WorldWideScience

Sample records for major diseases cancer

  1. Long-Term Trends in the Prevalence of Cancer and Other Major Diseases Among Flatfish in the Southeastern North Sea as Indicators of Changing Ecosystem Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Jol, J.G.; Pieters, J.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and discusses spatial and temporal patterns in the prevalence of major skin diseases (lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, ulcers), intestinal parasite Glugea sp., and liver cancer in dab (Limanda limanda) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Dutch section of the

  2. Critical weight loss is a major prognostic indicator for disease-specific survival in patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Langius, J.A.E.; Bakker, S.; Rietveld, D.H.F.; Kruizenga, H.M.; Langendijk, J.A.; Weijs, P.J.M.; Leemans, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Pre-treatment weight loss (WL) is a prognostic indicator for overall survival (OS) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. This study investigates the association between WL before or during radiotherapy and disease-specific survival (DSS) in HNC patients.Methods:In 1340 newly diagnosed HNC patients, weight change was collected before and during (adjuvant) radiotherapy with curative intent. Critical WL during radiotherapy was defined as >5% WL during radiotherapy or >7.5% WL until ...

  3. Postoperative radiation therapy for major salivary gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Fumio; Yahara, Katsuya; Ohguri, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 29 patients with major salivary gland cancer treated with postoperative irradiation between 1981 and 2002. Univariate and multivariate analyses of age, gender, cancer grade, T stage, N stage, surgical resectability, concomitant chemotherapy, and neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy were performed for disease-free survival. The 5-year survival rates and 5-year disease-free survival rate were 61.6% and 41.4%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that cancer grade and surgical resectability influenced survival rates. Chemotherapy did not influence the disease-free survival. The total dose of postoperative radiation was 47.6±8.8 Gy in the complete excision group as planned, but was 56.1±7.9 Gy in the incomplete excision group, which may be insufficient and lead to poor treatment outcome. (author)

  4. Major and chronic diseases, report 2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giampaoli, S.; Oyen, H. van; Devillé, W.; Verschuuren, M.

    2008-01-01

    Blind spots in European health information On June 6th 2008 the European Commission has published the Major and Chronic Diseases Report 2007. This report describes the state of the art of health information in Europe on 13 prevalent chronic conditions. Large differences between the Member States of

  5. Major depressive disorder in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V; Sørensen, Tine M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were at an increased risk of developing major depression compared with patients having other medical illnesses with a comparable degree of disability. METHOD: Case register linkage study of Danish Psychiatric Central Register...... was compared with the control groups. CONCLUSION: The findings support the hypothesis that depression in patients with PD is a consequence of brain dysfunction....

  6. Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W.; Roberts, Christian K.; Laye, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause vs. treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction [including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity]; and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [Accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life

  7. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  8. Environmental influences on major waterfowl diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decline of North American waterfowl resources since the 1960s is well-known to this audience and need not be detailed to establish that population numbers for several key waterfowl species are at or near their lowest levels since records have been kept. Loss of habitat is an accepted major cause for the decline of waterfowl numbers and the wildlife conservation community is responding with initiatives to prevent further loss of existing wetland acreage, restoration for degraded wetlands and creation of new wetlands. Numerous joint ventures focusing on key waterfowl habitat requirements are being developed under the North American Waterfowl Plan. The importance of habitat loss also is reflected in many of the presentations at this conference on wetland conservation, including one special session devoted solely to that topic. A basic premise of the focus on wetlands is that restoration of waterfowl populations is habitat dependent. This is a tenable thesis if other factors suppressing waterfowl numbers are dealt with and the habitat base being enhanced sustains waterfowl rather than contributes to their death. My presentation addresses disease as a factor suppressing waterfowl numbers and the relation of habitat quantity and quality with waterfowl disease.

  9. How Can We Treat Cancer Disease Not Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Won; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Woo-Young; Seo, Ji Hae; Lee, Ho-Young

    2017-01-01

    Since molecular biology studies began, researches in biological science have centered on proteins and genes at molecular level of a single cell. Cancer research has also focused on various functions of proteins and genes that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Accordingly, most contemporary anticancer drugs have been developed to target abnormal characteristics of cancer cells. Despite the great advances in the development of anticancer drugs, vast majority of patients with advanced cancer have shown grim prognosis and high rate of relapse. To resolve this problem, we must reevaluate our focuses in current cancer research. Cancer should be considered as a systemic disease because cancer cells undergo a complex interaction with various surrounding cells in cancer tissue and spread to whole body through metastasis under the control of the systemic modulation. Human body relies on the cooperative interaction between various tissues and organs, and each organ performs its specialized function through tissue-specific cell networks. Therefore, investigation of the tumor-specific cell networks can provide novel strategy to overcome the limitation of current cancer research. This review presents the limitations of the current cancer research, emphasizing the necessity of studying tissue-specific cell network which could be a new perspective on treating cancer disease, not cancer cells.

  10. Major cancer protein amplifies global gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists may have discovered why a protein called MYC can provoke a variety of cancers. Like many proteins associated with cancer, MYC helps regulate cell growth. A new study carried out by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and colleagues

  11. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  12. Colorectal cancer complicating Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    2001-04-01

    Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients with Crohn's disease was used. Altogether, there were six patients with colorectal cancer (ie, overall rate of 0.7%). All of these patients were men with an initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease established at a mean age of approximately 28 years, with either ileocolonic disease or colonic disease alone, but not with ileal disease alone. Although there was a predominance of women in the overall study population (ie, 56.1%), no women developed colorectal cancer. The clinical behaviour of Crohn's disease was classified as nonstricturing in all six patients with colorectal cancer, but in two patients, Crohn's disease was complicated by a perirectal abscess or a fistula. All cancers were located in the rectum and were diagnosed 30 years, 22 years, seven years, 18 years, 20 years and 40 years after Crohn's disease was initially diagnosed. In three patients, the cancer was detected in a residual rectal stump after a partial colon resection at least 10 years earlier. In five patients, localized extension of disease through the serosa, nodal or distant metastases (ie, liver, lung) was found at the time of cancer diagnosis; two patients have since died. The present study confirms that Crohn's disease involving the colon may be a possible risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, at least in younger men, but, in this study, not in women. However, part of this increased risk in men may have been related to the presence of a rectal stump, rather than to Crohn's disease per se.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Complicating Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier studies have indicated that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis, have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Moreover, others in tertiary care centres have suggested that patients with Crohn's disease also have a higher risk of colorectal cancer. Canadian data on colorectal cancer in Crohn's disease appear to be limited. For this investigation, a single clinician database of 877 patients with Crohn's disease was used. Altogether, there were six patients with colorectal cancer (ie, overall rate of 0.7%. All of these patients were men with an initial diagnosis of Crohn's disease established at a mean age of approximately 28 years, with either ileocolonic disease or colonic disease alone, but not with ileal disease alone. Although there was a predominance of women in the overall study population (ie, 56.1%, no women developed colorectal cancer. The clinical behaviour of Crohn's disease was classified as nonstricturing in all six patients with colorectal cancer, but in two patients, Crohn's disease was complicated by a perirectal abscess or a fistula. All cancers were located in the rectum and were diagnosed 30 years, 22 years, seven years, 18 years, 20 years and 40 years after Crohn's disease was initially diagnosed. In three patients, the cancer was detected in a residual rectal stump after a partial colon resection at least 10 years earlier. In five patients, localized extension of disease through the serosa, nodal or distant metastases (ie, liver, lung was found at the time of cancer diagnosis; two patients have since died. The present study confirms that Crohn's disease involving the colon may be a possible risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, at least in younger men, but, in this study, not in women. However, part of this increased risk in men may have been related to the presence of a rectal stump, rather than to Crohn's disease per se.

  14. Endometriosis: a high-risk population for major chronic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaskoff, Marina; Mu, Fan; Terry, Kathryn L.; Harris, Holly R.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Farland, Leslie; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite an estimated prevalence of 10% in women, the etiology of endometriosis remains poorly understood. Over recent decades, endometriosis has been associated with risk of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, asthma/atopic diseases and cardiovascular diseases. A deeper understanding of these associations is needed as they may provide new leads into the causes or consequences of endometriosis. This review summarizes the available epidemiological findings on the associations between endometriosis and other chronic diseases and discusses hypotheses for underlying mechanisms, potential sources of bias and methodological complexities. METHODS We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed/Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for all studies reporting on the associations between endometriosis and other diseases published in English through to May 2014, using numerous search terms. We additionally examined the reference lists of all identified papers to capture any additional articles that were not identified through computer searches. RESULTS We identified 21 studies on the associations between endometriosis and ovarian cancer, 14 for breast cancer, 8 for endometrial cancer, 4 for cervical cancer, 12 for cutaneous melanoma and 3 for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as 9 on the links between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases, 6 on the links with asthma and atopic diseases, and 4 on the links with cardiovascular diseases. Endometriosis patients were reported to be at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancers, cutaneous melanoma, asthma, and some autoimmune, cardiovascular and atopic diseases, and at decreased risk of cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS Increasing evidence suggests that endometriosis patients are at higher risk of several chronic diseases. Although the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood, the available data to date suggest that endometriosis is not harmless with respects to women's long-term health. If

  15. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  16. Major diseases of ornamental plants and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.A.; Zakria, M.; Sohail, F.

    2003-01-01

    Major diseases of ornamental plants are caused by infections agents (biotic) or non-infectious (abiotic) agents. Infectious agents are bacteria, fungi, nematodes and virus. Non infectious agents are nutritional imbalances, environmental stresses and chemical toxicities. Grouping of the diseases has been done on symptomatology basis. Disease management in ornamental plants has been described through cultural practices, chemical and other control strategies. (author)

  17. [Genetic diagnostics of cancer diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobilanschi, Joana

    2013-11-27

    Cancer is caused by genetic alterations, but only 10% of the cancer diseases are inherited. The probability for an individual or a family of having inherited cancer, individual consequences of the respective results of genetic testing, as well as its costs and reimbursement by the health insurance must be addressed by expert genetic counseling which at-risk requires special expertise. Identification of a germline mutation which may predispose to a variety of different cancer types allows determination of an individual's specific life time risk in symptomatic as well as in a-symptomatic family members. Identification of the underlying defective gene in heritable cancer disorders also enables optimized preventive and novel therapeutic approaches specifically targeting the underlying molecular pathomechanisms.

  18. Exosomes in Cancer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis and therapy is steadily improving. Still, diagnosis is frequently late and diagnosis and follow-up procedures mostly are time-consuming and expensive. Searching for tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) in body fluids may provide an alternative, minimally invasive, yet highly reliable diagnostic tool. Beyond this, there is strong evidence that TEX could become a potent therapeutics. Exosomes, small vesicles delivered by many cells of the organism, are found in all body fluids. Exosomes are characterized by lipid composition, common and donor cell specific proteins, mRNA, small non-coding RNA including miRNA and DNA. Particularly the protein and miRNA markers received much attention as they may allow for highly specific diagnosis and can provide hints toward tumor aggressiveness and progression, where exosome-based diagnosis and follow-up is greatly facilitated by the recovery of exosomes in body fluids, particularly the peripheral blood. Beyond this, exosomes are the most important intercellular communicators that modulate, instruct, and reprogram their surrounding as well as distant organs. In concern about TEX this includes message transfer from tumor cells toward the tumor stroma, the premetastatic niche, the hematopoietic system and, last but not least, the instruction of non-cancer stem cells by cancer-initiating cells (CIC). Taking this into account, it becomes obvious that "tailored" exosomes offer themselves as potent therapeutic delivery system. In brief, during the last 4-5 years there is an ever-increasing, overwhelming interest in exosome research. This boom appears fully justified provided the content of the exosomes becomes most thoroughly analyzed and their mode of intercellular interaction can be unraveled in detail as this knowledge will open new doors toward cancer diagnosis and therapy including immunotherapy and CIC reprogramming.

  19. Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collaboration, Emerging Risk Factors; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Sarwar, Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. OBJECTIVE: To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual records were supplied on 302,430 people without...

  20. Obesity as a Major Risk Factor for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Pergola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer cases caused by being obese is estimated to be 20% with the increased risk of malignancies being influenced by diet, weight change, and body fat distribution together with physical activity. Reports from the International Agency for Research into Cancer and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF have shown that the strongest evidence exists for an association of obesity with the following cancer types: endometrial, esophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal, whereas the less common malignancies are leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma, and thyroid tumours. To be able to develop novel methods in prevention and treatment, we first must understand the underlying processes which link cancer to obesity. Four main systems have been identified as potential producers of cancer in obesity: insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, sex steroids, and adipokines. Various novel candidate mechanisms have been proposed: chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, crosstalk between tumour cells and surrounding adipocytes, migrating adipose stromal cells, obesity-induced hypoxia, shared genetic susceptibility, and the functional defeat of immune function. Herein, we review the major pathogenic links between obesity and susceptibility to cancer.

  1. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Moser, Elizabeth C.; Nuver, Janine; Suter, Thomas M.; Maraldo, Maja V.; Specht, Lena; Vrieling, Conny; Darby, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we describe current knowledge of the cardiotoxicity arising from cancer treatments, outline gaps in knowledge, and indicate directions for future research and guideline development, as discussed during the 2014 Cancer Survivorship Summit organised by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Better knowledge is needed of the late effects of modern systemic treatments and of radiotherapy to critical structures of the heart, including the effect of both radiation dose and volume of the heart exposed. Research elucidating the extent to which treatments interact in causing CVD, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results. Better knowledge of these cardiac effects will contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of late complications where exposure to cardiotoxic treatment is unavoidable. Also surrogate markers would help to identify patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Evidence-based screening guidelines for CVD following cancer are also needed. Finally, risk prediction models should be developed to guide primary treatment choice and appropriate follow up after cancer treatment. PMID:26217163

  2. Major life events and development of major depression in Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Bordelon, Y; Thompson, A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-motor symptoms including depression are important features of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aim to address the relationship between major life events and depression amongst PD patients free of depressive symptoms at baseline. METHODS: New-onset PD patients from California...... were recruited in 2001-2007 and followed up for 3-4 years. The participants (n = 221) were examined by neurologists and responded to comprehensive interviews that included major life events, social support, and coping measures from validated scales. Major depression was assessed using the Structured...... Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV depression module (SCID). RESULTS: More than half of all patients had experienced major life events since diagnosed with PD, and 22 patients developed a major depression. The number of life events was associated with risk of depression in an exposure-dependent manner...

  3. MicroRNA and Cancer: Tiny Molecules with Major Implications

    OpenAIRE

    VandenBoom II, Timothy G; Li, Yiwei; Philip, Philip A; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is currently a major public health problem and, as such, emerging research is making significant progress in identifying major players in its biology. One recent topic of interest involves microRNAs (miRNAs) which are small, non-coding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression post-transcriptionally. They accomplish this by binding to the 3? untranslated region (3?UTR) of target messengerRNA (mRNA), resulting in either their degradation or inhibition of translation, depending on the d...

  4. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Major life events and risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Johnni; Schernhammer, Eva

    2010-01-01

    major life events are risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Between 1986 and 2006, we identified 13,695 patients with a (PD) primary diagnosis of PD in the Danish National Hospital Register. Each case was frequency matched by age and gender to five population controls. Information on major life events...... before onset of PD was ascertained from national registries. Among men, number of life events was associated with risk of Parkinson's disease in an inverse dose-response manner (P ....34-0.99). Life events were not associated with PD in women. In contrast, a higher risk of PD was observed among women who had never been married (1.16; 1.04-1.29) and among men (1.47; 1.18-1.82) and women (1.30; 1.05-1.61) who have never been employees. The lower risk of Parkinson's disease among men who had...

  6. Vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity and risk of major chronic disease in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Cook, Nancy R; Flint, Alan J; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-10-01

    Although studies have shown health benefits for moderate-intensity physical activity, there is limited evidence to support beneficial effects for high amounts of vigorous activity among middle-age and older men. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity, compared with moderate-intensity activity, and risk of major chronic disease in men. We prospectively examined the associations between vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity and risk of major chronic disease among 44,551 men age 40-75 yr in 1986. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed biennially by questionnaire. During 22 yr of follow-up, we documented 14,162 incident cases of major chronic disease, including 4769 cardiovascular events, 6449 cancer events, and 2944 deaths from other causes. The HR of major chronic disease comparing ≥ 21 to 0 MET.h.wk(-1) of exercise was 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.81-0.91) for vigorous-intensity activity and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.90) for moderate activity. For cardiovascular disease (CVD), the corresponding HRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.70-0.86) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.72-0.88), respectively. When examined separately, running, tennis, and brisk walking were inversely associated with CVD risk. Furthermore, more vigorous activity was associated with lower disease risk; the HR comparing >70 to 0 MET.h.wk(-1) of vigorous-intensity exercise was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P < 0.0001 for trend) for major chronic disease and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.56-0.96; P < 0.0001 for trend) for CVD. Vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activities were associated with lower risk of major chronic disease and CVD. Increasing amounts of vigorous activity remained inversely associated with disease risk, even among men in the highest categories of exercise.

  7. Chronic Diseases among Older Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Deckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the occurrence of pre-existing and subsequent comorbidity among older cancer patients (≥60 years with older non-cancer patients. Material and Methods. Each cancer patient (n=3835, mean age 72 was matched with four non-cancer patients in terms of age, sex, and practice. The occurrence of chronic diseases was assessed cross-sectionally (lifetime prevalence at time of diagnosis and longitudinally (incidence after diagnosis for all cancer patients and for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients separately. Cancer and non-cancer patients were compared using logistic and Cox regression analysis. Results. The occurrence of the most common pre-existing and incident chronic diseases was largely similar in cancer and non-cancer patients, except for pre-existing COPD (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.37 and subsequent venous thrombosis in the first two years after cancer diagnosis (HR 4.20, 95% CI 2.74–6.44, which were significantly more frequent (P<0.01 among older cancer compared to non-cancer patients. Conclusion. The frequency of multimorbidity in older cancer patients is high. However, apart from COPD and venous thrombosis, the incidence of chronic diseases in older cancer patients is similar compared to non-cancer patients of the same age, sex, and practice.

  8. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleman, Berthe M P; Moser, Elizabeth C; Nuver, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we......, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results...

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  10. A Major Chronic Disease: Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ergul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to draw attention to obesity in adolescence and its potential risks and put forward its consequences in terms of public health as well as offer solutions. Today, obesity has become one of the most frequent chronic diseases of childhood. The tendency to obesity is at an alarming level and the annual increase in this age group is gradually rising. In the 2003 report of the International Obesity Commission, it was stated that one out of ten children aged between 5-17 worldwide was overweight or obese. In addition to social and psychological problems resulting from obesity, it is known to be closely related with very serious diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It is also known that obesity shortens life expectancy and that the process starts in the childhood period of many obese adults. Struggling with obesity actually means struggling with many other diseases. It is also of major significance for the future of our country to struggle with especially childhood obesity. In terms of public health, it is of primary importance to detect, avoid and cure obesity in this period. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 223-230

  11. Differential equations with applications in cancer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is a process by which a real world problem is described by a mathematical formulation. The cancer modeling is a highly challenging problem at the frontier of applied mathematics. A variety of modeling strategies have been developed, each focusing on one or more aspects of cancer. The vast majority of mathematical models in cancer diseases biology are formulated in terms of differential equations. We propose an original mathematical model with small parameter for the interactions between these two cancer cell sub-populations and the mathematical model of a vascular tumor. We work on the assumption that, the quiescent cells' nutrient consumption is long. One the equations system includes small parameter epsilon. The smallness of epsilon is relative to the size of the solution domain. MATLAB simulations obtained for transition rate from the quiescent cells' nutrient consumption is long, we show a similar asymptotic behavior for two solutions of the perturbed problem. In this system, the small parameter is an asymptotic variable, different from the independent variable. The graphical output for a mathematical model of a vascular tumor shows the differences in the evolution of the tumor populations of proliferating, quiescent and necrotic cells. The nutrient concentration decreases sharply through the viable rim and tends to a constant level in the core due to the nearly complete necrosis in this region. Many mathematical models can be quantitatively characterized by ordinary differential equations or partial differential equations. The use of MATLAB in this article illustrates the important role of informatics in research in mathematical modeling. The study of avascular tumor growth cells is an exciting and important topic in cancer research and will profit considerably from theoretical input. Interpret these results to be a permanent collaboration between math's and medical oncologists.

  12. Acute Psychosis as Major Clinical Presentation of Legionnaires’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with acute psychosis as a major manifestation of Legionnaires’ disease in the absence of other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Clinical history revealed dry cough and nausea. Observation showed fever and auscultation crackles in the lower lobe of the right lung. Laboratory testing demonstrated elevated C-reactive protein and lung chest radiograph showed patchy peribronchial and right lower lobe consolidation. Soon after admission, she started producing purulent sputum. Epidemiological data suggested Legionella pneumophila as possible cause of the clinical picture that was confirmed by urinary antigen detection and polymerase chain reaction of the sputum. She was treated with levofloxacin 750 mg/day for 10 days with complete remission of pulmonary and psychiatric symptoms. She has not had further psychotic symptoms.

