing pathway emerges as skill develops. To evaluate these predictions, a meta-analysis of prior neuroimaging studies and a within-subjects fMRI experiment contrasting unpracticed to practiced performance in a paired-associate task were conducted. The principal effect of practice was found to be a reduction in the extent and magnitude of activity in a cortical network spanning bilateral dorsal prefrontal, left ventral prefrontal, medial frontal (anterior cingulate), left insular, bilateral parietal, and occipito-temporal (fusiform) areas. These activity reductions are shown to occur in common regions across prior neuroimaging studies and for both verbal and nonverbal paired-associate learning in the present fMRI experiment. The implicated network of brain regions is interpreted as a domain-general system engaged specifically to support novice, but not practiced, performance.

  5. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  6. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  7. Evidence of a major locus for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in addition to a pleiotropic locus for both LPL and fasting insulin: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Rice, T; Després, J P; Gagnon, J; Nadeau, A; Bergeron, J; Pérusse, L; Bouchard, C; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C

    1999-06-01

    A major gene hypothesis for heparin releasable plasma lipoprotein lipase (PH-LPL) activity was assessed using segregation analyses of data on 495 members in 98 normolipidemic sedentary families of Caucasian descent who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Segregation analyses were performed on PH-LPL adjusted for age, and on PH-LPL activity adjusted for age and fasting insulin. Prior to adjustment for insulin, neither a major gene effect nor a multifactorial component could be rejected, and support for a major gene was equivocal i.e. neither the Mendelian transmission nor the no transmission (equal tau s) models were rejected. However, after adjusting for the effects of insulin, a major gene effect on PH-LPL activity was unambiguous. The putative locus accounted for 60% of the total phenotypic variance, and the homozygous recessive form affected 10% (q2) of the sample (i.e. gene frequency (q) = 0.31), and led to a low PH-LPL value. The lack of a significant multifactorial effect suggested that the familial etiology of PH-LPL activity adjusted for insulin was likely to be primarily a function of the major locus. In conclusion, the present study is the first to report segregation analyses on PH-LPL activity prior to and after adjusting for insulin, and suggests that there is an indication of a pleiotropic genetic effect on PH-LPL activity and insulin, in addition to a major gene effect on PH-LPL activity alone.

  8. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  9. The artiodactyl APOBEC3 innate immune repertoire shows evidence for a multi-functional domain organization that existed in the ancestor of placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrésdóttir Valgerdur

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background APOBEC3 (A3 proteins deaminate DNA cytosines and block the replication of retroviruses and retrotransposons. Each A3 gene encodes a protein with one or two conserved zinc-coordinating motifs (Z1, Z2 or Z3. The presence of one A3 gene in mice (Z2–Z3 and seven in humans, A3A-H (Z1a, Z2a-Z1b, Z2b, Z2c-Z2d, Z2e-Z2f, Z2g-Z1c, Z3, suggests extraordinary evolutionary flexibility. To gain insights into the mechanism and timing of A3 gene expansion and into the functional modularity of these genes, we analyzed the genomic sequences, expressed cDNAs and activities of the full A3 repertoire of three artiodactyl lineages: sheep, cattle and pigs. Results Sheep and cattle have three A3 genes, A3Z1, A3Z2 and A3Z3, whereas pigs only have two, A3Z2 and A3Z3. A comparison between domestic and wild pigs indicated that A3Z1 was deleted in the pig lineage. In all three species, read-through transcription and alternative splicing also produced a catalytically active double domain A3Z2-Z3 protein that had a distinct cytoplasmic localization. Thus, the three A3 genes of sheep and cattle encode four conserved and active proteins. These data, together with phylogenetic analyses, indicated that a similar, functionally modular A3 repertoire existed in the common ancestor of artiodactyls and primates (i.e., the ancestor of placental mammals. This mammalian ancestor therefore possessed the minimal A3 gene set, Z1-Z2-Z3, required to evolve through a remarkable series of eight recombination events into the present day eleven Z domain human repertoire. Conclusion The dynamic recombination-filled history of the mammalian A3 genes is consistent with the modular nature of the locus and a model in which most of these events (especially the expansions were selected by ancient pathogenic retrovirus infections.

  10. Why the Major Field Test in Business Does Not Report Subscores: Reliability and Construct Validity Evidence. Research Report. ETS RR-12-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    To assess the value of individual students' subscores on the Major Field Test in Business (MFT Business), I examined the test's internal structure with factor analysis and structural equation model methods, and analyzed the subscore reliabilities using the augmented scores method. Analyses of the internal structure suggested that the MFT Business…

  11. Is Divorce More Painful When Couples Have Children? Evidence From Long-Term Panel Data on Multiple Domains of Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2016-12-01

    Theoretical models of the divorce process suggest that marital breakup is more painful in the presence of children, yet little is known about the role of children as a moderator of divorce effects on adult well-being. The present study addresses this gap of research based on long-term panel data from Germany (SOEP). Following individuals over several years before and after divorce, we investigated whether the impact of divorce on multiple measures of well-being varied by the presence and age of children before marital breakup. Three central findings emerged from the analysis. First, declines in well-being were sharper in the presence of children, and these moderator effects were larger if children were younger. Second, domain-specific measures of well-being revealed gender differences in the moderating role of children. Mothers sustained deeper drops in economic well-being than did fathers; the reverse was true for family well-being. Third, most of these disproportionate declines in the well-being of divorced parents did not persist in the long term given that higher rates of adaptation leveled out the gaps compared with childless divorcees.

  12. Autoregulation of transcription of the hupA gene in Escherichia coli: evidence for steric hindrance of the functional promoter domains induced by HU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, K; Yasuzawa, K; Hirose, M; Kano, Y; Goshima, N; Tanaka, H; Imamoto, F

    1994-06-01

    The molecular mechanism of autoregulation of expression of the hupA gene in Escherichia coli was examined. The promoter of the gene contains a palindromic sequence with the potential to form a cruciform DNA structure in which the -35 sequence lies at the base of the stem and the -10 sequence forms a single-stranded loop. An artificial promoter lacking the palindrome, which was constructed by replacing a 10 nucleotide repeat for the predicted cruciform arm by a sequence in the opposite orientation, was not subject to HU-repression. DNA relaxation induced by deleting HU proteins and/or inhibiting DNA gyrase in cells results in increased expression from the hupA promoter. We propose that initiation of transcription of the hupA gene is negatively regulated by steric hindrance of the functional promoter domains for formation of the cruciform configuration, which is facilitated at least in part by negative supercoiling of the hupA promoter DNA region. The promoter region of the hupB gene also contains a palindromic sequence that can assume a cruciform configuration. Negative regulation of this gene by HU proteins may occur by a mechanism similar to that operating for the hupA gene.

  13. PYROXENITE VEINS WITHIN SSZ PERIDOTITES – EVIDENCE OF MELT-ROCK INTERACTION (EGIINGOL MASSIF), MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF MINERALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Karimov; M A. Gornova; V. A. Belyaev

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of melt-rock reaction between suprasubduction zone (SSZ) peridotites and island arc boninititc and tholeiitic melts are identified. This process is the cause of replacive dunites and pyroxenite veins forming, which are represent the ways of island-arc melts migration. The peridotite-melt interaction is confirmed by compositional features of rocks and minerals. Influence of boninitic melt in peridotites of South Sandwich island arc leads to increasing of TiO2 and Cr-number (Cr#) in sp...

  14. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is req...

  15. Intensive follow-up for women with breast cancer: review of clinical, economic and patient's preference domains through evidence to decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranconi, Alessandra; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Deandrea, Silvia; Bramesfeld, Anke; Lerda, Donata; Neamțiu, Luciana; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Posso, Margarita; Rigau, David; Sola, Ivan; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José

    2017-10-19

    Women treated for breast cancer are followed-up for monitoring of treatment effectiveness and for detecting recurrences at an early stage. The type of follow-up received may affect women's reassurance and impact on their quality of life. Anxiety and depression among women with breast cancer has been described, but little is known about how the intensity of the follow-up can affect women's psychological status. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intensive vs. less-intensive follow-up on different health outcomes, to determine what are women's preferences and values regarding the follow-up received, and also assess the costs of these different types of follow-up. A systematic review following standard Cochrane Collaboration methods was carried out to assess the efficacy of intensive follow-up versus non-intensive follow-up in breast cancer patients. Two additional reviews on women's preferences and economic evidence were also carried out. The search was performed up to January 2016 in: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PDQ, McMaster Health Systems Evidence, CENTRAL, and NHS EED (through The Cochrane Library). The quality of evidence was assessed by GRADE (for quantitative studies) and CerQUAL (for qualitative studies). Several outcomes including mortality, breast cancer recurrences, quality of life, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Six randomised trials (corresponding to 3534 women) were included for the evaluation of health outcomes; three studies were included for women's values and preferences and four for an economic assessment. There is moderate certainty of evidence showing that intensive follow-up, including more frequent diagnostic tests or visits, does not have effects on 5- or 10-year overall mortality and recurrences in women with breast cancer, compared with less intensive follow-up. Regarding women's preferences and values, there was important variability among studies and within studies (low confidence due to risk of bias and inconsistency

  16. TYK2 protein-coding variants protect against rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmunity, with no evidence of major pleiotropic effects on non-autoimmune complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Diogo

    Full Text Available Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease biology. Here, we genetically fine-map the RA risk locus at 19p13 to define causal variants, and explore the pleiotropic effects of these same variants in other complex traits. First, we combined Immunochip dense genotyping (n = 23,092 case/control samples, Exomechip genotyping (n = 18,409 case/control samples and targeted exon-sequencing (n = 2,236 case/controls samples to demonstrate that three protein-coding variants in TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2 independently protect against RA: P1104A (rs34536443, OR = 0.66, P = 2.3 x 10(-21, A928V (rs35018800, OR = 0.53, P = 1.2 x 10(-9, and I684S (rs12720356, OR = 0.86, P = 4.6 x 10(-7. Second, we show that the same three TYK2 variants protect against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Pomnibus = 6 x 10(-18, and provide suggestive evidence that two of the TYK2 variants (P1104A and A928V may also protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; P(omnibus = 0.005. Finally, in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS assessing >500 phenotypes using electronic medical records (EMR in >29,000 subjects, we found no convincing evidence for association of P1104A and A928V with complex phenotypes other than autoimmune diseases such as RA, SLE and IBD. Together, our results demonstrate the role of TYK2 in the pathogenesis of RA, SLE and IBD, and provide supporting evidence for TYK2 as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  17. Late Cenozoic thrusting of major faults along the central segment of Longmen Shan, eastern Tibet: Evidence from low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi-Bin; Xu, Xi-Wei; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Lu, Ren-Qi; Liu, Yiduo; Xu, Chong; Li, Kang; Yu, Gui-Hua; Kang, Wen-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The Cenozoic orogenic process of the Longmen Shan (LMS) and the kinematics of major faults along the LMS are crucial for understanding the growth history and mechanism of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Three major faults, from west to east, are present in the central segment of the LMS: the Wenchuan-Maoxian Fault (WMF), the Beichuan-Yingxiu Fault (BYF), and the Jiangyou-Guanxian Fault (JGF). Previous researchers have placed great impetus on the Pengguan Massif, between the WMF and BYF. However, limited low-temperature thermochronology data coverage in other areas prevents us from fully delineating the tectonic history of the LMS. In this study, we collect 22 samples from vertical profiles in the Xuelongbao Massif and the range frontal area located at the hanging walls of the WMF and JGF respectively, and conduct apatite and zircon fission track analyses. New fission track data reveal that the Xuelongbao Massif has been undergoing rapid exhumation with an average rate of 0.7-0.9 mm/yr since 11 Ma, and the range frontal area began rapid exhumation at 7.5 Ma with total exhumation of 2.5-4.5 km. The exhumation histories indicate that the three major faults (WMF, BYF and JGF) in the central LMS are all reverse faults, and show a basinward in-sequence propagation from middle Miocene to present-day. Such a pattern further implies that upper crustal shortening is the primary driver for the LMS' uplift during the Late Cenozoic. Nevertheless, middle-lower crustal deformation is difficult to be constrained by the exhumation histories, and its contribution to LMS' uplift cannot be ruled out.

  18. The effects of transboundary air pollution following major events in China on air quality in the U.S.: Evidence from Chinese New Year and sandstorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N S; Zhong, N; Bao, X

    2018-04-15

    Transboundary air pollution is a global environmental and public health problem including in the U.S., where pollution emissions from China, the largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollution in the world, can travel across the Pacific Ocean and reach places like California and Oregon. We examine the effects of transboundary air pollution following major events in China, specifically sandstorms, a natural-occurring source of air pollution, and Chinese New Year, a major 7-day holiday, on background air quality in the U.S. We focus on high elevation sites on the west coast between 2000 and 2013. We use regression analysis and a natural experiment to exploit the variation in the timing of these events in China, which are plausibly uncorrelated to other factors that affect air quality in China and the U.S. We find that sandstorms are associated with statistically significant increases in background coarse and fine particulate matter (PM) in the U.S., representing between 16 and 39% of average weekly PM levels. We also find Chinese New Year is associated with modest reductions in background air quality in the U.S., representing between 0.4 and 2.5% of PM levels. Findings are robust to different models and falsification tests. These results suggest that regression analysis could be a powerful tool to complement other, more widely used techniques in the environmental sciences that study this problem. This also has important implications for policymakers, who could track major sandstorms in China and prepare for possible increased foreign pollution emissions in the U.S. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction Reweighting for Domain Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang Li; Shiji Song; Gao Huang

    2017-07-01

    There are plenty of classification methods that perform well when training and testing data are drawn from the same distribution. However, in real applications, this condition may be violated, which causes degradation of classification accuracy. Domain adaptation is an effective approach to address this problem. In this paper, we propose a general domain adaptation framework from the perspective of prediction reweighting, from which a novel approach is derived. Different from the major domain adaptation methods, our idea is to reweight predictions of the training classifier on testing data according to their signed distance to the domain separator, which is a classifier that distinguishes training data (from source domain) and testing data (from target domain). We then propagate the labels of target instances with larger weights to ones with smaller weights by introducing a manifold regularization method. It can be proved that our reweighting scheme effectively brings the source and target domains closer to each other in an appropriate sense, such that classification in target domain becomes easier. The proposed method can be implemented efficiently by a simple two-stage algorithm, and the target classifier has a closed-form solution. The effectiveness of our approach is verified by the experiments on artificial datasets and two standard benchmarks, a visual object recognition task and a cross-domain sentiment analysis of text. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is competitive with the state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms.

  20. Layered Growth and Crystallization in Calcareous Biominerals: Impact of Structural and Chemical Evidence on Two Major Concepts in Invertebrate Biomineralization Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In several recent models of invertebrate skeletogenesis, Ca-carbonate crystallization occurs within a liquid-filled chamber. No explanation is given neither for the simultaneous occurrence of distinct polymorphs of Ca-carbonate within these liquid volumes, nor for the spatial arrangement of the mineral units which are always organized in species-specific structural sequences. Results of a series of physical characterizations applied to reference skeletal materials reveal the inadequacy of this liquid-filled chamber model to account for structural and chemical properties of the shell building units. Simultaneously, these data provide convergent pieces of evidence for a specific mode of crystallization developed throughout various invertebrate phyla, supporting the hypothesized “common strategy” based on a multi-scaled control exerted on formation of their calcareous hard parts.

  1. PYROXENITE VEINS WITHIN SSZ PERIDOTITES – EVIDENCE OF MELT-ROCK INTERACTION (EGIINGOL MASSIF, MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF MINERALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of melt-rock reaction between suprasubduction zone (SSZ peridotites and island arc boninititc and tholeiitic melts are identified. This process is the cause of replacive dunites and pyroxenite veins forming, which are represent the ways of island-arc melts migration. The peridotite-melt interaction is confirmed by compositional features of rocks and minerals. Influence of boninitic melt in peridotites of South Sandwich island arc leads to increasing of TiO2 and Cr-number (Cr# in spinels [Pearce et al., 2000] e.g. REE patterns of clinopyroxene from Voykar are equilibrium to boninitic melts [Belousov et al., 2009]. We show that pyroxenites are formed sequential, orthopyroxenites are originated firstly, websterites – after, and the main forming process is interaction of SSZ peridotites with percolating boninite-like melts.

  2. Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder: evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, T; Radua, J; Via, E; Cardoner, N; Abe, O; Adams, T M; Amico, F; Cheng, Y; Cole, J H; de Azevedo Marques Périco, C; Dickstein, D P; Farrow, T F D; Frodl, T; Wagner, G; Gotlib, I H; Gruber, O; Ham, B J; Job, D E; Kempton, M J; Kim, M J; Koolschijn, P C M P; Malhi, G S; Mataix-Cols, D; McIntosh, A M; Nugent, A C; O'Brien, J T; Pezzoli, S; Phillips, M L; Sachdev, P S; Salvadore, G; Selvaraj, S; Stanfield, A C; Thomas, A J; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J A; Veltman, D J; Young, A H; Fu, C H; Cleare, A J; Arnone, D

    2017-10-01

    Finding robust brain substrates of mood disorders is an important target for research. The degree to which major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with common and/or distinct patterns of volumetric changes is nevertheless unclear. Furthermore, the extant literature is heterogeneous with respect to the nature of these changes. We report a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in MDD and BD. We identified studies published up to January 2015 that compared grey matter in MDD (50 data sets including 4101 individuals) and BD (36 data sets including 2407 individuals) using whole-brain VBM. We used statistical maps from the studies included where available and reported peak coordinates otherwise. Group comparisons and conjunction analyses identified regions in which the disorders showed common and distinct patterns of volumetric alteration. Both disorders were associated with lower grey-matter volume relative to healthy individuals in a number of areas. Conjunction analysis showed smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula. Group comparisons indicated that findings of smaller grey-matter volumes relative to controls in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus, along with cerebellar, temporal and parietal regions were more substantial in major depression. These results suggest that MDD and BD are characterised by both common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume changes. This combination of differences and similarities has the potential to inform the development of diagnostic biomarkers for these conditions.

  3. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  4. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  5. Preliminary evidence for an association between a dopamine D3 receptor gene variant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Katrina J; Joyce, Peter R; Luty, Suzanne E; Mulder, Roger T; Frampton, Christropher M A; Joyce, Laura R M; Miller, Allison L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2006-06-05

    We have previously reported that the Ser9Gly dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) polymorphism was associated with increased rates of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptomology. We tested the replicability of this association within a further two independent groups of individuals with a history of depression, from a clinical sample (n = 149) and a family study (n = 213). The data from the replication samples and the original sample, within which the association was found, were compiled within a meta-analysis. Although the independent samples did not replicate the original finding, the meta-analysis elucidated significant evidence supporting the association. An individual with Gly/Gly genotype is 2.4 (P = 0.017) times more likely to be diagnosed with OCPD. Male gender was also found to be a significant predictor of OCPD diagnosis (OR = 2.82, P = 0.001). An exploration of an association of DRD3 with Axis I anxiety disorder diagnoses and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) traits, in particular persistence, revealed no support for an association. We conclude that DRD3 may contribute to the development of OCPD.

  6. Melting of major Glaciers in the western Himalayas: evidence of climatic changes from long term MSU derived tropospheric temperature trend (1979–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Prasad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming or the increase of the surface and atmospheric temperatures of the Earth, is increasingly discernible in the polar, sub-polar and major land glacial areas. The Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau Glaciers, which are the largest glaciers outside of the Polar Regions, are showing a large-scale decrease of snow cover and an extensive glacial retreat. These glaciers such as Siachen and Gangotri are a major water resource for Asia as they feed major rivers such as the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. Due to scarcity of ground measuring stations, the long-term observations of atmospheric temperatures acquired from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU since 1979–2008 is highly useful. The lower and middle tropospheric temperature trend based on 30 years of MSU data shows warming of the Northern Hemisphere's mid-latitude regions. The mean month-to-month warming (up to 0.048±0.026°K/year or 1.44°K over 30 years of the mid troposphere (near surface over the high altitude Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau is prominent and statistically significant at a 95% confidence interval. Though the mean annual warming trend over the Himalayas (0.016±0.005°K/year, and Tibetan Plateau (0.008±0.006°K/year is positive, the month to month warming trend is higher (by 2–3 times, positive and significant only over a period of six months (December to May. The factors responsible for the reversal of this trend from June to November are discussed here. The inequality in the magnitude of the warming trends of the troposphere between the western and eastern Himalayas and the IG (Indo-Gangetic plains is attributed to the differences in increased aerosol loading (due to dust storms over these regions. The monthly mean lower-tropospheric MSU-derived temperature trend over the IG plains (dust sink region; up to 0.032±0.027°K/year and dust source regions (Sahara desert, Middle East, Arabian region, Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan and Thar Desert regions; up to 0.068±0.033

  7. Predictors of remission in the treatment of major depressive disorder: real-world evidence from a 6-month prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Diego; Hong, Jihyung; Montgomery, William; Dueñas, Héctor; Gado, Magdy; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examined potential predictors of remission among patients treated for major depressive disorder (MDD) in a naturalistic clinical setting, mostly in the Middle East, East Asia, and Mexico. Data for this post hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month prospective, noninterventional, observational study that involved 1,549 MDD patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline in 12 countries worldwide. Depression severity was measured using the Clinical Global Impression of Severity and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR16). Depression-related pain was measured using the pain-related items of the Somatic Symptom Inventory. Remission was defined as a QIDS-SR16 score ≤5. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine baseline factors associated with remission during follow-up. Being from East Asia (odds ratio [OR] 0.48 versus Mexico; Pdepression severity at baseline (OR 0.77, P=0.003, for Clinical Global Impression of Severity; OR 0.92, Pdepression (OR 0.78, P=0.030), and having any significant psychiatric and medical comorbidity at baseline (OR 0.60, Pdepression-related pain and outcomes of depression.

  8. Major-histocompatibility-complex-associated variation in secondary sexual traits of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): evidence for good-genes advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchkoff, S S; Lochmiller, R L; Masters, R E; Hoofer, S R; Van Den Bussche, R A

    2001-03-01

    Good-genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest advertisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data collected from hunter-harvested deer to characteristics of the Mhc-DRB (Odvi), the most widely studied gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Artiodactyla. We detected associations between genetic characteristics at Odvi-DRB and antler development and body mass, suggesting that antler development and body mass may be associated with pathogen resistance in deer and thus may be an honest signal of genetic quality. We also detected associations between Odvi-DRB characteristics and serum testosterone during the breeding season, suggesting that certain MHC characteristics may help deer cope with stresses related to breeding activity. In addition, we observed a negative relationship between degree of antler development and overall abundance of abomasal helminths. Our observations provide support for the hypothesis that antler development in white-tailed deer is an honest signal of quality.