  13. Nodular Graves' disease with medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat Hussain; Rather, Tanveer Ahmed; Makhdoomi, Rumana; Malik, Dharmender

    2015-01-01

    Co-existence of thyroid nodules with Graves' disease has been reported in various studies. 10-15% of such nodules harbor thyroid cancer with papillary thyroid cancer being the commonest. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in nodules associated with Graves' disease is rare. On literature survey, we came across 11 such cases reported so far. We report a 62-year-old female with Graves' disease who also had a thyroid nodule that on fine-needle aspiration cytology and the subsequent postthyroidectomy histopathological examination was reported to be MTC.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  15. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  16. Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

  17. Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S; Fu, Zhuxuan; Shi, Jian; Chung, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease, which includes gingivitis and periodontitis, is highly prevalent in adults and disease severity increases with age. The relationship between periodontal disease and oral cancer has been examined for several decades, but there is increasing interest in the link between periodontal disease and overall cancer risk, with systemic inflammation serving as the main focus for biological plausibility. Numerous case-control studies have addressed the role of oral health in head and neck cancer, and several cohort studies have examined associations with other types of cancers over the past decade. For this review, we included studies that were identified from either 11 published reviews on this topic or an updated literature search on PubMed (between 2011 and July 2016). A total of 50 studies from 46 publications were included in this review. Meta-analyses were conducted on cohort and case-control studies separately when at least 4 studies could be included to determine summary estimates of the risk of cancer in relation to 1) periodontal disease or 2) tooth number (a surrogate marker of periodontal disease) with adjustment for smoking. Existing data provide support for a positive association between periodontal disease and risk of oral, lung, and pancreatic cancers; however, additional prospective studies are needed to better inform on the strength of these associations and to determine whether other cancers are associated with periodontal disease. Future studies should include sufficiently large sample sizes, improved measurements for periodontal disease, and thorough adjustment for smoking and other risk factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Exosomes as nanocarriers for immunotherapy of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh-Huyen; Mattheolabakis, George; Aldawsari, Hibah; Amiji, Mansoor

    2015-09-01

    Cell secreted exosomes (30-100nm vesicles) play a major role in intercellular communication due to their ability to transfer proteins and nucleic acids from one cell to another. Depending on the originating cell type and the cargo, exosomes can have immunosuppressive or immunostimulatory effects, which have potential application as immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune diseases. Cellular components shed from tumor cells or antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, have been shown to be efficiently packaged in exosomes. In this review, we focus on the application of exosomes as nanocarriers and immunological agents for cancer and autoimmune immunotherapy. APC-derived exosomes demonstrate effective therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of cancer and experimental autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis. In addition to their intrinsic immunomodulating activity, exosomes have many advantages over conventional nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resilience Modulators and Overburden in Major Caregivers of Advanced Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anay González Guerra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Foundation: the caregiver plays an important role in helping and supporting a patient with cancer, but at the same time has the emotional and work burden which this work presupposes. Objective: to determine the resilience modulating factors and the degree of burden in major caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Method: a descriptive study was developed at the Area III Policlinic Cienfuegos during the period from December 2012 to March 2013. The universe was constituted by 25 primary caregivers of patients in an advanced stage of the disease. The studied variables were: sex, age, scholarship, occupation, marital status, kinship, time to patient care, self-esteem, optimism, emotional intelligence, and burden. The techniques used were: questionnaire and test of emotional intelligence, Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, caregiver burden scale by Zarit. Results: ages between 51 and 72 years predominated 48 %, 88 % were female, 40 % had elementary school level and 48 % were married, 72 % were housewives, 44 % were patients spouses, 52 % less than a year of care giving. 60 % had an intense burden, 48 % low level of self-esteem and an intense burden. 58.3 % of caregivers with low emotional intelligence had an intense burden. Conclusion: resilience modulators, self-esteem and emotional intelligence determine the level of burden suffered by major caregivers of advanced cancer patients.

  20. Bilateral breast cancer after cured Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.; Lokich, J.

    1990-01-01

    Three patients developed bilateral breast cancer at 10 to 24 years after mantle irradiation for locally or systemically advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD). Four of the six cancers in the three patients were detected only by mammography. Pathologically, five of the cancers were intraductal carcinomas (four with an invasive component) with one being a lobular carcinoma. Five of the six lesions were Stage I pathologically without evidence of axillary nodal involvement. It is recommended that female patients with Hodgkin's disease who have received mantle irradiation as part of the therapy for their Hodgkin's disease and who are observed for 10 or more years after completion of mantle irradiation be considered at risk for the development of breast cancer. Such patients should be monitored appropriately by routine bilateral mammograms to increase the early detection of early stage lesions

  1. SEEDi1.0-3.0 strategies for major noncommunicable diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Song; Tkebuchava, Tengiz

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to briefly introduce the status and challenges of major noncommunicable diseases (mNCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, as well as related risk factors, such as environmental pollution, smoking, obesity and sleep disorders. "S-E-E-D" rules or the strategies of "S-E-E-D" intervention (SEEDi) consist of four core healthy elements: sleep, emotion, exercise and diet. The history of SEEDi 1.0-3.0 is also introduced, which includes versions 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 of the program. These guidelines are suitable for prevention and control of mNCDs. Not only the "Healthy China" initiated in China's "13th Five-year Plan," but also the "Healthy World" philosophy needs SEEDi 1.0-3.0 strategies for control of mNCDs.

  2. Crop protection strategies for major diseases of cocoa, coffee and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, crop protection measures that are cheap, simple, cost-effective and sustainable are desirable to combat Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) and cocoa swollen shoot virus diseases of cocoa, coffee leaf rust and coffee berry diseases, inflorescence blight disease of cashew in order to make farming profitable and ...

  3. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Sklarin, Nancy T.; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Zelenetz, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of computerized provider order entry for complex chemotherapy regimens supported Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's strategic plan to successfully establish a distributive, networked health care delivery system.

  5. Thoracic epidural analgesia reduces myocardial injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad MF

    2017-04-01

    to PCIA at all measured time points. Regarding perioperative hemodynamics, there was a significant reduction in intra-operative mean arterial pressure (MAP; and heart rate in PCEA group in comparison to PCIA group at most of measured time points while there was not a significant reduction in postoperative MAP and heart rate in the second and third post-operative days. The incidence of other postoperative complications such as DVT, pneumonia and in hospital mortality were decreased in PCEA group.Conclusion: Perioperative thoracic epidural analgesia in patients suffering from coronary artery disease subjected to major abdominal cancer surgery reduced significantly postoperative major adverse cardiac events with better pain control in comparison with perioperative IV analgesia. Keywords: postoperative myocardial infarction, thoracic epidural analgesia, PCA

  6. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Gupta, Prakash; Gomes, Fabio; Kerner, Jon; Parra, William; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kim, Jeongseon; Moore, Malcolm; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 7.6 million deaths (13% of all deaths) in 2008. Cancer mortality is projected to increase to 11 million deaths in 2030, with the majority occurring in regions of the world with the least capacity to respond. However, cancer is not only a personal, societal and economic burden but also a potential societal opportunity in the context of functional life - the years gained through effective prevention and treatment, and strategies to enhance survivorship. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in 2011 has served to focus attention on key aspects of cancer prevention and control. Firstly, cancer is largely preventable, by feasible means. Secondly, cancer is one of a number of chronic, non- communicable diseases that share common risk factors whose prevention and control would benefit a majority of the world's population. Thirdly, a proportion of cancers can be attributed to infectious, communicable causal factors (e.g., HPV, HBV, H.pylori, parasites, flukes) and that strategies to control the burden of infectious diseases have relevance to the control of cancer. Fourthly, that the natural history of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, from primary prevention through diagnosis, treatment and care, is underwritten by the impact of social, economic and environmental determinants of health (e.g., poverty, illiteracy, gender inequality, social isolation, stigma, socio-economic status). Session 1 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on the social, economic and environmental, as well as biological and behavioural, modifiers of the risk of cancer through one plenary presentation and four interactive workshop discussions. The workshop sessions concerned 1) the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and social determinants of tobacco use in high burden low- and middle-income countries; 2) the role of diet, including alcohol, and physical activity in modifying the

  7. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  8. Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to Combat Obesity, Heart Disease and Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...

  9. Gastric Cancer: How Can We Reduce the Incidence of this Disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGastric cancer remains a prevalent disease worldwide with a poor prognosis. Helicobacter pylori plays a major role in gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization leads to chronic gastritis, which predisposes to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and eventually

  10. Hope and major strides for genetic diseases of the eye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... genetic etiology of inherited eye diseases and their underly- ing pathophysiology in the ... recent advances in the field of ophthalmic genetics. There have been .... sible or unlikely to be developed in the near future. Many of.

  11. APOE AND ALZHEIMER DISEASE: A MAJOR GENE WITH SEMI-DOMINANT INHERITANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emmanuelle; Hannequin, Didier; Wallon, David; Sleegers, Kristel; Hiltunen, Mikko; Combarros, Onofre; Bullido, Maria J; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter; Berr, Claudine; Pasquier, Florence; Dubois, Bruno; Tognoni, Gloria; Fiévet, Nathalie; Brouwers, Nathalie; Bettens, Karolien; Arosio, Beatrice; Coto, Eliecer; Zompo, Maria Del; Mateo, Ignacio; Epelbaum, Jacques; Frank-Garcia, Ana; Helisalmi, Seppo; Porcellini, Elisa; Pilotto, Alberto; Forti, Paola; Ferri, Raffaele; Scarpini, Elio; Siciliano, Gabriele; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sorbi, Sandro; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Valdivieso, Fernando; Vepsäläinen, Saila; Alvarez, Victoria; Bosco, Paolo; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Panza, Francesco; Nacmias, Benedetta; Bossù, Paola; Hanon, Olivier; Piccardi, Paola; Annoni, Giorgio; Seripa, Davide; Galimberti, Daniela; Licastro, Federico; Soininen, Hilkka; Dartigues, Jean-François; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Lambert, Jean Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Campion, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) dependent lifetime risks (LTRs) for Alzheimer Disease (AD) are currently not accurately known and odds ratios (ORs) alone are insufficient to assess these risks. We calculated AD lifetime risk in 7,351 cases and 10,132 controls from Caucasian ancestry using Rochester (USA) incidence data. At the age of 85 the LTR of AD without reference to APOE genotype was 11% in males and 14% in females. At the same age, this risk ranged from 51% for APOE44 male carriers to 60% for APOE44 female carriers, and from 23% for APOE34 male carriers to 30% for APOE34 female carriers, consistent with semi-dominant inheritance of a moderately penetrant gene. Using PAQUID (France) incidence data, estimates were globally similar except that at age 85 the LTRs reached 68% and 35 % for APOE 44 and APOE 34 female carriers, respectively. These risks are more similar to those of major genes in Mendelian diseases, such as BRCA1 in breast cancer, than those of low-risk common alleles identified by recent GWAS in complex diseases. In addition, stratification of our data by age- groups clearly demonstrates that APOE4 is a risk factor not only for late- onset but for early- onset AD as well. Together, these results urge a reappraisal of the impact of APOE in Alzheimer disease. PMID:21556001

  12. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklarin, Nancy T; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2011-07-01

    Implementation of a computerized provider order entry system for complex chemotherapy regimens at a large cancer center required intense effort from a multidisciplinary team of clinical and systems experts with experience in all facets of the chemotherapy process. The online tools had to resemble the paper forms used at the time and parallel the successful established process as well as add new functionality. Close collaboration between the institution and the vendor was necessary. This article summarizes the institutional efforts, challenges, and collaborative processes that facilitated universal chemotherapy computerized electronic order entry across multiple sites during a period of several years.

  13. Cancer as an immune-mediated disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurin MR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R ShurinDepartments of Pathology and Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: The link between oncology and immunology has a long history and its development is forced by the necessity to develop innovative and highly efficient modalities for immunological destruction of malignant cells. The limited efficacy of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation also exemplify these issues, as these treatments do not eliminate all cancerous cells, do not address the immunosuppressive nature of the disease and can further impair the patient's immune response weakening patient's resistance to the cancer. Multidisciplinary analysis of the interaction between the immune system and cancer in preclinical and clinical settings suggests that the immune system is closely intertwined with both cancer pathogenesis and treatment. On the one hand, cancer is a manifestation of malfunctions in immunity, as malignant cells manage to escape recognition and elimination by the immune system. Chronic infections and inflammation associated with limited or polarized immune responses also contribute to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The tumor immunoenvironment represents specific conditions and elements that support cancerous cell survival, proliferation and spreading. On the other hand, the specificity and strength of antitumor immunity is a powerful and efficient tool that can be used to recognize and destroy neoplastic cells or their supporting microenvironment. Understanding the role of the immune system in controlling and supporting tumor initiation, formation, growth and progression has crucial implications for cancer therapy and will therefore guide the future development of cancer immunotherapy and its combination with conventional therapies to achieve optimal antitumor effects in patients with different types of cancer.Keywords: tumor immunology and immunotherapy, tumor immunoenvironment, cancer, immunosuppression

  14. History of major depressive disorder prospectively predicts worse quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S L; Small, Brent J; Minton, Susan; Andrykowski, Michael; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2012-06-01

    Data are scarce about whether past history of major depressive disorder in the absence of current depression places breast cancer patients at risk for worse quality of life. The current study prospectively examined quality of life during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with a history of resolved major depressive disorder (n = 29) and no history of depression (n = 144). Women with Stages 0-II breast cancer were assessed prior to and at the completion of chemotherapy. Major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview and quality of life with the SF-36. Patients with past major depressive disorder displayed greater declines in physical functioning relative to patients with no history of depression (p ≤ 0.01). Findings suggest that breast cancer patients with a history of resolved major depressive disorder are at increased risk for declines in physical functioning during chemotherapy relative to patients with no history of depression.

  15. History of Major Depressive Disorder Prospectively Predicts Worse Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J.; Minton, Susan; Andrykowski, Michael; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Data are scarce about whether past history of major depressive disorder in the absence of current depression places breast cancer patients at risk for worse quality of life. Purpose The current study prospectively examined quality of life during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with a history of resolved major depressive disorder (n=29) and no history of depression (n=144). Methods Women with Stages 0–II breast cancer were assessed prior to and at the completion of chemotherapy. Major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview and quality of life with the SF-36. Results Patients with past major depressive disorder displayed greater declines in physical functioning relative to patients with no history of depression (p≤0.01). Conclusions Findings suggest that breast cancer patients with a history of resolved major depressive disorder are at increased risk for declines in physical functioning during chemotherapy relative to patients with no history of depression. PMID:22167580

  16. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  17. The Impact of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Major Salivary Gland Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Lucia S; Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on survival in patients with major salivary gland malignancies. Population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer database. The study cohort consisted of 10,735 men and women ages 20 and older who were diagnosed with major salivary gland carcinoma from 1973 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the overall and disease-specific survival was higher for women than for men (P impact on overall survival. Male sex (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.49), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.39) had poor prognostic impact on disease-specific survival. For patients with salivary gland malignancies, there is a survival benefit for younger patients, female patients, and married patients. This highlights the significance of demographic factors on survival outcomes for patients with salivary gland malignancies and highlights areas for further research on health disparities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  18. [Chances and risks of prevention in elderly people for the three major cancers: breast-, prostate- and colorectal cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G F

    2006-06-01

    The big three, breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and colorectal carcinoma are the most frequent malignancies world wide and also typical tumors of advanced age. Therefore the question to screen and how to screen for these tumors in the elderly is the main question for reduction of the total cancer burden and mortality in all western countries. BREAST CANCER (BC): The age related risk of BC increases from 1 : 2,500 at age 30+ to > 1 : 10 at age 80. Nevertheless, most of the national BC-Screening-Programs stop at age 60 or earlier. Therefore the majority of all advanced i. e. T (4) stages of BC are found in women age > 60. Frequently it is suggested that age related comorbidity should eliminate the benefit of treatment. Recently two longitudinal studies have clearly shown that correct standard treatment is as effective in elderly as in younger individuals. Mammography (MG) has been shown to reduce mortality of BC significantly with best results for specificity and sensitivity at age 70+. PROSTATE CANCER (PC): The screening situation of PC is quite different to BC, because risk profiles are poorly defined and the benefit of radical prostatectomy is not clearly demonstrated in the early non symptomatic stages of PC. At the other side watchful waiting leads to an elevated frequency of incontinence and enuresis as well. Two studies are now under progress and may possibly change the situation; but the final results are expected 2005-2008 at the earliest. Therefore an assisted individual decision making is the only recommendation at this time. COLORECTAL CANCER (CC): Risk groups are clearly defined. Risk of the elderly (> 60) is the average risk. The incidence increases from informed about complication rates of colonoscopy during the screening programs. There is a lack of data according accuracy of barium enema, virtual colonoscopy and genetic stool test in comparison to colonoscopy in combination with fecal occult blood test (FOBT). And adherence to screening is

  19. Divalent Copper as a Major Triggering Agent in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, George J

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is at epidemic proportions in developed countries, with a steady increase in the early 1900 s, and then exploding over the last 50 years. This epidemiology points to something causative in the environment of developed countries. This paper will review the considerable evidence that that something could be inorganic copper ingestion. The epidemic parallels closely the spread of copper plumbing, with copper leached from the plumbing into drinking water being a main causal feature, aided by the increasingly common use of supplement pills containing copper. Inorganic copper is divalent copper, or copper-2, while we now know that organic copper, or copper in foods, is primarily monovalent copper, or copper-1. The intestinal transport system, Ctr1, absorbs copper-1 and the copper moves to the liver, where it is put into safe channels. Copper-2 is not absorbed by Ctr1, and some of it bypasses the liver and goes directly into the blood, where it appears to be exquisitely toxic to brain cognition. Thus, while aggregation of amyloid-β has been postulated to be the cause of AD under current dogma, the great increase in prevalence over the last century appears to be due to ingestion of copper-2, which may be causing the aggregation, and/or increasing the oxidant toxicity of the aggregates. An alternative hypothesis proposes that oxidant stress is the primary injuring agent, and under this hypothesis, copper-2 accumulation in the brain may be a causal factor of the oxidant injury. Thus, irrespective of which hypothesis is correct, AD can be classified, at least in part, as a copper-2 toxicity disease. It is relatively easy to avoid copper-2 ingestion, as discussed in this review. If most people begin avoiding copper-2 ingestion, perhaps the epidemic of this serious disease can be aborted.

  20. NF-kappa B genes have a major role in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerebours, Florence; Vacher, Sophie; Andrieu, Catherine; Espie, Marc; Marty, Michel; Lidereau, Rosette; Bieche, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    IBC (Inflammatory Breast cancer) is a rare form of breast cancer with a particular phenotype. New molecular targets are needed to improve the treatment of this rapidly fatal disease. Given the role of NF-κB-related genes in cell proliferation, invasiveness, angiogenesis and inflammation, we postulated that they might be deregulated in IBC. We measured the mRNA expression levels of 60 NF-κB-related genes by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR in a well-defined series of 35 IBCs, by comparison with 22 stage IIB and III non inflammatory breast cancers. Twenty-four distant metastases of breast cancer served as 'poor prognosis' breast tumor controls. Thirty-five (58%) of the 60 NF-κB-related genes were significantly upregulated in IBC compared with non IBC. The upregulated genes were NF-κB genes (NFKB1, RELA, IKBKG, NFKBIB, NFKB2, REL, CHUK), apoptosis genes (MCL1L, TNFAIP3/A20, GADD45B, FASLG, MCL1S, IER3L, TNFRSF10B/TRAILR2), immune response genes (CD40, CD48, TNFSF11/RANKL, TNFRSF11A/RANK, CCL2/MCP-1, CD40LG, IL15, GBP1), proliferation genes (CCND2, CCND3, CSF1R, CSF1, SOD2), tumor-promoting genes (CXCL12, SELE, TNC, VCAM1, ICAM1, PLAU/UPA) or angiogenesis genes (PTGS2/COX2, CXCL1/GRO1). Only two of these 35 genes (PTGS2/COX2 and CXCL1/GRO1)were also upregulated in breast cancer metastases. We identified a five-gene molecular signature that matched patient outcomes, consisting of IL8 and VEGF plus three NF-κB-unrelated genes that we had previously identified as prognostic markers in the same series of IBC. The NF-κB pathway appears to play a major role in IBC, possibly contributing to the unusual phenotype and aggressiveness of this form of breast cancer. Some upregulated NF-κB-related genes might serve as novel therapeutic targets in IBC

  1. Rating the elderly with terminal cancer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros Rios, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In over 60 years are diagnosed more than 50% of tumors and 60% die because of this that only represents 20 % the total number of successes in this population group. However, currently there are few non-oncology geriatric patients who benefit of this model of care. This is because, in addition to palliative care have been developed mainly since Oncology, to it difficult to establish the concept of not being able to complete their basic survival and to predict the final stages of the disease chronicles are made ​​by different disciplines The intention of this study is to evaluate the variety oncology in the Department of Oncology at University Hospital and the focus on the Rating and care have been given to elderly patients with end-stage neoplastic disease or who are liable to care palliative for various reasons. Objective: • Determine the epidemiological profile of older adults with terminal cancer diagnosis attending Department of Hospital Oncology Clinic and if were evaluated globally and received palliative care. Methodology: • Design: Observational descriptive retrospective analytical component. • Universe: Young adults of both sexes attending the Oncology Department of the Hospital de Clinical in a period of the last 24 years • Sample: 191 Older adults of both sexes with oncological disease and 54 criteria that are terminally attended the Department of Oncology in the period of 24 years RESULTS: • The epidemiological characteristics of 191 elderly Less than half are predominantly male young seniors and the type of cancer most frequent pathology was i lung cancer, colon cancer, stomach cancer and unknown primary. More than half are female predominance of young and elderly oncological pathology type was most frequent cancer breast, colon, ovarian and lymphoma cancer • Less than half of older men terminalidad presented some criteria, being among the most frequent esophageal cancer with lung metastases of prostate cancer

  2. Management of breast cancer following Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolden, Suzanne L.; Carlson, Robert W.; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Hancock, Steven L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, histology, risk factors, treatment, and prognosis of breast cancer occurring after Hodgkin's disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five cases of breast cancer in 61 survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma were analyzed. The median age at treatment for Hodgkin's disease was 24.1 [range (R): 13.3 - 71.8] years. Fifty-one percent had received radiotherapy alone, 47% radiation and chemotherapy, and 2% chemotherapy only. Relative and absolute risks were calculated based on 47 invasive breast cancers in 1049 women treated for Hodgkin's disease at Stanford. Results: The median age at diagnosis of breast cancer was 41.9 (R: 23.0 - 79.1) years; 76% of women were premenopausal. The median interval between Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer was 17.6 (R: 1.5 - 32.7) years with an increasing incidence beginning eight years after radiotherapy. The current relative risk of invasive breast cancer following Hodgkin's disease is 4.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4 - 6.1] with an absolute risk of 29.5 (CI: 18.8 - 40.2) excess cases per 10,000 person-years. Eighty-seven percent of breast cancers occurred in or at the margin of a prior radiotherapy field where a mean dose of 43.5 (R: 24.0 - 51.0) Gy was delivered. There was a family history of breast cancer in 31% of women. Cancers were detected by self examination (66%), screening mammography (27%), and physician examination (7%). Many tumors (60%) were located in the upper outer quadrants, corresponding to the axillary portion of a mantle field. There were seven cases of carcinoma in situ: six DCIS and one LCIS. The histologic distribution of invasive tumors paralleled that reported in the general population: 4% pure lobular, 35% high grade ductal, 45% intermediate grade ductal, 7% low-grade ductal, 4% tubular, 2% medullary, and 2% mucinous. Estrogen receptors were positive in 59% of evaluable cases. While 90% of invasive tumors were smaller than four centimeters, 96% were managed with mastectomy

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ocepek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries and Slovenia, and the incidence is still rising. Groups of people with higher risk for colorectal cancer are well defined. Among them are patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk is highest in patients in whom whole large bowel is affected by inflammation, it rises after 8 to 10 years and increases with the duration of the disease. Precancerous lesion is a displastic, chronically inflammed mucosa and not an adenoma as in cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.Conclusions: Many studies suggest that the influence of genetic factors differs between sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease related colorectal cancer. Symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis have a much worse prognosis. The goal of prevention programes is therefore discovering early precancerous lesions. Established screening protocols are based on relatively frequent colonoscopies which are inconvinient for the patient as well as the endoscopist. Use of specific genetic markers, mutations of candidate genes, as a screening method and a prognostic predictor could greatly lighten therapeutic decisions.