  9. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  10. Anhedonia and pain avoidance in the suicidal mind: behavioral evidence for motivational manifestations of suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Li, Huanhuan; Luo, Xinwei; Fu, Rong; Ying, Xiangyu; Wang, Ning; Yin, Qifeng; Zou, Yingmin; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Xiang; Shi, Chuan

    2014-07-01

    Psychological pain may be helpful in conceptualizing suicidal behavior, in that high motivation to avoid pain combined with painful feelings may contribute to an increased risk of suicide. However, no experimental study has tested this hypothesis. The aim of the present study is to provide empirical evidence for the relationship between anhedonia, pain avoidance motivation, and suicidal ideation. The sample comprised 40 depressed outpatients and 20 healthy control subjects. All participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS), Beck Depression Inventory, Psychache Scale, Three-Dimensional Psychological Pain Scale, the monetary incentive delay (MID), and affective incentive delay (AID) tasks. Based on BSS scores, clinical participants were divided into high suicidal ideation (HSI) and low suicidal ideation (LSI) groups. In the AID task, the HSI group had longer response times (RTs) under the reward condition than those under the punishment condition (p = .002). The LSI and control groups had shorter RTs under the reward condition compared with those under the neural condition (p <.001 and p = .008, respectively). The LSI group also had shorter RTs under the reward condition than under the punishment condition (p = .003). Pain arousal (r = -.33, p <.01) and BSS scores were significantly negatively correlated with differences in RTs between neutral and reward conditions. Pain avoidance (r = .35, p <.01) and BSS scores were positively correlated with differences in RTs between neutral and punishment conditions. The AID task was more sensitive than the MID task for the detection of participants' motivation in approaching hedonic experiences and avoiding pain. A suicidal mindset is manifested as decreased motivation to experience hedonia and increased motivation to avoid pain, which could be strong predictors of suicidal behavior. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Directly transport of suspended matter from the Yangtze River to the Okinawa trough post-major flood '98: evidence from stable isotopes and C/N ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Deling; Shi Xuefa; Song Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    Water column concentrations of total suspended matter (TSM), particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and their stable isotopic compositions (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) are measured at two to five different depths in the Yellow Sea and East China Seas and Yangtze Estuary to clarify the effect of '98 Yangtze great flood on the transport of suspended matter in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Suspended matters are collected to analyze the distributions of TSM, POC, PN and salinity throughout the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in the autumn of 1998. There are marked positive correlations (r=0.89-0.98) among TSM, POC and PN, but negative relationships (r=-0.29 - -0.59) between TSM and salinity. These results conclude that the POC and PN were controlled primarily by the concentrations of TSM. The C/N ratios of particulate organic matter have a negative linear correlation with PN% (r=-0.44 - -0.71), but no correlation with POC%, which suggests C/N ratios are mainly controlled by PN%. There are distinct positive correlations between δ 15 N and POC% or PN% in surface water (r=0.36 and 0.24, p<0.01, respectively), however, the correlation do not exist in more deeper depths. In indicates that δ 15 N PN could be changed by a lot of factors, such as nutrient availability, nitrification, denitrification, different material sources and so on, except decomposition of organic matter. The distributions of C/N ratios and δ 13 C values of the particulate organic matter suggest that suspended matters from Yangtze River could be transported directly into the Okinawa Trough under the condition of '98 Yangtze major flood, which break through the foregone knowledge obtained under the normal hydrological condition. (authors)

  12. Evidence of dengue virus transmission and factors associated with the presence of anti-dengue virus antibodies in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanou, Maurice; Pouillot, Régis; Grandadam, Marc; Boisier, Pascal; Kamgang, Basile; Hervé, Jean Pierre; Rogier, Christophe; Rousset, Dominique; Paupy, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    Dengue is not well documented in Africa. In Cameroon, data are scarce, but dengue infection has been confirmed in humans. We conducted a study to document risk factors associated with anti-dengue virus Immunoglobulin G seropositivity in humans in three major towns in Cameroon. A cross sectional survey was conducted in Douala, Garoua and Yaounde, using a random cluster sampling design. Participants underwent a standardized interview and were blood sampled. Environmental and housing characteristics were recorded. Randomized houses were prospected to record all water containers, and immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes were collected. Sera were screened for anti-dengue virus IgG and IgM antibodies. Risk factors of seropositivity were tested using logistic regression methods with random effects. Anti-dengue IgG were found from 61.4% of sera in Douala (n = 699), 24.2% in Garoua (n = 728) and 9.8% in Yaounde (n = 603). IgM were found from 0.3% of Douala samples, 0.1% of Garoua samples and 0.0% of Yaounde samples. Seroneutralization on randomly selected IgG positive sera showed that 72% (n = 100) in Douala, 80% (n = 94) in Garoua and 77% (n = 66) in Yaounde had antibodies specific for dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). Age, temporary house walls materials, having water-storage containers, old tires or toilets in the yard, having no TV, having no air conditioning and having travelled at least once outside the city were independently associated with anti-dengue IgG positivity in Douala. Age, having uncovered water containers, having no TV, not being born in Garoua and not breeding pigs were significant risk factors in Garoua. Recent history of malaria, having banana trees and stagnant water in the yard were independent risk factors in Yaounde. In this survey, most identified risk factors of dengue were related to housing conditions. Poverty and underdevelopment are central to the dengue epidemiology in Cameroon.

  13. Immune Cell-Mediated Protection against Vaginal Candidiasis: Evidence for a Major Role of Vaginal CD4+ T Cells and Possible Participation of Other Local Lymphocyte Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Adriani, Daniela; Lucciarini, Roberta; Amantini, Consuelo; Morrone, Stefania; Cassone, Antonio; De Bernardis, Flavia

    2002-01-01

    The protective roles of different lymphocyte subsets were investigated in a rat vaginal candidiasis model by adoptive transfer of vaginal lymphocytes (VL) or sorted, purified CD3+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or CD3− CD5+ B cells from the vaginas of naïve or immune rats following three rounds of Candida albicans infection. The adoptive transfer of total VL from nonimmune animals did not alter the course of vaginal candidiasis of the recipient rats. In contrast, the animals receiving total VL or CD3+ T cells from immune rats showed a highly significant acceleration of fungus clearance compared with animals which received nonimmune VL. The animals with vaginal CD3− CD5+ B cells transferred from immune rats also had fewer Candida CFU than the controls, but fungal clearance was significantly retarded with respect to the animals administered immune T cells. Sorted, purified CD4+ and CD8+ vaginal T cells from immune rats were also adoptively transferred to naïve animals. Although both populations were seen to accelerate the clearance of the fungus from the vagina, CD4+ T cells were much more effective than CD8+ T cells. Overall, there was no difference between the antifungal effects of immune vaginal CD4+ T cells and those achievable with the transfer of whole, immune VL. Histological observations of the vaginal tissues of rats with adoptively transferred immune T cells demonstrated a remarkable accumulation of lymphocytes in the subepithelial lamina propria and also infiltrating the mucosal epithelium. These results strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4+ T cells probably playing a major role. PMID:12183521

  14. Obesity in patients with major depression is related to bipolarity and mixed features: evidence from the BRIDGE-II-Mix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eleonora; Bacci, Olivia; Barbuti, Margherita; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Angst, Jules; Bowden, Charles L; Mosolov, Sergey; Vieta, Eduard; Young, Allan H; Perugi, Giulio

    2017-09-01

    The Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance and Education (BRIDGE)-II-Mix study aimed to estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients with a major depressive episode (MDE) according to different definitions. The present post-hoc analysis evaluated the association between obesity and the presence of mixed features and bipolarity. A total of 2811 MDE subjects were enrolled in a multicenter cross-sectional study. In 2744 patients, the body mass index (BMI) was evaluated. Psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected, comparing the characteristics of MDE patients with (MDE-OB) and without (MDE-NOB) obesity. Obesity (BMI ≥30) was registered in 493 patients (18%). In the MDE-OB group, 90 patients (20%) fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for bipolar disease (BD), 225 patients (50%) fulfilled the bipolarity specifier criteria, 59 patients (13%) fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for MDEs with mixed features, and 226 patients (50%) fulfilled Research-Based Diagnostic Criteria for an MDE. Older age, history of (hypo)manic switches during antidepressant treatment, the occurrence of three or more MDEs, atypical depressive features, antipsychotic treatment, female gender, depressive mixed state according to DSM-5 criteria, comorbid eating disorders, and anxiety disorders were significantly associated with the MDE-OB group. Among (hypo)manic symptoms during the current MDE, psychomotor agitation, distractibility, increased energy, and risky behaviors were the variables most frequently associated with MDE-OB group. In our sample, the presence of obesity in patients with an MDE seemed to be associated with higher rates of bipolar spectrum disorders. These findings suggest that obesity in patients with an MDE could be considered as a possible marker of bipolarity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Changes of explicitly and implicitly measured self-esteem in the treatment of major depression: evidence for implicit self-esteem compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Alfter, Susanne; Mierke, Jan; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Kleiman, Alexandra; Koch, Anne Sarah; Conrad, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    Self-esteem has been claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Whereas explicit self-esteem is usually reduced in depressed individuals, studies on implicitly measured self-esteem in depression exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of results, and the role of implicit self-esteem in depression is still ambiguous. Previous research on implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) revealed that implicit self-esteem can mirror processes of self-esteem compensation under conditions that threaten self-esteem. We assume that depressed individuals experience a permanent threat to their selves resulting in enduring processes of ISEC. We hypothesize that ISEC as measured by implicit self-esteem will decrease when individuals recover from depression. 45 patients with major depression received an integrative in-patient treatment in the Psychosomatic University Hospital Bonn, Germany. Depression was measured by the depression score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Self-esteem was assessed explicitly using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and implicitly by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Test (NLT). As expected for a successful treatment of depression, depression scores declined during the eight weeks of treatment and explicit self-esteem rose. In line with our hypothesis, both measures of implicit self-esteem decreased, indicating reduced processes of ISEC. It still remains unclear, under which conditions there is an overlap of measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. The results lend support to the concept of ISEC and demonstrate the relevance of implicit self-esteem and self-esteem compensation for the understanding of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Impairment and Painful Physical Symptoms in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Treated with Antidepressants: Real-World Evidence from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Moneta, Maria Victoria; El-Shafei, Ahmed; Dueñas, Héctor; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Global Burden of Disease 2010 study reported the relative size of major depressive disorder (MDD) burden to be greater in the Middle East and North Africa than anywhere else. However, little research has been carried out to examine the comparative effectiveness of antidepressants in this region. To assess and compare functioning levels in Middle Eastern patients with MDD treated with either duloxetine or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and to examine the impacts of depression-related pain on functioning by the type of treatment. This post-hoc analysis, which focused on Middle Eastern patients, used data from a 6-month prospective observational study that included 1,549 MDD patients without sexual dysfunction. Levels of functional impairment and depression-related pain were assessed using the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the modified Somatic Symptom Inventory, respectively. A mixed model with repeated measures (MMRM) was employed. The mean age of the patients was 37.3 (SD=8.4) years, and 34.6% were female. Patient functioning was, on average, moderately impaired at baseline, but improved substantially during follow-up in both the duloxetine (n=152) and the SSRI (n=123) cohorts. The MMRM results showed a lower level of functional impairment at 24 weeks in the duloxetine cohort than in the SSRI cohort (p<0.001). Pain severity at baseline was positively associated with functional impairment during follow-up only in the SSRI cohort (p=0.003). Duloxetine-treated MDD patients achieved better functioning than SSRI-treated patients. This treatment difference was partly driven by depression-related pain.

  17. Evidence of dengue virus transmission and factors associated with the presence of anti-dengue virus antibodies in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Demanou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is not well documented in Africa. In Cameroon, data are scarce, but dengue infection has been confirmed in humans. We conducted a study to document risk factors associated with anti-dengue virus Immunoglobulin G seropositivity in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.A cross sectional survey was conducted in Douala, Garoua and Yaounde, using a random cluster sampling design. Participants underwent a standardized interview and were blood sampled. Environmental and housing characteristics were recorded. Randomized houses were prospected to record all water containers, and immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes were collected. Sera were screened for anti-dengue virus IgG and IgM antibodies. Risk factors of seropositivity were tested using logistic regression methods with random effects. Anti-dengue IgG were found from 61.4% of sera in Douala (n = 699, 24.2% in Garoua (n = 728 and 9.8% in Yaounde (n = 603. IgM were found from 0.3% of Douala samples, 0.1% of Garoua samples and 0.0% of Yaounde samples. Seroneutralization on randomly selected IgG positive sera showed that 72% (n = 100 in Douala, 80% (n = 94 in Garoua and 77% (n = 66 in Yaounde had antibodies specific for dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2. Age, temporary house walls materials, having water-storage containers, old tires or toilets in the yard, having no TV, having no air conditioning and having travelled at least once outside the city were independently associated with anti-dengue IgG positivity in Douala. Age, having uncovered water containers, having no TV, not being born in Garoua and not breeding pigs were significant risk factors in Garoua. Recent history of malaria, having banana trees and stagnant water in the yard were independent risk factors in Yaounde.In this survey, most identified risk factors of dengue were related to housing conditions. Poverty and underdevelopment are central to the dengue epidemiology in Cameroon.

  18. Molecular Gas in a Submillimeter Galaxy at z = 4.5: Evidence for a Major Merger at 1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Carilli, C. L.; Capak, P.; Martinez-Sansigre, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Yun, M. S.; Bertoldi, F.; Le Fevre, O.; de Ravel, L.

    2008-12-01

    We report the detection of CO molecular line emission in the z = 4.5 millimeter-detected galaxy COSMOS J100054+023436 (hereafter J1000+0234) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) and NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA). The 12CO(4-3) line as observed with PdBI has a full line width of ~1000 km s-1, an integrated line flux of 0.66 Jy km s-1, and a CO luminosity of 3.2 × 1010 L⊙. Comparison to the 3.3 σ detection of the CO(2-1) line emission with the VLA suggests that the molecular gas is likely thermalized to the J = 4-3 transition level. The corresponding molecular gas mass is 2.6 × 1010 M⊙ assuming an ULIRG-like conversion factor. From the spatial offset of the red- and blueshifted line peaks and the line width a dynamical mass of 1.1 × 1011 M⊙ is estimated assuming a merging scenario. The molecular gas distribution coincides with the rest-frame optical and radio position of the object while being offset by 0.5'' from the previously detected Lyα emission. J1000+0234 exhibits very typical properties for lower redshift (z ~ 2) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and thus is very likely one of the long sought after high-redshift (z > 4) objects of this population. The large CO(4-3) line width taken together with its highly disturbed rest-frame UV geometry suggest an ongoing major merger about a billion years after the big bang. Given its large star formation rate (SFR) of >1000 M⊙ yr-1 and molecular gas content this object could be the precursor of a "red and dead" elliptical observed at a redshift of z = 2. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  19. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  20. Predictors of remission in the treatment of major depressive disorder: real-world evidence from a 6-month prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novick D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 Jihyung Hong,1 William Montgomery,2 Héctor Dueñas,3 Magdy Gado,4 Josep Maria Haro5 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, Australia; 3Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Background: This study examined potential predictors of remission among patients treated for major depressive disorder (MDD in a naturalistic clinical setting, mostly in the Middle East, East Asia, and Mexico. Methods: Data for this post hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month prospective, noninterventional, observational study that involved 1,549 MDD patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline in 12 countries worldwide. Depression severity was measured using the Clinical Global Impression of Severity and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR16. Depression-related pain was measured using the pain-related items of the Somatic Symptom Inventory. Remission was defined as a QIDS-SR16 score ≤5. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine baseline factors associated with remission during follow-up. Results: Being from East Asia (odds ratio [OR] 0.48 versus Mexico; P<0.001, a higher level of depression severity at baseline (OR 0.77, P=0.003, for Clinical Global Impression of Severity; OR 0.92, P<0.001, for QIDS-SR16, more previous MDD episodes (OR 0.92, P=0.007, previous treatments/therapies for depression (OR 0.78, P=0.030, and having any significant psychiatric and medical comorbidity at baseline (OR 0.60, P<0.001 were negatively associated with remission, whereas being male (OR 1.29, P=0.026 and treatment with duloxetine (OR 2.38 versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, P<0.001 were positively associated with remission. However, the association between Somatic Symptom Inventory pain scores

  1. Modifications at the A-domain of the chloroplast import receptor Toc159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Birgit; Kessler, Felix

    2010-11-01

    Two families of GTPases, the Toc34 and Toc159 GTPase families, take on the task of preprotein recognition at the translocon at the outer membrane of chloroplasts (TOC translocon). The major Toc159 family members have highly acidic N-terminal domains (A-domains) that are non-essential and so far have escaped functional characterization. But recently, interest in the role of the A-domain has strongly increased. The new data of three independent studies provide evidence that the Toc159 A-domain I) participates in preprotein selectivity, II) has typical features of intrinsically unfolded proteins and III) is highly phosphorylated and possibly released from the rest of the protein by a proteolytic event. This hints to a complex regulation of A-domain function that is important for the maintenance of the preprotein selectivity at the TOC translocons.

  2. Same but not alike: Structure, flexibility and energetics of domains in multi-domain proteins are influenced by the presence of other domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Sneha; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2018-02-01

    The majority of the proteins encoded in the genomes of eukaryotes contain more than one domain. Reasons for high prevalence of multi-domain proteins in various organisms have been attributed to higher stability and functional and folding advantages over single-domain proteins. Despite these advantages, many proteins are composed of only one domain while their homologous domains are part of multi-domain proteins. In the study presented here, differences in the properties of protein domains in single-domain and multi-domain systems and their influence on functions are discussed. We studied 20 pairs of identical protein domains, which were crystallized in two forms (a) tethered to other proteins domains and (b) tethered to fewer protein domains than (a) or not tethered to any protein domain. Results suggest that tethering of domains in multi-domain proteins influences the structural, dynamic and energetic properties of the constituent protein domains. 50% of the protein domain pairs show significant structural deviations while 90% of the protein domain pairs show differences in dynamics and 12% of the residues show differences in the energetics. To gain further insights on the influence of tethering on the function of the domains, 4 pairs of homologous protein domains, where one of them is a full-length single-domain protein and the other protein domain is a part of a multi-domain protein, were studied. Analyses showed that identical and structurally equivalent functional residues show differential dynamics in homologous protein domains; though comparable dynamics between in-silico generated chimera protein and multi-domain proteins were observed. From these observations, the differences observed in the functions of homologous proteins could be attributed to the presence of tethered domain. Overall, we conclude that tethered domains in multi-domain proteins not only provide stability or folding advantages but also influence pathways resulting in differences in

  3. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Western cratonic domains in Uruguay: geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Peel, E.; Muzio, E.; Ledesma, R.; Guerequiz, R.

    2001-01-01

    The western cratonic domains in Uruguay are divided into three major units: Piedra Alta Terrane, Valentines Block and Pavas Block. Piedra Alta Terrane lacks of evidence of Neoproterozoic orogenesis (deformation, metamorphism or magmatism). Sarandí del Yi - Arroyo Solís Grande shear zone, separates it from Valentines Block. Valentines Block is separated from Pavas Block by Cueva del Tigre shear zone. Magmatic rocks with different ages, compositions and emplacements occur all over the Piedra Alta Terrane distributed in three metamorphic belts (Arroyo Grande, San José and Montevideo) as well as in the Central Gneissic-Migmatitic Complex (Figure 1). Samples from the Gneissic-Migmatitic complex, late tectonic granitoids and basic rocks associated to the metamorphic belts were analyzed using Rb/Sr, U/Pb, K/Ar and Sm/Nd methodologies. The age ranges obtained for granitoids

  5. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  6. Reassessing Domain Architecture Evolution of Metazoan Proteins: The Contribution of Different Evolutionary Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Patthy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the accompanying papers we have shown that sequence errors of public databases and confusion of paralogs and epaktologs (proteins that are related only through the independent acquisition of the same domain types significantly distort the picture that emerges from comparison of the domain architecture (DA of multidomain Metazoan proteins since they introduce a strong bias in favor of terminal over internal DA change. The issue of whether terminal or internal DA changes occur with greater probability has very important implications for the DA evolution of multidomain proteins since gene fusion can add domains only at terminal positions, whereas domain-shuffling is capable of inserting domains both at internal and terminal positions. As a corollary, overestimation of terminal DA changes may be misinterpreted as evidence for a dominant role of gene fusion in DA evolution. In this manuscript we show that in several recent studies of DA evolution of Metazoa the authors used databases that are significantly contaminated with incomplete, abnormal and mispredicted sequences (e.g., UniProtKB/TrEMBL, EnsEMBL and/or the authors failed to separate paralogs and epaktologs, explaining why these studies concluded that the major mechanism for gains of new domains in metazoan proteins is gene fusion. In contrast with the latter conclusion, our studies on high quality orthologous and paralogous Swiss-Prot sequences confirm that shuffling of mobile domains had a major role in the evolution of multidomain proteins of Metazoa and especially those formed in early vertebrates.

  7. Spatial representations are specific to different domains of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Beecham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains--mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments.

  8. Subduction initiation and recycling of Alboran domain derived crustal components prior to the intra-crustal emplacement of mantle peridotites in the Westernmost Mediterranean: isotopic evidence from the Ronda peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Hidas, Károly; Barich, Amel

    2014-05-01

    -Rif cordillera crustal rocks that might have been potentially subducted beneath the Alborán domain before the emplacement of Ronda peridotites. Isotopic data rules out potential crustal sources coming from pre-early Miocene Flysch Trough sediments and crustal rocks from the Blanca Unit currently underlying peridotite. Crustal rocks from the Jubrique Unit overlying the Ronda peridotite are the only crustal samples that may account for the relatively high 207Pb-208Pb/204Pb and low 206Pb/204Pb characteristic of the crustal contaminant added to the mantle source of late Cr-pyroxenites. These data strongly support Alboran geodynamic models that envisage slab roll-back as the tectonic mechanism responsible for Miocene lithospheric thinning, and provides a scenario where back-arc inversion leading to self-subduction of crustal units at the front of the Alboran wedge. REFERENCES 1. Durand-Delga, M., P. Rossi, P. Olivier, and D. Puglisi, Situation structurale et nature ophiolitique de roches basiques jurassiques associées aux flyschs maghrébins du Rif (Maroc) et de Sicile (Italie). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, 2000. 331(1): p. 29-38. 2. Lenoir, X., C. Garrido, J.L. Bodinier, J.M. Dautria, and F. Gervilla, The Recrystallization Front of the Ronda Peridotite: Evidence for Melting and Thermal Erosion of Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle beneath the Alboran Basin. Journal of Petrology, 2001. 42(1): p. 141-158. 3. Garrido, C.J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J.A. Padrón-Navarta, and C. Marchesi, Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean. Geology, 2011. 4. Balanyá, J.C., V. García-Dueñas, J.M. Azañón, and M. Sánchez-Gómez, Alternating contractional and extensional events in the Alpujarride nappes of the Alboran Domain (Betics, Gibraltar Arc). Tectonics, 1997. 16(2): p. 226-238. 5. Platt, J

  9. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized......-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation......' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression....