  4. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rady, Islam; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Rady, Mohamad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle ba...

  5. Evidence for a major role of heredity in Graves' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, T H; Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare

    2001-01-01

    The etiology of Graves' disease (GD), affecting up to 2% of a population in iodine-sufficient areas, is incompletely understood. According to current thinking, the development of GD depends on complex interactions among genetic, environmental, and endogenous factors. However, the relative...... contributions of the genetic and environmental factors remain to be clarified. In this study we report probandwise concordance rates for GD in a new cohort of same sex twin pairs born between 1953 and 1976 (young cohort), ascertained from the nationwide population-based Danish Twin Register. To elucidate...... the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influence in the etiology of GD, these new twin data were pooled with our previously published twin data on GD (old cohort). The old cohort consisted of 2338 same sex twin pairs born between 1870 and 1920 who had participated in questionnaire surveys during...

  6. Paradigm shift in cancer treatment: Cancer treatment as a metabolic disease – fusion of Eastern and Western medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reo Hamaguchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current standard therapies for cancer, including surgery, anti-cancer drugs, and radiotherapy, are thought to contribute to the improvement in the survival rates of cancer patients. However, such standard therapies have 3 major problems: in advanced cancers, it is unlikely that standard cancer treatments will cure the disease; adverse side effects that accompany standard cancer treatments put many patients in distress; and a large amount of medical expenditure is required for new and expensive anti-cancer drugs. These problems may be viewed as a result of establishing treatments without any consideration regarding the root cause of the cancer. Otto Warburg suggested that particular changes in the energy metabolism of cells, which are associated with a shortage of oxygen, are the root cause of cancer. Cancer cells have unique metabolic characteristics, and thus we believe that it is important to treat cancer as a metabolic disease. More specifically, not only is it important to suppress cancer cell metabolism, but it is also important to improve the chronic inflammation that is associated with the development and progression of cancer, and to support the functions of immune cells. This type of view of cancer treatment coincides with the principles of Chinese medicine, which has a history of 4000 years, such as “fuzheng quxie” and “zhibing qiuben”, which can assist in the establishment of cancer treatments for patients. In this article, we discuss cancer treatments from the view of cancer as a metabolic disease and their association with Chinese medicine, and introduce some clinical cases along with a review of the literature.

  7. A review of the relationship between tooth loss, periodontal disease, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mara S; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have investigated the association between periodontal disease, tooth loss, and several systemic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and preterm birth. Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, is highly prevalent in adult populations around the world, and may be preventable. Estimates of prevalence vary between races and geographic regions, with a marked increase in the occurrence of periodontal disease with advancing age. Worldwide estimates for the prevalence of severe periodontal disease generally range from 10 to 15%. The relationship between oral health and cancer has been examined for a number of specific cancer sites. Several studies have reported associations between periodontal disease or tooth loss and risk of oral, upper gastrointestinal, lung, and pancreatic cancer in different populations. In a number of studies, these associations persisted after adjustment for major risk factors, including cigarette smoking and socioeconomic status. This review provides a summary of these findings, discusses possible biological mechanisms involved, and raises methodological issues related to studying these relationships.

  8. Management of advanced gastric cancer: An overview of major findings from meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Danxian; Li, Wende; Hui, Jialiang; Liu, Chuan; Zhao, Yanxia; Li, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an overview of different treatment for advanced gastric cancer. In the present study, we systematically reviewed the major findings from relevant meta-analyses. A total of 54 relevant papers were searched via the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google scholar databases. They were classified according to the mainstay treatment modalities such as surgery, chemotherapy and others. Primary outcomes including overall survival, response rate, disease-free survival, recurrence-free survival, progression-free survival, time-to-progression, time-to failure, recurrence and safety were summarized. The recommendations and uncertainties regarding the treatment of advanced gastric cancer were also proposed. It was suggested that laparoscopic gastrectomy was a safe and technical alternative to open gastrectomy. Besides, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy were thought to benefit the survival over surgery alone. And it was demonstrated in the study that targeted therapy like anti-angiogenic and anti-HER2 agents but anti-EGFR agent might have a significant survival benefit. PMID:27655725

  9. Epidemiology, major risk factors and genetic predisposition for breast cancer in the Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaukat, Uzma; Ismail, Muhammad; Mehmood, Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Occurrence of breast cancer is related to genetic as well as cultural, environmental and life-style factors. Variations in diversity of these factors among different ethnic groups and geographical areas emphasize the immense need for studies in all racial-ethnic populations. The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan is highest in Asians after Jews in Israel and 2.5 times higher than that in neighboring countries like Iran and India, accounting for 34.6% of female cancers. The Pakistani population is deficient in information regarding breast cancer etiology and epidemiology, but efforts done so far had suggested consanguinity as a major risk factor for frequent mutations leading to breast cancer and has also shed light on genetic origins in different ethnic groups within Pakistan. World-wide research efforts on different ethnicities have enhanced our understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer but despite these discoveries, 75% of the familial risk of breast cancer remains unexplained, highlighting the fact that the majority of breast cancer susceptibility genes remain unidentified. For this purpose Pakistani population provides a strong genetic pool to elucidate the genetic etiology of breast cancer because of cousin marriages. In this review, we describe the known breast cancer predisposition factors found in the local Pakistani population and the epidemiological research work done to emphasize the importance of exploring factors/variants contributing to breast cance, in order to prevent, cure and decrease its incidence in our country.

  10. A Global Cancer Surveillance Framework Within Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance: Making the Case for Population-Based Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Marion; Znaor, Ariana; Mery, Les; Bray, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    The growing burden of cancer among several major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) requires national implementation of tailored public health surveillance. For many emerging economies where emphasis has traditionally been placed on the surveillance of communicable diseases, it is critical to understand the specificities of NCD surveillance and, within it, of cancer surveillance. We propose a general framework for cancer surveillance that permits monitoring the core components of cancer control. We examine communalities in approaches to the surveillance of other major NCDs as well as communicable diseases, illustrating key differences in the function, coverage, and reporting in each system. Although risk factor surveys and vital statistics registration are the foundation of surveillance of NCDs, population-based cancer registries play a unique fundamental role specific to cancer surveillance, providing indicators of population-based incidence and survival. With an onus now placed on governments to collect these data as part of the monitoring of NCD targets, the integration of cancer registries into existing and future NCD surveillance strategies is a vital requirement in all countries worldwide. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development, endorsed by the World Health Organization, provides a means to enhance cancer surveillance capacity in low- and middle-income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Prevalence and Penetrance of Major Genes and Polygenes for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A.; Dowty, James G.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Lee, Andrew; Giles, Graham G.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loïc; Haile, Robert W.; Potter, John D.; Zheng, Yingye; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Hopper, John L.; MacInnis, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background While high-risk mutations in identified major susceptibility genes (DNA mismatch repair genes and MUTYH) account for some familial aggregation of colorectal cancer, their population prevalence and the causes of the remaining familial aggregation are not known. Methods We studied the families of 5,744 colorectal cancer cases (probands) recruited from population cancer registries in the USA, Canada and Australia and screened probands for mutations in mismatch repair genes and MUTYH. We conducted modified segregation analyses using the cancer history of first-degree relatives, conditional on the proband’s age at diagnosis. We estimated the prevalence of mutations in the identified genes, the prevalence of and hazard ratio for unidentified major gene mutations, and the variance of the residual polygenic component. Results We estimated that 1 in 279 of the population carry mutations in mismatch repair genes (MLH1= 1 in 1946, MSH2= 1 in 2841, MSH6= 1 in 758, PMS2= 1 in 714), 1 in 45 carry mutations in MUTYH, and 1 in 504 carry mutations associated with an average 31-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer in unidentified major genes. The estimated polygenic variance was reduced by 30–50% after allowing for unidentified major genes and decreased from 3.3 for age colorectal cancer. Impact Our findings could aid gene discovery and development of better colorectal cancer risk prediction models. PMID:27799157

  12. [Analysis on probability of premature death and cause eliminated life expectancy of major non-communicable diseases in Chongqing Municipality, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X B; Tang, W W; Mao, D Q; Jiao, Y; Shen, Z Z

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To analyze the premature death probability and cause-eliminated life expectancy of cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes in Chongqing residents in 2016 so as to provide recommendation for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevention and control in Chongqing. Methods: Death cases of Chongqing Municipality between January 1(st) and December 31(st), 2016 were reported through death case registry system of national center for disease prevention and control. Death cases were sorted by international classification of disease (ICD-10). Mortality rate, standardized mortality rate, constituent ratio, premature death probability, life expectancy, and cause-eliminated life expectancy of four major NCDs were analyzed. Results: A total of 218 004 death cases were reported in Chongqing, 2016, and the mortality rate was 731.73/100 000. Of them, a total of 179 637 death cases of the four major NCDs including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes were reported, accounting for 82.40% of all death cases. The mortality rate and standardized mortality rate of four major NCDs was 602.95/100 000 and 455.82/100 000, respectively. The premature death probability of four major NCDs was 15.96%, and males (25.39%) had a higher premature death probability than females (10.78%). The premature death probability of cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes were 6.01%, 8.32%, 2.05%, and 0.43%, respectively. Life expectancy would increase by 6.02, 3.19, 1.89, and 0.19 years, after eliminating cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes respectively. Conclusion: The premature death probability of major NCDs was high in Chongqing, and males had a higher premature death probability than females did. Intervention and health management of the population should be conducted according to different gender-based risk factors to reduce the premature death probability.

  13. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, Sandra H.; Hancock, Steven L.; Varghese, Anna; Cox, Richard S.; Hoppe, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites. Methods and Materials: Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. Follow-up averaged 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for a general population matched for age, sex, and race. Results: Gastrointestinal cancers developed in 25 patients. The incidence RR was 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.5] and mortality RR was 3.8 (CI, 2.4-4.7). Sites associated with significantly increased risks included the stomach [RR 7.3 (CI, 3.4-13.8)], small intestine [RR 11.6 (CI, 1.9-38.3)], and pancreas [RR 3.5 (CI, 1.1-8.5)]. Risk was significantly elevated after combined modality therapy, RR 3.9 (CI, 2.2-5.6). The risk after radiotherapy alone was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.4), not a statistically significant elevation. The RR for gastrointestinal cancer was greatest after treatment at young age and decreased with advancing age. It was significantly elevated within 10 years after treatment [RR 2.0 (CI, 1.1-3.5)] and increased further after 20 years [RR 6.1 (CI, 2.5-12.7)]. Risk assessed by attained age paralleled risk according to age at treatment. Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields. Conclusion: Patients treated for Hodgkin's disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age. Risk was highest more than 20 years after treatment, but was significantly elevated within 10 years. Gastrointestinal sites with increased risk included the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine

  14. Cancer-disease associations: A visualization and animation through medical big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Chun-Kung; Nguyen, Phung Anh Alex; Clinciu, Daniel Livius; Lu, Richard; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Wang, Yao-Chin; Huang, Chu-Ya; Huang, Chih-Wei; Chang, Yo-Cheng; Hsu, Min-Huei; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is the primary disease responsible for death and disability worldwide. Currently, prevention and early detection represents the best hope for cure. Knowing the expected diseases that occur with a particular cancer in advance could lead to physicians being able to better tailor their treatment for cancer. The aim of this study was to build an animated visualization tool called as Cancer Associations Map Animation (CAMA), to chart the association of cancers with other disease over time. The study population was collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database during the period January 2000 to December 2002, 782 million outpatient visits were used to compute the associations of nine major cancers with other diseases. A motion chart was used to quantify and visualize the associations between diseases and cancers. The CAMA motion chart that was built successfully facilitated the observation of cancer-disease associations across ages and genders. The CAMA system can be accessed online at http://203.71.86.98/web/runq16.html. The CAMA animation system is an animated medical data visualization tool which provides a dynamic, time-lapse, animated view of cancer-disease associations across different age groups and gender. Derived from a large, nationwide healthcare dataset, this exploratory data analysis tool can detect cancer comorbidities earlier than is possible by manual inspection. Taking into account the trajectory of cancer-specific comorbidity development may facilitate clinicians and healthcare researchers to more efficiently explore early stage hypotheses, develop new cancer treatment approaches, and identify potential effect modifiers or new risk factors associated with specific cancers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. [Thyroid cancer in patients with Grave's Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mssrouri, R; Benamr, S; Essadel, A; Mdaghri, J; Mohammadine, El H; Lahlou, M-K; Taghy, A; Belmahi, A; Chad, B

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients operated on for Graves' disease, to identify criteria which may predict malignancy, and to develop a practical approach to determine the extensiveness of thyroidectomy. Retrospective study of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy for Graves' disease between 1995 and 2005. 547 patients underwent subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease during this period. Post-operative pathology examination revealed six cases of thyroid cancer (1.1%). All six cases had differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary carcinoma in 3 cases, follicular carcinoma in 2 cases and papillo-follicular carcinoma in 1 case). The indication for initial thyroidectomy was a palpable thyroid nodule in 3 cases (50%), failure of medical treatment for Grave's disease in 2 cases (33%), and signs of goiter compression in 1 case (17%). Five patients underwent re-operative total thyroidectomy. This study shows that while malignancy in Grave's disease is uncommon, the presence of thyroid nodule(s) in patients with Grave's disease may be considered as an indication for radical surgery. The most adequate radical surgery in this situation is to perform a total thyroidectomy.

  16. Inequalities in non-communicable diseases between the major population groups in Israel: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Green, Manfred S; Soskolne, Varda; Neumark, Yehuda

    2017-06-24

    Israel is a high-income country with an advanced health system and universal health-care insurance. Overall, the health status has improved steadily over recent decades. We examined differences in morbidity, mortality, and risk factors for selected non-communicable diseases (NCDs) between subpopulation groups. Between 1975 and 2014, life expectancy in Israel steadily increased and is currently above the average life expectancy for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Nevertheless, life expectancy has remained lower among Israeli Arabs than Israeli Jews, and this gap has recently widened. Age-adjusted mortality as a result of heart disease, stroke, or diabetes remains higher in Arabs, whereas age-adjusted incidence and mortality of cancer were higher among Jews. The prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in Israel is considerably higher among Arabs than Jews. Smoking prevalence is highest for Arab men and lowest for Arab women. Health inequalities are also evident by the indicators of socioeconomic position and in subpopulations, such as immigrants from the former Soviet Union, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and Bedouin Arabs. Despite universal health coverage and substantial improvements in the overall health of the Israeli population, substantial inequalities in NCDs persist. These differences might be explained, at least in part, by gaps in social determinants of health. The Ministry of Health has developed comprehensive programmes to reduce these inequalities between the major population groups. Sustained coordinated multisectoral efforts are needed to achieve a greater impact and to address other social inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Significant progress has been made in the prevention, control, and elimination of human parasitic diseases in China in the past 60 years. However, parasitic diseases of poverty remain major causes of morbidity and mortality, and inflict enormous economic costs on societies.In this article, we review the prevalence rates, geographical distributions, epidemic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of parasitic diseases of poverty listed in the first issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty on 25 October 2012. We also address the challenges facing control of parasitic diseases of poverty and provide suggestions for better control.

  18. Major reduction in 30-day mortality after elective colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For years, the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery has been inferior in Denmark compared to its neighbouring countries. Several strategies have been initiated in Denmark to improve CRC prognosis. We studied whether there has been any effect on postoperative mortality based...... on the information from a national database. METHODS: Patients who underwent elective major surgery for CRC in the period 2001-2011 were identified in the national Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database. Thirty-day mortality rates were calculated and factors with impact on mortality were identified using logistic...... the study period. CONCLUSION: The 30-day mortality rate after elective major surgery for CRC has decreased significantly in Denmark in the past decade. Laparoscopic surgical approach was associated with a reduction in mortality in colon cancer....

  19. The use of plant extracts to control the major disease and pest in mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Rutjens, A.J.; Kogel, de W.J.; Baar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Dry bubble disease and its spread by insects represents a major problem in the cultivation of mushrooms. Prevention of dry bubble disease and its vectors usually involves chemical crop protection. However, the use of chemical crop protection is becoming less acceptable. We expect that, within a few

  20. Nucleic acid toolkit: Potential diagnosis and treatment of major infectious diseases endemic in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Millroy, L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS and TB are among the major infectious diseases and defining public health problems in developing countries. This book aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and also provide an understanding of the pathology of these diseases. It also...

  1. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Islam; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Rady, Mohamad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-08-28

    Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle based delivery of MEL have been utilized to circumvent the issues. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the anticancer effects of bee venom and MEL on different kinds of cancers. Further, we also present the available information for the possible mechanism of action of bee venom and/or MEL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of miRNA Let-7 and Its Major Targets in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is worldwide the sixth leading cause of cancer related death in men thus early detection and successful treatment are still of major interest. The commonly performed screening of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA is controversially discussed, as in many patients the prostate-specific antigen levels are chronically elevated in the absence of cancer. Due to the unsatisfying efficiency of available prostate cancer screening markers and the current treatment outcome of the aggressive hormone refractory prostate cancer, the evaluation of novel molecular markers and targets is considered an issue of high importance. MicroRNAs are relatively stable in body fluids orchestrating simultaneously the expression of many genes. These molecules are currently discussed to bear a greater diagnostic potential than protein-coding genes, being additionally promising therapeutic drugs and/or targets. Herein we review the potential impact of the microRNA let-7 family on prostate cancer and show how deregulation of several of its target genes could influence the cellular equilibrium in the prostate gland, promoting cancer development as they do in a variety of other human malignant neoplasias.

  3. Oligometastatic Disease in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer - How to Proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Berlth, Felix; Plum, Patrick S; Betzler, Christopher; Stippel, Dirk L; Popp, Felix; Bruns, Christiane J

    2017-03-01

    In the present study we review and discuss the current evidence and suggest how to proceed in the management of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer. An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant articles was performed. Both the search for 'oligometastasis', 'oligometastases', 'oligometastatic', 'oligometastatic disease' as well as 'esophageal' and 'esophageal cancer' and the search for 'oligometastasis', 'oligometastases', 'oligometastatic', 'oligometastatic disease' as well as 'gastric', 'gastric cancer', 'stomach', and 'stomach cancer' yielded very few studies. Most data need to be extrapolated in general studies on oligometastatic diseases of different origins. No randomized controlled trial could be found. In the absence of data to formulate recommendations on how to proceed in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer, a more aggressive treatment of oligometastatic disease can be considered in patients whose tumors show a more favorable neoplastic behavior after the 'test of time'. The RENAISSANCE study will certainly deliver important data regarding this aspect.

  4. Onco-nephrology: an appraisal of the cancer and chronic kidney disease links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzedine, Hassan; Perazella, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    A bidirectional relationship has been observed for kidney disease and cancer. On the one hand, cancer is an important complication noted in kidney disease as well as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this group. On the other hand, improved cancer treatment has prolonged survival, but also increased the development of acute and chronic kidney disease. The combination of cancer and kidney disease makes it challenging for clinicians to provide comprehensive and safe therapies for this group of patients. As such, clinicians caring for this group must develop expertise and become competent in the practice of a newly evolving subspecialty of nephrology known as 'onco-nephrology'. This brief narrative review will focus on the cancer risk in patients with underlying kidney disease, the therapies such as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on cancer progression and other outcomes, and the appropriate dosing of anti-cancer agents in patients with underlying kidney disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  5. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  6. Predictive factors of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Meng; Wu, Mu Chao; Shang, Chang Zhen; Wang, Xiao Yi; Zhang, Jing Lu; Cheng, Hua; Xu, Ming Tong; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The best preoperative examination in Graves' disease with thyroid cancer still remains uncertain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease patients, and to identify the predictive factors and ultrasonographic features of thyroid cancer that may aid the preoperative diagnosis in Graves' disease. This retrospective study included 423 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgical treatment from 2002 to 2012 at our institution. The clinical features and ultrasonographic findings of thyroid nodules were recorded. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was determined according to the pathological results. Thyroid cancer was discovered in 58 of the 423 (13.7 %) surgically treated Graves' disease patients; 46 of those 58 patients had thyroid nodules, and the other 12 patients were diagnosed with incidentally discovered thyroid carcinomas without thyroid nodules. Among the 58 patients with thyroid cancer, papillary microcarcinomas were discovered in 50 patients, and multifocality and lymph node involvement were detected in the other 8 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed younger age was the only significant factor predictive of metastatic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonographic findings of calcification and intranodular blood flow in thyroid nodules indicate that they are more likely to harbor thyroid cancers. Because the influencing factor of metastatic thyroid cancers in Graves' disease is young age, every suspicious nodule in Graves' disease patients should be evaluated and treated carefully, especially in younger patients because of the potential for metastasis.