  10. cDNA cloning and polymorphic domains of the major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated no relationship between the breeds and polymorphic alleles. All these results therefore indicate that MHC I class molecule of domestic chickens was more influenced by the pressure of common pathogens rather than geographic differences. Key words: Chinese native chicken, ...

  11. cDNA cloning and polymorphic domains of the major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... phylogenetic tree indicated no relationship between the breeds and polymorphic alleles. All these results therefore indicate that MHC I class molecule of domestic chickens was more influenced by the pressure of common pathogens rather than geographic differences. Key words: Chinese native chicken, ...

  12. Domain Adaptation of Translation Models for Multilingual Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    employed. In the past two years, domain adaptation for NLP tasks has become an active research area [3, 38, 25, 23]. New domain adaptation tasks have...and unlabeled data in the target domain and learn a mixture model to adapt from the source domain. Other NLP tasks where domain adaptation has been...evaluation forum, http://www.clef-campaign.org. [13] K. Darwish and D. Oard, CLIR experiments at maryland for TREC-2002: Evidence combination for arabic

  13. Cognitive Styles Used in Evidence Citation by Ancient Christian Authors: The Psychology of a Major Ancient Controversy over the Historicity of the Pentateuch, and Its Implications for Science Education Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Senter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive experiential self-theory recognizes two cognitive styles that humans use as modes of everyday thinking – experiential thinking and rational thinking – which appear to be products of two functional systems in the brain. These cognitive styles are diagnosable in writing samples of authors who cite evidence in support of a position. Here, I report an analysis of writing samples of opponents in a momentous ancient controversy. Christian authors of the first five centuries disagreed as to whether the stories in the Pentateuch were literal, accurate records of history that could be interpreted allegorically (the literocredist camp or included non-historical stories that were allegory only (the allophorist camp. Cognitive analysis of their evidence citations reveals a predominance of experiential thinking in literocredists and rational thinking in allophorists in reference to this question. This finding augments those of previous studies that implicate the experiential thinking system as the source of today’s biblical literocredism, and shows that the connection between experiential thinking and literocredism is millennia-old. This study also reveals that the allophorist position was dominant among Christian writers in the first three centuries and that the literocredist position did not rise into prominence until the fourth century, suggesting a major cognitive shift among theologians in that century. These findings elucidate the psychology of a prominent ancient controversy but also are relevant to current science education, because the literocredist mindset continues today as anti-evolution bias. The role of cognitive style in such bias has profound implications for classroom strategies for conceptual change.

  14. BAG3: a multifaceted protein that regulates major cell pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Graziano, V; De Laurenzi, V; Pascale, M; Turco, M C

    2011-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a member of BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 through BAG domain (110–124 amino acids). BAG3 is the only member of the family to be induced by stressful stimuli, mainly through the activity of heat shock factor 1 on bag3 gene promoter. In addition to the BAG domain, BAG3 contains also a WW domain and a proline-rich (PXXP) repeat, that mediate binding to partners different from Hsp70. These multifaceted interactions underlie BAG3 ability to modulate major biological processes, that is, apoptosis, development, cytoskeleton organization and autophagy, thereby mediating cell adaptive responses to stressful stimuli. In normal cells, BAG3 is constitutively present in a very few cell types, including cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells, in which the protein appears to contribute to cell resistance to mechanical stress. A growing body of evidence indicate that BAG3 is instead expressed in several tumor types. In different tumor contexts, BAG3 protein was reported to sustain cell survival, resistance to therapy, and/or motility and metastatization. In some tumor types, down-modulation of BAG3 levels was shown, as a proof-of-principle, to inhibit neoplastic cell growth in animal models. This review attempts to outline the emerging mechanisms that can underlie some of the biological activities of the protein, focusing on implications in tumor progression. PMID:21472004

  15. A structural investigation of complex I and I+III2 supercomplex from Zea mays at 11-13 angstrom resolution : Assignment of the carbonic anhydrase domain and evidence for structural heterogeneity within complex I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Katrin; Dudkina, Natalya V.; Jaensch, Lothar; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Jänsch, Lothar

    The projection structures of complex I and the I+III2 supercomplex from the C-4 plant Zea mays were determined by electron microscopy and single particle image analysis to a resolution of up to 11 angstrom. Maize complex I has a typical L-shape. Additionally, it has a large hydrophilic, extra-domain

  16. Long-lasting Cadomian magmatic activity along an active northern Gondwana margin: U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Brunovistulian Domain, eastern Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soejono, I.; Janoušek, V.; Žáčková, E.; Sláma, Jiří; Konopásek, J.; Machek, Matěj; Hanžl, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2017), s. 2109-2129 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Cadomian magmatic arc * Brunovistulian Domain * Bohemian Massif * Gondwana margin * U–Pb geochronology * geochemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Geology; Volcanology (GFU-E) Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  17. A global reference model of the domain name system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koc, Y.; Jamakovic, A.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The domain name system (DNS) is a crucial component of the Internet. At this time, the DNS is facing major changes such as the introduction of DNSSEC and Internationalized Domain Name extensions (IDNs), the adoption of IPv6 and the upcoming extension of new generic top-level domains. These changes

  18. Using context to improve protein domain identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llinás Manuel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying domains in protein sequences is an important step in protein structural and functional annotation. Existing domain recognition methods typically evaluate each domain prediction independently of the rest. However, the majority of proteins are multidomain, and pairwise domain co-occurrences are highly specific and non-transitive. Results Here, we demonstrate how to exploit domain co-occurrence to boost weak domain predictions that appear in previously observed combinations, while penalizing higher confidence domains if such combinations have never been observed. Our framework, Domain Prediction Using Context (dPUC, incorporates pairwise "context" scores between domains, along with traditional domain scores and thresholds, and improves domain prediction across a variety of organisms from bacteria to protozoa and metazoa. Among the genomes we tested, dPUC is most successful at improving predictions for the poorly-annotated malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for which over 38% of the genome is currently unannotated. Our approach enables high-confidence annotations in this organism and the identification of orthologs to many core machinery proteins conserved in all eukaryotes, including those involved in ribosomal assembly and other RNA processing events, which surprisingly had not been previously known. Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrate that this new context-based approach will provide significant improvements in domain and function prediction, especially for poorly understood genomes for which the need for additional annotations is greatest. Source code for the algorithm is available under a GPL open source license at http://compbio.cs.princeton.edu/dpuc/. Pre-computed results for our test organisms and a web server are also available at that location.

  19. Identification of anthropogenic and natural inputs of sulfate into a karstic coastal groundwater system in northeast China: evidence from major ions, δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Song, Xianfang; Currell, Matthew J.

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater evolution in the Daweijia area of Dalian, northeast China, were characterised using hydrochemistry and isotopes of carbon and sulfur (δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4). The aim was to distinguish anthropogenic impacts as distinct from natural processes, with a particular focus on sulfate, which is found at elevated levels (range: 54.4 to 368.8 mg L-1; mean: 174.4 mg L-1) in fresh and brackish groundwater. The current investigation reveals minor seawater intrusion impact (not exceeding 5 % of the overall solute load), in contrast with extensive impacts observed in 1982 during the height of intensive abstraction. This indicates that measures to restrict groundwater abstraction have been effective. However, hydrochemical facies analysis shows that the groundwater remains in a state of ongoing hydrochemical evolution (towards Ca-Cl type water) and quality degradation (increasing nitrate and sulfate concentrations). The wide range of NO3 concentrations (74.7-579 mg L-1) in the Quaternary aquifer indicates considerable input of fertilisers and/or leakage from septic systems. Both δ13C (-14.5 to -5.9 permil) and δ34SSO4 (+5.4 to +13.1 permil) values in groundwater show increasing trends along groundwater flow paths. While carbonate minerals may contribute to increasing δ13CDIC and δ34SSO4 values in deep karstic groundwater, high loads of agricultural fertilisers reaching the aquifer via irrigation return flow are likely the main source of the dissolved sulfate in Quaternary groundwater, as shown by distinctive isotopic ratios and a lack of evidence for other sources in the major ion chemistry. According to isotope mass balance calculations, the fertiliser contribution to overall sulfate has reached an average of 62.1 % in the Quaternary aquifer, which has a strong hydraulic connection to the underlying carbonate aquifer. The results point to an alarming level of impact from the local intensive agriculture on the groundwater

  20. The Effects of Item Format and Cognitive Domain on Students' Science Performance in TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Bulut, Okan

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine eighth-grade students' science performance in terms of two test design components, item format, and cognitive domain. The portion of Taiwanese data came from the 2011 administration of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), one of the major international large-scale assessments in science. The item difficulty analysis was initially applied to show the proportion of correct items. A regression-based cumulative link mixed modeling (CLMM) approach was further utilized to estimate the impact of item format, cognitive domain, and their interaction on the students' science scores. The results of the proportion-correct statistics showed that constructed-response items were more difficult than multiple-choice items, and that the reasoning cognitive domain items were more difficult compared to the items in the applying and knowing domains. In terms of the CLMM results, students tended to obtain higher scores when answering constructed-response items as well as items in the applying cognitive domain. When the two predictors and the interaction term were included together, the directions and magnitudes of the predictors on student science performance changed substantially. Plausible explanations for the complex nature of the effects of the two test-design predictors on student science performance are discussed. The results provide practical, empirical-based evidence for test developers, teachers, and stakeholders to be aware of the differential function of item format, cognitive domain, and their interaction in students' science performance.

  1. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  2. Beta oscillations define discrete perceptual cycles in the somatosensory domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2015-09-29

    Whether seeing a movie, listening to a song, or feeling a breeze on the skin, we coherently experience these stimuli as continuous, seamless percepts. However, there are rare perceptual phenomena that argue against continuous perception but, instead, suggest discrete processing of sensory input. Empirical evidence supporting such a discrete mechanism, however, remains scarce and comes entirely from the visual domain. Here, we demonstrate compelling evidence for discrete perceptual sampling in the somatosensory domain. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a tactile temporal discrimination task in humans, we find that oscillatory alpha- and low beta-band (8-20 Hz) cycles in primary somatosensory cortex represent neurophysiological correlates of discrete perceptual cycles. Our results agree with several theoretical concepts of discrete perceptual sampling and empirical evidence of perceptual cycles in the visual domain. Critically, these results show that discrete perceptual cycles are not domain-specific, and thus restricted to the visual domain, but extend to the somatosensory domain.

  3. Functional interaction between the two halves of the photoreceptor-specific ATP binding cassette protein ABCR (ABCA4). Evidence for a non-exchangeable ADP in the first nucleotide binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jinhi; Beharry, Seelochan; Molday, Laurie L; Molday, Robert S

    2003-10-10

    ABCR, also known as ABCA4, is a member of the superfamily of ATP binding cassette transporters that is believed to transport retinal or retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine across photoreceptor disk membranes. Mutations in the ABCR gene are responsible for Stargardt macular dystrophy and related retinal dystrophies that cause severe loss in vision. ABCR consists of two tandemly arranged halves each containing a membrane spanning segment followed by a large extracellular/lumen domain, a multi-spanning membrane domain, and a nucleotide binding domain (NBD). To define the role of each NBD, we examined the nucleotide binding and ATPase activities of the N and C halves of ABCR individually and co-expressed in COS-1 cells and derived from trypsin-cleaved ABCR in disk membranes. When disk membranes or membranes from co-transfected cells were photoaffinity labeled with 8-azido-ATP and 8-azido-ADP, only the NBD2 in the C-half bound and trapped the nucleotide. Co-expressed half-molecules displayed basal and retinal-stimulated ATPase activity similar to full-length ABCR. The individually expressed N-half displayed weak 8-azido-ATP labeling and low basal ATPase activity that was not stimulated by retinal, whereas the C-half did not bind ATP and exhibited little if any ATPase activity. Purified ABCR contained one tightly bound ADP, presumably in NBD1. Our results indicate that only NBD2 of ABCR binds and hydrolyzes ATP in the presence or absence of retinal. NBD1, containing a bound ADP, associates with NBD2 to play a crucial, non-catalytic role in ABCR function.

  4. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  5. Conserved Domain Database (CDD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  6. Evidence of sharp and diffuse domain walls in BiFeO3 by means of unit-cell-wise strain and polarization maps obtained with high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubk, A; Rossell, M D; Seidel, J; He, Q; Yang, S Y; Chu, Y H; Ramesh, R; Hÿtch, M J; Snoeck, E

    2012-07-27

    Domain walls (DWs) substantially influence a large number of applications involving ferroelectric materials due to their limited mobility when shifted during polarization switching. The discovery of greatly enhanced conduction at BiFeO(3) DWs has highlighted yet another role of DWs as a local material state with unique properties. However, the lack of precise information on the local atomic structure is still hampering microscopical understanding of DW properties. Here, we examine the atomic structure of BiFeO(3) 109° DWs with pm precision by a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and a dedicated structural analysis. By measuring simultaneously local polarization and strain, we provide direct experimental proof for the straight DW structure predicted by ab initio calculations as well as the recently proposed theory of diffuse DWs, thus resolving a long-standing discrepancy between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted DW mobilities.

  7. Domain-specific rationality in human choices: violations of utility axioms and social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a domain-specific view of human decision rationality. It explores social and ecological domain-specific psychological mechanisms underlying choice biases and violations of utility axioms. Results from both the USA and China revealed a social group domain-specific choice pattern. The irrational preference reversal in a hypothetical life-death decision problem (a classical example of framing effects) was eliminated by providing a small group or family context in which most subjects favored a risky choice option regardless of the positive/negative framing of choice outcomes. The risk preference data also indicate that the subjective scope of small group domain is larger for Chinese subjects, suggesting that human choice mechanisms are sensitive to culturally specific features of group living. A further experiment provided evidence that perceived fairness might be one major factor regulating the choice preferences found in small group (kith-and-kin) contexts. Finally, the violation of the stochastic dominance axiom of the rational theory of choice was predicted and tested. The violations were found only when the "life-death" problem was presented in small group contexts; the strongest violation was found in a family context. These results suggest that human decisions and choices are regulated by domain-specific choice mechanisms designed to solve evolutionary recurrent and adaptively important problems.

  8. Individual negative symptoms and domains - Relevance for assessment, pathomechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefan; Lyne, John; Agartz, Ingrid; Clarke, Mary; Mørch-Johnsen, Lynn; Faerden, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into two domains. Avolition/apathy includes the individual symptoms of avolition, asociality and anhedonia. Diminished expression includes blunted affect and alogia. Until now, causes and treatment of negative symptoms have remained a major challenge, which is partially related to the focus on negative symptoms as a broad entity. Here, we propose that negative symptoms may become more tractable when the different domains and individual symptoms are taken into account. There is now increasing evidence that the relationship with clinical variables - in particular outcome - differs between the domains of avolition/apathy and diminished expression. Regarding models of negative symptom formation, those relevant to avolition/apathy are now converging on processes underlying goal-directed behavior and dysfunctions of the reward system. In contrast, models of the diminished expression domains are only beginning to emerge. The aim of this article is to review the specific clinical, behavioral and neural correlates of individual symptoms and domains as a better understanding of these areas may facilitate specific treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Causality between regional stock markets: A frequency domain approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradojević Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a data set from five regional stock exchanges (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Hungary and Germany, this paper presents a frequency domain analysis of a causal relationship between the returns on the CROBEX, SBITOP, CETOP and DAX indices, and the return on the major Serbian stock exchange index, BELEX 15. We find evidence of a somewhat dominant effect of the CROBEX and CETOP stock indices on the BELEX 15 stock index across a range of frequencies. The results also indicate that the BELEX 15 index and the SBITOP index interact in a bi-directional causal fashion. Finally, the DAX index movements consistently drive the BELEX 15 index returns for cycle lengths between 3 and 11 days without any feedback effect.

  10. Infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes by the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT-1: Evidence using antibodies specific to the receptor's large extracellular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Qingwen; Agrawal, Lokesh; VanHorn-Ali, Zainab; Alkhatib, Ghalib

    2006-01-01

    To analyze HTLV-1 cytotropism, we developed a highly sensitive vaccinia virus-based assay measuring activation of a reporter gene upon fusion of two distinct cell populations. We used this system in a functional cDNA screening to isolate and confirm that the glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT-1) is a receptor for HTLV-1. GLUT-1 is a ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane glycoprotein with 12 transmembrane domains and 6 extracellular loops (ECL). We demonstrate for the first time that peptide antibodies (GLUT-IgY) raised in chicken to the large extracellular loop (ECL1) detect GLUT-1 at the cell surface and inhibit envelope (Env)-mediated fusion and infection. Efficient GLUT-IgY staining was detected with peripheral blood CD4 + lymphocytes purified by positive selection. Further, GLUT-IgY caused efficient inhibition of Env-mediated fusion and infection of CD4 + T and significantly lower inhibition of CD8 + T lymphocytes. The specificity of GLUT-IgY antibodies to GLUT-1 was demonstrated by ECL1 peptide competition studies. Grafting ECL1 of GLUT-1 onto the receptor-negative GLUT-3 conferred significant receptor activity. In contrast, grafting ECL1 of GLUT-3 onto GLUT-1 resulted in a significant loss of the receptor activity. The ECL1-mediated receptor activity was efficiently blocked with four different human monoclonal antibody (HMab) to HTLV-1 Env. The ECL1-derived peptide blocked HTLV-1 Env-mediated fusion with several nonhuman mammalian cell lines. The results demonstrate the utilization of cell surface GLUT-1 in HTLV-1 infection of CD4 + T lymphocytes and implicate a critical role for the ECL1 region in viral tropism

  11. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materia...

  12. Domain: Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  13. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  14. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  15. GlycoDomainViewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Hiren J; Jørgensen, Anja; Schjoldager, Katrine T

    2018-01-01

    features, which enhances visibility and accessibility of the wealth of glycoproteomic data being generated. The GlycoDomainViewer enables visual exploration of glycoproteomic data, incorporating information from recent N- and O-glycoproteome studies on human and animal cell lines and some organs and body...

  16. Gram-negative bacilli are a major cause of secondary pneumonia in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: evidence from a cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Garba; Mohammad, Aminu B; Yakasai, Ahmad M; Dayyab, Farouq M; Oduh, Joan; Habib, Abdulrazaq G

    2018-05-19

    This study was aimed at describing the profile of bacterial aetiology of secondary pneumonia in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. A 22-month analysis of patients with PTB and secondary bacterial pneumonia was conducted. Data on isolates recovered and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile were recorded. Of the 141 patients, there were 79 (56%) males and the mean age was 35.98±15.93. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated with equal frequency as Streptococcus pneumoniae (63 [44.7%]). Most of the isolates tested were sensitive to levofloxacin, ceftriaxone or chloramphenicol. Gram-negative bacilli are a major cause of pneumonia in patients with PTB on treatment.

  17. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    domains, and UNISIST helps understanding this navigation. Design/methodology/approach The UNISIST models are tentatively applied to the domain of art history at three stages, respectively two modern, partially overlapping domains, as well as an outline of an art historical domain anno c1820...

  18. The architectural design of networks of protein domain architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Hwang, Ming-Jing

    2013-08-23

    Protein domain architectures (PDAs), in which single domains are linked to form multiple-domain proteins, are a major molecular form used by evolution for the diversification of protein functions. However, the design principles of PDAs remain largely uninvestigated. In this study, we constructed networks to connect domain architectures that had grown out from the same single domain for every single domain in the Pfam-A database and found that there are three main distinctive types of these networks, which suggests that evolution can exploit PDAs in three different ways. Further analysis showed that these three different types of PDA networks are each adopted by different types of protein domains, although many networks exhibit the characteristics of more than one of the three types. Our results shed light on nature's blueprint for protein architecture and provide a framework for understanding architectural design from a network perspective.