  7. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2016: 10-year special edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Miseon; Kim, Kidong; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Jae Weon

    2017-05-01

    In 2016, 13 topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, study results supporting previous ones regarding surgical preventive strategies were reported. There were several targeted agents that showed comparable responses in phase III trials, including niraparib, cediranib, and nintedanib. On the contrary to our expectations, dose-dense weekly chemotherapy regimen failed to prove superior survival outcomes compared with conventional triweekly regimen. Single-agent non-platinum treatment to prolong platinum-free-interval in patients with recurrent, partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer did not improve and even worsened overall survival (OS). For cervical cancer, we reviewed robust evidences of larger-scaled population-based study and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent vaccine for expanding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage. Standard of care treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) was briefly reviewed. For uterine corpus cancer, new findings about appropriate surgical wait time from diagnosis to surgery were reported. Advantages of minimally invasive surgery over conventional laparotomy were reconfirmed. There were 5 new gene regions that increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Regarding radiation therapy, Post-Operative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC)-3 quality of life (QOL) data were released and higher local control rate of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy was reported in LACC. In addition, 4 general oncology topics followed: chemotherapy at the end-of-life, immunotherapy with reengineering T-cells, actualization of precision medicine, and artificial intelligence (AI) to make personalized cancer therapy real. For breast cancer, adaptively randomized trials, extending aromatase inhibitor therapy, and ribociclib and palbociclib were introduced. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  8. Cardio-Vascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mitchell-Fearon DrPh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the level of utilization of clinical preventive services by older adults in Jamaica and to identify independent factors associated with utilization. Method: A nationally representative, community-based survey of 2,943 older adults was undertaken. Utilization frequency for six preventive, cardiovascular or cancer-related services was calculated. Logistic regression models were used to determine the independent factors associated with each service. Results: A dichotomy in annual utilization rates exists with cardiovascular services having much higher uptake than those for cancer (83.1% for blood pressure, 76.7% blood glucose, 68.1% cholesterol, 35.1% prostate, 11.3% mammograms, and 9.6% papanicolaou smears. Age, source of routine care, and having a chronic disease were most frequently associated with uptake. Discussion: Education of providers and patients on the need for utilizing preventive services in older adults is important. Improved access to services in the public sector may also help increase uptake of services.

  9. The major stressful life events and cancer: stress history and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Karalar, Umran; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Keskin, Serkan; Can, Gulbeyaz; Cinar, Fatma Ebru

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the extent of stressful life events' etiology and to compare socio-demographic and medical characteristics of the presence and absence of stress in Turkish cancer patients. Patients with cancer who attended ambulatory patient care units answered the questionnaires. Medical information was reviewed from chart data. The study population comprised 465 women (60.5%) and 303 men (39.5%), in total 768 cases. The median age was 53 years, ranging between 18 and 94. Three-hundred and twenty patients (41.7%) had at least one type of stress since last year of the time of initial diagnosis. Among patients had stress, the median number of stress modalities presented was 1 (range 1-6). Death, lack of livelihood, quarrel, illness, and debt almost always consisted of stress types. History of stress within last year was found more in women (66.3% vs. 56.5%, P = 0.006) and overweight patients (57.5% vs. 47.2%, P = 0.005). Similarly, among cancer types, only patients with breast cancer (41.9% vs. 31.7%, P = 0.04) had lived more stressful situation. However, the married patients (72.2% vs. 80.6%, P = 0.03) had less stress. Patients with gastric cancer had more frequent debt (29.0%, P history (21.4%, P = 0.001). Additionally, in lung cancer patients, their rate of livelihood difficulty was highly less than average (2.4%, P = 0.003). We found that overweight patients had more illness history (68.9% vs. 51.6%, P = 0.004), patients who were not working had more death history (89.7% vs. 78%, P = 0.01), and female patients had more quarrel history (78.2% vs. 60.5%, P = 0.002). Likewise, history of debt in patients who is a member of large family (56.2% vs. 27.4%, P = 0.01) was more frequent. Additionally, the lack of livelihood was prominent in urban patients (92.8% vs. 78.6%, P = 0.002) and in patients with low income (48.5% vs. 66.7%, P = 0.004). The question of whether or not psychological factors originated from stressful life events have an

  10. Prevalence and relationship between major depressive disorder and lung cancer: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneeton B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Jirayu Reungyos,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Samornsri Leelarphat,1 Sumitra Thongprasert21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD in lung cancer patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the oncology clinic of the University Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Patients with all stages of lung cancer were included in this study. Demographic data of eligible patients were gathered. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Thai version 5.0.0 was used to identify MDD. The Thai version of the Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale was used to assess depression severity.Results: A total of 146 lung cancer patients from the outpatient clinic from July to December 2012 were approached. The 104 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, 14.4% of them were defined as having MDD. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Chalder Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly correlated with MDD in lung cancer patients.Conclusion: The results suggest that MDD is more prevalent in lung cancer patients. In addition, fatigue, poor quality of life, and sleep disturbance may increase associated MDD. Because of the small sample size, further studies should be conducted to confirm these results.Keywords: lung cancer, major depressive disorder, prevalence

  11. The Expression of MTUS1/ATIP and Its Major Isoforms, ATIP1 and ATIP3, in Human Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Simon N.S., E-mail: simonnsl@unimelb.edu.au; Chow, Laurie T.C.; Varghayee, Naghmeh; Rezmann, Linda A.; Frauman, Albert G.; Louis, William J. [Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg 3084, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-10-11

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector of the renin angiotensin system, acts upon two distinct transmembrane receptors, the Ang II type 1 and the type 2 (AT{sub 2}-) receptor, to induce promotion and inhibition of ERK2 phosphorylation. The AT{sub 2}-receptor, through an interaction with its putative signaling partner MTUS1/ATIP (AT{sub 2}-receptor interacting protein), inhibits the mitogenic effects of EGF in prostate cancer cell lines representing both early and late stage disease. This is the first report on the expression of ATIP in normal and malignant human prostatic biopsies. The expression of ATIP and its major isoforms, ATIP1 and ATIP3, in normal prostatic cells and three prostate cancer cell lines was examined using QPCR and immunohistochemistry. Human biopsies containing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and well, moderately and poorly differentiated prostate cancer were also examined. Overall, ATIP1 and ATIP3 mRNA expression was increased in malignant compared to normal tissues and cell lines. ATIP immunostaining was low or absent in both the basal and columnar epithelial cell layers surrounding BPH acini; however, it was observed in high concentration in neoplastic epithelial cells of HGPIN and was clearly evident in cytoplasms of malignant cells in all prostate cancer grades. ATIP immunostaining was also identified in the cytoplasms of LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. As the AT{sub 2}-receptor/ATIP inhibitory signaling pathway exists in malignant cells in all grades of prostate cancer, enhancement of this pathway may be a therapeutic target even after the development of androgen-independence.

  12. The Expression of MTUS1/ATIP and Its Major Isoforms, ATIP1 and ATIP3, in Human Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, Simon N.S.; Chow, Laurie T.C.; Varghayee, Naghmeh; Rezmann, Linda A.; Frauman, Albert G.; Louis, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector of the renin angiotensin system, acts upon two distinct transmembrane receptors, the Ang II type 1 and the type 2 (AT 2 -) receptor, to induce promotion and inhibition of ERK2 phosphorylation. The AT 2 -receptor, through an interaction with its putative signaling partner MTUS1/ATIP (AT 2 -receptor interacting protein), inhibits the mitogenic effects of EGF in prostate cancer cell lines representing both early and late stage disease. This is the first report on the expression of ATIP in normal and malignant human prostatic biopsies. The expression of ATIP and its major isoforms, ATIP1 and ATIP3, in normal prostatic cells and three prostate cancer cell lines was examined using QPCR and immunohistochemistry. Human biopsies containing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and well, moderately and poorly differentiated prostate cancer were also examined. Overall, ATIP1 and ATIP3 mRNA expression was increased in malignant compared to normal tissues and cell lines. ATIP immunostaining was low or absent in both the basal and columnar epithelial cell layers surrounding BPH acini; however, it was observed in high concentration in neoplastic epithelial cells of HGPIN and was clearly evident in cytoplasms of malignant cells in all prostate cancer grades. ATIP immunostaining was also identified in the cytoplasms of LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. As the AT 2 -receptor/ATIP inhibitory signaling pathway exists in malignant cells in all grades of prostate cancer, enhancement of this pathway may be a therapeutic target even after the development of androgen-independence

  13. Evaluating a healthcare data warehouse for cancer diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sheta, Dr. Osama E.; Eldeen, Ahmed Nour

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of the architecture of healthcare data warehouse specific to cancer diseases. This data warehouse containing relevant cancer medical information and patient data. The data warehouse provides the source for all current and historical health data to help executive manager and doctors to improve the decision making process for cancer patients. The evaluation model based on Bill Inmon's definition of data warehouse is proposed to evaluate the Cancer data warehouse.

  14. Chronic diseases among older cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckx, L.; Akker, M. van den; Metsemakers, J.; Knottnerus, A.; Schellevis, F.; Buntinx, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare the occurrence of pre-existing and subsequent comorbidity among older cancer patients (≥60 years) with older non-cancer patients. Material and Methods. Each cancer patient (n = 3835, mean age 72) was matched with four non-cancer patients in terms of age, sex, and practice. The

  15. Transcriptomic alterations during ageing reflect the shift from cancer to degenerative diseases in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramillo Irizar, Peer; Schäuble, Sascha; Esser, Daniela; Groth, Marco; Frahm, Christiane; Priebe, Steffen; Baumgart, Mario; Hartmann, Nils; Marthandan, Shiva; Menzel, Uwe; Müller, Julia; Schmidt, Silvio; Ast, Volker; Caliebe, Amke; König, Rainer; Krawczak, Michael; Ristow, Michael; Schuster, Stefan; Cellerino, Alessandro; Diekmann, Stephan; Englert, Christoph; Hemmerich, Peter; Sühnel, Jürgen; Guthke, Reinhard; Witte, Otto W; Platzer, Matthias; Ruppin, Eytan; Kaleta, Christoph

    2018-01-30

    Disease epidemiology during ageing shows a transition from cancer to degenerative chronic disorders as dominant contributors to mortality in the old. Nevertheless, it has remained unclear to what extent molecular signatures of ageing reflect this phenomenon. Here we report on the identification of a conserved transcriptomic signature of ageing based on gene expression data from four vertebrate species across four tissues. We find that ageing-associated transcriptomic changes follow trajectories similar to the transcriptional alterations observed in degenerative ageing diseases but are in opposite direction to the transcriptomic alterations observed in cancer. We confirm the existence of a similar antagonism on the genomic level, where a majority of shared risk alleles which increase the risk of cancer decrease the risk of chronic degenerative disorders and vice versa. These results reveal a fundamental trade-off between cancer and degenerative ageing diseases that sheds light on the pronounced shift in their epidemiology during ageing.

  16. Overall major histocompatibility complex class I expression is not downregulated in cervix cancer, as detected by immunoelectron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, MA; Roovers, JP; Oorschot, [No Value; Geuze, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in cervix cancer has been proposed as a mechanism for cancer cells to escape immunodetection. By means of light microscopic immunohistochemistry, it has been shown that in 20-70% of cervix cancers MHC class I is

  17. Fragmentation of Care after Surgical Discharge: Non-Index Readmission after Major Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaoyi; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Shara, Nawar M; Langan, Russell C; Hong, Young; Johnson, Lynt B; Al-Refaie, Waddah B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite national emphasis on care coordination, little is known about how fragmentation affects cancer surgery outcomes. Our study examines a specific form of fragmentation in post-discharge care—readmission to a hospital different from the location of the operation—and evaluates its causes and consequences among patients readmitted after major cancer surgery. STUDY DESIGN We used the State Inpatient Database of California (2004 to 2011) to identify patients who had major cancer surgery and their subsequent readmissions. Logistic models were used to examine correlates of non-index readmissions and to assess associations between location of readmission and outcomes, measured by in-hospital mortality and repeated readmission. RESULTS Of 9,233 readmissions within 30 days of discharge after major cancer surgery, 20.0% occurred in non-index hospitals. Non-index readmissions were associated with emergency readmission (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63; 95% CI, 2.26–3.06), rural residence (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.61–2.04), and extensive procedures (eg hepatectomy vs proctectomy; OR = 2.77; CI, 2.08–3.70). Mortality was higher during non-index readmissions than index readmissions independent of patient, procedure, and hospital factors (OR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03–1.66), but was mitigated by adjusting for conditions present at readmission (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 0.98–1.58). Non-index readmission predicted higher odds of repeated readmission within 60 days of discharge from the first readmission (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02–1.32), independent of all covariates. CONCLUSIONS Non-index readmissions constitute a substantial proportion of all readmissions after major cancer surgery. They are associated with more repeated readmissions and can be caused by severe surgical complications and increased travel burden. Overcoming disadvantages of non-index readmissions represents an opportunity to improve outcomes for patients having major cancer surgery. PMID:27016905

  18. Priority Settings in patients with Chronic Diseases and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arreskov, Anne Beiter; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Søndergaard, Jens

    Priority setting in patients with cancer and comorbidities Background and aim As both the cancer incidence and the number of patients diagnosed with chronic diseases are increasing, a growing population of cancer survivors will also deal with comorbid chronic diseases. The period after completed...... to comorbidities. Some studies show that participation in regular follow-up consultations concerning comorbid chronic diseases and lifestyle are lower among cancer survivors than non-cancer patients. This could be explained by changes in the patient’s priority setting or in the doctor’s priority and attempt...... to spare the patient for further treatment burden, perhaps resulting in comorbidities falling down the agenda. The overall purpose is to explore patients’ and doctors’ priority settings of comorbidities in patients who have been diagnosed with non-metastatic cancer. Method: The study will consist of three...

  19. Periodontal disease may be associated with oral and gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Zoann

    2010-12-01

    The association between periodontal disease and cancer:a review of the literature. Fitzpatrick SG, Katz J.J Dent 2010;38(2):83-95. Epub 2009 Nov 4. Zoann Nugent, Ph. D. To assess the published research to date on the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. Information not available. Comprehensive literature review. Level 3: Other evidence. Grade C: Consensus, disease-oriented evidence, expert opinion.

  20. Incidence, Distribution and Characteristics of Major Tomato Leaf Curl and Mosaic Virus Diseases in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ssekyewa, C

    2006-01-01

    In Uganda, about 3 million households consume tomato. However, tomato yields (10 ton/ ha) are low due to poor agronomic practices, lack of high yielding and disease resistant varieties, and pests (Varela, 1995; Hansen, 1990; Defrancq, 1989). Viral diseases are the third major cause of low tomato productivity in Uganda. Therefore, a survey was conducted; symptoms observed on tomato were categorized, and screened for both ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid tomato viruses. Genetic identity fo...

  1. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P; Hu, F B; Hansen, H; Wolk, A

    2001-12-15

    A number of prospective cohort studies have examined the relations of individual dietary variables to risk of colorectal cancer. Few studies have addressed the broader eating patterns that reflect many dietary exposures working together. Using data from a prospective study of 61,463 women, with an average follow-up period of 9.6 years (between 1987 and 1998) and 460 incident cases of colorectal cancer, the authors conducted a factor analysis to identify and examine major dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Using proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks, the authors found no clear association between a "Western," "healthy," or "drinker" dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. However, the data suggested that consuming low amounts of foods that constitute a "healthy" dietary pattern may be associated with increased risks of colon and rectal cancers. An inverse association with the "healthy" dietary pattern was found among women under age 50 years, although the number of cancers in this age group was limited and interpretation of this finding should be cautious. In this age group, relative risks for women in increasing quintiles of the "healthy" dietary pattern, compared with the lowest quintile, were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 1.31), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.39, 1.24), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.32, 1.07), and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.23, 0.88) (p for trend = 0.03). The role of overall eating patterns in predicting colorectal cancer risk requires further investigation.

  2. Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, D; Bianchi, M; Landegren, N; Nordin, J; Dalin, F; Mathioudaki, A; Eriksson, G N; Hultin-Rosenberg, L; Dahlqvist, J; Zetterqvist, H; Karlsson, Å; Hallgren, Å; Farias, F H G; Murén, E; Ahlgren, K M; Lobell, A; Andersson, G; Tandre, K; Dahlqvist, S R; Söderkvist, P; Rönnblom, L; Hulting, A-L; Wahlberg, J; Ekwall, O; Dahlqvist, P; Meadows, J R S; Bensing, S; Lindblad-Toh, K; Kämpe, O; Pielberg, G R

    2016-12-01

    Autoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology. To understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls. We identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 × 10 -15 , MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex. Whilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. Burden of Geriatric Events Among Older Adults Undergoing Major Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Saliba, Debra; Kwan, Lorna; Moore, Alison A; Litwin, Mark S

    2016-04-10

    Most malignancies are diagnosed in older adults who are potentially susceptible to aging-related health conditions; however, the manifestation of geriatric syndromes during surgical cancer treatment is not well quantified. Accordingly, we sought to assess the prevalence and ramifications of geriatric events during major surgery for cancer. Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2009 to 2011, we examined hospital admissions for major cancer surgery among elderly patients (ie, age ≥ 65 years) and a referent group age 55 to 64 years. From these observations, we identified geriatric events that included delirium, dehydration, falls and fractures, failure to thrive, and pressure ulcers. We then estimated the collective prevalence of these events according to age, comorbidity, and cancer site and further explored their relationship with other hospital-based outcomes. Within a weighted sample of 939,150 patients, we identified at least one event in 9.2% of patients. Geriatric events were most common among patients age ≥ 75 years, with a Charlson comorbidity score ≥ 2, and who were undergoing surgery for cancer of the bladder, ovary, colon and/or rectum, pancreas, or stomach (P geriatric event had a greater likelihood of concurrent complications (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 3.55 to 3.92), prolonged hospitalization (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 5.16 to 5.80), incurring high cost (OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 4.58 to 5.39), inpatient mortality (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.94 to 3.53), and a discharge disposition other than home (OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 3.46 to 3.84). Many older patients who receive cancer-directed surgery experience a geriatric event, particularly those who undergo major abdominal surgery. These events are linked to operative morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and more expensive health care. As our population ages, efforts focused on addressing conditions and complications that are more common in older adults will be essential to delivering high-quality cancer care. © 2016 by

  4. Insignificant disease among men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Vertosick, Emily; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2014-12-01

    A paucity of data exists on the insignificant disease potentially suitable for active surveillance (AS) among men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa). We tried to identify pathologically insignificant disease and its preoperative predictors in men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for intermediate-risk PCa. We analyzed data of 1,630 men who underwent RP for intermediate-risk disease. Total tumor volume (TTV) data were available in 332 men. We examined factors associated with classically defined pathologically insignificant cancer (organ-confined disease with TTV ≤0.5 ml with no Gleason pattern 4 or 5) and pathologically favorable cancer (organ-confined disease with no Gleason pattern 4 or 5) potentially suitable for AS. Decision curve analysis was used to assess clinical utility of a multivariable model including preoperative variables for predicting pathologically unfavorable cancer. In the entire cohort, 221 of 1,630 (13.6 %) total patients had pathologically favorable cancer. Among 332 patients with TTV data available, 26 (7.8 %) had classically defined pathologically insignificant cancer. Between threshold probabilities of 20 and 40 %, decision curve analysis demonstrated that using multivariable model to identify AS candidates would not provide any benefit over simply treating all men who have intermediate-risk disease with RP. Although a minority of patients with intermediate-risk disease may harbor pathologically favorable or insignificant cancer, currently available conventional tools are not sufficiently able to identify those patients.

  5. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work.

  6. Major Depression, C-Reactive Protein, and Incident Ischemic Heart Disease in Healthy Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surtees, Paul G.; Wainwright, Nicholas W. J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how C-reactive protein (CRP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) relate to each other and to incident ischemic heart disease (IHD). Studies have shown that both depression and raised CRP concentration predict IHD and that elevated CRP is linked with increased risk of

  7. Predictors for major cardiovascular outcomes in stable ischaemic heart disease (PREMAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Per; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hilden, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the predictors for major cardiovascular outcomes in stable ischaemic Heart disease (PREMAC) study is exploratory and hypothesis generating. We want to identify biochemical quantities which—conditionally on the values of available standard demographic, anamnestic, and biochemical data...