  19. Impact of renal function on ischemic stroke and major bleeding rates in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients treated with warfarin or rivaroxaban: a retrospective cohort study using real-world evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Matthew R; Berger, Jeffrey S; Ashton, Veronica; Laliberté, François; Brown, Kip; Lefebvre, Patrick; Schein, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Renal dysfunction is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and is an independent predictor of stroke and systemic embolism. Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with renal dysfunction may face a particularly high risk of thromboembolism and bleeding. The current retrospective cohort study was designed to assess the impact of renal function on ischemic stroke and major bleeding rates in NVAF patients in the real-world setting (outside a clinical trial). Medical claims and Electronic Health Records were retrieved retrospectively from Optum's Integrated Claims-Clinical de-identified dataset from May 2011 to August 2014. Patients with NVAF treated with warfarin (2468) or rivaroxaban (1290) were selected. Each treatment cohort was stratified by baseline estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl) levels. Confounding adjustments were made using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs). Incidence rates and hazard ratios of ischemic stroke and major bleeding events were calculated for both cohorts. Overall, patients treated with rivaroxaban had an ischemic stroke incidence rate of 1.9 per 100 person-years (PY) while patients treated with warfarin had a rate of 4.2 per 100 PY (HR = 0.41 [0.21-0.80], p = .009). Rivaroxaban patients with an eCrCl below 50 mL/min (N = 229) had an ischemic stroke rate of 0.8 per 100 PY, while the rate for the warfarin cohort (N = 647) was 6.0 per 100 PY (HR = 0.09 [0.01-0.72], p = .02). For the other renal function levels (i.e. eCrCl 50-80 and ≥80 mL/min) HRs indicated no statistically significant differences in ischemic stroke risks. Bleeding events did not differ significantly between cohorts stratified by renal function. Ischemic stroke rates were significantly lower in the overall NVAF population for rivaroxaban vs. warfarin users, including patients with eCrCl below 50 mL/min. For all renal function groups, major bleeding risks were not statistically different between

  20. Library Research: A Domain Comparison of Two Library Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen; Thiele, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Research articles published by the "Community & Junior College Libraries" journal and the "College & Undergraduate Libraries" journal were analyzed to determine their domain. The discussion includes a comparison of past domain studies with the current research. The researchers found the majority of articles (52%) in the…

  1. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the phase derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency domain or cycle skipping in the time domain is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion when the starting model is far from the true model. Since the phase derivative does not suffer from

  2. Frequency-domain waveform inversion using the unwrapped phase

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Phase wrapping in the frequency-domain (or cycle skipping in the time-domain) is the major cause of the local minima problem in the waveform inversion. The unwrapped phase has the potential to provide us with a robust and reliable waveform inversion

  3. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  4. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  5. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  6. Ferroelastic domain switching in tetragonal zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.J.; Ruhle, M.; Jue, J.F.; Virkar, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Ferroelastic domain switching is one of the possible toughening mechanisms in ceramic materials. Microstructural evidence of domain reorientation (switching) in polydomain tetragonal zirconia single crystals is observed upon the application of a unidirectional compressive stress. Dark field imaging of the three (112) tetragonal twin variants in a [111] zone indicates that two sets of twin variants grow at the expense of the third set upon application of uniaxial compression. The diminishing variant is the one with its c axis parallel to the compression axis. Indentation experiments on uniaxially compressed samples show an anisotropy in crack length. Crack propogates more easily along the loading direction. In this paper construction for the orientation relationship of domains and their twin boundaries is presented

  7. Map of open and closed chromatin domains in Drosophila genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milon, Beatrice; Sun, Yezhou; Chang, Weizhong; Creasy, Todd; Mahurkar, Anup; Shetty, Amol; Nurminsky, Dmitry; Nurminskaya, Maria

    2014-11-18

    Chromatin compactness has been considered a major determinant of gene activity and has been associated with specific chromatin modifications in studies on a few individual genetic loci. At the same time, genome-wide patterns of open and closed chromatin have been understudied, and are at present largely predicted from chromatin modification and gene expression data. However the universal applicability of such predictions is not self-evident, and requires experimental verification. We developed and implemented a high-throughput analysis for general chromatin sensitivity to DNase I which provides a comprehensive epigenomic assessment in a single assay. Contiguous domains of open and closed chromatin were identified by computational analysis of the data, and correlated to other genome annotations including predicted chromatin "states", individual chromatin modifications, nuclear lamina interactions, and gene expression. While showing that the widely trusted predictions of chromatin structure are correct in the majority of cases, we detected diverse "exceptions" from the conventional rules. We found a profound paucity of chromatin modifications in a major fraction of closed chromatin, and identified a number of loci where chromatin configuration is opposite to that expected from modification and gene expression patterns. Further, we observed that chromatin of large introns tends to be closed even when the genes are expressed, and that a significant proportion of active genes including their promoters are located in closed chromatin. These findings reveal limitations of the existing predictive models, indicate novel mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and provide important insights into genome organization and function.

  8. Major contributions to science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-03-15

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental.

  9. Major contributions to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Andre

    1991-01-01

    It may look difficult to describe the scientific contributions of Léon Van Hove, who started his career as a pure mathematician, and then a mathematical physicist, and ended it as a phenomenologist and an adseveral of Léon's students, in particular N. Hugenholtz. In this domain, his contributions were numerous and fundamental

  10. TENCompetence Domain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    This is the version 1.1 of the TENCompetence Domain Model (version 1.0 released at 19-6-2006; version 1.1 at 9-11-2008). It contains several files: a) a pdf with the model description, b) three jpg files with class models (also in the pdf), c) a MagicDraw zip file with the model itself, d) a release

  11. No evidence for a major gene effect of the dopamine D{sub 4} receptor gene in the susceptibility to Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in five Canadian families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, C.L.; Wigg, K.G.; Tsui, Lap-Chee [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-05-31

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by both motor and vocal tics affecting approximately 1/10,000 females and 1/2000 males. Because of the success of neuroleptics and other agents interacting with the dopaminergic system in the suppression of tics, a defect in the dopamine system has been hypothesized in the etiology of TS. In this paper we test the hypothesis that the dopamine D{sub 4} receptor (DRD44) is linked to the genetic susceptibility to TS in five families. We tested three polymorphisms in the DRD4 gene and a polymorphism in the closely linked locus, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We found no evidence for linkage of DRD4 or TH to TS using an autosomal dominant model with reduced penetrance or using non-parametric methods. The presence of a mutation that results in a truncated non-functional D{sub 4} receptor protein was also tested for, but was not observed in these families. 36 refs., 1 tab.

  12. SH2 Domain Histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.

  13. A 10-Year Experience of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of Linezolid in a Hospital-wide Population of Patients Receiving Conventional Dosing: Is there Enough Evidence for Suggesting TDM in the Majority of Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea, Federico; Cojutti, Pier Giorgio; Baraldo, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to assess our 10-year experience of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of linezolid in a large patient population to establish whether conventional dosing may result in adequate drug exposure in the majority of patients. Patients included in this study underwent TDM of linezolid trough concentration (C min ) during treatment with conventional doses of 600 mg every 12 hr in the period between January 2007 and June 2016. The desired range of C min was set between 2 and 7 mg/L (underexposure, C min   7 mg/L). Multivariate logistic regression analysis investigated variables potentially correlated with linezolid C min . One thousand and forty-nine patients had 2484 linezolid C min assessed during treatment with conventional doses. Median (IQR) linezolid C min was 5.08 mg/L (2.78-8.52 mg/L). Linezolid C min was within the desired range in 50.8% of cases (1262/2484). Overexposure (n = 821; 33%) occurred much more frequently than underexposure (n = 401; 16.2%) and was severe (>20 mg/L) in 3.9% of cases (98/2484). Linezolid overexposure was significantly associated with CrCL C -G estimates ≤40 mL/min. (OR 1.463; 95% CI 1.124-1.904, p = 0.005). Linezolid underexposure was significantly associated with CrCL C -G estimates >100 mL/min. (OR 3.046; 95% CI 2.234-4.152, p Linezolid C min was not correlated linearly with CrCL C -G (R 2  = 0.061). Variability in renal function explained only partially the very wide interindividual linezolid C min variability. Our study suggests that TDM could represent a valuable approach in optimizing linezolid exposure in the majority of patients. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  14. Evolution of Parallel Spindles Like genes in plants and highlight of unique domain architecture#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consiglio Federica M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy has long been recognized as playing an important role in plant evolution. In flowering plants, the major route of polyploidization is suggested to be sexual through gametes with somatic chromosome number (2n. Parallel Spindle1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPS1 was recently demonstrated to control spindle orientation in the 2nd division of meiosis and, when mutated, to induce 2n pollen. Interestingly, AtPS1 encodes a protein with a FHA domain and PINc domain putatively involved in RNA decay (i.e. Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay. In potato, 2n pollen depending on parallel spindles was described long time ago but the responsible gene has never been isolated. The knowledge derived from AtPS1 as well as the availability of genome sequences makes it possible to isolate potato PSLike (PSL and to highlight the evolution of PSL family in plants. Results Our work leading to the first characterization of PSLs in potato showed a greater PSL complexity in this species respect to Arabidopsis thaliana. Indeed, a genomic PSL locus and seven cDNAs affected by alternative splicing have been cloned. In addition, the occurrence of at least two other PSL loci in potato was suggested by the sequence comparison of alternatively spliced transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis on 20 Viridaeplantae showed the wide distribution of PSLs throughout the species and the occurrence of multiple copies only in potato and soybean. The analysis of PSLFHA and PSLPINc domains evidenced that, in terms of secondary structure, a major degree of variability occurred in PINc domain respect to FHA. In terms of specific active sites, both domains showed diversification among plant species that could be related to a functional diversification among PSL genes. In addition, some specific active sites were strongly conserved among plants as supported by sequence alignment and by evidence of negative selection evaluated as difference between non-synonymous and

  15. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  16. Domain decomposition method for solving elliptic problems in unbounded domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoromskij, B.N.; Mazurkevich, G.E.; Zhidkov, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Computational aspects of the box domain decomposition (DD) method for solving boundary value problems in an unbounded domain are discussed. A new variant of the DD-method for elliptic problems in unbounded domains is suggested. It is based on the partitioning of an unbounded domain adapted to the given asymptotic decay of an unknown function at infinity. The comparison of computational expenditures is given for boundary integral method and the suggested DD-algorithm. 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Structure and dynamics of the human pleckstrin DEP domain: distinct molecular features of a novel DEP domain subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civera, Concepcion; Simon, Bernd; Stier, Gunter; Sattler, Michael; Macias, Maria J

    2005-02-01

    Pleckstrin1 is a major substrate for protein kinase C in platelets and leukocytes, and comprises a central DEP (disheveled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domain, which is flanked by two PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. DEP domains display a unique alpha/beta fold and have been implicated in membrane binding utilizing different mechanisms. Using multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree reconstructions, we find that 6 subfamilies of the DEP domain exist, of which pleckstrin represents a novel and distinct subfamily. To clarify structural determinants of the DEP fold and to gain further insight into the role of the DEP domain, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the pleckstrin DEP domain using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Pleckstrin DEP shares main structural features with the DEP domains of disheveled and Epac, which belong to different DEP subfamilies. However, the pleckstrin DEP fold is distinct from these structures and contains an additional, short helix alpha4 inserted in the beta4-beta5 loop that exhibits increased backbone mobility as judged by NMR relaxation measurements. Based on sequence conservation, the helix alpha4 may also be present in the DEP domains of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which are members of the same DEP subfamily. In pleckstrin, the DEP domain is surrounded by two PH domains. Structural analysis and charge complementarity suggest that the DEP domain may interact with the N-terminal PH domain in pleckstrin. Phosphorylation of the PH-DEP linker, which is required for pleckstrin function, could regulate such an intramolecular interaction. This suggests a role of the pleckstrin DEP domain in intramolecular domain interactions, which is distinct from the functions of other DEP domain subfamilies found so far.

  18. Quantifying the mechanisms of domain gain in animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljan, Marija; Frankish, Adam; Bateman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Protein domains are protein regions that are shared among different proteins and are frequently functionally and structurally independent from the rest of the protein. Novel domain combinations have a major role in evolutionary innovation. However, the relative contributions of the different molecular mechanisms that underlie domain gains in animals are still unknown. By using animal gene phylogenies we were able to identify a set of high confidence domain gain events and by looking at their coding DNA investigate the causative mechanisms. Here we show that the major mechanism for gains of new domains in metazoan proteins is likely to be gene fusion through joining of exons from adjacent genes, possibly mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination. Retroposition and insertion of exons into ancestral introns through intronic recombination are, in contrast to previous expectations, only minor contributors to domain gains and have accounted for less than 1% and 10% of high confidence domain gain events, respectively. Additionally, exonization of previously non-coding regions appears to be an important mechanism for addition of disordered segments to proteins. We observe that gene duplication has preceded domain gain in at least 80% of the gain events. The interplay of gene duplication and domain gain demonstrates an important mechanism for fast neofunctionalization of genes.

  19. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  20. Functional Domain Driven Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Guzmán, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...

  1. Feature-level domain adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.

    2016-01-01

    -level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  2. Compensating for Incomplete Domain Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Lynn M; Drezner, Steve; Rue, Rachel; Reyes, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    .... First, many senior leader positions require experience in more than one functional or operational domain, but it is difficult to develop a corps of senior leaders with all the required combinations of domain knowledge...

  3. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    , for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...... as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context....

  4. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    of the subject. In between these two extremes, conceptual summaries encompass selected concepts derived using background knowledge. We address in this paper an approach where conceptual summaries are provided through a conceptualization as given by an ontology. The ontology guiding the summarization can...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  5. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  6. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  7. Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Holle Veerle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, various reviews described the relationship between the physical environment and different physical activity (PA domains. Yet, the majority of the current review evidence relies on North American/Australian studies, while only a small proportion of findings refer to European studies. Given some clear environmental differences across continents, this raises questions about the applicability of those results in European settings. This systematic review aimed at summarizing Europe-specific evidence on the relationship between the physical environment and different PA domains in adults. Methods Seventy eligible papers were identified through systematic searches across six electronic databases. Included papers were observational studies assessing the relationship between several aspects of the physical environment and PA in European adults (18-65y. Summary scores were calculated to express the strength of the relationship between each environmental factor and different PA domains. Results Convincing evidence on positive relationships with several PA domains was found for following environmental factors: walkability, access to shops/services/work and the composite factor environmental quality. Convincing evidence considering urbanization degree showed contradictory results, dependent on the observed PA domain. Transportation PA was more frequently related to the physical environment than recreational PA. Possible evidence for a positive relationship with transportation PA emerged for walking/cycling facilities, while a negative relationship was found for hilliness. Some environmental factors, such as access to recreational facilities, aesthetics, traffic- and crime-related safety were unrelated to different PA domains in Europe. Conclusions Generally, findings from this review of European studies are in accordance with results from North American/Australian reviews and may contribute to a generalization of the

  8. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang

    1996-11-01

    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  9. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  10. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  11. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  12. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  13. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  14. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  15. Resonant tunneling across a ferroelectric domain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Tao, L. L.; Velev, J. P.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations, we explore electron transport properties of a ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) with an embedded head-to-head ferroelectric domain wall, using first-principles density-functional theory calculations. We consider a FTJ with L a0.5S r0.5Mn O3 electrodes separated by a BaTi O3 barrier layer and show that an in-plane charged domain wall in the ferroelectric BaTi O3 can be induced by polar interfaces. The resulting V -shaped electrostatic potential profile across the BaTi O3 layer creates a quantum well and leads to the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas, which stabilizes the domain wall. The confined electronic states in the barrier are responsible for resonant tunneling as is evident from our quantum-transport calculations. We find that the resonant tunneling is an orbital selective process, which leads to sharp spikes in the momentum- and energy-resolved transmission spectra. Our results indicate that domain walls embedded in FTJs can be used to control the electron transport.

  16. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  17. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  18. The Case for DUF1220 Domain Dosage as a Primary Contributor to Anthropoid Brain Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eKeeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the hypothesis that increasing copy number (dosage of sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains is a major contributor to the evolutionary increase in brain size, neuron number and cognitive capacity that is associated with the primate order. We further propose that this relationship is restricted to the anthropoid sub-order of primates, with DUF1220 copy number markedly increasing in monkeys, further in apes, and most extremely in humans where the greatest number of copies (~272 haploid copies is found. We show that this increase closely parallels the increase in brain size and neuron number that has occurred among anthropoid primate species. We also provide evidence linking DUF1220 copy number to brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly. While we believe these and other findings presented here strongly suggest increase in DUF1220 copy number is a key contributor to anthropoid brain expansion, the data currently available rely on correlative measures that, though considerable, do not yet provide direct evidence for a causal connection. Nevertheless, we believe the evidence presented is sufficient to provide the basis for a testable model which proposes that DUF1220 protein domain dosage increase is a main contributor to the increase in brain size and neuron number found among the anthropoid primate species and that is at its most extreme in human.

  19. Long-term memory consolidation: The role of RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Indulekha P; Ramaswami, Mani

    2017-05-04

    Long-term and short-term memories differ primarily in the duration of their retention. At a molecular level, long-term memory (LTM) is distinguished from short-term memory (STM) by its requirement for new gene expression. In addition to transcription (nuclear gene expression) the translation of stored mRNAs is necessary for LTM formation. The mechanisms and functions for temporal and spatial regulation of mRNAs required for LTM is a major contemporary problem, of interest from molecular, cell biological, neurobiological and clinical perspectives. This review discusses primary evidence in support for translational regulatory events involved in LTM and a model in which different phases of translation underlie distinct phases of consolidation of memories. However, it focuses largely on mechanisms of memory persistence and the role of prion-like domains in this defining aspect of long-term memory. We consider primary evidence for the concept that Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding (CPEB) protein enables the persistence of formed memories by transforming in prion-like manner from a soluble monomeric state to a self-perpetuating and persistent polymeric translationally active state required for maintaining persistent synaptic plasticity. We further discuss prion-like domains prevalent on several other RNA-binding proteins involved in neuronal translational control underlying LTM. Growing evidence indicates that such RNA regulatory proteins are components of mRNP (RiboNucleoProtein) granules. In these proteins, prion-like domains, being intrinsically disordered, could mediate weak transient interactions that allow the assembly of RNP granules, a source of silenced mRNAs whose translation is necessary for LTM. We consider the structural bases for RNA granules formation as well as functions of disordered domains and discuss how these complicate the interpretation of existing experimental data relevant to general mechanisms by which prion-domain containing RBPs

  20. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p’s social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being. PMID:24656048

  1. Career Preparation and the Political Science Major: Evidence from Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Todd A.; Knotts, H. Gibbs; Schiff, Jen

    2012-01-01

    We know little about the amount of career preparation offered to students in political science departments. This lack of information is particularly troubling given the state of the current job market and the growth of applied degree programs on university campuses. To address this issue, this article presents the results of a December 2010 survey…

  2. Evidence for a major role of heredity in Graves' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, T H; Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare

    2001-01-01

    The etiology of Graves' disease (GD), affecting up to 2% of a population in iodine-sufficient areas, is incompletely understood. According to current thinking, the development of GD depends on complex interactions among genetic, environmental, and endogenous factors. However, the relative...... contributions of the genetic and environmental factors remain to be clarified. In this study we report probandwise concordance rates for GD in a new cohort of same sex twin pairs born between 1953 and 1976 (young cohort), ascertained from the nationwide population-based Danish Twin Register. To elucidate...... the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influence in the etiology of GD, these new twin data were pooled with our previously published twin data on GD (old cohort). The old cohort consisted of 2338 same sex twin pairs born between 1870 and 1920 who had participated in questionnaire surveys during...

  3. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  4. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  5. Decoding rule search domain in the left inferior frontal gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, the left hemisphere has been thought to extract mainly verbal patterns of information, but recent evidence has shown that the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) is active during inductive reasoning in both the verbal and spatial domains. We aimed to understand whether the left IFG supports inductive reasoning in a domain-specific or domain-general fashion. To do this we used Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis to decode the representation of domain during a rule search task. Thirteen participants were asked to extract the rule underlying streams of letters presented in different spatial locations. Each rule was either verbal (letters forming words) or spatial (positions forming geometric figures). Our results show that domain was decodable in the left prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this region represents domain-specific information, rather than processes common to the two domains. A replication study with the same participants tested two years later confirmed these findings, though the individual representations changed, providing evidence for the flexible nature of representations. This study extends our knowledge on the neural basis of goal-directed behaviors and on how information relevant for rule extraction is flexibly mapped in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:29547623

  6. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  7. Domain wall networks on solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  8. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  9. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  10. Major planning enquiries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  11. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  12. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  13. The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochun; Chini, Claudia Christiano Silva; He, Miao; Mer, Georges; Chen, Junjie

    2003-10-24

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully understood. We show that the BRCA1 BRCT domain directly interacts with phosphorylated BRCA1-Associated Carboxyl-terminal Helicase (BACH1). This specific interaction between BRCA1 and phosphorylated BACH1 is cell cycle regulated and is required for DNA damage-induced checkpoint control during the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle. Further, we show that two other BRCT domains interact with their respective physiological partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thirteen additional BRCT domains also preferentially bind phospho-peptides rather than nonphosphorylated control peptides. These data imply that the BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain involved in cell cycle control.

  14. Neuroticism in remitted major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders; Kristoffersen, Marius; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    not been consistent. METHOD: We examined neuroticism, extraversion and perceived stress in 88 fully remitted depressed patients with a mean age of 60 years and with a history of hospitalization for major depressive disorder. Patients were divided into those with onset after and those with onset before 50......BACKGROUND: The personality trait of neuroticism is strongly related to depression, but depression is etiologically heterogeneous. Late-onset depression (LOD) may be more closely related to vascular factors, and previous studies of neuroticism in LOD versus early-onset depression (EOD) have...... age of onset and neuroticism was confirmed in analyses based on age of depression onset as a continuous variable. CONCLUSION: Neuroticism may be an etiological factor in EOD but not or less so in LOD. This finding contributes to the growing evidence for etiological differences between early- and late...

  15. Resource Unavailability (RU) Per Domain Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Westberg, L.; Bader, A.; Tschofenig, Hannes; Tschofenig, H.

    2006-01-01

    This draft specifies a Per Domain Behavior that provides the ability to Diffserv nodes located outside Diffserv domain(s), e.g., receiver or other Diffserv enabled router to detect when the resources provided by the Diffserv domain(s) are not available. The unavailability of resources in the domain

  16. Cholesterol Bilayer Domains in the Eye Lens Health: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija

    2017-12-01

    The most unique biochemical characteristic of the eye lens fiber cell plasma membrane is its extremely high cholesterol content, the need for which is still unclear. It is evident, however, that the disturbance of Chol homeostasis may result in damages associated with cataracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance methods allow discrimination of two types of lipid domains in model membranes overloaded with Chol, namely, phospholipid-cholesterol domains and pure Chol bilayer domains. These domains are also detected in human lens lipid membranes prepared from the total lipids extracted from lens cortices and nuclei of donors from different age groups. Independent of the age-related changes in phospholipid composition, the physical properties of phospholipid-Chol domains remain the same for all age groups and are practically identical for cortical and nuclear membranes. The presence of Chol bilayer domains in these membranes provides a buffering capacity for cholesterol concentration in the surrounding phospholipid-Chol domains, keeping it at a constant saturating level and thus keeping the physical properties of the membrane consistent with and independent of changes in phospholipid composition. It seems that the presence of Chol bilayer domains plays an integral role in the regulation of cholesterol-dependent processes in fiber cell plasm membranes and in the maintenance of fiber cell membrane homeostasis.

  17. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Western cratonic domain in Uruguay: geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Peel, F.; Muzio, R.; Ledesma, J.; Guerequiz, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article has been studied the Western cratonic in Uruguay are divided into three major units: Piedra Alta Terrane, Valentines Block and Pavas Terrane. Piedra Alta Terrane has of evidence of Neo proterozoic orogenesis . Sarandi del Yi -Arroyo Solis Grande shear zone separate, it from Valentine block . Valentine Block separate it from Pavas terrane by Cueva del Tigre shear zone

  19. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  20. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  1. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  2. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  3. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.; Tkachev, I.I., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru, E-mail: a.s.rudenko@inp.nsk.su, E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Physics Department and Laboratory of Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  4. Epitope mapping of the domains of human angiotensin converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugaevskaya, Elena V; Kolesanova, Ekaterina F; Kozin, Sergey A; Veselovsky, Alexander V; Dedinsky, Ilya R; Elisseeva, Yulia E

    2006-06-01

    Somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE), contains in its single chain two homologous domains (called N- and C-domains), each bearing a functional zinc-dependent active site. The present study aims to define the differences between two sACE domains and to localize experimentally revealed antigenic determinants (B-epitopes) in the recently determined three-dimensional structure of testicular tACE. The predicted linear antigenic determinants of human sACE were determined by peptide scanning ("PEPSCAN") approach. Essential difference was demonstrated between locations of the epitopes in the N- and C-domains. Comparison of arrangement of epitopes in the human domains with the corresponding sequences of some mammalian sACEs enabled to classify the revealed antigenic determinants as variable or conserved areas. The location of antigenic determinants with respect to various structural elements and to functionally important sites of the human sACE C-domain was estimated. The majority of antigenic sites of the C-domain were located at the irregular elements and at the boundaries of secondary structure elements. The data show structural differences between the sACE domains. The experimentally revealed antigenic determinants were in agreement with the recently determined crystal tACE structure. New potential applications are open to successfully produce mono-specific and group-specific antipeptide antibodies.

  5. Performance evaluation of phage-displayed synthetic human single-domain antibody libraries: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A; Tanha, Jamshid

    2018-05-01

    Fully human synthetic single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) are desirable therapeutic molecules but their development is a considerable challenge. Here, using a retrospective analysis of in-house historical data, we examined the parameters that impact the outcome of screening phage-displayed synthetic human sdAb libraries to discover antigen-specific binders. We found no evidence for a differential effect of domain type (V H or V L ), library randomization strategy, incorporation of a stabilizing disulfide linkage or sdAb display format (monovalent vs. multivalent) on the probability of obtaining any antigen-binding human sdAbs, instead finding that the success of library screens was primarily related to properties of target antigens, especially molecular mass. The solubility and binding affinity of sdAbs isolated from successful screens depended both on properties of the sdAb libraries (primarily domain type) and the target antigens. Taking attrition of sdAbs with major manufacturability concerns (aggregation; low expression) and sdAbs that do not recognize native cell-surface antigens as independent probabilities, we calculate the overall likelihood of obtaining ≥1 antigen-binding human sdAb from a single library-target screen as ~24%. Successful library-target screens should be expected to yield ~1.3 human sdAbs on average, each with average binding affinity of ~2 μM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Dispersive elastic properties of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegren, James; Lau, Derek; Sokalski, Vincent

    Recent studies on the asymmetric field-driven growth of magnetic bubble domains in perpendicular thin films exhibiting an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) have provided a wealth of experimental evidence to validate models of creep phenomena, as key properties of the domain wall (DW) can be altered with the application of an external in-plane magnetic field. While asymmetric growth behavior has been attributed to the highly anisotropic DW energy, σ (θ) , which results from the combination of DMI and the in-plane field, many experimental results remain anomalous. In this work, we demonstrate that the anisotropy of DW energy alters the elastic response of the DW as characterized by the surface stiffness, σ (θ) = σ (θ) + σ (θ) , and evaluate the impact of this stiffness on the creep law. We find that at in-plane fields larger than and antiparallel to the effective field due to DMI, the DW stiffness decreases rapidly, suggesting that higher energy walls can actually become more mobile than their low energy counterparts. This result is consistent with experiments on CoNi multilayer films where velocity curves for domain walls with DMI fields parallel and antiparallel to the applied field cross over at high in-plane fields.

  8. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  9. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  10. Learning curves, taking instructions, and patient safety: using a theoretical domains framework in an interview study to investigate prescribing errors among trainee doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Eilidh M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prescribing errors are a major source of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant patient safety concern. Evidence suggests that trainee doctors are responsible for most prescribing errors. Understanding the factors that influence prescribing behavior may lead to effective interventions to reduce errors. Existing investigations of prescribing errors have been based on Human Error Theory but not on other relevant behavioral theories. The aim of this study was to apply a broad theory-based approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to investigate prescribing in the hospital context among a sample of trainee doctors. Method Semistructured interviews, based on 12 theoretical domains, were conducted with 22 trainee doctors to explore views, opinions, and experiences of prescribing and prescribing errors. Content analysis was conducted, followed by applying relevance criteria and a novel stage of critical appraisal, to identify which theoretical domains could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. Results Seven theoretical domains met the criteria of relevance: “social professional role and identity,” “environmental context and resources,” “social influences,” “knowledge,” “skills,” “memory, attention, and decision making,” and “behavioral regulation.” From critical appraisal of the interview data, “beliefs about consequences” and “beliefs about capabilities” were also identified as potentially important domains. Interrelationships between domains were evident. Additionally, the data supported theoretical elaboration of the domain behavioral regulation. Conclusions In this investigation of hospital-based prescribing, participants’ attributions about causes of errors were used to identify domains that could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. In a departure from previous TDF practice, critical appraisal was used to identify additional domains

  11. Learning curves, taking instructions, and patient safety: using a theoretical domains framework in an interview study to investigate prescribing errors among trainee doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Eilidh M; Francis, Jill J; Johnston, Marie; Davey, Peter; Maxwell, Simon; McKay, Gerard A; McLay, James; Ross, Sarah; Ryan, Cristín; Webb, David J; Bond, Christine

    2012-09-11

    Prescribing errors are a major source of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant patient safety concern. Evidence suggests that trainee doctors are responsible for most prescribing errors. Understanding the factors that influence prescribing behavior may lead to effective interventions to reduce errors. Existing investigations of prescribing errors have been based on Human Error Theory but not on other relevant behavioral theories. The aim of this study was to apply a broad theory-based approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to investigate prescribing in the hospital context among a sample of trainee doctors. Semistructured interviews, based on 12 theoretical domains, were conducted with 22 trainee doctors to explore views, opinions, and experiences of prescribing and prescribing errors. Content analysis was conducted, followed by applying relevance criteria and a novel stage of critical appraisal, to identify which theoretical domains could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. Seven theoretical domains met the criteria of relevance: "social professional role and identity," "environmental context and resources," "social influences," "knowledge," "skills," "memory, attention, and decision making," and "behavioral regulation." From critical appraisal of the interview data, "beliefs about consequences" and "beliefs about capabilities" were also identified as potentially important domains. Interrelationships between domains were evident. Additionally, the data supported theoretical elaboration of the domain behavioral regulation. In this investigation of hospital-based prescribing, participants' attributions about causes of errors were used to identify domains that could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. In a departure from previous TDF practice, critical appraisal was used to identify additional domains that should also be targeted, despite participants' perceptions that they were not relevant to

  12. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  13. Constricted nanowire with stabilized magnetic domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbiaa, R.; Al Bahri, M.

    2016-01-01

    Domain wall (DW)-based magnetic memory offers the possibility for increasing the storage capacity. However, stability of DW remains the major drawback of this scheme. In this letter, we propose a stepped nanowire for pinning DW in a desirable position. From micromagnetic simulation, the proposed design applied to in-plane magnetic anisotropy materials shows that by adjusting the nanowire step size and its width it is possible to stabilize DW for a desirable current density range. In contrast, only a movement of DW could be seen for conventional nanowire. An extension to a multi-stepped nanowire could be used for multi-bit per cell magnetic memory. - Highlights: • A stepped nanowire is proposed to pin domain wall in desired position. • The new structure can be made by a simple off set of two single nanowires. • The critical current for moving domain wall from one state to the other could be tuned by adjusting the geometry of the device. • The device could be used for multi-bit per cell memory by extending the steps in the device.

  14. N-Terminal Domains in Two-Domain Proteins Are Biased to Be Shorter and Predicted to Fold Faster Than Their C-Terminal Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etai Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis of proteomes in all kingdoms of life reveals a strong tendency for N-terminal domains in two-domain proteins to have shorter sequences than their neighboring C-terminal domains. Given that folding rates are affected by chain length, we asked whether the tendency for N-terminal domains to be shorter than their neighboring C-terminal domains reflects selection for faster-folding N-terminal domains. Calculations of absolute contact order, another predictor of folding rate, provide additional evidence that N-terminal domains tend to fold faster than their neighboring C-terminal domains. A possible explanation for this bias, which is more pronounced in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, is that faster folding of N-terminal domains reduces the risk for protein aggregation during folding by preventing formation of nonnative interdomain interactions. This explanation is supported by our finding that two-domain proteins with a shorter N-terminal domain are much more abundant than those with a shorter C-terminal domain.

  15. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  16. Topology Based Domain Search (TBDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, William

    2002-01-01

    This effort will explore radical changes in the way Domain Name System (DNS) is used by endpoints in a network to improve the resilience of the endpoint and its applications in the face of dynamically changing infrastructure topology...

  17. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...

  18. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  19. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  20. Maneuver from the Air Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Overload From the previous discussion, cognitive maneuver seeks to degrade the enemy’s capacity for...in all domains, the ability to maneuver from the air domain in the cognitive sense, comes primarily from air power’s unique ability to overload the... cognitive maneuver mechanisms developed in the 1980s as part of broader maneuver warfare theory. The result is a proposed definition of maneuver from

  1. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  2. Gravity and domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, B.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-11-01

    It is well known that the spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries may lead to conflict with big-bang cosmology. This is due to formation of domain walls which give unacceptable contribution to the energy density of the universe. On the other hand, it is expected that gravity breaks global symmetries explicitly. In this work we propose that this could provide a natural solution to the domain-wall problem. (author). 17 refs

  3. Incompleteness in the finite domain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2017), s. 405-441 ISSN 1079-8986 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : finite domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/bulletin-of-symbolic-logic/article/incompleteness-in-the-finite-domain/D239B1761A73DCA534A4805A76D81C76

  4. Recurrent adenylation domain replacement in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laakso Kati

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcystins are small cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by a range of distantly related cyanobacteria. Microcystins are synthesized on large NRPS-PKS enzyme complexes. Many structural variants of microcystins are produced simulatenously. A recombination event between the first module of mcyB (mcyB1 and mcyC in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster is linked to the simultaneous production of microcystin variants in strains of the genus Microcystis. Results Here we undertook a phylogenetic study to investigate the order and timing of recombination between the mcyB1 and mcyC genes in a diverse selection of microcystin producing cyanobacteria. Our results provide support for complex evolutionary processes taking place at the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains which recognize and activate the amino acids found at X and Z positions. We find evidence for recent recombination between mcyB1 and mcyC in strains of the genera Anabaena, Microcystis, and Hapalosiphon. We also find clear evidence for independent adenylation domain conversion of mcyB1 by unrelated peptide synthetase modules in strains of the genera Nostoc and Microcystis. The recombination events replace only the adenylation domain in each case and the condensation domains of mcyB1 and mcyC are not transferred together with the adenylation domain. Our findings demonstrate that the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains are recombination hotspots in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster. Conclusion Recombination is thought to be one of the main mechanisms driving the diversification of NRPSs. However, there is very little information on how recombination takes place in nature. This study demonstrates that functional peptide synthetases are created in nature through transfer of adenylation domains without the concomitant transfer of condensation domains.

  5. EH domain of EHD1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieken, Fabien; Jovic, Marko; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve, E-mail: scaplan@unmc.edu; Sorgen, Paul L. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Eppley Cancer Center (United States)], E-mail: psorgen@unmc.edu

    2007-12-15

    EHD1 is a member of the mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EH) containing protein family, and regulates the recycling of various receptors from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane. The EH domain of EHD1 binds to proteins containing either an Asn-Pro-Phe or Asp-Pro-Phe motif, and plays an important role in the subcellular localization and function of EHD1. Thus far, the structures of five N-terminal EH domains from other proteins have been solved, but to date, the structure of the EH domains from the four C-terminal EHD family paralogs remains unknown. In this study, we have assigned the 133 C-terminal residues of EHD1, which includes the EH domain, and solved its solution structure. While the overall structure resembles that of the second of the three N-terminal Eps15 EH domains, potentially significant differences in surface charge and the structure of the tripeptide-binding pocket are discussed.

  6. EH domain of EHD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieken, Fabien; Jovic, Marko; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    EHD1 is a member of the mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EH) containing protein family, and regulates the recycling of various receptors from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane. The EH domain of EHD1 binds to proteins containing either an Asn-Pro-Phe or Asp-Pro-Phe motif, and plays an important role in the subcellular localization and function of EHD1. Thus far, the structures of five N-terminal EH domains from other proteins have been solved, but to date, the structure of the EH domains from the four C-terminal EHD family paralogs remains unknown. In this study, we have assigned the 133 C-terminal residues of EHD1, which includes the EH domain, and solved its solution structure. While the overall structure resembles that of the second of the three N-terminal Eps15 EH domains, potentially significant differences in surface charge and the structure of the tripeptide-binding pocket are discussed

  7. Mapping the structural and dynamical features of kinesin motor domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Scarabelli

    Full Text Available Kinesin motor proteins drive intracellular transport by coupling ATP hydrolysis to conformational changes that mediate directed movement along microtubules. Characterizing these distinct conformations and their interconversion mechanism is essential to determining an atomic-level model of kinesin action. Here we report a comprehensive principal component analysis of 114 experimental structures along with the results of conventional and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations that together map the structural dynamics of the kinesin motor domain. All experimental structures were found to reside in one of three distinct conformational clusters (ATP-like, ADP-like and Eg5 inhibitor-bound. These groups differ in the orientation of key functional elements, most notably the microtubule binding α4-α5, loop8 subdomain and α2b-β4-β6-β7 motor domain tip. Group membership was found not to correlate with the nature of the bound nucleotide in a given structure. However, groupings were coincident with distinct neck-linker orientations. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of ATP, ADP and nucleotide free Eg5 indicate that all three nucleotide states could sample the major crystallographically observed conformations. Differences in the dynamic coupling of distal sites were also evident. In multiple ATP bound simulations, the neck-linker, loop8 and the α4-α5 subdomain display correlated motions that are absent in ADP bound simulations. Further dissection of these couplings provides evidence for a network of dynamic communication between the active site, microtubule-binding interface and neck-linker via loop7 and loop13. Additional simulations indicate that the mutations G325A and G326A in loop13 reduce the flexibility of these regions and disrupt their couplings. Our combined results indicate that the reported ATP and ADP-like conformations of kinesin are intrinsically accessible regardless of nucleotide state and support a model where neck

  8. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Pathology and Microbiology Department, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  9. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-01-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins

  10. Domain-to-domain coupling in voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Souhei; Matsuda, Makoto; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a transmembrane voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic enzyme region. The enzyme region contains the phosphatase and C2 domains, is structurally similar to the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTEN, and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoinositides. The transmembrane voltage sensor is connected to the phosphatase through a short linker region, and phosphatase activity is induced upon membrane depolarization. Although the detailed molecular characteristics of the voltage sensor domain and the enzyme region have been revealed, little is known how these two regions are coupled. In addition, it is important to know whether mechanism for coupling between the voltage sensor domain and downstream effector function is shared among other voltage sensor domain-containing proteins. Recent studies in which specific amino acid sites were genetically labeled using a fluorescent unnatural amino acid have enabled detection of the local structural changes in the cytoplasmic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP that occur with a change in membrane potential. The results of those studies provide novel insight into how the enzyme activity of the cytoplasmic region of VSP is regulated by the voltage sensor domain.

  11. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Steven D; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Barth, Jürgen

    2014-03-24

    The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N=12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p'sdepressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being.

  12. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological function in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Katie M; Porter, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Neuropsychological impairment is a core component of major depression, yet its relationship to clinical state is unclear. The aims of the present review were to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks were most sensitive to improvement in clinical state in major depression and to highlight the methodological issues in such research. Studies that included a baseline and at least one follow-up neuropsychological testing session in adults with major depression were identified using MEDLINE, Web of Science and ScienceDirect databases. Thirty studies were included in the review. Findings in younger adult populations suggested that improvement in mood was most strongly related to improved verbal memory and verbal fluency, while measures of executive functioning and attention tended to remain impaired across treatment. In late-life major depression, improved psychomotor speed was most closely related to treatment response, but there was much inconsistency between study findings, which may be due to methodological issues. In major depression, particular neuropsychological domains are more strongly related to clinical state than others. The findings from the present review suggest that the domains most sensitive to clinical state are verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. In contrast, measures of attention and executive functioning perhaps represent more trait-like markers of major depression. With further methodologically sound research, the changes in neuropsychological function associated with treatment response may provide a means of evaluating different treatment strategies in major depression.

  13. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Copeland, Dylan; Kolmbauer, Michael; Langer, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Copeland, Dylan

    2010-10-05

    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Llama immunization with full-length VAR2CSA generates cross-reactive and inhibitory single-domain antibodies against the DBL1X domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Gangnard, Stéphane; Vidal, Marta; Vuchelen, Anneleen; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Chan, Sherwin; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Ramboarina, Stephanie; Chêne, Arnaud; Gamain, Benoît

    2014-12-09

    VAR2CSA stands today as the leading vaccine candidate aiming to protect future pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas against the severe clinical outcomes of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). The rational design of an efficient VAR2CSA-based vaccine relies on a profound understanding of the molecular interactions associated with P. falciparum infected erythrocyte sequestration in the placenta. Following immunization of a llama with the full-length VAR2CSA recombinant protein, we have expressed and characterized a panel of 19 nanobodies able to recognize the recombinant VAR2CSA as well as the surface of erythrocytes infected with parasites originating from different parts of the world. Domain mapping revealed that a large majority of nanobodies targeted DBL1X whereas a few of them were directed towards DBL4ε, DBL5ε and DBL6ε. One nanobody targeting the DBL1X was able to recognize the native VAR2CSA protein of the three parasite lines tested. Furthermore, four nanobodies targeting DBL1X reproducibly inhibited CSA adhesion of erythrocytes infected with the homologous NF54-CSA parasite strain, providing evidences that DBL1X domain is part or close to the CSA binding site. These nanobodies could serve as useful tools to identify conserved epitopes shared between different variants and to characterize the interactions between VAR2CSA and CSA.

  16. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  17. LTDNA Evidence on Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  18. Domain walls at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A. de; Marques, G.C.; Silva, A.J. da; Ventura, I.

    1983-08-01

    It is suggested that the phase transition of lambda phi 4 theory as a function of temperature coincides with the spontaneous appearance of domain walls. Based on one-loop calculations, T sub(c) = 4M/√ lambda is estimated as the temperature for these domains to because energetically favored, to be compared with T sub(c) = 4.9M/√ lambda from effective potential calculations (which are performed directly in the broken phase). Domain walls, as well as other Types of fluctuations, disorder the system above T sub(c), leading to =0. The critical exponent for the specific heat above T sub(c) is computed; and α=2/3 + 0 (√ lambda) is obtained. (Author) [pt

  19. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  20. The Distributed-SDF Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuadrado, Daniel Lázaro; Ravn, Anders Peter; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Distributed-SDF domain for Ptolemy II is to allow distributed simulation of SDF models. It builds on top of the existing SDF domain by extending it. From the user’s point of view, using the Distributed-SDF director is sufficient to run the distributed version. It provides optio...... distributed nature. First of all, known memory bounds of the JVM can be overcome. Second, it yields smaller simulation times, mainly for models with high degree of parallelism and granularity....

  1. Nanometer-size magnetic domains and coherent magnetization reversal in a giant exchange-bias system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufour, C.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Borchers, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of magnetic domains and domain walls in exchange bias has stimulated much contemporary deliberation. Here we present compelling evidence obtained with small-angle scattering of unpolarized- and polarized-neutron beams that magnetization reversal occurs via formation of 10-100s nm-sized m...... to that of structural defects at the seed-layer-superlattice interface....

  2. Asymmetric cross-domain interference between two working memory tasks : Implications for models of working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Morey, Richard D.; van der Reijden, Madeleine; Holweg, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Observations of higher dual-task costs for within-domain than cross-domain task combinations constitute classic evidence for multi-component models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 1986; Logie, 2011). However, we report an asymmetric pattern of interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks,

  3. Improving the performance of DomainDiscovery of protein domain boundary assignment using inter-domain linker index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomaya Albert Y

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of protein domain boundaries is critical for the characterisation and understanding of protein function. The ability to identify domains without the knowledge of the structure – by using sequence information only – is an essential step in many types of protein analyses. In this present study, we demonstrate that the performance of DomainDiscovery is improved significantly by including the inter-domain linker index value for domain identification from sequence-based information. Improved DomainDiscovery uses a Support Vector Machine (SVM approach and a unique training dataset built on the principle of consensus among experts in defining domains in protein structure. The SVM was trained using a PSSM (Position Specific Scoring Matrix, secondary structure, solvent accessibility information and inter-domain linker index to detect possible domain boundaries for a target sequence. Results Improved DomainDiscovery is compared with other methods by benchmarking against a structurally non-redundant dataset and also CASP5 targets. Improved DomainDiscovery achieves 70% accuracy for domain boundary identification in multi-domains proteins. Conclusion Improved DomainDiscovery compares favourably to the performance of other methods and excels in the identification of domain boundaries for multi-domain proteins as a result of introducing support vector machine with benchmark_2 dataset.

  4. Evidence logics with relational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...

  5. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  6. Learning processes across knowledge domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the problematics of learning across knowledge boundaries in organizational settings. The paper specifically explores learning processes that emerge, when a new knowledge domain is introduced into an existing organizational practice with the ...

  7. Ubiquitin domain proteins in disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Louise Kjær; Schulze, Andrea; Seeger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The human genome encodes several ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs). Members of this protein family are involved in a variety of cellular functions and many are connected to the ubiquitin proteasome system, an essential pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Despite...... and cancer. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com)....

  8. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  9. Gradability in the nominal domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, Camelia

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates whether and how gradability is manifested in the nominal domain, as well as the implications this could have for theories of the representation of gradability. It is shown that the various gradability diagnostics proposed in the literature not only yield different

  10. The theory of syntactic domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kracht, M.

    In this essay we develop a mathematical theory of syntactic domains with special attention to the theory of government and binding. Starting from an intrinsic characterization of command relations as defined in [Ba 90] we determine the structure of the distributive lattice of command relations.