  8. Negative cancer stereotypes and disease-specific self-concept in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janice C; Payne, Ada Y M; Mah, Kenneth; Lebel, Sophie; Lee, Ruth N F; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary; Devins, Gerald M

    2013-05-01

    Life-threatening diseases, such as head and neck cancer (HNCa), can stimulate the emergence of a new disease-specific self-concept. We hypothesized that (i) negative cancer-stereotypes invoke distancing, which inhibits the adoption of a disease-specific self-concept and (ii) patient characteristics, disease and treatment factors, and cancer-related stressors moderate the phenomenon. Head and neck cancer outpatients (N = 522) completed a semantic-differential measure of disease-specific self-concept (perceived similarity to the 'cancer patient') and other self-report measures in structured interviews. Negative cancer-stereotypes were represented by the number of semantic-differential dimensions (0-3) along which respondents evaluated the stereotypic 'cancer patient' negatively (i.e., negative valence). We tested the two-way interactions between negative valence and hypothesized moderator variables. We observed significant negative valence × moderator interactions for the following: (i) patient characteristics (education, employment, social networks); (ii) disease and treatment factors (cancer-symptom burden); and (iii) cancer-related stressors (uncertainty, lack of information, and existential threats). Negative cancer stereotypes were consistently associated with distancing of self from the stereotypic 'cancer patient,' but the effect varied across moderator variables. All significant moderators (except employment and social networks) were associated with increasing perceived similarity to the 'cancer patient' when respondents maintained negative stereotypes; perceived similarity decreased when people were employed or had extensive social networks. Moderator effects were less pronounced when respondents did not endorse negative cancer stereotypes. When they hold negative stereotypes, people with HNCa distance themselves from a 'cancer patient' identity to preserve self-esteem or social status, but exposure to cancer-related stressors and adaptive demands may

  9. Breast cancer screening utilization among women from Muslim majority countries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kim, Eliane; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Ellison, Lisa; Graves, Erin; Glazier, Richard H

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer screening disparities continue to prevail with immigrant women being at the forefront of the under screened population. There is a paucity of knowledge about the role of religious affiliation or cultural orientation on immigrant women's cancer screening uptake. This study examined differences in uptake of breast cancer screening among women from Muslim and non- Muslim majority countries in Ontario, Canada. A cohort of 1,851,834 screening-eligible women living in Ontario during April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was created using linked health and social administrative databases. The study found that being born in a Muslim majority country was associated with lower breast cancer screening uptake after adjusting for region of origin, neighbourhood income, and primary care-related factors. However, screening uptake in Muslim majority countries varied by world region with the greatest differences found in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Screening uptake was lower for women who had no primary care provider, were in a traditional fee-for service model of primary care, had a male physician, had an internationally trained physician, resided in a low income neighbourhood, and entered Canada under the family class of immigration. Religion may play a role in screening uptake, however, the variation in rates by regions of origin, immigration class, and access to primary care providers alludes to confluence of socio-demographic, cultural beliefs and practices, immigration trajectories and system level factors. Facilitating access for immigrant women to regular primary care providers, particularly female providers and enrollment in primary care models could enhance screening uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of diabetes on the risks of major cardiovascular diseases and death in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, M; Zhang, X; Barzi, F; Pan, W; Ueshima, H; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S

    2003-02-01

    To provide reliable age- and region-specific estimates of the associations between diabetes and major cardiovascular diseases and death in populations from the Asia-Pacific region. Twenty-four cohort studies from Asia, Australia, and New Zealand (median follow-up, 5.4 years) provided individual participant data from 161,214 people (58% from Asia) of whom 4,873 had a history of diabetes at baseline. The associations of diabetes with the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cause-specific mortality during follow-up were estimated using time-dependent Cox models, stratified by study cohort and sex and adjusted for age at risk. In all, 9,277 deaths occurred (3,635 from cardiovascular disease). The hazard ratio (95% CI) associated with diabetes was 1.97 (1.72-2.25) for fatal cardiovascular disease; there were similar hazard ratios for fatal coronary heart disease, fatal stroke, and composites of fatal and nonfatal outcomes. For all cardiovascular outcomes, hazard ratios were similar in Asian and non-Asian populations and in men and women, but were greater in younger than older individuals. For noncardiovascular death, the hazard ratio was 1.56 (1.38-1.77), with separately significant increases in the risks of death from renal disease, cancer, respiratory infections, and other infective causes. The hazard ratio for all-causes mortality was 1.68 (1.55-1.84), with similar ratios in Asian and non-Asian populations, but with significantly higher ratios in younger than older individuals. The relative effect of diabetes on the risks of cardiovascular disease and death in Asian populations is much the same as that in the largely Caucasian populations of Australia and New Zealand. Hazard ratios were severalfold greater in younger people than older people. The rapidly growing prevalence of diabetes in Asia heralds a large increase in the incidence of diabetes-related death in the coming decades.

  11. EGH-3 non-cancer diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.

    2005-01-01

    The eight major issues addressed by EGH-3 are Cataracts, Cardiovascular diseases, Cytogenetic markers and significance, Immunological system effects, Heritable effects, birth defects, children's health, Mental, psychological and nervous system effects, Mortality due to the accident and Medical programs and medical monitoring. Major conclusions: Cataracts: possible lower doses-more research. Cardiovascular: possible effect, more research. Cytogenetic markers: For dose/risk estimate and there is no direct health effect. Immunological: Confused conflicting laboratory data and no definite clinical effect. Congenital malformations/ Infant mortality / children's health: no definite increase due to radiation. The high infant mortality is a general public health concern. Issues about psychological aspect of those exposed as children and adolescents Mortality- possibly thousands over time due to accident but hard to detect on current mortality background and changes. High in general population with significantly reduced lifespan over last decade. Multiple stressors: Need overall look at overall mental health programs in light of substance abuse, suicide etc. Medical follow-up of highly exposed should be continued. Screening for exposed populations should be reconsidered and may be better used for other general public health areas of concern

  12. Cancer: a single disease with a multitude of manifestions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandics Peter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationships of critical nutrients such as plant phenolics, vitamins, minerals and lipids are considered with respect to the incidence of a variety of cancers, and analyzed in terms of how these nutrient deficiencies alter immune function, DNA integrity and cell proliferation. With a significant correlation found between cancer and these nutrient deficiencies, the hypothesis is presented here that nutrition could provide a unifying perception of cancer and recast it as a single disease. This further suggests that a coordinated administration of specific, critical nutrients to cancer patients could lead to the reversal of the disease. It is also proposed that the concurrent presence of a variety of nutritional deficiencies in cancer patients requires a multilevel, systemic approach to this disease as opposed to the single active therapeutic agent approach that is the cornerstone of contemporary research and pharmacology.

  13. Morbidity of ischemic heart disease in early breast cancer 15-20 years after adjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenes, G.; Rutqvist, L.E.; Fornander, T.; Carlens, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiac side effects, primarily the occurrence of ischemic heart disease, in symptom-free patients with early breast cancer treated with radiotherapy. Thirty-seven survivors of a former randomized study of early breast cancer were examined. Twenty patients irradiated pre- or postoperatively for left sided disease (study group patients) were compared with 17 controls who were either treated for right sided disease, or were nonirradiated patients. Radiotherapy was randomized in the original study; either tangential field 60 Co, or electron-therapy was delivered. Echocardiography and bicycle ergometry stress test with 99m Tc SestaMIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were carried out and the patients' major risk factors for ischemic heart disease were also listed. Our results showed a significant difference between the scintigraphic findings of the two groups. Five of the 20 study group patients (25%), while none of the 17 controls exhibited some kind of significant defects on scintigraphy, indicating ischemic heart disease (p < 0.05). No deterioration in left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic function could be detected by echocardiography. Radiotherapy for left sided breast cancer with the mentioned treatment technique may present as an independent risk factor in the long-term development of ischemic heart disease, while left ventricular dysfunction could not be related to the previous irradiation. The authors emphasize the need to optimize adjuvant radiotherapy for early breast cancer by considering the dose both to the heart as well as the cancer. 39 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  15. Trends of major disease outbreaks in the African region, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Senait; Duales, Sambe; Yokouide, Allarangar; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu

    2010-03-01

    Communicable disease outbreaks cause millions of deaths throughout Sub-Saharan Africa each year. Most of the diseases causing epidemics in the region have been nearly eradicated or brought under control in other parts of the world. In recent years, considerable effort has been directed toward public health initiatives and strategies with a potential for significant impact in the fight against infectious diseases. In 1998, the World Health Organization African Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) launched the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy aimed at mitigating the impact of communicable diseases, including epidemic-prone diseases, through improving surveillance, laboratory confirmation and appropriate and timely public health interventions. Over the past decade, WHO and its partners have been providing technical and financial resources to African countries to strengthen epidemic preparedness and response (EPR) activities. This review examined the major epidemics reported to WHO/AFRO from 2003 to 2007. we conduct a review of documents and reports obtained from WHO/AFRO, WHO inter-country team, and partners and held meeting and discussions with key stakeholders to elicit the experiences of local, regional and international efforts against these epidemics to evaluate the lessons learned and to stimulate discussion on the future course for enhancing EPR. The most commonly reported epidemic outbreaks in Africa include: cholera, dysentery, malaria and hemorrhagic fevers (e.g. Ebola, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo fever and yellow fever). The cyclic meningococcal meningitis outbreak that affects countries along the "meningitis belt" (spanning Sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal and The Gambia to Kenya and Ethiopia) accounts for other major epidemics in the region. The reporting of disease outbreaks to WHO/AFRO has improved since the launch of the IDSR strategy in 1998. Although the epidemic trends for cholera showed a decline in case fatality rate (CFR

  16. Serodiagnosis of Borrelia miyamotoi disease by measuring antibodies against GlpQ and variable major proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koetsveld, J.; Kolyasnikova, N. M.; Wagemakers, A.

    2018-01-01

    previously shown the differential expression of antigenic variable major proteins (Vmps) in B. miyamotoi, our aim was to study antibody responses against GlpQ and Vmps in PCR-proven BMD patients and controls. Methods: We assessed seroreactivity against GlpQ and four Vmps in a well-described, longitudinal......, and IgG between 21 and 50 days, after disease onset. Various combinations of GlpQ and Vmps increased sensitivity and/or specificity compared to single antigens. Notably, the GlpQ or variable large protein (Vlp)-15/16 combination yielded a sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI: 75.4–99.7) 11–20 days after disease......Objectives: Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is an emerging tick-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere. Serodiagnosis by measuring antibodies against glycerophosphodiester-phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) has been performed experimentally but has not been extensively clinically validated. Because we had...

  17. Betel nut usage is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-27

    The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease.

  18. Risk factors of major noncommunicable diseases in Bahrain. The need for a surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R

    2004-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases NCDs are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bahrain. The review examines the prevalence of risk factors of major NCDs from the available literature and determines the impact of the rapid socio economic changes on their burden. It further recommends ways of improving their reporting and monitoring. Smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, physical activity and nutrition are considered. The review points out that data on some of the factors is available but deficient for others. The call for the establishment of an integrated surveillance system using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach is stressed.

  19. [Results of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in hemoglobinopathies: thalassemia major and sickle cell disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, R; Elorza, I; Olivé, T; Dapena, J L; Llort, A; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Díaz de Heredia, C

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain is increasing as a result of immigration. Thalassemia major presents with chronic hemolytic anemia that requires regular red blood cell transfusions within the first year of life. Patients with sickle cell disease suffer from chronic anemia, vasculopathy and progressive damage in almost any organ. There is decreased life expectancy in both conditions. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation represents the only potentially curative option. Seventeen patients (fourteen thalassemia major, and three sickle cell disease) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. In the thalassemia group, nine donors were HLA-geno-identical siblings, two were partially matched related donors (one HLA allele mismatch), and three unrelated donors. All three patients with sickle cell disease were transplanted from HLA-geno-identical siblings. The source of stem cells was bone marrow in sixteen cases. Median patient age at transplant was six years (range: 1-16) in the thalassemia group, and twelve years (range: 8-15) in the sickle cell disease group. The graft was successful in all patients. Secondary graft rejection was observed in two thalassemia patients rendering them dependent on blood transfusions. Complete chimerism was observed in thirteen patients and, although mixed chimerism occurred in two, with all of them showing normal hemoglobin levels after transplantation and not requiring further transfusion support. Patients affected by sickle cell disease did not present with new vaso-occlusive crises, and stabilization of pulmonary and neurological function was observed. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was detected in three patients affected by thalassemia, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in five patients. We conclude that for thalassemia major and sickle cell disease, allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA-geno-identical siblings offers a high probability of complication-free survival

  20. Improving the quality of lung cancer care in Ontario: the lung cancer disease pathway initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Ung, Yee C; Assouad, Nathalie; Chyjek, Anna; Sawka, Carol

    2013-07-01

    Before 2008, Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) undertook provincial cancer control quality-improvement initiatives on a programmatic basis. CCO has now added Disease Pathway Management (DPM) to its quality improvement strategy, with the intent of achieving high-quality care, processes, and patient experience across the patient pathway for specific cancers. The three goals of DPM are: to describe and share evidence-based best practice along the cancer continuum for specific cancers; identify quality-improvement priorities for specific cancers and catalyze action; monitor performance against best practice for specific cancers. The objective of this article is to describe the process by which the CCO lung cancer (LC) DPM was initiated and some of its early successes. In 2009, LC DPM began with a draft LC disease pathway map and the establishment of five multidisciplinary working groups, each focused on a phase of the LC patient journey: prevention, screening, and early detection; diagnosis; treatment; palliative care, end-of-life care, and survivorship; and patient experience. The working groups held 25 meetings of 2-hour duration and developed concepts for 17 quality-improvement projects across the patient journey. Eight were selected for detailed discussion at a provincial consensus conference, which provided input on priorities for action. A report on the priorities for action was prepared and widely circulated, and regional roadshows were held in all 14 regions of the province of Ontario. Region-specific data on incidence, stage, treatment compliance, and wait times among other issues relevant to LC, were shared with the regional care providers at these roadshows. Funding was provided by CCO to address opportunities for regional improvement based on the data and the priorities identified. The LC disease pathways were refined through substantial multidisciplinary discussion, and the diagnostic pathway was posted on CCO's Web site in February 2012. The treatment pathways

  1. Distribution of major health risks: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rodgers

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Most analyses of risks to health focus on the total burden of their aggregate effects. The distribution of risk-factor-attributable disease burden, for example by age or exposure level, can inform the selection and targeting of specific interventions and programs, and increase cost-effectiveness.For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups conducted comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor exposure and hazard for 14 epidemiological subregions of the world, by age and sex. Age-sex-subregion-population attributable fractions were estimated and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database. Where possible, exposure levels were assessed as continuous measures, or as multiple categories. The proportion of risk-factor-attributable burden in different population subgroups, defined by age, sex, and exposure level, was estimated. For major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index, and physical inactivity 43%-61% of attributable disease burden occurred between the ages of 15 and 59 y, and 87% of alcohol-attributable burden occurred in this age group. Most of the disease burden for continuous risks occurred in those with only moderately raised levels, not among those with levels above commonly used cut-points, such as those with hypertension or obesity. Of all disease burden attributable to being underweight during childhood, 55% occurred among children 1-3 standard deviations below the reference population median, and the remainder occurred among severely malnourished children, who were three or more standard deviations below median.Many major global risks are widely spread in a population, rather than restricted to a minority. Population-based strategies that seek to shift the whole distribution of risk factors often have the potential to produce substantial reductions in disease burden.

  2. Disease management for chronic skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geer-Rutten (Simone)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a rapidly rising problem. In this thesis we show that an enormous gap exists between the official first primary figures available at cancer registries and the actual burden in a dermatology practice. NMSC needs to be regarded as a chronic

  3. Role of Peripheral Vascular Resistance for the Association Between Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjær, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Major depression and cardiovascular diseases are 2 of the most prevalent health problems in Western society, and an association between them is generally accepted. Although the specific mechanism behind this comorbidity remains to be elucidated, it is clear that it has a complex multifactorial....... The changes in arterial structure, contractile and relaxing functions associated with depression symptoms are discussed, and the role of these abnormalities for the pathology of major depression and cardiovascular diseases are suggested....... character including a number of neuronal, humoral, immune, and circulatory pathways. Depression-associated cardiovascular abnormalities associate with cardiac dysfunctions and with changes in peripheral resistance. Although cardiac dysfunction in association with depression has been studied in detail...

  4. NAD+ Deficits in Age-Related Diseases and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Amanda; Djouder, Nabil

    2017-08-01

    The phenomenon of aging has gained widespread attention in recent times. Although significant advances have been made to better understand aging and its related pathologies including cancer, there is not yet a clear mechanism explaining why diseases and cancer are inherent parts of the aging process. Finding a unifying equation that could bridge aging and its related diseases would allow therapeutic development and solve an immense human health problem to live longer and better. In this review, we discuss NAD + reduction as the central mechanism that may connect aging to its related pathologies and cancer. NAD + boosters would ensure and ameliorate health quality during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. First German disease management program for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    The first disease management program contract for breast cancer in Germany was signed in 2002 between the Association of Regional of Physicians in North-Rhine and the statutory health insurance companies in Rhineland. At the heart of this unique breast cancer disease management program is a patient-centered network of health care professionals. The program's main objectives are: (1) to improve the quality of treatment and post-operative care for breast cancer patients, (2) to provide timely information and consultation empowering the patient to participate in decisionmaking, (3) to improve the interface between inpatient and outpatient care, and (4) to increase the number of breast-conserving surgeries.

  6. Kufs disease, the major adult form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, caused by mutations in CLN6.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arsov, Todor

    2011-05-13

    The molecular basis of Kufs disease is unknown, whereas a series of genes accounting for most of the childhood-onset forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) have been identified. Diagnosis of Kufs disease is difficult because the characteristic lipopigment is largely confined to neurons and can require a brain biopsy or autopsy for final diagnosis. We mapped four families with Kufs disease for whom there was good evidence of autosomal-recessive inheritance and found two peaks on chromosome 15. Three of the families were affected by Kufs type A disease and presented with progressive myoclonus epilepsy, and one was affected by type B (presenting with dementia and motor system dysfunction). Sequencing of a candidate gene in one peak shared by all four families identified no mutations, but sequencing of CLN6, found in the second peak and shared by only the three families affected by Kufs type A disease, revealed pathogenic mutations in all three families. We subsequently sequenced CLN6 in eight other families, three of which were affected by recessive Kufs type A disease. Mutations in both CLN6 alleles were found in the three type A cases and in one family affected by unclassified Kufs disease. Mutations in CLN6 are the major cause of recessive Kufs type A disease. The phenotypic differences between variant late-infantile NCL, previously found to be caused by CLN6, and Kufs type A disease are striking; there is a much later age at onset and lack of visual involvement in the latter. Sequencing of CLN6 will provide a simple diagnostic strategy in this disorder, in which definitive identification usually requires invasive biopsy.

  7. Patients With Diabetic Foot Disease Fear Major Lower-Extremity Amputation More Than Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Dane K; Raspovic, Katherine M; Suder, Natalie C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most-feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), comparing those with diabetic foot pathology with those without diabetic foot pathology. We determined the frequency of patients ranking major lower-extremity amputation (LEA) as their greatest fear in comparison to blindness, death, diabetic foot infection (DFI), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. We further categorized the study group patients (N = 207) by their pathology such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Charcot neuroarthropathy, foot infection, or acute neuropathic fractures and dislocations. The control group (N = 254) was comprised of patients with diabetes who presented with common non-diabetes-related foot pathology. A total of 461 patients were enrolled in this study and included 254 patients without diabetic foot complications and 207 patients with diabetic foot problems. When comparing patients with and without diabetic disease, no significant differences were observed with regard to their fear of blindness, DFI, or ESRD requiring dialysis. Patients with diabetic foot disease (61 of 207, 31.9%) were 136% more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.51-3.70; P = .002] to rank major LEA as their greatest fear when compared with diabetic patients without foot disease (42 of 254, 16.5%) and were 49% less likely (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.34-0.79; P = .002) to rank death as their greatest fear compared with patients without diabetic foot disease. Patients with diabetic foot pathology fear major LEA more than death, foot infection, or ESRD. Variables that were associated with ranking LEA as the greatest fear were the presence of a diabetic-related foot complication, duration of DM ≥10 years, insulin use, and the presence of peripheral neuropathy. Level II: Prospective, Case controlled study.

  8. Long-term odor recognition memory in unipolar major depression and Alzheimer׳s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; Mondon, Karl; El-Hage, Wissam; Desmidt, Thomas; Jaafari, Nematollah; Belzung, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Hommet, Caroline; Atanasova, Boriana

    2014-12-30

    Major depression and Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) are often observed in the elderly. The identification of specific markers for these diseases could improve their screening. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term odor recognition memory in depressed and AD patients, with a view to identifying olfactory markers of these diseases. We included 20 patients with unipolar major depressive episodes (MDE), 20 patients with mild to moderate AD and 24 healthy subjects. We investigated the cognitive profile and olfactory memory capacities (ability to recognize familiar and unfamiliar odors) of these subjects. Olfactory memory test results showed that AD and depressed patients were characterized by significantly less correct responses and more wrong responses than healthy controls. Detection index did not differ significantly between patients with major depression and those with AD when the results were analyzed for all odors. However, MDE patients displayed an impairment of olfactory memory for both familiar and unfamiliar odors, whereas AD subjects were impaired only in the recognition of unfamiliar odors, with respect to healthy subjects. If preservation of olfactory memory for familiar stimuli in patients with mild to moderate AD is confirmed, this test could be used in clinical practice as a complementary tool for diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Course of disease and follow-up in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, F.; Hackl, H.; Hoermann, M.; Schneider, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides individual care, regular follow-up studies in breast cancer patients have different aims, relative to different tumor stages at presentation. In early stages emphasis has to be laid on detection of loco-regional recurrences, which will not reduce overall survival if diagnosed and treated early. In addition, treatment effects and changes in the activity of disease are evaluated. Radiographic studies for detection of distant metastases are justified if followed by proper treatment. Early diagnosis of cancer of the opposite breast and of such cancers that are associated with breast cancer (colon, ovaries, endometrium) is imperative. The aim of a regular follow-up in more advanced tumor stages is to monitor the extent of disease and to prevent complications (e.g. fractures, spinal cord compression). In familial breast cancer first degree relatives should be included in the follow-up plan. The patient's psychosocial needs, even if not verbalized, should not be neglected. (Author)

  10. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  11. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  12. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD

  13. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; De Clercq, Eva M; Amenu, Kebede; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Revie, Crawford W

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to map the global risk of the major arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus by identifying areas where the diseases are reported, either through active transmission or travel-related outbreaks, as well as areas where the diseases are not currently reported but are nonetheless suitable for the vector. Data relating to five arboviral diseases (Zika, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever (RVF)) were extracted from some of the largest contemporary databases and paired with data on the known distribution of their vectors, A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The disease occurrence data for the selected diseases were compiled from literature dating as far back as 1952 to as recent as 2017. The resulting datasets were aggregated at the country level, except in the case of the USA, where state-level data were used. Spatial analysis was used to process the data and to develop risk maps. Out of the 250 countries/territories considered, 215 (86%) are potentially suitable for the survival and establishment of A. aegypti and/or A. albopictus. A. albopictus has suitability foci in 197 countries/territories, while there are 188 that are suitable for A. aegypti. There is considerable variation in the suitability range among countries/territories, but many of the tropical regions of the world provide high suitability over extensive areas. Globally, 146 (58.4%) countries/territories reported at least one arboviral disease, while 123 (49.2%) reported more than one of the above diseases. The overall numbers of countries/territories reporting autochthonous vector-borne occurrences of Zika, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and RVF, were 85, 111, 106, 43, and 39, respectively. With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of

  14. Evidence of a major gene from Bayesian segregation analyses of liability to osteochondral diseases in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadarmideen, Haja N; Janss, Luc L G

    2005-11-01

    Bayesian segregation analyses were used to investigate the mode of inheritance of osteochondral lesions (osteochondrosis, OC) in pigs. Data consisted of 1163 animals with OC and their pedigrees included 2891 animals. Mixed-inheritance threshold models (MITM) and several variants of MITM, in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, were developed for the analysis of these (categorical) data. Results showed major genes with significant and substantially higher variances (range 1.384-37.81), compared to the polygenic variance (sigmau2). Consequently, heritabilities for a mixed inheritance (range 0.65-0.90) were much higher than the heritabilities from the polygenes. Disease allele frequencies range was 0.38-0.88. Additional analyses estimating the transmission probabilities of the major gene showed clear evidence for Mendelian segregation of a major gene affecting osteochondrosis. The variants, MITM with informative prior on sigmau2, showed significant improvement in marginal distributions and accuracy of parameters. MITM with a "reduced polygenic model" for parameterization of polygenic effects avoided convergence problems and poor mixing encountered in an "individual polygenic model." In all cases, "shrinkage estimators" for fixed effects avoided unidentifiability for these parameters. The mixed-inheritance linear model (MILM) was also applied to all OC lesions and compared with the MITM. This is the first study to report evidence of major genes for osteochondral lesions in pigs; these results may also form a basis for underpinning the genetic inheritance of this disease in other animals as well as in humans.