  11. Impedance models in time domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Necessary conditions for an impedance function are derived. Methods available in the literature are discussed. A format with recipe is proposed for an exact impedance condition in time domain on a time grid, based on the Helmholtz resonator model. An explicit solution is given of a pulse reflecting

  12. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  13. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  14. Characterization of the roles of the catalytic domains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligase D in Ku-dependent error-prone DNA end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Douglas; DeBeaux, Austin; Shi, Runhua; Doherty, Aidan J; Harrison, Lynn

    2010-09-01

    We previously established an Escherichia coli strain capable of re-circularizing linear plasmid DNA by expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ku (Mt-Ku) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligase D (Mt-LigD) proteins from the E.coli chromosome. Repair was predominately mutagenic due to deletions at the termini. We hypothesized that these deletions could be due to a nuclease activity of Mt-LigD that was previously detected in vitro. Mt-LigD has three domains: an N-terminal polymerase domain (PolDom), a central domain with 3'-phosphoesterase and nuclease activity and a C-terminal ligase domain (LigDom). We generated bacterial strains expressing Mt-Ku and mutant versions of Mt-LigD. Plasmid re-circularization experiments in bacteria showed that the PolDom alone had no re-circularization activity. However, an increase in the total and accurate repair was found when the central domain was deleted. This provides further evidence that this central domain does have nuclease activity that can generate deletions during repair. Deletion of only the PolDom of Mt-LigD resulted in a complete loss of accurate repair and a significant reduction in total repair. This is in agreement with published in vitro work indicating that the PolDom is the major Mt-Ku-binding site. Interestingly, the LigDom alone was able to re-circularize plasmid DNA but only in an Mt-Ku-dependent manner, suggesting a potential second site for Ku-LigD interaction. This work has increased our understanding of the mutagenic repair by Mt-Ku and Mt-LigD and has extended the in vitro biochemical experiments by examining the importance of the Mt-LigD domains during repair in bacteria.

  15. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  16. An ontological approach to domain engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falbo, R.A.; Guizzardi, G.; Duarte, K.

    2002-01-01

    Domain engineering aims to support systematic reuse, focusing on modeling common knowledge in a problem domain. Ontologies have also been pointed as holding great promise for software reuse. In this paper, we present ODE (Ontology-based Domain Engineering), an ontological approach for domain

  17. Inferring domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions with formal concept analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Khor

    Full Text Available Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains.

  18. Inferring Domain-Domain Interactions from Protein-Protein Interactions with Formal Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains. PMID:24586450

  19. PUBLIC DOMAIN PROTECTION. USES AND REUSES OF PUBLIC DOMAIN WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Adriana LUPAȘCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to highlight the necessity of an awareness of the right of access to the public domain, particularly using the example of works whose protection period has expired, as well as the ones which the law considers to be excluded from protection. Such works are used not only by large libraries from around the world, but also by rights holders, via different means of use, including incorporations into original works or adaptations. However, the reuse that follows these uses often only remains at the level of concept, as the notion of the public’s right of access to public domain works is not substantiated, nor is the notion of the correct or legal use of such works.

  20. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  1. Music genre classification using temporal domain features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Yu; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2004-10-01

    Music genre provides an efficient way to index songs in the music database, and can be used as an effective means to retrieval music of a similar type, i.e. content-based music retrieval. In addition to other features, the temporal domain features of a music signal are exploited so as to increase the classification rate in this research. Three temporal techniques are examined in depth. First, the hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to emulate the time-varying properties of music signals. Second, to further increase the classification rate, we propose another feature set that focuses on the residual part of music signals. Third, the overall classification rate is enhanced by classifying smaller segments from a test material individually and making decision via majority voting. Experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed techniques.

  2. AN INTELLIGENT CONVERSATION AGENT FOR HEALTH CARE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karpagam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Computer Interaction is one of the pervasive application areas of computer science to develop with multimodal interaction for information sharings. The conversation agent acts as the major core area for developing interfaces between a system and user with applied AI for proper responses. In this paper, the interactive system plays a vital role in improving knowledge in the domain of health through the intelligent interface between machine and human with text and speech. The primary aim is to enrich the knowledge and help the user in the domain of health using conversation agent to offer immediate response with human companion feel.

  3. Example-Based Learning in Heuristic Domains: A Cognitive Load Theory Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander; Hilbert, Tatjana; Schworm, Silke

    2009-01-01

    One classical instructional effect of cognitive load theory (CLT) is the worked-example effect. Although the vast majority of studies have focused on well-structured and algorithmic sub-domains of mathematics or physics, more recent studies have also analyzed learning with examples from complex domains in which only heuristic solution strategies…

  4. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  5. Domain wall motion in ferromagnetic systems with perpendicular magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szambolics, H.; Toussaint, J.-Ch.; Marty, A.; Miron, I.M.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    Although we lack clear experimental evidence, apparently out-of-plane magnetized systems are better suited for spintronic applications than the in-plane magnetized ones, mainly due to the smaller current densities required for achieving domain wall motion. [Co/Pt] multilayers belong to the first category of materials, the out-of-plane magnetization orientation arising from the strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy. If the magnetization arranges itself out-of-plane narrow Bloch walls occur. In the present paper, both field and current-driven domain wall motion have been investigated for this system, using micromagnetic simulations. Three types of geometries have been taken into account: bulk, thin film and wire, and for all of them a full comparison is done between the effect of the applied field and injected current. The reduction of the system's dimension induces the decrease of the critical field and the critical current, but it does not influence the domain wall displacement mechanism.

  6. Toward error-free scaled spin torque majority gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaysset, Adrien; Manfrini, Mauricio; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Radu, Iuliana P.; Thean, Aaron [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A. [Exploratory Integrated Circuits, Components Research, Intel Corp., Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The functionality of a cross-shaped Spin Torque Majority Gate is explored by means of micromagnetic simulations. The different input combinations are simulated varying material parameters, current density and size. The main failure mode is identified: above a critical size, a domain wall can be pinned at the center of the cross, preventing further propagation of the information. By simulating several phase diagrams, the key parameters are obtained and the operating condition is deduced. A simple relation between the domain wall width and the size of the Spin Torque Majority Gate determines the working range. Finally, a correlation is found between the energy landscape and the main failure mode. We demonstrate that a macrospin behavior ensures a reliable majority gate operation.

  7. Toward error-free scaled spin torque majority gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Vaysset

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The functionality of a cross-shaped Spin Torque Majority Gate is explored by means of micromagnetic simulations. The different input combinations are simulated varying material parameters, current density and size. The main failure mode is identified: above a critical size, a domain wall can be pinned at the center of the cross, preventing further propagation of the information. By simulating several phase diagrams, the key parameters are obtained and the operating condition is deduced. A simple relation between the domain wall width and the size of the Spin Torque Majority Gate determines the working range. Finally, a correlation is found between the energy landscape and the main failure mode. We demonstrate that a macrospin behavior ensures a reliable majority gate operation.

  8. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  9. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  10. Possible description of domain walls in two-dimensional spin glasses by stochastic Loewner evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Denis; Le Doussal, Pierre; Middleton, A. Alan

    2007-01-01

    Domain walls for spin glasses are believed to be scale invariant; a stronger symmetry, conformal invariance, has the potential to hold. The statistics of zero-temperature Ising spin glass domain walls in two dimensions are used to test the hypothesis that these domain walls are described by a Schramm-Loewner evolution SLE κ . Multiple tests are consistent with SLE κ , where κ=2.32±0.08. Both conformal invariance and the domain Markov property are tested. The latter does not hold in small systems, but detailed numerical evidence suggests that it holds in the continuum limit

  11. Identification and Analysis of the SET-Domain Family in Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important economic insect, Bombyx mori is also a useful model organism for lepidopteran insect. SET-domain-containing proteins belong to a group of enzymes named after a common domain that utilizes the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to achieve methylation of its substrates. Many SET-domain-containing proteins have been shown to display catalytic activity towards particular lysine residues on histones, but emerging evidence also indicates that various nonhistone proteins are specifically targeted by this clade of enzymes. To explore their diverse functions of SET-domain superfamily in insect, we identified, cloned, and analyzed the SET-domains proteins in silkworm, Bombyx mori. Firstly, 24 genes containing SET domain from silkworm genome were characterized and 17 of them belonged to six subfamilies of SUV39, SET1, SET2, SUV4-20, EZ, and SMYD. Secondly, SET domains of silkworm SET-domain family were intraspecifically and interspecifically conserved, especially for the catalytic core “NHSC” motif, substrate binding site, and catalytic site in the SET domain. Lastly, further analyses indicated that silkworm SET-domain gene BmSu(var3-9 owned different characterization and expression profiles compared to other invertebrates. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the functional and evolutionary features of SET-domain family.

  12. Cognitive functioning in major depression - a summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Hammar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitive functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions (EF, attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitive functioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. However, findings regarding cognitive functioning in depression are divergent. Factors that might contribute to the divergent findings, such as depression subtype, severity and comorbidity are discussed. Clinical implications and focus of future research directions is highlighted. .In conclusion, depression is associated with cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness, and some reports indicate that this impairment might be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery.

  13. Escalation of the Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    vision of Arnold and other Air Force pioneers. Manned flight becomes the domain of NASA , and the United States shelves the idea of an aircraft-like...are similar in nature and application to those seen in science fiction moves or on television (i.e., Star Trek ) that can provide direct kinetic...Space, Infobase Publishing, New York: NY, 2011, pg. 12. 45 Ibid., pg. 12. 46 “Whom Gods Destroy.” Star Trek (original television series), Season 3

  14. Domains of bosonic functional integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.; Para Univ., Belem, PA

    1998-07-01

    We propose a mathematical framework for bosonic Euclidean quantum field functional integrals based on the theory of integration on the dual algebraic vector space of classical field sources. We present a generalization of the Minlos-Dao Xing theorem and apply it to determine exactly the domain of integration associated to the functional integral representation of the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics Schwinger generating functional. (author)

  15. Categorization in the Affective Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina

    2011-01-01

    Data collected in Romance and Scandinavian languages (N=474) in a superordinate category name production task indicate that a multiple-strategy approach would be more suitable for accounting of categorization in the affective domain instead of a prototype approach as suggested by previous studies....... This paper will highlight performance aspects which appear to be consistent with such an interpretation, as well as an important layman- expert knowledge asymmetry in affective categorization....

  16. Superconductivity in domains with corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....

  17. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  18. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  19. Dressed Domain Walls and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisa, Luca; Pujolas, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    The cutoff version of the AdS/CFT correspondence states that the Randall Sundrum scenario is dual to a Conformal Field Theory (CFT) coupled to gravity in four dimensions. The gravitational field produced by relativistic Domain Walls can be exactly solved in both sides of the correspondence, and thus provides one further check of it. We show in the two sides that for the most symmetric case, the wall motion does not lead to particle production of the CFT fields. Still, there are nontrivial effects. Due to the trace anomaly, the CFT effectively renormalizes the Domain Wall tension. On the five dimensional side, the wall is a codimension 2 brane localized on the Randall-Sundrum brane, which pulls the wall in a uniform acceleration. This is perceived from the brane as a Domain Wall with a tension slightly larger than its bare value. In both cases, the deviation from General Relativity appears at nonlinear level in the source, and the leading corrections match to the numerical factors.

  20. Alternative to domain wall fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative to commonly used domain wall fermions is presented. Some rigorous bounds on the condition number of the associated linear problem are derived. On the basis of these bounds and some experimentation it is argued that domain wall fermions will in general be associated with a condition number that is of the same order of magnitude as the product of the condition number of the linear problem in the physical dimensions by the inverse bare quark mass. Thus, the computational cost of implementing true domain wall fermions using a single conjugate gradient algorithm is of the same order of magnitude as that of implementing the overlap Dirac operator directly using two nested conjugate gradient algorithms. At a cost of about a factor of two in operation count it is possible to make the memory usage of direct implementations of the overlap Dirac operator independent of the accuracy of the approximation to the sign function and of the same order as that of standard Wilson fermions

  1. KEJAHATAN NAMA DOMAIN BERKAITAN DENGAN MEREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nizar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia already has an ITE Law governing domain names in general terms and on certain provisions in chapter VI, but the regulation of domain name crimes is not regulated in the ITE Law as mandated in the academic draft of the ITE Bill. The absence of regulation of domain name norm in the ITE Law creates problems with registrant of domain name (registrant which deliberately register the domain name is bad faith. The characteristic of a crime in a domain name relating to the mark is that the registered domain name has an equation in essence with another party’s well-known brand, the act of doing so by exploiting a reputation for well-known or previously commercially valuable names as domain names for addresses for sites (websites it manages. The Prosecutor may include articles of the KUHP in filing his indictment before the Court during the absence of special regulatory provisions concerning domain name crime.

  2. DIMA 3.0: Domain Interaction Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qibin; Pagel, Philipp; Vilne, Baiba; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    Domain Interaction MAp (DIMA, available at http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/dima) is a database of predicted and known interactions between protein domains. It integrates 5807 structurally known interactions imported from the iPfam and 3did databases and 46,900 domain interactions predicted by four computational methods: domain phylogenetic profiling, domain pair exclusion algorithm correlated mutations and domain interaction prediction in a discriminative way. Additionally predictions are filtered to exclude those domain pairs that are reported as non-interacting by the Negatome database. The DIMA Web site allows to calculate domain interaction networks either for a domain of interest or for entire organisms, and to explore them interactively using the Flash-based Cytoscape Web software.

  3. A micromagnetic study of domain structure modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tetsuji; Mimuro, Naoki; Shimasaki, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    To develop a mesoscopic model for magnetic-domain behavior, a domain structure model (DSM) was examined and compared with a micromagnetic simulation. The domain structure of this model is given by several domains with uniform magnetization vectors and domain walls. The directions of magnetization vectors and the locations of domain walls are determined so as to minimize the magnetic total energy of the magnetic material. The DSM was modified to improve its representation capability for domain behavior. The domain wall energy is multiplied by a vanishing factor to represent the disappearance of magnetic domain. The sequential quadratic programming procedure is divided into two steps to improve an energy minimization process. A comparison with micromagnetic simulation shows that the modified DSM improves the representation accuracy of the magnetization process

  4. Ferromagnetic and twin domains in LCMO manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G.; Markovich, V.; Mogilyanski, D.; Beek, C. van der; Mukovskii, Y.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ferromagnetic and twin domains in lightly Ca-doped La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 single crystals have been visualized and investigated by means of the magneto-optical technique. Both types of domains became visible below the Curie temperature. The dominant structures seen in applied magnetic field are associated with magneto-crystalline anisotropy and twin domains. In a marked difference to the twin domains which appear only in applied magnetic field, ferromagnetic domains show up in zero applied field and are characterized by oppositely oriented spontaneous magnetization in adjacent domains. Ferromagnetic domains take form of almost periodic, corrugated strip-like structures. The corrugation of the ferromagnetic domain pattern is enforced by the underlying twin domains

  5. Semantic neology in the domain of videogames in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Álvarez de Mon Rego

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the meaning of five neologisms in the domain of videogames in Spanish: título, aventura, personaje, plataforma, and rol. Our study focuses on a special type of neologism since the Spanish terms we deal with here are not strictly new words; they are what have been called sense neologisms or neosemanticisms, that is, old words taking a new sense in a different domain. These words were identified as new concepts after a process of analysis based on contextual evidence. This study of neology is based on the analysis of a corpus of press articles evaluating videogames published by the Spanish newspaper El País from 1998 to 2008. The analysis of the instances of use of domain specific terms in the corpus revealed that they acquired new senses different to those they have in other domains where they are also used. The paper explains the process of discovering the specialized meaning these words have developed in the domain of videogames and how the analysis of collocational behavior helps in the process of discovering the new sense and in the design of the definition provided.

  6. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Code clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of code) have been studied for long, and there is strong evidence that they are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon occurs similarly in models, suggesting that model clones are as detrimental to model quality...... as they are to code quality. However, programming language code and visual models have significant differences that make it difficult to directly transfer notions and algorithms developed in the code clone arena to model clones. In this article, we develop and propose a definition of the notion of “model clone” based...... we believe that our approach advances the state of the art significantly, it is restricted to UML models, its results leave room for improvements, and there is no validation by field studies....

  7. Mapping small molecule binding data to structural domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Felix A; Rostom, Raghd; Overington, John P

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale bioactivity/SAR Open Data has recently become available, and this has allowed new analyses and approaches to be developed to help address the productivity and translational gaps of current drug discovery. One of the current limitations of these data is the relative sparsity of reported interactions per protein target, and complexities in establishing clear relationships between bioactivity and targets using bioinformatics tools. We detail in this paper the indexing of targets by the structural domains that bind (or are likely to bind) the ligand within a full-length protein. Specifically, we present a simple heuristic to map small molecule binding to Pfam domains. This profiling can be applied to all proteins within a genome to give some indications of the potential pharmacological modulation and regulation of all proteins. In this implementation of our heuristic, ligand binding to protein targets from the ChEMBL database was mapped to structural domains as defined by profiles contained within the Pfam-A database. Our mapping suggests that the majority of assay targets within the current version of the ChEMBL database bind ligands through a small number of highly prevalent domains, and conversely the majority of Pfam domains sampled by our data play no currently established role in ligand binding. Validation studies, carried out firstly against Uniprot entries with expert binding-site annotation and secondly against entries in the wwPDB repository of crystallographic protein structures, demonstrate that our simple heuristic maps ligand binding to the correct domain in about 90 percent of all assessed cases. Using the mappings obtained with our heuristic, we have assembled ligand sets associated with each Pfam domain. Small molecule binding has been mapped to Pfam-A domains of protein targets in the ChEMBL bioactivity database. The result of this mapping is an enriched annotation of small molecule bioactivity data and a grouping of activity classes

  8. IMPLICATIONS OF CROSS DOMAIN FIRES IN MULTI-DOMAIN BATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    meeting the threats or defeating the challenges posed by today’s enemy. As such, in a rapidly changing and demanding environment, I would contend...Joint Power.”10 As such, the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force and Navy are developing a new joint concept in order to adequately meet the challenges of...TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1, AOC, p. 13. 5 TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1, AOC, p. 13. 6 Kris Osborn, “Cross-Domain Fires: US Military’s Master Plan to Win the

  9. Majority and minority influence: A dual role interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, N.K.; de Dreu, C.; Gordijn, E.; Schuurman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter offers an analysis of majority vs. minority influence using the Heuristic-Systematic Model of persuasion (HSM). We evaluate evidence for and against leading perspectives such as Conversion Theory. Next, research and theory is reviewed suggesting that majority vs. minority influence

  10. Investigating the Molecular Basis of Major Depressive Disorder Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Korf, Jaalp; Ormel, Johan; Kema, Ido P.; den Boer, Johan A.; Kvetnansky, R; Aguilera, G; Goldstein, D; Jezova, D; Krizanova, O; Sabban, EL; Pacak, K

    2008-01-01

    Genes play a major role in behavioral adaptation to challenging environmental stimuli, but the complexity of their contribution remains unclear. There is growing evidence linking disease phenotypes with genes on the one hand, and the genesis of stress-related disorders like major depression, as a

  11. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  12. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Nanosecond Characterization of Regional Domain Imprint from Fast Domain Switching Currents in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_3 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Jiang; An-Quan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The traditional imprint characterization of ferroelectric thin films estimates imprint time dependence of the mean coercive voltage of all domains from a polarization-voltage hysteresis loop, which shows a semilogarithmic time dependence above an initial imprint time of τ_0 > 1 μs at room temperature. Below τ_0, the imprint effect is believed to be weak. In consideration of region-by-region domain reversal under a rising pulsed voltage with ordered coercive voltages increasing from zero up to the maximum applied voltage during capacitor charging time, we can estimate the imprinted coercive voltage of each domain from domain switching current transient separately with imprint time as short as 20 ns. In disagreement with the previous observations, all imprinted coercive voltages for the domains in Pt/Pb(Zr_0_._4Ti_0_._6)O_3/Pt thin-film capacitors show step-like increases at two characteristic times of 300 ns and 0.27s. The imprint effect is surprisingly strong enough even at shortened time down to 20 ns without any evidence of weakening. (paper)

  14. DC-SIGN neck domain is a pH-sensor controlling oligomerization: SAXS and hydrodynamic studies of extracellular domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarani, Georges; Thépaut, Michel; Stroebel, David; Ebel, Christine; Vivès, Corinne; Vachette, Patrice; Durand, Dominique; Fieschi, Franck

    2009-08-07

    DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor of dendritic cells and is involved in the early stages of numerous infectious diseases. DC-SIGN is organized into a tetramer enabling multivalent interaction with pathogens. Once formed, the DC-SIGN-pathogen complex can be internalized into compartments of increasing acidity. We have studied the pH dependence of the oligomerization state and conformation of the entire extracellular domain and neck region. We present evidence for equilibrium between the monomeric and tetrameric states of the extracellular domain, which exhibits a marked dependence with respect to both pH and ionic strength. Using solution x-ray scattering we have obtained a molecular envelope of the extracellular domain in which a model has been built. Our results highlight the central role of the neck domain in the pH-sensitive control of the oligomerization state, in the extended conformation of the protein, and in carbohydrate recognition domain organization and presentation. This work opens new insight into the molecular mechanism of ligand release and points to new avenues to block the first step of this important infection pathway.

  15. Majority and minority influence: A dual role interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, N.K.; de Dreu, C.; Gordijn, E.; Schuurman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter offers an analysis of majority vs. minority influence using the Heuristic-Systematic Model of persuasion (HSM). We evaluate evidence for and against leading perspectives such as Conversion Theory. Next, research and theory is reviewed suggesting that majority vs. minority influence differentially affect the processing of persuasive arguments. A dual-role interpretation of majority and minority influence is presented. First, numerical support for discrepant messages affects the de...

  16. Evidence for aerobic exercise training on the autonomic function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Jibril; Derom, Eric; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Da Silva, Hellen; Calders, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    To assess evidence for the effectiveness of aerobic exercise training (AET) on the autonomic function (AF) outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Online databases of PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science were systematically searched for all years till 26th of January, 2017. Clinical studies assessing any measure of AF following exercise training in patients with COPD were included. Data were extracted from studies with high methodological quality for evidence synthesis. Rating of evidence quality was determined using the GRADE guidelines. The Majority of the included studies utilized continuous exercise training mode with a vigorous level of intensity. Each exercise training session lasted between 30 to 40minutes, and the frequency of intervention was ≥3 times/week. Evidence synthesis of studies with high methodological quality revealed that a high quality evidence level supported a significant increase for time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and the heart rate recovery (HRR) following AET. The review also found that frequency domain HRV analyses were not significantly affected by AET. The evidence to support the effect of exercise training on baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) in patients with COPD is very low. Aerobic exercise training demonstrated beneficial but limited effects on the AF in COPD. Presently, it is not clear whether these effects are sustained in the long term. Only a limited number of RCTs were available indicating a significant gap in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Restoration in multi-domain GMPLS-based networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of using restoration mechanisms in a dynamic multi-domain GMPLS network. Major challenges and solutions are introduced and two well-known restoration schemes (End-to-End and Local-to-End) are evaluated. Additionally, new restoration mechanisms are introdu......In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of using restoration mechanisms in a dynamic multi-domain GMPLS network. Major challenges and solutions are introduced and two well-known restoration schemes (End-to-End and Local-to-End) are evaluated. Additionally, new restoration mechanisms...... are introduced: one based on the position of a failed link, called Location-Based, and another based on minimizing the additional resources consumed during restoration, called Shortest-New. A complete set of simulations in different network scenarios show where each mechanism is more efficient in terms, such as...