  15. Food system consequences of a fungal disease epidemic in a major crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman

    2016-12-05

    Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia. The epidemic and subsequent crop losses led to substantially increased global rice prices. However, as long as global commodity trade was unrestricted and able to respond fast enough, the effects on individual calorie consumption were, to a large part, mitigated. Some of the worse effects were projected to be experienced by poor net-rice importing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, which were not affected directly by the disease but suffered because of higher rice prices. We critique the assumptions of our models and explore political economic pressures to restrict trade at times of crisis. We finish by arguing for the importance of 'stress-testing' the resilience of the global food system to crop disease and other shocks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Bilateral breast cancer after cured Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.; Lokich, J. (New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-01-15

    Three patients developed bilateral breast cancer at 10 to 24 years after mantle irradiation for locally or systemically advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD). Four of the six cancers in the three patients were detected only by mammography. Pathologically, five of the cancers were intraductal carcinomas (four with an invasive component) with one being a lobular carcinoma. Five of the six lesions were Stage I pathologically without evidence of axillary nodal involvement. It is recommended that female patients with Hodgkin's disease who have received mantle irradiation as part of the therapy for their Hodgkin's disease and who are observed for 10 or more years after completion of mantle irradiation be considered at risk for the development of breast cancer. Such patients should be monitored appropriately by routine bilateral mammograms to increase the early detection of early stage lesions.

  17. Benign breast disease and risk of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael; Nassir, Rami; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Lane, Dorothy; Margolis, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that breast and thyroid diseases may be linked. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between benign breast disease and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer. Postmenopausal women (n = 133,875) aged 50-79 years were followed up for a mean of 14 years. Benign breast disease was defined by history of biopsy. Incident thyroid cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios. There were 370 incident thyroid cancer cases during the follow-up period. Compared to women without BBD, women with BBD had a significant increased risk of thyroid cancer after adjusting for potential confounders (HR 1.38 95% CI 1.10-1.73), especially for women with more than two biopsies (HR 1.59 95% CI 1.10-2.26). There were no significant differences in thyroid tumor size, stage or histologic types between women with and without BBD. Our large prospective study observed that postmenopausal women with BBD had an increased risk for thyroid cancer compared with women without BBD. A more detailed investigation of thyroid cancer risk according to different subtypes of benign breast disease is needed to better understand the association observed between thyroid and benign breast diseases.

  18. A multi-institutional analysis of 429 patients undergoing major hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastases: The impact of concomitant bile duct resection on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlewait, Lauren M; Squires, Malcolm H; Kooby, David A; Weber, Sharon M; Scoggins, Charles R; Cardona, Kenneth; Cho, Clifford S; Martin, Robert C G; Winslow, Emily R; Maithel, Shishir K

    2015-10-01

    Data are lacking on long-term outcomes of patients undergoing major hepatectomy requiring bile duct resection (BDR) for the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases. Patients who underwent major hepatectomy (≥3 segments) for metastatic colorectal cancer from 2000-2010 at three US academic institutions were included. The primary outcome was disease-specific survival (DSS). Of 429 patients, nine (2.1%) underwent BDR, which was associated with pre-operative portal vein embolization (25.0% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.049). There were no significant differences in age, ASA class, margin status, number of lesions, tumor size, cirrhosis, perineural invasion, or lymphovascular invasion. BDR was independently associated with increased postoperative major complications (OR: 6.22; 95%CI:1.44-26.97; P = 0.015). There were no differences in length of stay, reoperation, readmission, or 30-day mortality. Patients who underwent BDR had markedly decreased DSS (9.3 vs. 39.9 mo; P = 0.002). When accounting for differences between the two groups, the need for BDR was independently associated with reduced DSS (HR: 3.06; 95%CI:1.12-8.34; P = 0.029). Major hepatectomy with concomitant bile duct resection is seldom performed in patients undergoing resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases and is associated with higher major morbidity and reduced disease-specific survival compared to major hepatectomy alone. Stringent selection criteria should be applied when patients may need bile duct resection during hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Lawson, Kenny D; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; van Mechelen, Willem; Pratt, Michael

    2016-09-24

    The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is

  20. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orskov, Bjarne; Sørensen, Vibeke Rømming; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Strandgaard, Svend

    2012-04-01

    With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2008. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, infection, other and unknown. Cardiovascular disease was the major cause of death. A multivariate competing risk model comparing the two 8-year periods, adjusted for age at ESRD, gender and treatment modality, showed that deaths from cardiovascular disease decreased by 35% [hazard ratios (HR) 0.65, P=0.008] and deaths from cerebrovascular disease decreased by 69% (HR 0.31, P=0.0003) from the first to the second time period. There were no significant changes between the time periods in death from cancer, infection, other or unknown. From the first to the second 8-year interval, the prevalence of cancer increased by 35% (P=0.0002) while the cancer incidence was stable. In Danish patients with ADPKD and ESRD, there was a significant reduction in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths from 1993 to 2008. The prevalence of cancer increased without significant change in cancer incidence or deaths from cancer.

  1. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...

  2. Pleiotropic Associations of Allelic Variants in a 2q22 Region with Risks of Major Human Diseases and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Kulminski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining insights into genetic predisposition to age-related diseases and lifespan is a challenging task complicated by the elusive role of evolution in these phenotypes. To gain more insights, we combined methods of genome-wide and candidate-gene studies. Genome-wide scan in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study (N = 9,573 was used to pre-select promising loci. Candidate-gene methods were used to comprehensively analyze associations of novel uncommon variants in Caucasians (minor allele frequency~2.5% located in band 2q22.3 with risks of coronary heart disease (CHD, heart failure (HF, stroke, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (ND, and mortality in the ARIC study, the Framingham Heart Study (N = 4,434, and the Health and Retirement Study (N = 9,676. We leveraged the analyses of pleiotropy, age-related heterogeneity, and causal inferences. Meta-analysis of the results from these comprehensive analyses shows that the minor allele increases risks of death by about 50% (p = 4.6×10-9, CHD by 35% (p = 8.9×10-6, HF by 55% (p = 9.7×10-5, stroke by 25% (p = 4.0×10-2, and ND by 100% (p = 1.3×10-3. This allele also significantly influences each of two diseases, diabetes and cancer, in antagonistic fashion in different populations. Combined significance of the pleiotropic effects was p = 6.6×10-21. Causal mediation analyses show that endophenotypes explained only small fractions of these effects. This locus harbors an evolutionary conserved gene-desert region with non-coding intergenic sequences likely involved in regulation of protein-coding flanking genes ZEB2 and ACVR2A. This region is intensively studied for mutations causing severe developmental/genetic disorders. Our analyses indicate a promising target region for interventions aimed to reduce risks of many major human diseases and mortality.

  3. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  4. Major Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Their Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn

    2016-09-01

    To identify the prevalence, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and correlations of major chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) among the adult population living in Chiang Mai. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in municipal areas of Chiang Mai. All clinical relevant data collected by face-to-face interview was confirmed by pulmonologists. The chest radiographic findings and post-bronchodilator spirometry were done in all subjects. The aeroallergen skin test and rhinoscopy were performed in all chronic rhinitis and asthma subjects. Five hundred seventy four subjects with mean age 52.9±10.0 years, 59.6% female, and 37.5% smokers were recruited. The prevalence of overall CRDs was 59.2%. Chronic rhinitis was the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease (n = 239, 41.6%), followed by asthma (n = 58, 10.1%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 21, 3.7%). The most common abnormal pulmonary function test was restrictive lung disorders (n = 53, 9.6%). Asthma subjects were determined to be more allergic than chronic rhinitis subjects (58.1% vs. 39.9%, p-value = 0.033). Regarding the disease severity, 14.9% of chronic rhinitis and 10.3% of asthma subjects were classified as moderate to severe degree, whereas 81% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects were classified as moderate to very severe degrees. In asthma patients, there were positive association with chronic rhinitis (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.1-7.0, p-value Chiang Mai population was significantly high with overlapped respiratory symptoms and varying disease severity. Additionally, chronic rhinitis had correlation with asthma but not with COPD.

  5. Psychosocial Health of Disease-Free Breast Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-cancer Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Lee, Moo Hyun; Kong, Sun-Young; Lee, Eun Sook

    2018-04-05

    The present study investigated the psychosocial health of disease-free breast cancer survivors who receive health examinations compared to matched non-cancer controls in a community setting. We used baseline data from the Health Examinee cohort, which is composed of subjects participating in health. The disease-free breast cancer survivors were defined as those who were ≥2 years from initial diagnosis of breast cancer who had completed treatment. Females without a history of cancer were randomly selected at 1:4 ratio by 5-year age groups, education, and household income as a comparison group. We analyzed results from the Psychosocial Well-being Index-Short Form (PWI-SF) as a psychosocial health measurement. A total of 347 survivors of breast cancer and 1,388 matched controls were included. Total scores on the PWI-SF were lower in breast cancer survivors than matched non-cancer controls (p=0.006), suggesting a lower level of psychosocial stress in breast cancer survivors. In comparison to the control group, prevalence of drinking, smoking and obesity were lower, while exercising for ≥150 min/wk was higher in breast cancer survivors (p psychosocial health status compared to matched non-cancer controls.

  6. Quantifying the Impact of Obesity Category on Major Chronic Diseases in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse health effects differ with various levels of obesity, but limited national data existed previously for the Canadian population. We examined the associations of sociodemographic and behavioral factors with obesity levels in Canada, and measured the impact of each level on major chronic diseases. Data were extracted from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. We grouped overweight/obese participants aged 18 years and over into four levels based on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2: overweight (25.0– 29.9, class I obesity (30.0–34.9, class II obesity (35–39.9, and class III obesity (extreme/clinical obesity, BMI ≥ 40.0. We used logistic regression models to identify potential risk factors for the obesity levels and to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs for major chronic diseases related to each level. We calculated population attributable risks (PARs to help understand the impact of obesity levels on these chronic diseases.

  7. Proteotoxicity is not the reason for the dependence of cancer cells on the major chaperone Hsp70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Teresa A; Gabai, Vladimir L; Sherman, Michael Y

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago a hypothesis was proposed that the survival of cancer cells depend on elevated expression of molecular chaperones because these cells are prone to proteotoxic stress. A critical prediction of this hypothesis is that depletion of chaperones in cancer cells should lead to proteotoxicity. Here, using the major chaperone Hsp70 as example, we demonstrate that its depletion does not trigger proteotoxic stress, thus refuting the model. Accordingly, other functions of chaperones, e.g., their role in cell signaling, might define the requirements for chaperones in cancer cells, which is critical for rational targeting Hsp70 in cancer treatment.

  8. Major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Shiferaw, Dessie; Szonyi, Barbara; Krontveit, Randi I; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. The search was both manual and electronic. The databases used in electronic search were PubMed, Web of Science, CAB Direct and AJOL. For most of the vector-borne diseases, the summary was limited to narrative synthesis due to lack of sufficient data. Meta-analysis was computed for trypanosomosis and dermatophilosis while meta-regression and sensitivity analysis was done only for trypanososmosis due to lack of sufficient reports on dermatophilosis. Owing emphasis to their vector role, ticks and flies were summarized narratively at genera/species level. In line with inclusion criteria, out of 106 initially identified research reports 43 peer-reviewed articles passed the quality assessment. Data on 7 vector-borne diseases were extracted at species and region level from each source. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of trypanosomosis was 3.7% with 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8, 4.9), while that of dermatophilosis was 3.1% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.0). The in-between study variance noted for trypanosomosis was statistically significant (pparasitic presence in blood was documented for babesiosis (3.7% in goats); and anaplasmosis (3.9% in sheep). Serological evidence was retrieved for bluetongue ranging from 34.1% to 46.67% in sheep, and coxiellosis was 10.4% in goats. There was also molecular evidence on the presence of theileriosis in sheep (93%, n=160) and goats (1.9%, n=265). Regarding vectors of veterinary importance, 14 species of ticks in

  9. Association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutf-Ullah, L.; Akhtar, B.; Noor-Us-Saba; Hanif, A.; Khan, B.Z.; Bukhshi, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    To study the association of ABO blood groups with major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. Setting: Department of Cardiology, Mayo hospital, Lahore over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. Study Design: Analytic comparative study. Subjects and Methods: The study group included 907 patients of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The distribution of ABO blood groups in IHD patients was compared for presence or absence of major IHD risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In this study, the following pattern of ABO blood groups was observed in IHD patients : blood group A 251 (27.67%); blood group B 329 (36.27%); blood group O 235 (25.91%); blood group AB 92 (10.14%). We found no relation-ship of ABO blood groups with age (p-value = 0.234), gender (p-value = 0.093), hypertension (p-value = 0.230), diabetes mellitus (p-value = 0.801), family history of IHD (p-value = 0.277), transverse ear lobe crease (p-value = 0.231), total cholesterol (p-value = 0.797), triglycerides (p-value = 0.351), low density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.078), high density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.114). Similarly no relationship was found of smoking, weight, height and body mass index with ABO blood groups, p-values 0.428, 0.528, 0.908 and 0.455 respectively. Conclusion: There is no association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. (author)

  10. The role of IL6 in liver cancer linked to metabolic liver disease ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The role of IL6 in liver cancer linked to metabolic liver disease. Liver cancer is highly fatal, it has very few treatment options, and it is one of the few cancers whose incidence is rising worldwide. One poorly understood risk factor for liver cancer is obesity/metabolic disease (such as diabetes and fatty liver disease).

  11. Chronic Inflammation Links Cancer and Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming eLi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of genetic studies suggest that the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD and cancer share common genes, pathways, and mechanisms. Despite a disruption in a wide range of similar biological processes, the end result is very different: uncontrolled proliferation and early neurodegeneration. Thus, the links between the molecular mechanisms that cause PD and cancer remain to be elucidated. We propose that chronic inflammation in neurons and tumors contributes to a microenvironment that favors the accumulation of DNA mutations and facilitates disease formation. This article appraises the key role of microglia, establishes the genetic role of COX2 and CARD15 in PD and cancer, and discusses prevention and treatment with this new perspective in mind. We examine the evidence that chronic inflammation is an important link between cancer and PD.

  12. [Major nutrition-related risk factors of ischemic heart disease: dyslipoproteinemia, obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, G

    1999-07-11

    Of the major risk factors of coronary heart disease dyslipoproteinemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are nutrition related and can be considered of metabolic origin. Dyslipoproteinemia affects 2/3 of the adult population. The risk of coronary heart disease can be decreased 2-5 fold by lowering hypercholesterinemia; atherosclerosis in the coronaries may regress and total mortality may decrease. Atherogenic dyslipidemia (i.e. hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, elevated concentrations of small dense LDL) increases the risk as part of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity is already highly prevalent, and it is affecting ever growing proportions of the adult population. Abdominal obesity furthermore predisposes patients to complications. No effective therapy is available for obesity. 3/4 of hypertensive patients are obese and more than half of them have insulin resistance. By decreasing blood pressure, the risk of stroke decreases by about 40%, that of coronary heart disease by 14-30%. Slimming cures are the most important non-pharmacological way of treating hypertension. 5% of the population has diabetes mellitus, and a further 5% has impaired glucose tolerance. Type 2 diabetes predisposes patients to macrovascular complications. The risk of coronary heart disease can be decreased by controlling diabetes by e.g. metformin.

  13. A case-control study of gallstones: a major risk factor for biliary tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Kato, K; Akai, S; Tominaga, S

    1990-01-01

    Because of the strong association between gallstones and biliary tract cancer, we conducted a case-control study of gallstones at Niigata Cancer Center Hospital. Eighty-six cases with gallstones (33 males and 53 females) and 116 hospital controls (56 males and 60 females) were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Gallstones were categorized into cholesterol stones (25 cases) and pigment stones (30 cases) based on the appearance of the stones. In multivariate analyses based on an unconditional logistic regression model, the risk of total gallstones was positively associated with a taste for salty food (relative risk (RR) = 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-4.84), an intake of lettuce and cabbage (RR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.47-6.06) and a family history of biliary diseases (RR = 5.63, 95% CI: 1.76-17.95), and inversely associated with an intake of salted and dried fish (RR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.04-0.64). When analyzed by type of stones, cholesterol stones were associated with a taste for oily food (RR = 3.87, 95% CI: 1.36-11.03) and pigment stones were positively associated with professional or administrative occupation (RR = 4.74, 95% CI: 1.35-16.68) and inversely associated with a taste for less greasy food (RR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.10-0.83). Some of these results are consistent with the results of our previous study on biliary tract cancer.

  14. Quantitative computed tomography versus spirometry in predicting air leak duration after major lung resection for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kazuhiro; Kaneda, Yoshikazu; Sudo, Manabu; Mitsutaka, Jinbo; Li, Tao-Sheng; Suga, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2005-11-01

    Emphysema is a well-known risk factor for developing air leak or persistent air leak after pulmonary resection. Although quantitative computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are used to diagnose emphysema, it remains controversial whether these tests are predictive of the duration of postoperative air leak. Sixty-two consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo major lung resection for cancer were enrolled in this prospective study to define the best predictor of postoperative air leak duration. Preoperative factors analyzed included spirometric variables and area of emphysema (proportion of the low-attenuation area) that was quantified in a three-dimensional CT lung model. Chest tubes were removed the day after disappearance of the air leak, regardless of pleural drainage. Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the influence of preoperative factors on chest tube time (air leak duration). By univariate analysis, site of resection (upper, lower), forced expiratory volume in 1 second, predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and area of emphysema ( 10%) were significant predictors of air leak duration. By multivariate analysis, site of resection and area of emphysema were the best independent determinants of air leak duration. The results were similar for patients with a smoking history (n = 40), but neither forced expiratory volume in 1 second nor predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second were predictive of air leak duration. Quantitative CT is superior to spirometry in predicting air leak duration after major lung resection for cancer. Quantitative CT may aid in the identification of patients, particularly among those with a smoking history, requiring additional preventive procedures against air leak.

  15. Role of major resection in pulmonary metastasectomy for colorectal cancer in the Spanish prospective multicenter study (GECMP-CCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J; Molins, L; Fibla, J J; Heras, F; Embún, R; Rivas, J J

    2016-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) may benefit from aggressive surgical therapy. The objective of this study was to determine the role of major anatomic resection for pulmonary metastasectomy to improve survival when compared with limited pulmonary resection. Data of 522 patients (64.2% men, mean age 64.5 years) who underwent pulmonary resections with curative intent for CRC metastases over a 2-year period were reviewed. All patients were followed for a minimum of 3 years. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with DSS and DFS were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. A total of 394 (75.6%) patients underwent wedge resection, 19 (3.6%) anatomic segmentectomy, 5 (0.9%) lesser resections not described, 100 (19.3%) lobectomy, and 4 (0.8%) pneumonectomy. Accordingly, 104 (19.9%) patients were treated with major anatomic resection and 418 (80.1%) with lesser resection. Operations were carried out with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in 93 patients. The overall DSS and DFS were 55 and 28.3 months, respectively. Significant differences in DSS and DFS in favor of major resection versus lesser resection (DSS median not reached versus 52.2 months, P = 0.03; DFS median not reached versus 23.9 months, P < 0.001) were found. In the multivariate analysis, major resection appeared to be a protective factor in DSS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.96, P = 0.031] and DFS (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.36-0.75, P < 0.001). The surgical approach (VATS versus open surgical resection) had no effect on outcome. Major anatomic resection with lymphadenectomy for pulmonary metastasectomy can be considered in selected CRC patient with sufficient functional reserve to improve the DSS and DFS. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm the present results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  16. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parallels between major depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease: role of oxidative stress and genetic vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Roberto; Petersen, Robert B; Perry, George

    2014-10-01

    The thesis of this review is that oxidative stress is the central factor in major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The major elements involved are inflammatory cytokines, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal, and arginine vasopressin systems, which induce glucocorticoid and "oxidopamatergic" cascades when triggered by psychosocial stress, severe life-threatening events, and mental-affective and somatic diseases. In individuals with a genomic vulnerability to depression, these cascades may result in chronic depression-anxiety-stress spectra, resulting in MDD and other known depressive syndromes. In contrast, in subjects with genomic vulnerability to AD, oxidative stress-induced brain damage triggers specific antioxidant defenses, i.e., increased levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) and aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau, resulting in paired helical filaments and impaired functions related to the ApoEε4 isoform, leading to complex pathological cascades culminating in AD. Surprisingly, all the AD-associated molecular pathways mentioned in this review have been shown to be similar or analogous to those found in depression, including structural damage, i.e., hippocampal and frontal cortex atrophy. Other interacting molecular signals, i.e., GSK-3β, convergent survival factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and heat shock proteins), and transition redox metals are also mentioned to emphasize the vast array of intermediates that could interact via comparable mechanisms in both MDD and AD.

  18. [Precision medicine: A major step forward in specific situations, a myth in refractory cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Nicolas; Mc Leer, Anne; Sakhri, Linda

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, high-throughput sequencing techniques have been developed for cancerology and many clinical trials are currently structured around biomarkers that can guide specific treatment choices. This approach is characteristic of precision medicine, which is actually a concept initiated several decades ago with, for example, retinoic acid in promyelocytic leukemia. This paper will review the different types of molecular alterations and « -omics » biological analyses, bioinformatics tools, coupled drug/biomarkers already validated, the ethical issues of whole genomic sequencing of an individual as part of an inclusion in a clinical trial and finally the first results of precision medicine trials. The AcSé crizotinib program, supported by the Inca (french Cancer National Institute), is emblematic of a success of this personalized medicine illustrated by 4 points: the discovery of a cohort of patients with lung cancer with a ROS1 rearrangement characteristic of a sensitivity to crizotinib, a rapid availability of this innovation through the implementation of a temporary recommendation for use (ANSM), the obtention of a conditional marketing authorization by the pharmaceutical industry and finally, financial assumption of responsibility by French social security (HAS), despite preliminary and non-comparative data. In the case of cancers refractory to standard chemotherapy, and regarding our system of access to drugs illustrated by the PROFILER clinical trial, this approach allows the access to a therapeutic drug targeting specific biomarkers only in 7% of patients included. This does not bode well for efficient treatment and even less for survival. Allowing patients to be included in trials that identify molecular targets by molecular screening, and not being able to propose the drug of interest is a traumatic event for those patients who live in the hope of an immediate future. In refractory disease we must rethink precision medicine in a more humanistic

  19. Pneumonia after Major Cancer Surgery: Temporal Trends and Patterns of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Q. Trinh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Pneumonia is a leading cause of postoperative complication. Objective. To examine trends, factors, and mortality of postoperative pneumonia following major cancer surgery (MCS. Methods. From 1999 to 2009, patients undergoing major forms of MCS were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, a Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP subset, resulting in weighted 2,508,916 patients. Measurements. Determinants were examined using logistic regression analysis adjusted for clustering using generalized estimating equations. Results. From 1999 to 2009, 87,867 patients experienced pneumonia following MCS and prevalence increased by 29.7%. The estimated annual percent change (EAPC of mortality after MCS was −2.4% (95% CI: −2.9 to −2.0, P<0.001; the EAPC of mortality associated with pneumonia after MCS was −2.2% (95% CI: −3.6 to 0.9, P=0.01. Characteristics associated with higher odds of pneumonia included older age, male, comorbidities, nonprivate insurance, lower income, hospital volume, urban, Northeast region, and nonteaching status. Pneumonia conferred a 6.3-fold higher odd of mortality. Conclusions. Increasing prevalence of pneumonia after MCS, associated with stable mortality rates, may result from either increased diagnosis or more stringent coding. We identified characteristics associated with pneumonia after MCS which could help identify at-risk patients in order to reduce pneumonia after MCS, as it greatly increases the odds of mortality.

  20. Graves' Disease that Developed Shortly after Surgery for Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hea Min; Park, Soon Hyun; Lee, Jae Min; Park, Kang Seo

    2013-09-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that may present with various clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease have a greater number of thyroid nodules and a higher incidence of thyroid cancer compared with patients with normal thyroid activity. However, cases in which patients are diagnosed with recurrence of Graves' disease shortly after partial thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer are very rare. Here we report a case of hyperthyroid Graves' disease that occurred after partial thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In this case, the patient developed hyperthyroidism 9 months after right hemithyroidectomy, and antithyroglobulin autoantibody and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stimulating autoantibody were positive. Therefore, we diagnosed Graves' disease on the basis of the laboratory test results and thyroid ultrasonography findings. The patient was treated with and maintained on antithyroid drugs. The mechanism of the recurrence of Graves' disease in this patient is still unclear. The mechanism may have been the improper response of the immune system after partial thyroidectomy. To precisely determine the mechanisms in Graves' disease after partial thyroidectomy, further studies based on a greater number of cases are needed.

  1. Graves' Disease that Developed Shortly after Surgery for Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Min Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that may present with various clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease have a greater number of thyroid nodules and a higher incidence of thyroid cancer compared with patients with normal thyroid activity. However, cases in which patients are diagnosed with recurrence of Graves' disease shortly after partial thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer are very rare. Here we report a case of hyperthyroid Graves' disease that occurred after partial thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. In this case, the patient developed hyperthyroidism 9 months after right hemithyroidectomy, and antithyroglobulin autoantibody and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor stimulating autoantibody were positive. Therefore, we diagnosed Graves' disease on the basis of the laboratory test results and thyroid ultrasonography findings. The patient was treated with and maintained on antithyroid drugs. The mechanism of the recurrence of Graves' disease in this patient is still unclear. The mechanism may have been the improper response of the immune system after partial thyroidectomy. To precisely determine the mechanisms in Graves' disease after partial thyroidectomy, further studies based on a greater number of cases are needed.

  2. Cardio-Vascular Disease and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mitchell-Fearon DrPh; D. Willie-Tyndale MSc; N. Waldron MPH; D. Holder-Nevins PhD; K. James MPH; H. Laws MPH; D. Eldemire-Shearer PhD

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report the level of utilization of clinical preventive services by older adults in Jamaica and to identify independent factors associated with utilization. Method: A nationally representative, community-based survey of 2,943 older adults was undertaken. Utilization frequency for six preventive, cardiovascular or cancer-related services was calculated. Logistic regression models were used to determine the independent factors associated with each service. Results: A dichotomy in a...

  3. Histones and their modifications in ovarian cancer - drivers of disease and therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Deborah J; Shah, Jaynish S; Cole, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of the gynecological malignancies. High grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) is the most common subtype, with the majority of women presenting with advanced disease where 5-year survival is around 25%. Platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with paclitaxel remains the most effective treatment despite platinum therapies being introduced almost 40 years ago. Advances in molecular medicine are underpinning new strategies for the treatment of cancer. Major advances have been made by international initiatives to sequence cancer genomes. For SEOC, with the exception of TP53 that is mutated in virtually 100% of these tumors, there is no other gene mutated at high frequency. There is extensive copy number variation, as well as changes in methylation patterns that will influence gene expression. To date, the role of histones and their post-translational modifications in ovarian cancer is a relatively understudied field. Post-translational histone modifications play major roles in gene expression as they direct the configuration of chromatin and so access by transcription factors. Histone modifications include methylation, acetylation, and monoubiquitination, with involvement of enzymes including histone methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases/deacetylases, and ubiquitin ligases/deubiquitinases, respectively. Complexes such as the Polycomb repressive complex also play roles in the control of histone modifications and more recently roles for long non-coding RNA and microRNAs are emerging. Epigenomic-based therapies targeting histone modifications are being developed and offer new approaches for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Here, we discuss histone modifications and their aberrant regulation in malignancy and specifically in ovarian cancer. We review current and upcoming histone-based therapies that have the potential to inform and improve treatment strategies for women with ovarian cancer.

  4. Quantitative disease resistance: to better understand parasite-mediated selection on major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Helena; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-02-07

    We outline a descriptive framework of how candidate alleles of the immune system associate with infectious diseases in natural populations of animals. Three kinds of alleles can be separated when both prevalence of infection and infection intensity are measured--qualitative disease resistance, quantitative disease resistance and susceptibility alleles. Our descriptive framework demonstrates why alleles for quantitative resistance and susceptibility cannot be separated based on prevalence data alone, but are distinguishable on infection intensity. We then present a case study to evaluate a previous finding of a positive association between prevalence of a severe avian malaria infection (GRW2, Plasmodium ashfordi) and a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele (B4b) in great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Using the same dataset, we find that individuals with allele B4b have lower GRW2 infection intensities than individuals without this allele. Therefore, allele B4b provides quantitative resistance rather than increasing susceptibility to infection. This implies that birds carrying B4b can mount an immune response that suppresses the acute-phase GRW2 infection, while birds without this allele cannot and may die. We argue that it is important to determine whether MHC alleles related to infections are advantageous (quantitative and qualitative resistance) or disadvantageous (susceptibility) to obtain a more complete picture of pathogen-mediated balancing selection.

  5. The improvement of rice varieties for major pest and diseases resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahi, I.; Silitonga, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1971, the rice breeding program in Indonesia has developed on intensive program to improve varieties for yield potential, resistancy to major pests and diseases, early maturity good grain and eating quality. In recent years, the attacks of insects and diseases are very severe in rice cultivation in Asia. Much of the losses were due to acontinuous planting or certain varieties. Between 1966 and 1973 tungro occured in epidemic proportions on separate occasions in Indonesia, Thailand, Nort East India, Bangladesh, and Philippine. Since 1973, investation of brown planthopper and green leafhopper several damaged rice crop in most parts of Indonesia. Presently, rice improvement are directed to develop high yielding rice varieties that are resistant to brown planthopper, ragged stunt virus, blast, green leafhopper, and gallmidge. Screening for pests and diseases are conducted in the laboratory as well as in the field. The adoption of those improved varieties by farmers has contributed greatly in our efforts to attain self sufficiency in rice production in Indonesia. GH 147 -M-40 krad-Pn-89 (irradiated Barito) showed resistant to brown planthopper biotype 1 and 2 and moderately resistant to biotype 3. Napa 40 krad-St-12 has resistant reaction to blast. (authors). 4 refs, 8 tabs

  6. Old Disease and New Challenges: Major Obstacles of Current Strategies in the Prevention of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Iraj; Karimi, Abdollah; Amanati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context Universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis has partially controlled the burden of the disease and its transmission. However, according to recent data, the epidemiology of this vaccine-preventable disease has changed. Now, younger infants, adolescents, and adults are at greater risk of infection. This article has studied the interaction between the various factors involved in the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the major obstacles faced by the current strategies in its prevention. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, the most recently published sources of information on pertussis control measures, consisting of textbooks and articles, have been reviewed. We focused on the more recent data about the changing epidemiology or pertussis in Scopus through the use of the MeSH-term words [pertussis] or [whooping cough] and [epidemiology] or [outbreak] or [resurgence], but our search was not restricted to this particular strategy; we also tried to find all of the most recent available data in the general field through other means. Results Primary and booster doses of the pertussis vaccine seem to partially control transmission of the disease, but despite the different preventive strategies available, pertussis continues to cause mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups. Conclusions Adding booster doses of acellular pertussis vaccine to the current national immunization practices with whole-cell vaccines for young adults and pregnant women seems to be a good option for controlling mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups such as very young infants. PMID:27729960

  7. Breast cancer following treatment for Hodgkin's disease: the need for screening in a young population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Several recent publications have highlighted the issue of an increased risk of breast cancer in women treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or combined modality therapy for Hodgkin's disease. The risk is greatest in women 30 years or younger at the time of treatment. In the Australasian Radiation Oncology Lymphoma Group database, 60% of women fell into this age category. This article reviews the available data pertaining to induction of breast cancer by radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Breast examination should now be an integral part of the long term follow up for these women. There is also a case for the use of screening mammography. Any breast mass developing subsequent to treatment for Hodgkin's disease should be regarded with a high index of clinical suspicion and, accordingly, biopsies should be performed in the majority of cases, even when mammography is negative. 30 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Bladder cancer: overview and disease management. Part 1: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beverley

    2018-05-10

    Part 1 of this two-part article provides an overview of bladder cancer and discusses its management. Since publication of a previous article entitled 'Understanding the role of smoking in the aetiology of bladder cancer' ( Anderson, 2009 ), the author has received many requests for an update. This article provides an overview of bladder cancer and its current management practices, underlining the continued role of smoking as the predominant risk factor in the disease's development. The management of bladder cancer is governed by specific guidelines. Management of non-muscle-invasive cancers, including surgical intervention with transurethral resection, and intravesical therapy using chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents, is discussed. Cystectomy (removal of the bladder), is sometimes necessary. Treatments are effective in reducing tumour recurrence, but the effects of the risks and side-effects on the individual's quality of life can be significant. The prevalence of bladder cancer, and the nature of its management make this cancer one of the most expensive for the NHS to treat. The effectiveness of health promotional strategies in increasing peoples' awareness of their risk of developing the disease, and in enabling them to change long-term health behaviours is discussed. The role of the multidisciplinary team is explored, along with that of the uro-oncology cancer nurse specialist. Part 2 will consider the management of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer.

  9. Polycystic kidney disease and cancer after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, James B; Calvet, James P; Yu, Alan S L; Lynch, Charles F; Wang, Connie J; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common form of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), is a disorder with characteristics of neoplasia. However, it is not known whether renal transplant recipients with PKD have an increased risk of cancer. Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, which contains information on all solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, were linked to 15 population-based cancer registries in the United States. For PKD recipients, we compared overall cancer risk with that in the general population. We also compared cancer incidence in PKD versus non-PKD renal transplant recipients using Poisson regression, and we determined incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, dialysis duration, and time since transplantation. The study included 10,166 kidney recipients with PKD and 107,339 without PKD. Cancer incidence in PKD recipients was 1233.6 per 100,000 person-years, 48% higher than expected in the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 1.60), whereas cancer incidence in non-PKD recipients was 1119.1 per 100,000 person-years. The unadjusted incidence was higher in PKD than in non-PKD recipients (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). However, PKD recipients were older (median age at transplantation, 51 years versus 45 years for non-PKD recipients), and after multivariable adjustment, cancer incidence was lower in PKD recipients than in others (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91). The reason for the lower cancer risk in PKD recipients is not known but may relate to biologic characteristics of ADPKD or to cancer risk behaviors associated with ADPKD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Risk of Hodgkin's disease and other cancers after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H; Askling, J; Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, has been associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin's disease. Little is known, however, about how infectious mononucleosis affects long-term risk of Hodgkin's disease, how this risk varies with age at infectious...... mononucleosis diagnosis, or how the risk for Hodgkin's disease varies in different age groups. In addition, the general cancer profile among patients who have had infectious mononucleosis has been sparsely studied. METHODS: Population-based cohorts of infectious mononucleosis patients in Denmark and Sweden were...... statistical tests including the trend tests were two-sided. RESULTS: A total of 1381 cancers were observed during 689 619 person-years of follow-up among 38 562 infectious mononucleosis patients (SIR = 1. 03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-1.09). Apart from Hodgkin's disease (SIR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1...

  11. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease: Associations with Renal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD) are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephropathological changes are commonly observed in the non-tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy (RN). In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy (PN) or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with RN. Despite emerging evidence that PN provides equivalent local tumor control to RN while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer.

  12. How are cancer and connective tissue diseases related to sarcoidosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amit; Judson, Marc A

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between sarcoidosis and cancer, and between sarcoidosis and connective tissue diseases (CTDs). In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting and refuting these associations. In terms of a cancer risk in sarcoidosis patients, the data are somewhat conflicting but generally show a very small increased risk. The data supporting an association between sarcoidosis and CTD are not as robust as for cancer. However, it appears that scleroderma is the CTD most strongly associated with sarcoidosis. There are several important clinical and research-related implications of the association of sarcoidosis and CTDs. First, rigorous efforts should be made to exclude alternative causes for granulomatous inflammation before establishing a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Second, the association between sarcoidosis and both cancer and CTDs may yield important insights into the immunopathogenesis of all three diseases. Finally, these data provide insight in answering a common question asked by sarcoidosis patients, 'Am I at an increased risk of developing cancer?' We believe that although there is an increased (relative) risk of cancer in sarcoidosis patients compared with the general population, that increased risk is quite small (low absolute risk).

  13. High frequency of early colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M. W. M. D.; Vleggaar, F. P.; Schipper, M. E. I.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; van der Woude, C. J.; Hommes, D. W.; de Jong, D. J.; Dijkstra, G.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; Oldenburg, B.; Samsom, M.

    Background and aim: To detect precancerous dysplasia or asymptomatic cancer, patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease often undergo colonoscopic surveillance based on American or British guidelines. It is recommended that surveillance is initiated after 8-10 years of extensive colitis, or

  14. High frequency of early colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M. W. M. D.; Vleggaar, F. P.; Schipper, M. E. I.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; van der Woude, C. J.; Hommes, D. W.; de Jong, D. J.; Dijkstra, G.; van Bodegraven, A. A.; Oldenburg, B.; Samsom, M.

    2008-01-01

    To detect precancerous dysplasia or asymptomatic cancer, patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease often undergo colonoscopic surveillance based on American or British guidelines. It is recommended that surveillance is initiated after 8-10 years of extensive colitis, or after 15-20 years

  15. Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize evidence of the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast, colorectal, liver, prostate, and stomach cancer. Methods We searched PubMed and two other databases. Prospective studies that reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for ≥3 categories of tea consumption were included. We estimated an overall RR with 95% CI for an increase of three cups/day of tea consumption, and, usingrestricted cubic splines, we examined a nonlinear association between tea consumption and cancer risk. Results Forty-one prospective studies, with a total of 3,027,702 participants and 49,103 cancer cases, were included. From the pooled overall RRs, no inverse association between tea consumption and risk of five major cancers was observed. However, subgroup analysis showed that increase in consumption of three cups of black tea per day was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32). Conclusion Ourresults did not show a protective role of tea in five major cancers. Additional large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a convincing case for associations. PMID:24636229

  16. Household air pollution is a major avoidable risk factor for cardiorespiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Kevin; Gordon, Stephen B; Jindal, Surinder K; Accinelli, Roberto A; Balmes, John; Martin, William J

    2012-11-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuels, coal, and kerosene burned in open fires, primitive stoves, and lamps causes at least 2 million deaths per year. Many of these deaths occur in children <5 years of age with pneumonia and in women with COPD, lung cancer, and cardiovascular disease. HAP is inextricably linked to poverty, with activities to obtain fuel consuming a large proportion of the time and financial resources of poor households. Thus, fewer resources used in this way means less is available for basic needs like food, education, and health care. The burden of work and the exposure to smoke, particularly during cooking, are predominantly borne by women and children. Although historically HAP has not received sufficient attention from the scientific, medical, public health, development, and policy-making communities, the tide has clearly changed with the broad-based support and launch of the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves in 2010. There is now considerable reason for optimism that this substantial cause of cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality will be addressed comprehensively and definitively. Drawing on our experience from four continents, we provide background information on the problem of HAP, health impacts of HAP, opportunities for research, and the current best solutions.

  17. Entacapone and prostate cancer risk in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pasi; Kuoppamäki, Mikko; Prami, Tuire; Hoti, Fabian; Christopher, Solomon; Ellmén, Juha; Aho, Valtteri; Vahteristo, Mikko; Pukkala, Eero; Haukka, Jari

    2015-04-15

    The association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and prostate cancer, both common in elderly men, is disputable. In the STRIDE-PD study, prostate cancer developed in 9 patients (3.7%) receiving levodopa/carbidopa with entacapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, versus 2 cases (0.9%) without entacapone. The current pharmacoepidemiological study aimed to determine whether entacapone increases prostate cancer incidence or mortality in PD patients and whether cumulative exposure affects these rates. We performed a retrospective cohort study using population-wide health care registers with patient-level linkage. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality were modeled by Cox's proportional hazards models. Use of entacapone with l-dopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor caused no increased risk of prostate cancer incidence (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.05; 95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.44) or mortality (0.93; 0.43-1.98). The HR for cumulative entacapone use of >360 days versus never-use was 0.82 (0.56-1.18) for prostate cancer incidence and 1.27 (0.60-2.72) for prostate cancer mortality. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Second cancers after treatment for Hodgkin's disease: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, J.F.; Hutchison, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review several reports of series of patients with Hodgkin's disease among whom second primary cancers have been diagnosed after radiotherapy or chemotherapy or both for Hodgkin's disease. An analysis of these reports suggests that (a) chemotherapy is a strong risk factor for leukemia, and (b) in the absence of chemotherapy, leukemia shows little or no increased incidence over ''spontaneous'' rates. Seven drugs have been identified as being frequently used in treatment of Hodgkin's disease (nitrogen mustard, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, procarbazine, vinglastine, vincristine, and prednisone). A large proportion of the patients receiving chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease are exposed to several drugs and quantitative estimates of the independent leukemogenic effects of these drugs have not yet been obtained. Most of the person-years' experience accrued in the published studies occurred in the first decade after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Follow-up over longer intervals of time will be necessary before solid tumor risk after therapy for Hodgkin's disease can be evaluated

  19. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ( ... and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. This final recommendation statement applies to ...