  18. The YARHG domain: an extracellular domain in search of a function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Coggill

    Full Text Available We have identified a new bacterial protein domain that we hypothesise binds to peptidoglycan. This domain is called the YARHG domain after the most highly conserved sequence-segment. The domain is found in the extracellular space and is likely to be composed of four alpha-helices. The domain is found associated with protein kinase domains, suggesting it is associated with signalling in some bacteria. The domain is also found associated with three different families of peptidases. The large number of different domains that are found associated with YARHG suggests that it is a useful functional module that nature has recombined multiple times.

  19. Beyond cross-domain learning: Multiple-domain nonnegative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional cross-domain learning methods transfer learning from a source domain to a target domain. In this paper, we propose the multiple-domain learning problem for several equally treated domains. The multiple-domain learning problem assumes that samples from different domains have different distributions, but share the same feature and class label spaces. Each domain could be a target domain, while also be a source domain for other domains. A novel multiple-domain representation method is proposed for the multiple-domain learning problem. This method is based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and tries to learn a basis matrix and coding vectors for samples, so that the domain distribution mismatch among different domains will be reduced under an extended variation of the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) criterion. The novel algorithm - multiple-domain NMF (MDNMF) - was evaluated on two challenging multiple-domain learning problems - multiple user spam email detection and multiple-domain glioma diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is experimentally verified. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beyond cross-domain learning: Multiple-domain nonnegative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-02-01

    Traditional cross-domain learning methods transfer learning from a source domain to a target domain. In this paper, we propose the multiple-domain learning problem for several equally treated domains. The multiple-domain learning problem assumes that samples from different domains have different distributions, but share the same feature and class label spaces. Each domain could be a target domain, while also be a source domain for other domains. A novel multiple-domain representation method is proposed for the multiple-domain learning problem. This method is based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and tries to learn a basis matrix and coding vectors for samples, so that the domain distribution mismatch among different domains will be reduced under an extended variation of the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) criterion. The novel algorithm - multiple-domain NMF (MDNMF) - was evaluated on two challenging multiple-domain learning problems - multiple user spam email detection and multiple-domain glioma diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is experimentally verified. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    point scale evaluate the sentence from the point of view of the post-editor. The post-editor profile defined by the LSP is based on the experiences of introducing MT in the LSP workflow. The relation between the Translation Edit Rate (TER) scores and “Usability” scores is tested. We find TER a candidate......The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three...

  2. Meta-domains for Automated System Identification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Easley, Matthew; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    .... In particular we introduce a new structure for automated model building known as a meta-domain which, when instantiated with domain-specific components tailors the space of candidate models to the system at hand...

  3. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Mall, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a

  4. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  5. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  6. Diagrammatic Representations in Domain-Specific Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tourlas, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    One emerging approach to reducing the labour and costs of software development favours the specialisation of techniques to particular application domains. The rationale is that programs within a given domain often share enough common features and assumptions to enable the incorporation of substantial support mechanisms into domain-specific programming languages and associated tools. Instead of being machine-oriented, algorithmic implementations, programs in many domain-speci...

  7. A Domain Standard for Land Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.; Van Oosterom, P.; Van der Molen, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a Domain Model for Land Administration (LA). As a result a formal International Standard is available: ISO 19152 Geographic Information – Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) (ISO, 2012). Domain specific standardisation is needed to capture the semantics of the

  8. Latent domain models for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoàng, C.

    2017-01-01

    A data-driven approach to model translation suffers from the data mismatch problem and demands domain adaptation techniques. Given parallel training data originating from a specific domain, training an MT system on the data would result in a rather suboptimal translation for other domains. But does

  9. Domain-specific languages in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heering (Jan); M. Mernik (Marjan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDomain-specific languages (DSLs) are languages tailored to a specific application domain. They offer substantial gains in expressiveness and ease of use compared with general-purpose languages in their domain of application. Although the use of DSLs is by no means new, it is receiving

  10. Classification of domains of closed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassner, G.; Timmermann, W.

    1975-01-01

    The structure of domains of determining closed operators in the Hilbert space by means of sequence spaces is investigated. The final classification provides three classes of these domains. Necessary and sufficient conditions of equivalence of these domains are obtained in the form of equivalency of corresponding sequences of natural numbers. Connection with the perturbation theory is mentioned [ru

  11. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    . the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  12. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.

  13. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Frankson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting ‘One Health’ approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education as they describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  14. One Health Core Competency Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting "One Health" approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  15. Academic Advising Systems: A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omiros Iatrellis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive background for understanding current knowledge on Academic Advising Systems (AAS and its impact on learning. It constitutes an overview of empirical evidence behind key objectives of the potential adoption of AAS in generic educational strategic planning. The researchers examined the literature on experimental case studies conducted in the domain during the past ten years (2008–2017. Search terms identified 98 mature pieces of research work, but inclusion criteria limited the key studies to 43. The authors analyzed the research questions, methodology, and findings of these published papers and categorized them accordingly. The results have highlighted three distinct major directions of the AAS empirical research. This paper discusses the emerged added value of AAS research and highlights the significance of further implications. Finally, the authors set their thoughts on possible uncharted key questions to investigate both from pedagogical and technical considerations.

  16. Climate-driven trends in the occurrence of major floods across North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Burn, Donald H.; Hannaford, Jamie; Renard, Benjamin; Stahl, Kerstin; Fleig, Anne K.; Madsen, Henrik; Mediero, Luis; Korhonen, Johanna; Murphy, Conor; Crochet, Philippe; Wilson, Donna

    2016-04-01

    Every year river floods cause enormous damage around the world. Recent major floods in North America and Europe, for example, have received much press, with some concluding that these floods are more frequent in recent years as a result of anthropogenic warming. There has been considerable scientific effort invested in establishing whether observed flood records show evidence of trends or variability in flood frequency, and to determine whether these patterns can be linked to climatic changes. However, the river catchments used in many published studies are influenced by direct human alteration such as reservoir regulation and urbanisation, which can confound the interpretation of climate-driven variability. Furthermore, a majority of previous studies have analysed changes in low magnitude floods, such as the annual peak flow, at a national scale. Few studies are known that have analysed changes in large floods (greater than 25-year floods) on a continental scale. To fill this research gap, we present a study analysing flood flows from reference hydrologic networks (RHNs) or RHN-like gauges across a large study domain embracing North America and much of Europe. RHNs comprise gauging stations with minimally disturbed catchment conditions, which have a near-natural flow regime and provide good quality data; RHN analyses thus allow hydro-climatic variability to be distinguished from direct artificial disturbances or data inhomogeneities. One of the key innovations in this study is the definition of an RHN-like network consisting of 1204 catchments on a continental scale. The network incorporates existing, well-established RHNs in Canada, the US, the UK, Ireland and Norway, alongside RHN-like catchments from Europe (France, Switzerland, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Spain), which have been incorporated in the network following a major effort to ensure RHN-like status of candidate gauges through consultation with local experts. As the aim of the study is to examine

  17. Updated clinical guidelines experience major reporting limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin W.M. Vernooij

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Checklist for the Reporting of Updated Guidelines (CheckUp was recently developed. However, so far, no systematic assessment of the reporting of updated clinical guidelines (CGs exists. We aimed to examine (1 the completeness of reporting the updating process in CGs and (2 the inter-observer reliability of CheckUp. Methods We conducted a systematic assessment of the reporting of the updating process in a sample of updated CGs using CheckUp. We performed a systematic search to identify updated CGs published in 2015, developed by a professional society, reporting a systematic review of the evidence, and containing at least one recommendation. Three reviewers independently assessed the CGs with CheckUp (16 items. We calculated the median score per item, per domain, and overall, converting scores to a 10-point scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify differences according to country, type of organisation, scope, and health topic of updated CGs. We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence interval (95% CI for domains and overall score. Results We included in total 60 updated CGs. The median domain score on a 10-point scale for presentation was 5.8 (range 1.7 to 10, for editorial independence 8.3 (range 3.3 to 10, and for methodology 5.7 (range 0 to 10. The median overall score on a 10-point scale was 6.3 (range 3.1 to 10. Presentation and justification items at recommendation level (respectively reported by 27 and 38% of the CGs and the methods used for the external review and implementing changes in practice were particularly poorly reported (both reported by 38% of the CGs. CGs developed by a European or international institution obtained a statistically significant higher overall score compared to North American or Asian institutions (p = 0.014. Finally, the agreement among the reviewers on the overall score was excellent (ICC 0.88, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95. Conclusions The

  18. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  19. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  20. On the structure of order domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Olav; Pellikaan, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    The notion of an order domain is generalized. The behaviour of an order domain by taking a subalgebra, the extension of scalars, and the tensor product is studied. The relation of an order domain with valuation theory, Gröbner algebras, and graded structures is given. The theory of Gröbner bases...... for order domains is developed and used to show that the factor ring theorem and its converse, the presentation theorem, hold. The dimension of an order domain is related to the rank of its value semigroup....

  1. Mutations in the FMN domain modulate MCD spectra of the heme site in the oxygenase domain of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempombe, Joseph; Elmore, Bradley O; Sun, Xi; Dupont, Andrea; Ghosh, Dipak K; Guillemette, J Guy; Kirk, Martin L; Feng, Changjian

    2009-05-27

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) output state for NO production is a complex of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding domain and the heme domain, and thereby it facilitates the interdomain electron transfer from the FMN to the catalytic heme site. Emerging evidence suggests that interdomain FMN-heme interactions are important in the formation of the output state because they guide the docking of the FMN domain to the heme domain. In this study, notable effects of mutations in the adjacent FMN domain on the heme structure in a human iNOS bidomain oxygenase/FMN construct have been observed by using low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. The comparative MCD study of wild-type and mutant proteins clearly indicates that a properly docked FMN domain contributes to the observed L-Arg perturbation of the heme MCD spectrum in the wild-type protein and that the conserved surface residues in the FMN domain (E546 and E603) play key roles in facilitating a productive alignment of the FMN and heme domains in iNOS.

  2. Western cratonic domains in Uruguay, geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F; Pell, E; Muzio, R; Ledesma, J.J; Guerequiz, R

    2001-01-01

    The western cratonic domains in Uruguay are divided into three major units: Piedra Alta Terrane, Valentines Block and Pavas Terrane. Piedra Alta Terrane lacks of evidence of Neo proterozoic oro geneses (deformation, metamorphism or magmatism). Sarandi del Yi - Arroyo Solis Grande shear zone, separates it from Valentines Block. Valentines Block is separated from Pavas Terrane by Cueva del Tigre shear zone. Magmatic rocks with different ages, compositions and emplacements occur all over the Piedra Alta Terrane distributed in three metamorphic belts (Arroyo Grande, San Jose and Montevideo) as well as in the Central Gneissic-Migmatitic Complex. Samples from the gneissic-migmatitic complex, late tectonic granitoids and basic rocks associated to the metamorphic belts were analyzed using Rb/Sr, U/Pb, K/Ar and Sm/Nd methodologies. The age ranges obtained for granitoids and gneissicmigmatitic samples using Rb/Sr whole rock (WR) systematics are 1.7 to 2.5 Ga, showing two intervals: 1.9 to 2.05 Ga (intrusion of late granites) and 2.1 to 2.2 Ga (deformation and metamorphism). K/Ar cooling ages present several ranges: 1.3 to 1.35 Ga (probable local heating of the crust), 1.7 to 1.8 Ga (microgabbro magmatism, data confirmed by the Ar/Ar method) and ages between 2.0 to 2.2 Ga. Rb/Sr (WR) data yielded an isochronic age of 2094 ± 28.3 Ma, Ro = 0.70174 ± 0.00009, MSWD 19.74, interpreted as the time of the metamorphic event recognized for all the Piedra Alta Terrane. TDM Sm/Nd model ages presented a range from 2065 Ma to 2450 Ma. U/Pb systematics yield ages in migmatitic and gneissic rocks from 2.16 Ga to 2.21 Ga, showing metamorphism and deformation phenomena. While the ages of granitoids associated to the San Jose Belt are between 2.06 Ga and 2.08 Ga (Isla Mala) to 2.1 Ga (Granito de Cufre). None of them show metamorphic phenomena. Valentines Block (Preciozzi et al., 1979) comprises granulitic gneisses, granitoids and mafic rocks of different compositions. The geologic complexity

  3. Blocking-resistant communication through domain fronting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifield David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe “domain fronting,” a versatile censorship circumvention technique that hides the remote endpoint of a communication. Domain fronting works at the application layer, using HTTPS, to communicate with a forbidden host while appearing to communicate with some other host, permitted by the censor. The key idea is the use of different domain names at different layers of communication. One domain appears on the “outside” of an HTTPS request—in the DNS request and TLS Server Name Indication—while another domain appears on the “inside”—in the HTTP Host header, invisible to the censor under HTTPS encryption. A censor, unable to distinguish fronted and nonfronted traffic to a domain, must choose between allowing circumvention traffic and blocking the domain entirely, which results in expensive collateral damage. Domain fronting is easy to deploy and use and does not require special cooperation by network intermediaries. We identify a number of hard-to-block web services, such as content delivery networks, that support domain-fronted connections and are useful for censorship circumvention. Domain fronting, in various forms, is now a circumvention workhorse. We describe several months of deployment experience in the Tor, Lantern, and Psiphon circumvention systems, whose domain-fronting transports now connect thousands of users daily and transfer many terabytes per month.

  4. Stenting of major airway constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  5. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  6. Phylogeny of the TRAF/MATH domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan M; Martínez-García, Vanesa; Lefebvre, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    The TNF-receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain (TD), also known as the meprin and TRAF-C homology (MATH) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel p-helices that participates in protein-protein interactions. This fold is broadly represented among eukaryotes, where it is found associated with a discrete set of protein-domains. Virtually all protein families encompassing a TRAF/MATH domain seem to be involved in the regulation of protein processing and ubiquitination, strongly suggesting a parallel evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain and certain proteolysis pathways in eukaryotes. The restricted number of living organisms for which we have information of their genetic and protein make-up limits the scope and analysis of the MATH domain in evolution. However, the available information allows us to get a glimpse on the origins, distribution and evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain, which will be overviewed in this chapter.

  7. Ferroelectric domain continuity over grain boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, Sukriti; Oddershede, Jette; Damjanovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Formation and mobility of domain walls in ferroelectric materials is responsible for many of their electrical and mechanical properties. Domain wall continuity across grain boundaries has been observed since the 1950's and is speculated to affect the grain boundary-domain interactions, thereby...... impacting macroscopic ferroelectric properties in polycrystalline systems. However detailed studies of such correlated domain structures across grain boundaries are limited. In this work, we have developed the mathematical requirements for domain wall plane matching at grain boundaries of any given...... orientation. We have also incorporated the effect of grain boundary ferroelectric polarization charge created when any two domains meet at the grain boundary plane. The probability of domain wall continuity for three specific grain misorientations is studied. Use of this knowledge to optimize processing...

  8. Interoperable domain models : The ISO land administration domain model LADM and its external classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Uitermark, H.T.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Cooper, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of one of the first spatial domain standards: a standard for the domain of Land Administration (LA). This standard is in the draft stage of development now (May 2011). The development of domain standards is a logical follow up after domain-independent standards,

  9. Liquid in the major incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector

    2003-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  10. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Penerapan Microskills dalam Domain Multicultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Karlina Marjo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Konselor multikultural menggunakan microskills yang bertujuan untuk memodifikasi interaksi konselor dalam membuat perbedaan yang signifikan pada kehidupan konseli dengan: (1 mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor dari respon nonverbal untuk diri konselor sendiri dan konseli, (2 memahami dasar intervieu microskills dalam proses menerima (attending, mendengarkan (listening, dan mempengaruhi (influencing, serta dampak potensial pada konseli untuk berubah, (3 mencatat fokus microskills, dan perhatian secara selektif yang merupakan dasar untuk masalah keluarga dan konseling multikultural, (4 mengetahui bagaimana dan kapan menggunakan konfrontasi microskill, dan (5 mengetahui keterampilan intervieu sebagai acuan frame multikultural. Sedangkan domain kompetensi konseling multikultural untuk pendidikan dan praktek, antara lain: (1 Counselor Awareness of Own Cultural Values and Biases, (2 Counselor Awareness of Client’ Worldview, dan (3 Culturally Appropriate Intervention Strategies.

  12. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved

  13. Dynamics of domain wall networks with junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P. P.; Oliveira, J. C. R. E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Menezes, J.; Menezes, R.

    2008-01-01

    We use a combination of analytic tools and an extensive set of the largest and most accurate three-dimensional field theory numerical simulations to study the dynamics of domain wall networks with junctions. We build upon our previous work and consider a class of models which, in the limit of large number N of coupled scalar fields, approaches the so-called ''ideal'' model (in terms of its potential to lead to network frustration). We consider values of N between N=2 and N=20, and a range of cosmological epochs, and we also compare this class of models with other toy models used in the past. In all cases we find compelling evidence for a gradual approach to scaling, strongly supporting our no-frustration conjecture. We also discuss the various possible types of junctions (including cases where there is a hierarchy of them) and their roles in the dynamics of the network. Finally, we provide a cosmological Zel'dovich-type bound on the energy scale of this kind of defect network: it must be lower than 10 keV.

  14. Evidence on acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sousa Costa

    Full Text Available Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.

  15. Domain wall propagation tuning in magnetic nanowires through geometric modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzuza, L.C.C., E-mail: luisarzuza179@gmail.com [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Universidad de la Costa, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Calle 58 No. 55-66, Barranquilla (Colombia); López-Ruiz, R. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Salazar-Aravena, D. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, 1000007 Arica (Chile); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas (SP) (Brazil); Béron, F.; Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas (SP) (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The modulated nanowires dynamics occurs through two reversal modes. • Modulated nanowires show a change in the χ in contrast to homogeneous ones. • The FORC method reveals a non-uniform stray field due to shape modulation. - Abstract: The magnetic behavior of nickel modulated nanowires embedded in porous alumina membranes is investigated. Their diameters exhibit a sharp transition between below (35 nm) and above (52 nm) the theoretical limit for transverse and vortex domain walls. Magnetic hysteresis loops and first-order reversal curves (FORCs) were measured on several ordered nanowire arrays with different wide-narrow segment lengths ratio and compared with those from homogenous nanowires. The experimental magnetic response evidences a rather complex susceptibility behavior for nanowires with modulated diameter. Micromagnetic simulations on isolated and first-neighbors arrays of nanowires show that the domain wall structure, which depends on the segment diameter, suffers a transformation while crossing the diameter modulation, but without any pinning. The experimental array magnetic behavior can be ascribed to a heterogeneous stray field induced by the diameter modulation, yielding a stronger interaction field at the wide extremity than at the narrow one. The results evidence the possibility to control the domain wall propagation and morphology by modulating the lateral aspect of the magnetic entity.

  16. Singing proficiency in the majority: normality and "phenotypes" of poor singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena

    2009-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the majority of occasional singers can carry a tune. For example, when asked to sing a well-known song (e.g., "Happy Birthday"), nonmusicians performing at a slow tempo are as proficient as professional singers. Yet, some occasional singers are poor singers, mostly in the pitch domain, and sometimes despite not having impoverished perception. Poor singing is not a monolithic deficit, but is likely to be characterized by a diversity of singing "phenotypes." Here we systematically examined singing proficiency in a group of occasional singers, with the goal of characterizing the different patterns of poor singing. Participants sang three well-known melodies (e.g., "Jingle Bells") at a natural tempo and at a slow tempo, as indicated by a metronome. For each rendition, we computed objective measures of pitch and time accuracy with an acoustical method. The results confirmed previous observations that the majority of occasional singers can sing in tune and in time. Moreover, singing at a slow tempo after the target melody to be imitated was presented with a metronome improved pitch and time accuracy. In general, poor singers were mostly impaired on the pitch dimension, although various patterns of impairment emerged. Pitch accuracy or time accuracy could be selectively impaired; moreover, absolute measures of singing proficiency (pitch or tempo transposition) dissociated from relative measures of proficiency (pitch intervals, relative duration). These patterns of dissociations point to a multicomponent system underlying proficient singing that fractionates as a result of a developmental anomaly.

  17. ‘It’s a can of worms’: understanding primary care practitioners’ behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSherry Lisa A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer is transforming cervical cancer prevention. HPV tests and vaccinations have recently become available. In Ireland, as elsewhere, primary care practitioners play a key role in prevention. ATHENS (A Trial of HPV Education and Support aims to develop a theory-based intervention to support primary care practitioners in their HPV-related practice. This study, the first step in the intervention development process, aimed to: identify HPV-related clinical behaviours that the intervention will target; clarify general practitioners’ (GPs’ and practice nurses’ roles and responsibilities; and determine factors that potentially influence clinical behaviour. A secondary objective was to informally assess the utility of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF in understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses. The topic guide, which contained open questions and HPV-related clinical scenarios, was developed through literature review and clinical experience. Interview transcripts were content-analysed using the TDF as the coding framework. Results 19 GPs and 14 practice nurses were interviewed. The major HPV-related clinical behaviours were: initiating a discussion about HPV infection with female patients; offering/recommending HPV vaccination to appropriate patients; and answering patients’ questions about HPV testing. While the responsibility for taking smears was considered a female role, both male and female practitioners dealt with HPV-related issues. All 12 theoretical domains arose in relation to HPV infection; the domains judged to be most important were: knowledge, emotion, social influences, beliefs about capabilities and beliefs about consequences. Eleven domains emerged in relation to HPV vaccination

  18. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  19. Legal Challenges Related to the Regulation of a Domain Name System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to review and analyse the problematic aspects related to domain name allocation and further usage processes, highlighting legal regulation of a domain name system.Design/methodology/approach—based on the comparison analysis of scientific literature, authors discuss problematic issues related to the legal regulation of domain name allocation and usage processes, analyse practical approaches and collision cases in the context of a domain name system. The authors examine the positive and negative aspects of a domain naming system and conflicting regulatory specifics. This paper describes the development of institutional bodies responsible for DNS management, supervision approaches and inner functionality policies.Findings—the authors examine domain naming system models and dispute resolution mechanisms, their evolution in the context of Internet development and the structural changes of the Internet governance institutions. The authors analyse tendencies related to DNS regulation and the possible effect of new regulation models in practice, while reflecting interests of stakeholders in the subject field.Research limitations/implications—agreements on the registration of domain names are based on self-regulation principles. A number of different interests may collide when speaking about domain name registration or usage and this issue becomes a major challenge to scientists and lawyers who are seeking an optimal domain-naming regulatory mechanism. The article does not address trademark conflicts within domain names in this respect. This should be considered as an object for separate study, which requires deeper analysis.Practical implications—the authors review key aspects of the domain name system and describe tendencies for the regulatory models.Value—the article emphasizes potential domain naming conflicts and disputes concerning the usage of common terms and phrases in order to manipulate information for illicit purposes. The

  20. Legal Challenges Related to the Regulation of a Domain Name System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to review and analyse the problematic aspects related to domain name allocation and further usage processes, highlighting legal regulation of a domain name system. Design/methodology/approach—based on the comparison analysis of scientific literature, authors discuss problematic issues related to the legal regulation of domain name allocation and usage processes, analyse practical approaches and collision cases in the context of a domain name system. The authors examine the positive and negative aspects of a domain naming system and conflicting regulatory specifics. This paper describes the development of institutional bodies responsible for DNS management, supervision approaches and inner functionality policies. Findings—the authors examine domain naming system models and dispute resolution mechanisms, their evolution in the context of Internet development and the structural changes of the Internet governance institutions. The authors analyse tendencies related to DNS regulation and the possible effect of new regulation models in practice, while reflecting interests of stakeholders in the subject field. Research limitations/implications—agreements on the registration of domain names are based on self-regulation principles. A number of different interests may collide when speaking about domain name registration or usage and this issue becomes a major challenge to scientists and lawyers who are seeking an optimal domain-naming regulatory mechanism. The article does not address trademark conflicts within domain names in this respect. This should be considered as an object for separate study, which requires deeper analysis. Practical implications—the authors review key aspects of the domain name system and describe tendencies for the regulatory models. Value—the article emphasizes potential domain naming conflicts and disputes concerning the usage of common terms and phrases in order to manipulate information for illicit purposes

  1. Evidence of Construct Validity for Work Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of work values in the process of career adjustment (Dawis, 2002), little empirical research has focused on articulating the domains represented within the construct of work values and the examination of evidence of validity for the construct has been limited. Furthermore, the larger number of work values measures has made it…

  2. Identifying Domain-General and Domain-Specific Predictors of Low Mathematics Performance: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Purpura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many children struggle to successfully acquire early mathematics skills. Theoretical and empirical evidence has pointed to deficits in domain-specific skills (e.g., non-symbolic mathematics skills or domain-general skills (e.g., executive functioning and language as underlying low mathematical performance. In the current study, we assessed a sample of 113 three- to five-year old preschool children on a battery of domain-specific and domain-general factors in the fall and spring of their preschool year to identify Time 1 (fall factors associated with low performance in mathematics knowledge at Time 2 (spring. We used the exploratory approach of classification and regression tree analyses, a strategy that uses step-wise partitioning to create subgroups from a larger sample using multiple predictors, to identify the factors that were the strongest classifiers of low performance for younger and older preschool children. Results indicated that the most consistent classifier of low mathematics performance at Time 2 was children’s Time 1 mathematical language skills. Further, other distinct classifiers of low performance emerged for younger and older children. These findings suggest that risk classification for low mathematics performance may differ depending on children’s age.

  3. Personality, academic majors and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...

  4. A Momentum-Exchange/Fictitious Domain-Lattice Boltzmann Method for Solving Particle Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seok Yun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Kyu [Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung Seob [Korea Intellectual Property Office(KIPO), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This study presents a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) coupled with a momentum-exchange approach/fictitious domain (MEA/FD) method for the simulation of particle suspensions. The method combines the advantages of the LB and the FD methods by using two unrelated meshes, namely, a Eulerian mesh for the flow domain and a Lagrangian mesh for the solid domain. The rigid body conditions are enforced by the momentum-exchange scheme in which the desired value of velocity is imposed directly in the particle inner domain by introducing a pseudo body force to satisfy the constraint of rigid body motion, which is the key idea of a fictitious domain (FD) method. The LB-MEA/FD method has been validated by simulating two different cases, and the results have been compared with those through other methods. The numerical evidence illustrated the capability and robustness of the present method for simulating particle suspensions.

  5. Multiple standards of aging: gender-specific age stereotypes in different life domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age stereotypes of men and women, assuming that the life domain in which older persons are rated moderates gender differences in age stereotypes. A sample of 298 participants aged 20-92 rated 65 - year-old men and women on evaluative statements in eight different life domains. Furthermore, perceptions of gender- and domain-specific age-related changes were assessed by comparing the older targets to 45 - year-old men and women, respectively. The results speak in favor of the domain specificity of evaluative asymmetries in age stereotypes for men and women, and imply that an understanding of gendered perceptions of aging requires taking into account the complexities of domain-specific views on aging.

  6. Charged domain-wall dynamics in doped antiferromagnets and spin fluctuations in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaanen, J.; Horbach, M.L.; van Saarloos, W.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the electron liquid in the cuprate superconductors is characterized by many-hole correlations of the charged magnetic domain-wall type. Here we focus on the strong-coupling limit where all holes are bound to domain walls. We assert that at high temperatures a classical domain-wall fluid is realized and show that the dynamics of such a fluid is characterized by spatial and temporal crossover scales set by temperature itself. The fundamental parameters of this fluid are such that the domain-wall motions dominate the low-frequency spin fluctuations and we derive predictions for the behavior of the dynamical magnetic susceptibility. We argue that a crossover occurs from a high-temperature classical to a low-temperature quantum regime, in direct analogy with helium. We discuss some general characteristics of the domain-wall quantum liquid, realized at low temperatures. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Proteins with GGDEF and EAL domains regulate Pseudomonas putida biofilm formation and dispersal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjermansen, Morten; Ragas, Paula Cornelia; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Microbial biofilm formation often causes problems in medical and industrial settings, and knowledge about the factors that are involved in biofilm development and dispersion is useful for creating strategies to control the processes. In this report, we present evidence that proteins with GGDEF...... and EAL domains are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation and biofilm dispersion in Pseudomonas putida. Overexpression in P. putida of the Escherichia coli YedQ protein, which contains a GGDEF domain, resulted in increased biofilm formation. Overexpression in P. putida of the E. coli Yhj......H protein, which contains an EAL domain, strongly inhibited biofilm formation. Induction of YhjH expression in P. putida cells situated in established biofilms led to rapid dispersion of the biofilms. These results support the emerging theme that GGDEF-domain and EAL-domain proteins are involved...

  8. Major disruption process in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Tuda, Takashi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-11-01

    The major disruption in a cylindrical tokamak is investigated by using the multi-helicity code, and the destabilization of the 3/2 mode by the mode coupling with the 2/1 mode is confirmed. The evolution of the magnetic field topology caused by the major disruption is studied in detail. The effect of the internal disruption on the 2/1 magnetic island width is also studied. The 2/1 magnetic island is not enhanced by the flattening of the q-profile due to the internal disruption. (author)

  9. Synthetic Domain Theory and Models of Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    2008-01-01

    Plotkin suggested using a polymorphic dual intuitionistic/linear type theory (PILLY) as a metalanguage for parametric polymorphism and recursion. In recent work the first two authors and R.L. Petersen have defined a notion of parametric LAPL-structure, which are models of PILLY, in which one can...... reason using parametricity and, for example, solve a large class of domain equations, as suggested by Plotkin.In this paper, we show how an interpretation of a strict version of Bierman, Pitts and Russo's language Lily into synthetic domain theory presented by Simpson and Rosolini gives rise...... to a parametric LAPL-structure. This adds to the evidence that the notion of LAPL-structure is a general notion, suitable for treating many different parametric models, and it provides formal proofs of consequences of parametricity expected to hold for the interpretation. Finally, we show how these results...

  10. Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Merabet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein function is encoded within protein sequence and protein domains. However, how protein domains cooperate within a protein to modulate overall activity and how this impacts functional diversification at the molecular and organism levels remains largely unaddressed. Focusing on three domains of the central class Drosophila Hox transcription factor AbdominalA (AbdA, we used combinatorial domain mutations and most known AbdA developmental functions as biological readouts to investigate how protein domains collectively shape protein activity. The results uncover redundancy, interactivity, and multifunctionality of protein domains as salient features underlying overall AbdA protein activity, providing means to apprehend functional diversity and accounting for the robustness of Hox-controlled developmental programs. Importantly, the results highlight context-dependency in protein domain usage and interaction, allowing major modifications in domains to be tolerated without general functional loss. The non-pleoitropic effect of domain mutation suggests that protein modification may contribute more broadly to molecular changes underlying morphological diversification during evolution, so far thought to rely largely on modification in gene cis-regulatory sequences.

  11. Untangling spider silk evolution with spidroin terminal domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garb Jessica E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spidroins are a unique family of large, structural proteins that make up the bulk of spider silk fibers. Due to the highly variable nature of their repetitive sequences, spidroin evolutionary relationships have principally been determined from their non-repetitive carboxy (C-terminal domains, though they offer limited character data. The few known spidroin amino (N-terminal domains have been difficult to obtain, but potentially contain critical phylogenetic information for reconstructing the diversification of spider silks. Here we used silk gland expression data (ESTs from highly divergent species to evaluate the functional significance and phylogenetic utility of spidroin N-terminal domains. Results We report 11 additional spidroin N-termini found by sequencing ~1,900 silk gland cDNAs from nine spider species that shared a common ancestor > 240 million years ago. In contrast to their hyper-variable repetitive regions, spidroin N-terminal domains have retained striking similarities in sequence identity, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity. Through separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of N-terminal domains and their corresponding C-termini, we find that combined analysis produces the most resolved trees and that N-termini contribute more support and less conflict than the C-termini. These analyses show that paralogs largely group by silk gland type, except for the major ampullate spidroins. Moreover, spidroin structural motifs associated with superior tensile strength arose early in the history of this gene family, whereas a motif conferring greater extensibility convergently evolved in two distantly related paralogs. Conclusions A non-repetitive N-terminal domain appears to be a universal attribute of spidroin proteins, likely retained from the origin of spider silk production. Since this time, spidroin N-termini have maintained several features, consistent with this domain playing a key role in silk

  12. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  13. A Logic for Inclusion of Administrative Domains and Administrators in Multi-domain Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Zeinab; Amini, Morteza; Jalili, Rasool

    Authorization policies for an administrative domain or a composition of multiple domains in multi-domain environments are determined by either one administrator or multiple administrators' cooperation. Several logic-based models for multi-domain environments' authorization have been proposed; however, they have not considered administrators and administrative domains in policies' representation. In this paper, we propose the syntax, proof theory, and semantics of a logic for multi-domain authorization policies including administrators and administrative domains. Considering administrators in policies provides the possibility of presenting composite administration having applicability in many collaborative applications. Indeed, administrators and administrative domains stated in policies can be used in authorization. The presented logic is based on modal logic and utilizes two calculi named the calculus of administrative domains and the calculus of administrators. It is also proved that the logic is sound. A case study is presented signifying the logic application in practical projects.

  14. Disentangling the Role of Domain-Specific Knowledge in Student Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, John; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Chinn, Clark A.

    2017-08-01

    This study explores the role of domain-specific knowledge in students' modeling practice and how this knowledge interacts with two domain-general modeling strategies: use of evidence and developing a causal mechanism. We analyzed models made by middle school students who had a year of intensive model-based instruction. These models were made to explain a familiar but unstudied biological phenomenon: late onset muscle pain. Students were provided with three pieces of evidence related to this phenomenon and asked to construct a model to account for this evidence. Findings indicate that domain-specific resources play a significant role in the extent to which the models accounted for provided evidence. On the other hand, familiarity with the situation appeared to contribute to the mechanistic character of models. Our results indicate that modeling strategies alone are insufficient for the development of a mechanistic model that accounts for provided evidence and that, while learners can develop a tentative model with a basic familiarity of the situation, scaffolding certain domain-specific knowledge is necessary to assist students with incorporating evidence in modeling tasks.

  15. Dimers in Piecewise Temperleyan Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russkikh, Marianna

    2018-03-01

    We study the large-scale behavior of the height function in the dimer model on the square lattice. Richard Kenyon has shown that the fluctuations of the height function on Temperleyan discretizations of a planar domain converge in the scaling limit (as the mesh size tends to zero) to the Gaussian Free Field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. We extend Kenyon's result to a more general class of discretizations. Moreover, we introduce a new factorization of the coupling function of the double-dimer model into two discrete holomorphic functions, which are similar to discrete fermions defined in Smirnov (Proceedings of the international congress of mathematicians (ICM), Madrid, Spain, 2006; Ann Math (2) 172:1435-1467, 2010). For Temperleyan discretizations with appropriate boundary modifications, the results of Kenyon imply that the expectation of the double-dimer height function converges to a harmonic function in the scaling limit. We use the above factorization to extend this result to the class of all polygonal discretizations, that are not necessarily Temperleyan. Furthermore, we show that, quite surprisingly, the expectation of the double-dimer height function in the Temperleyan case is exactly discrete harmonic (for an appropriate choice of Laplacian) even before taking the scaling limit.

  16. Domain-Specific Control of Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Szu-Hung; Yeh, Yei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that loading information on working memory affects selective attention. However, whether the load effect on selective attention is domain-general or domain-specific remains unresolved. The domain-general effect refers to the findings that load in one content (e.g. phonological) domain in working memory influences processing in another content (e.g., visuospatial) domain. Attentional control supervises selection regardless of information domain. The domain-specific effect refers to the constraint of influence only when maintenance and processing operate in the same domain. Selective attention operates in a specific content domain. This study is designed to resolve this controversy. Across three experiments, we manipulated the type of representation maintained in working memory and the type of representation upon which the participants must exert control to resolve conflict and select a target into the focus of attention. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants maintained digits and nonverbalized objects, respectively, in working memory while selecting a target in a letter array. In Experiment 2, we presented auditory digits with a letter flanker task to exclude the involvement of resource competition within the same input modality. In Experiments 3a and 3b, we replaced the letter flanker task with an object flanker task while manipulating the memory load on object and digit representation, respectively. The results consistently showed that memory load modulated distractibility only when the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in the same domain. The magnitude of distractor interference was larger under high load than under low load, reflecting a lower efficacy of information prioritization. When the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in different domains, memory load did not modulate distractibility. Control of processing priority in selective attention demands domain-specific resources. PMID:24866977

  17. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  18. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  19. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  20. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue

  1. Rediscovering Major N. Clark Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Reginald T.

    1985-01-01

    Historians of American music education have yet to recognize a Black music educator as important and worthy of observation. This article discusses a candidate--Major Nathaniel Clark Smith, a little-known Black music educator, composer of more than a hundred works, businessman, humanitarian, and teacher of numerous big-name jazz musicians. (RM)

  2. Endocrinopathies in thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, D. A.; Yunir, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced in chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion have marked improvements in the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia major, however these patients still have to deal with several complications. We report a 19-year-old male, presented with multiple endocrine complication-related thalassemia; hypogonadism, short stature, osteoporosis with history of fracture, and subclinical hypothyroid.

  3. Physics momentum 'stars' draw majors

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindström, I

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).

  4. Dirichlet polynomials, majorization, and trumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Rajesh; Plosker, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Majorization and trumping are two partial orders which have proved useful in quantum information theory. We show some relations between these two partial orders and generalized Dirichlet polynomials, Mellin transforms, and completely monotone functions. These relations are used to prove a succinct generalization of Turgut’s characterization of trumping. (paper)

  5. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  6. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  7. Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takemoto, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    ...). This paper lays a foundation by defining the terminology associated with Information Warfare in the Cyber Domain, reviews the threat and illustrates the vulnerabilities of our information systems...

  8. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. On the domain of the Nelson Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesemer, M.; Wünsch, A.

    2018-04-01

    The Nelson Hamiltonian is unitarily equivalent to a Hamiltonian defined through a closed, semibounded quadratic form, the unitary transformation being explicitly known and due to Gross. In this paper, we study the mapping properties of the Gross-transform in order to characterize the regularity properties of vectors in the form domain of the Nelson Hamiltonian. Since the operator domain is a subset of the form domain, our results apply to vectors in the domain of the Hamiltonian as well. This work is a continuation of our previous work on the Fröhlich Hamiltonian.

  10. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-11-19

    Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  12. Building the DAML Electronic Commerce Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anyiwo, David

    2001-01-01

    The project captured additional functional and technical requirements for collaboration and exchange in the electronics industry's value chain, and refined the eCommerce domain ontology requirements...

  13. Cooperative interactions between paired domain and homeodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S; Desplan, C

    1996-09-01

    The Pax proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators involved in many developmental processes in all higher eukaryotes. They are characterized by the presence of a paired domain (PD), a bipartite DNA binding domain composed of two helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs,the PAI and RED domains. The PD is also often associated with a homeodomain (HD) which is itself able to form homo- and hetero-dimers on DNA. Many of these proteins therefore contain three HTH motifs each able to recognize DNA. However, all PDs recognize highly related DNA sequences, and most HDs also recognize almost identical sites. We show here that different Pax proteins use multiple combinations of their HTHs to recognize several types of target sites. For instance, the Drosophila Paired protein can bind, in vitro, exclusively through its PAI domain, or through a dimer of its HD, or through cooperative interaction between PAI domain and HD. However, prd function in vivo requires the synergistic action of both the PAI domain and the HD. Pax proteins with only a PD appear to require both PAI and RED domains, while a Pax-6 isoform and a new Pax protein, Lune, may rely on the RED domain and HD. We propose a model by which Pax proteins recognize different target genes in vivo through various combinations of their DNA binding domains, thus expanding their recognition repertoire.

  14. On Domain Registries and Website Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2018-01-01

    such as Internet access service providers, hosting platforms, and websites that link to content. This article shows that in recent years, however, that the (secondary) liability of domain registries and registrars, and more specifically country code top-level domain registries (ccTLDs) for website content, has...... been tested in several EU Member States. The article investigates tendencies in the national lower-court jurisprudence and explores to what extent the liability exemption regime of the E-Commerce Directive applies to domain registries. The analysis concludes that whereas domain registries fall under...

  15. Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an initial high level strategy for carrying out the responsibilities of the national Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub to deliver a standards based service...

  16. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  17. A structural role for the PHP domain in E. coli DNA polymerase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Tiago; Guenther, Joel; Kelch, Brian; Anaya, Jordan; Prabhakar, Arjun; O'Donnell, Mike; Kuriyan, John; Lamers, Meindert H

    2013-05-14

    In addition to the core catalytic machinery, bacterial replicative DNA polymerases contain a Polymerase and Histidinol Phosphatase (PHP) domain whose function is not entirely understood. The PHP domains of some bacterial replicases are active metal-dependent nucleases that may play a role in proofreading. In E. coli DNA polymerase III, however, the PHP domain has lost several metal-coordinating residues and is likely to be catalytically inactive. Genomic searches show that the loss of metal-coordinating residues in polymerase PHP domains is likely to have coevolved with the presence of a separate proofreading exonuclease that works with the polymerase. Although the E. coli Pol III PHP domain has lost metal-coordinating residues, the structure of the domain has been conserved to a remarkable degree when compared to that of metal-binding PHP domains. This is demonstrated by our ability to restore metal binding with only three point mutations, as confirmed by the metal-bound crystal structure of this mutant determined at 2.9 Å resolution. We also show that Pol III, a large multi-domain protein, unfolds cooperatively and that mutations in the degenerate metal-binding site of the PHP domain decrease the overall stability of Pol III and reduce its activity. While the presence of a PHP domain in replicative bacterial polymerases is strictly conserved, its ability to coordinate metals and to perform proofreading exonuclease activity is not, suggesting additional non-enzymatic roles for the domain. Our results show that the PHP domain is a major structural element in Pol III and its integrity modulates both the stability and activity of the polymerase.

  18. The extended-domain-eigenfunction method for solving elliptic boundary value problems with annular domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarao, J; Bradshaw-Hajek, B H; Miklavcic, S J; Ward, D A, E-mail: Stan.Miklavcic@unisa.edu.a [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-05-07

    Standard analytical solutions to elliptic boundary value problems on asymmetric domains are rarely, if ever, obtainable. In this paper, we propose a solution technique wherein we embed the original domain into one with simple boundaries where the classical eigenfunction solution approach can be used. The solution in the larger domain, when restricted to the original domain, is then the solution of the original boundary value problem. We call this the extended-domain-eigenfunction method. To illustrate the method's strength and scope, we apply it to Laplace's equation on an annular-like domain.

  19. Hard evidence on soft skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim

    2012-08-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills -personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  20. A crystal structure of the Dengue virus NS5 protein reveals a novel inter-domain interface essential for protein flexibility and virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqian Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavivirus RNA replication occurs within a replication complex (RC that assembles on ER membranes and comprises both non-structural (NS viral proteins and host cofactors. As the largest protein component within the flavivirus RC, NS5 plays key enzymatic roles through its N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase and C-terminal RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp domains, and constitutes a major target for antivirals. We determined a crystal structure of the full-length NS5 protein from Dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3 at a resolution of 2.3 Å in the presence of bound SAH and GTP. Although the overall molecular shape of NS5 from DENV3 resembles that of NS5 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV, the relative orientation between the MTase and RdRp domains differs between the two structures, providing direct evidence for the existence of a set of discrete stable molecular conformations that may be required for its function. While the inter-domain region is mostly disordered in NS5 from JEV, the NS5 structure from DENV3 reveals a well-ordered linker region comprising a short 310 helix that may act as a swivel. Solution Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS analysis reveals an increased mobility of the thumb subdomain of RdRp in the context of the full length NS5 protein which correlates well with the analysis of the crystallographic temperature factors. Site-directed mutagenesis targeting the mostly polar interface between the MTase and RdRp domains identified several evolutionarily conserved residues that are important for viral replication, suggesting that inter-domain cross-talk in NS5 regulates virus replication. Collectively, a picture for the molecular origin of NS5 flexibility is emerging with profound implications for flavivirus replication and for the development of therapeutics targeting NS5.