  20. Histones and their modifications in ovarian cancer – drivers of disease and therapeutic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Joy Marsh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of the gynecological malignancies. High grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC is the most common subtype, with the majority of women presenting with advanced disease where 5 year survival is around 25%. Platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with paclitaxel remains the most effective treatment despite platinum therapies being introduced almost 40 years ago. Advances in molecular medicine are underpinning new strategies for the treatment of cancer. Major advances have been made by international initiatives to sequence cancer genomes. For SEOC, with the exception of TP53 that is mutated in virtually 100% of these tumors, there is no other gene mutated at high frequency. There is extensive copy number variation, as well as changes in methylation patterns that will influence gene expression. To date, the role of histones and their post-translational modifications in ovarian cancer is a relatively understudied field. Post-translational histone modifications play major roles in gene expression as they direct the configuration of chromatin and so access by transcription factors. Histone modifications include methylation, acetylation and monoubiquitination, with involvement of enzymes including histone methyl transferases (HMTases, histone acetyltransferases/deacetylases and ubiquitin ligases/deubiquitinases respectively. Complexes such as the Polycomb Repressive Complex also play roles in the control of histone modifications and more recently roles for long non-coding (lnc RNA and microRNAs (miRNAs are emerging. Epigenomic-based therapies targeting histone modifications are being developed and offer new approaches for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Here we discuss histone modifications and their aberrant regulation in malignancy and specifically in ovarian cancer. We review current and upcoming histone-based therapies that have the potential to inform and improve treatment strategies for

  1. Clinical and genetic predictors of major cardiac events in patients with Anderson-Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; O'Mahony, Constantinos; Hughes, Derralynn; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur; Coats, Caroline; Murphy, Elaine; Lachmann, Robin; Mehta, Atul; Elliott, Perry M

    2015-06-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is an X linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the α-galactosidase A gene. Some mutations are associated with prominent and, in many cases, exclusive cardiac involvement. The primary aims of this study were to determine the incidence of major cardiac events in AFD and to identify clinical and genetic predictors of adverse outcomes. We studied 207 patients with AFD (47% male, mean age 44 years, mean follow-up 7.1 years). Fifty-eight (28%) individuals carried mutations that have been previously associated with a cardiac predominant phenotype. Twenty-one (10%) developed severe heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA) ≥3), 13 (6%) developed atrial fibrillation (AF), 13 (6%) received devices for the treatment of bradycardia; there were a total of 7 (3%) cardiac deaths. The incidence of the primary endpoint (a composite of new onset AF, NYHA ≥ 3 symptoms, device insertion for bradycardia and cardiac death) was 2.64 per 100 person-years (CI 1.78 to 3.77). Age (HR 1.04, CI 1.01 to 1.08, p=0.004), Mainz Severity Score Index score (HR 1.05, CI 1.01 to 1.09, p=0.012) and QRS duration (HR 1.03, CI 1.00 to 1.05, p=0.020) were significant independent predictors of the primary endpoint. The presence of a cardiac genetic variant did not predict the primary end point. AFD is associated with a high burden of cardiac morbidity and mortality. Adverse cardiac outcomes are associated with age, global disease severity and advanced cardiac disease but not the presence of cardiac genetic variants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity during major depression and after remission of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakilian Alireza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are a growing number of studies suggesting that depression may increase the risk of stroke. Impaired autoregulation of vascular tone may contribute to a higher risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR reflects the compensatory dilatory capacity of cerebral arterioles to a dilatory stimulus and is an important mechanism that ensures constant cerebral blood flow. There is a hypothesis that CVR is reduced in major depression, which would explain the association between depression and stroke. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of depression on CVR in cerebral vessels by comparing CVR during the depression phase with that during remission. Material and Methods: Using the apnea test, we assessed CVR in 16 patients with unipolar depression during disease and after remission of disease by calculating the increase in cerebral blood flow velocity after breath-holding (the apnea test. Blood flow velocities were measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD. Results: CVR was significantly reduced in the depression phase in comparison to that in the remission phase. However, this change was not seen in all the patients. Conclusion: CVR was reduced in most of the depressed patients. The decreased CVR, as indicated by the changes in peak systolic velocity (PSV and mean flow velocity (MFV of the middle cerebral artery, in depressed patients was more marked on the right side, which could point to a vascular basis for some kinds of depression. We recommend that other studies, with larger samples, be done; future studies should assess whether the changes in the CVR varies with the severity and type of depression.

  3. [Psychological and psychiatric problems in cancer patients: relationship to the localization of the disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G; Christodoulaki, A G; Karkanias, A P

    2012-01-01

    Cancer may be localized in a variety of areas in the human body. This localization is associated with significant issues concerning not only therapy and prognosis but also psychological and psychiatric problems that the patient may be confronted with. The psychic impact on the patient is determined to a significant degree by the symbolism the affected organ carries. The symbolic significance of a sick body area triggers emotions and sets in motion self-defence mechanisms. In this way, patients deal with the new psychic reality that cancer creates. Therapeutic choices may include interventions, involving mutilation, which cause disfigurement and major consequences in the body image which result in narcissistic injuries. The phenomenology of anxiety and depressive disorders is connected to the affected body area. The appearance of cancer not only in sexual organs but also in other body areas, may disturb sexual function and therefore lead to sexual disorders. Especially, head and neck are connected with vital functions. This area of the body has had a major impact on psychic reality since early life. Complicated psychic functions have developed in relation to organs of the head and neck. Therefore, localization of cancer in this area leads to individual psychological and psychiatric problems, since eating and breathing are harmed, verbal communication becomes difficult and body image alters. Also, increased incidence of alcohol and nicotine abuse in these patients reflects special aspects of psychic structure and personality. Because of severe somatic symptoms and poor prognosis, lung cancer patients feel hopelessness and helplessness. Patients with gynaecological cancer are confronted with a disease that affects organs like breast and internal female sexual organs associated with femininity, attractiveness and fertility. Dietary habits are often a source of guilt for patients who suffer from cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, stomas, as colostomy

  4. Colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Halfvarson, Jonas; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), may be complicated by colorectal cancer (CRC). In a recent population-based cohort study of 47 347 Danish patients with IBD by Tine Jess and colleagues 268 patients with UC and 70 patients with CD developed C...... preventive strategies in order to avoid CRC in IBD patients. The achieved knowledge may also be relevant for other inflammation-associated cancers.......The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), may be complicated by colorectal cancer (CRC). In a recent population-based cohort study of 47 347 Danish patients with IBD by Tine Jess and colleagues 268 patients with UC and 70 patients with CD developed CRC...... during 30 years of observation. The overall risk of CRC among patients with UC and CD was comparable with that of the general population. However, patients diagnosed with UC during childhood or as adolescents, patients with long duration of disease and those with concomitant primary sclerosing...

  5. Therapeutic impacts of microRNAs in breast cancer by their roles in regulating processes involved in this disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mehrgou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women around the world. So far, many attempts have been made to treat this disease, but few effective treatments have been discovered. In this work, we reviewed the related articles in the limited period of time, 2000–2016, through search in PubMed, Scopus database, Google Scholar, and psychology and psychiatry literature (PsycINFO. We selected the articles about the correlation of microRNAs (miRNAs and breast cancer in the insight into therapeutic applicability from mentioned genetics research databases. The miRNAs as an effective therapy for breast cancer was at the center of our attention. Hormone therapy and chemotherapy are two major methods that are being used frequently in breast cancer treatment. In the search for an effective therapy for breast cancer, miRNAs suggest a promising method of treatment. miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that can turn genes on or off and can have critical roles in cancer treatment; therefore, in the near future, usage of these biological molecules in breast cancer treatment can be considered a weapon against most common cancer-related concerns in women. Here, we discuss miRNAs and their roles in various aspects of breast cancer treatment to help find an alternative and effective way to treat or even cure this preventable disease.

  6. Reprogramming cancer cells: a novel approach for cancer therapy or a tool for disease-modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Açelya; de Lázaro, Irene; Taheri, Hadiseh

    2015-12-01

    Chromatin dynamics have been the major focus of many physiological and pathological processes over the past 20 years. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to be reshaped during both cellular reprogramming and tumorigenesis. For this reason, cancer cell reprogramming can provide a powerful tool to better understand both regenerative and cancer-fate processes, with a potential to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Recent studies showed that cancer cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by the overexpression of reprogramming transcription factors. Activation of transcription factors and modification of chromatin regulators may result in the remodeling of epigenetic status and refueling of tumorigenicity in these reprogrammed cancer cells. However, studies focusing on cancer cell reprogramming are contradictory; some studies reported increased tumor progression whereas others showed that cellular reprogramming has a treatment potential for cancer. In this review, first, the current knowledge on the epigenetic mechanisms involved during cancer development and cellular reprogramming will be presented. Later, different reports and key factors about pluripotency-based reprogramming of cancer cells will be reviewed in detail. New insights will be provided on cancer biology and therapy in the light of cellular reprogramming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple primary cancer risk after therapy for Hodgkins's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, R.S.; Schottenfeld, D.; Reid, A.

    1977-01-01

    Forty-four antecedent, synchronous, and metachronous multiple primary cancers were identified among 41 patients who constituted 4.0% of 1028 patients initially treated for Hodgkin's disease during the years 1950--1954, 1960--1964, and 1968--1972. At 5 years post-therapy the cumulative probabilities of developing a multiple primary cancer for patients treated in 1950--1954, 1960--1964, and 1968--1972, were 1.14%, 1.48%, and 4.43%, respectively. At 10 years the cumulative probability of a multiple primary cancer was 2.54% for the 1950--1954 treatment group and 6.52% for the 1960--1964 treatment group. Among those patients 16-39 years of age, initially treated during the period 1960--1964, who had survived 6-10 years after receiving radiation plus single agent chemotherapy, we observed a significant 18-fold increase in the number of multiple primary cancers. A significant occurrence of two multiple primary cancers in a relatively small group of patients treated with chemotherapy only during the period 1968--1972 was also noted. Continued surveillance of patients extensively treated with combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy will enable assessment of the oncogenic potential of these modern therapeutic approaches to the management of Hodgkin's disease

  8. Genetic basis of kidney cancer: Role of genomics for the development of disease-based therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Linehan, W. Marston

    2012-01-01

    Kidney cancer is not a single disease; it is made up of a number of different types of cancer, including clear cell, type 1 papillary, type 2 papillary, chromophobe, TFE3, TFEB, and oncocytoma. Sporadic, nonfamilial kidney cancer includes clear cell kidney cancer (75%), type 1 papillary kidney cancer (10%), papillary type 2 kidney cancer (including collecting duct and medullary RCC) (5%), the microphalmia-associated transcription (MiT) family translocation kidney cancers (TFE3, TFEB, and MITF...

  9. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  10. Periodontal disease with treatment reduces subsequent cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ing-Ming; Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Chun-Feng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between routine treatment of periodontal disease (PD) and the subsequent risks for cancers in Taiwan. Study participants were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) system database. The PD with a routine treatment cohort contained 38 902 patients. For each treatment cohort participant, two age- and sex-matched comparison (control) cohort participants were randomly selected. Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of PD with treatment on the subsequent risk of cancer. The overall risk of developing cancer was significantly lower in the treatment cohort than in the patients without treatment (adjusted Hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval = 0.68-0.76). The risks of developing most gastrointestinal tract, lung, gynecological and brain malignancies were significantly lower in the treatment cohort than in the comparison cohort. In contrast, the risks of prostate and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the treatment cohort than in the comparison cohort. Our findings suggest that PD with treatment is associated with a significantly reduced overall risk of cancer and reduced risks of certain types of cancers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  12. Diverticular disease and the risk of colon cancer - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, J; Svensson, T; Granath, F; Hjern, F; Ekbom, A; Blomqvist, P; Schmidt, P T

    2011-09-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease are most common in the Western world and their incidences tend to increase with advancing age. The association between the diseases remains unclear. To analyse the risk of colon cancer after hospitalisation for diverticular disease. Nationwide case-control study. A total of 41,037 patients with colon cancer during 1992-2006, identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Each case was matched with two control subjects. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, cases and control subjects hospitalised for diverticular disease were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals for receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer after hospital discharge for diverticular disease were calculated. Colon cancer mortality was compared between patients with or without diverticular disease. Within 6months after an admission due to diverticular disease, OR of having a colon cancer diagnosis were up to 31.49 (19.00-52.21). After 12 months, there was no increased risk. The number of discharges for diverticular disease did not affect the risk. Colon cancer mortality did not differ between patients with and without diverticular disease. Diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer in the long term, and a history of diverticular disease does not affect colon cancer mortality. The increased risk of colon cancer within the first 12months after diagnosing diverticular disease is most likely due to surveillance and misclassification. Examination of the colon should be recommended after a primary episode of symptomatic diverticular disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhtar Hussain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥55 years from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region. Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%–25% of all CHD and 36%–42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes. However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors. Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.

  14. Brain inflammation accompanies amyloid in the majority of mild cognitive impairment cases due to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbo, Peter; Ismail, Rola; Hansen, Kim V; Amidi, Ali; Mårup, Frederik H; Gottrup, Hanne; Brændgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Bengt O; Eskildsen, Simon F; Lund, Torben E; Tietze, Anna; Edison, Paul; Pavese, Nicola; Stokholm, Morten G; Borghammer, Per; Hinz, Rainer; Aanerud, Joel; Brooks, David J

    2017-07-01

    See Kreisl (doi:10.1093/awx151) for a scientific commentary on this article.Subjects with mild cognitive impairment associated with cortical amyloid-β have a greatly increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that neuroinflammation occurs early in Alzheimer's disease and would be present in most amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment cases. 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography was used to determine the amyloid load and detect the extent of neuroinflammation (microglial activation) in 42 mild cognitive impairment cases. Twelve age-matched healthy control subjects had 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 10 healthy control subjects had 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography for comparison. Amyloid-positivity was defined as 11C-Pittsburgh compound B target-to-cerebellar ratio above 1.5 within a composite cortical volume of interest. Supervised cluster analysis was used to generate parametric maps of 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potential. Levels of 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potential were measured in a selection of cortical volumes of interest and at a voxel level. Twenty-six (62%) of 42 mild cognitive impairment cases showed a raised cortical amyloid load compared to healthy controls. Twenty-two (85%) of the 26 amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment cases showed clusters of increased cortical microglial activation accompanying the amyloid. There was a positive correlation between levels of amyloid load and 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potentials at a voxel level within subregions of frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography reveals increased inflammation in a majority of amyloid positive mild cognitive impairment cases, its cortical distribution overlapping that of amyloid deposition. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Estimation of cancer risks from radiotherapy of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Kamprad, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effective-dose method which was proposed by the ICRP (International Commission of Radiation Protection) for the estimation of risk to the general population from occupational or environmental, low-dose radiation exposure is not adequate for estimating the risk of cancer induction by radiotherapy of malignant or nonmalignant diseases. Methods:The risk of cancer induction by radiotherapy of benign diseases should be based on epidemiologic data directly derived from follow-up studies of patients who had been given radiotherapy for nonmalignant diseases in the past. Results: Risk factors were derived from epidemiologic studies of patients treated with irradiation for nonmalignant diseases to be used for selecting treatment options and optimizing treatment procedures. Conclusion: In most cases, cancer risks estimated by the effective-dose method may overestimate the true risks by one order of magnitude, yet in other cases even may underestimate it. The proposed method using organ-specific risk factors may be more suitable for treatment planning. (orig.)

  16. Rhabdoviruses as vaccine platforms for infectious disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Franz; Rajwani, Jahanara; Mahoney, Douglas J

    2018-05-21

    The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms. Currently, the rVSV vector is in preclinical development for vaccination against numerous high-priority infectious diseases, with clinical evaluation underway for HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease. Indeed, the success of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine during the 2014-15 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa highlights the therapeutic potential of rVSV as a vaccine vector for acute, life-threatening viral illnesses. The rVSV and rMaraba platforms are also being tested as 'oncolytic' cancer vaccines in a series of phase 1-2 clinical trials, after being proven effective at eliciting immune-mediated tumour regression in preclinical mouse models. In this review, we discuss the biological and genetic features that make RVs attractive vaccine platforms and the development and ongoing testing of rVSV and rMaraba strains as vaccine vectors for infectious disease and cancer.

  17. Graphene- gold based nanocomposites applications in cancer diseases; Efficient detection and therapeutic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Lina A; AlSaadi, Mohammed A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Hashim, Najihah M; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili M; Yehye, Wageeh A

    2017-10-20

    Early detection and efficient treatment of cancer disease remains a drastic challenge in 21st century. Throughout the bulk of funds, studies, and current therapeutics, cancer seems to aggressively advance with drug resistance strains and recurrence rates. Nevertheless, nanotechnologies have indeed given hope to be the next generation for oncology applications. According to US National cancer institute, it is anticipated to revolutionize the perspectives of cancer diagnosis and therapy. With such success, nano-hybrid strategy creates a marvelous preference. Herein, graphene-gold based composites are being increasingly studied in the field of oncology, for their outstanding performance as robust vehicle of therapeutic agents, built-in optical diagnostic features, and functionality as theranostic system. Additional modes of treatments are also applicable including photothermal, photodynamic, as well as combined therapy. This review aims to demonstrate the various cancer-related applications of graphene-gold based hybrids in terms of detection and therapy, highlighting the major attributes that led to designate such system as a promising ally in the war against cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. "Obesity is the New Major Cause of Cancer": Connections Between Obesity and Cancer on Facebook and Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Prestin, Abby; Gaysynsky, Anna; Galica, Kasia; Rinker, Robin; Graff, Kaitlin; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Social media interactions can inform public health risk perceptions. While research has examined the risk relationships between obesity and cancer, public attitudes about their associations remain largely unknown. We explored how these constructs were discussed together on two social media platforms. Publicly accessible Facebook and Twitter posts from a 2-month period in 2012 containing references to obesity ("obese/obesity," "overweight," and "fat") and cancer-related words were extracted (N = 3702 posts). Data cleaning yielded a final set of 1382 posts (Facebook: N = 291; Twitter: N = 1091). Using a mixed-methods approach, themes were inductively generated, and sentiment valence, structural elements, and epistemic stance were coded. Seven relational themes emerged: obesity is associated with cancer (n = 389), additional factors are associated with both obesity and cancer (n = 335), obesity causes cancer (n = 85), cancer causes obesity (n = 6), obesity is not linked to cancer (n = 13), co-occurrence (n = 492), and obesity is valued differently than cancer (n = 60). Fifty-nine percent of posts focused on an associative or causal link between obesity and cancer. Thirty-one percent of posts contained positive and/or negative sentiment. Facebook was more likely to contain any sentiment, but Twitter contained proportionately more negative sentiment. Concurrent qualitative analysis revealed a dominance of individual blame for overweight/obese persons and more support and empathy for cancer survivors. Our study reflects wide recognition of the evidence linking obesity to increased risk of cancer, a diverse set of factors perceived to be dually associated with both conditions and differing attribution of responsibility. We demonstrate that social media monitoring can provide an important gauge of public health risk perception.

  19. Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder. A Translational Review in Animal Models of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcet, Flavie; Gardier, Alain M.; Gaillard, Raphael; David, Denis J.; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. In addition to the well-defined depressive symptoms, patients suffering from MDD consistently complain about cognitive disturbances, significantly exacerbating the burden of this illness. Among cognitive symptoms, impairments in attention, working memory, learning and memory or executive functions are often reported. However, available data about the heterogeneity of MDD patients and magnitude of cognitive symptoms through the different phases of MDD remain difficult to summarize. Thus, the first part of this review briefly overviewed clinical studies, focusing on the cognitive dysfunctions depending on the MDD type. As animal models are essential translational tools for underpinning the mechanisms of cognitive deficits in MDD, the second part of this review synthetized preclinical studies observing cognitive deficits in different rodent models of anxiety/depression. For each cognitive domain, we determined whether deficits could be shared across models. Particularly, we established whether specific stress-related procedures or unspecific criteria (such as species, sex or age) could segregate common cognitive alteration across models. Finally, the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents in cognitive dysfunctions during MDD state was also discussed. PMID:26901205

  20. Alpinia Essential Oils and Their Major Components against Rhodnius nasutus, a Vector of Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamiris de A. de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Alpinia are widely used by the population and have many described biological activities, including activity against insects. In this paper, we describe the bioactivity of the essential oil of two species of Alpinia genus, A. zerumbet and A. vittata, against Rhodnius nasutus, a vector of Chagas disease. The essential oils of these two species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituent of A. zerumbet essential oil (OLALPZER was terpinen-4-ol, which represented 19.7% of the total components identified. In the essential oil of A. vittata (OLALPVIT the monoterpene β-pinene (35.3% was the main constituent. The essential oils and their main constituents were topically applied on R. nasutus fifth-instar nymphs. In the first 10 min of application, OLALPVIT and OLALPZER at 125 μg/mL provoked 73.3% and 83.3% of mortality, respectively. Terpinen-4-ol at 25 μg/mL and β-pinene at 44 μg/mL provoked 100% of mortality. The monitoring of resistant insects showed that both essential oils exhibited antifeedant activity. These results suggest the potential use of A. zerumbet and A. vittata essential oils and their major constituents to control R. nasutus population.

  1. Assessing cardiorespiratory capacity in older adults with major depression and Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Felipe Zanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess cardiorespiratory capacity through subjective and objective tests in older adults diagnosed with major depression (MDD, Alzheimer disease (AD and healthy older adults. Methods Fifty seven subjects (72 ± 7.9 years were divided into three groups: MDD (n = 20, AD (n = 17 and Healthy (n = 20. The subjects answered Hamilton Scale (HAM-D, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ and 2-minute Step test. Results MDD and AD showed lower scores than healthy group for Nomogram VSAQ (p < 0.001 and 2-minute Step (p = 0.009; p = 0.008, respectively. Adjusted for age and educational level, no differences among groups were observed for Step (MDD, p = 0.097; AD, p = 0.102. AD group did not present differences to healthy group for Step, when adjusting for MMSE (p = 0.261. Conclusions Despite the lower cardiorespiratory fitness of elderly patients with DM and DA have been found in both evaluations, the results should be viewed with caution, since the tests showed low correlation and different risk classifications of functional loss. In addition, age, level educational and cognitive performance are variables that can influence the performance objective evaluation.

  2. Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder. A Translational Review in Animal Models of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavie Darcet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is the most common psychiatric disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. In addition to the well-defined depressive symptoms, patients suffering from MDD consistently complain about cognitive disturbances, significantly exacerbating the burden of this illness. Among cognitive symptoms, impairments in attention, working memory, learning and memory or executive functions are often reported. However, available data about the heterogeneity of MDD patients and magnitude of cognitive symptoms through the different phases of MDD remain difficult to summarize. Thus, the first part of this review briefly overviewed clinical studies, focusing on the cognitive dysfunctions depending on the MDD type. As animal models are essential translational tools for underpinning the mechanisms of cognitive deficits in MDD, the second part of this review synthetized preclinical studies observing cognitive deficits in different rodent models of anxiety/depression. For each cognitive domain, we determined whether deficits could be shared across models. Particularly, we established whether specific stress-related procedures or unspecific criteria (such as species, sex or age could segregate common cognitive alteration across models. Finally, the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents in cognitive dysfunctions during MDD state was also discussed.

  3. Cancer Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Testing a Biobehavioral/Cognitive Behavior Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…

  4. Global risk mapping for major diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Leta

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: With 215 countries/territories potentially suitable for the most important arboviral disease vectors and more than half of these reporting cases, arboviral diseases are indeed a global public health threat. The increasing proportion of reports that include multiple arboviral diseases highlights the expanding range of their common transmission vectors. The shared features of these arboviral diseases should motivate efforts to combine interventions against these diseases.

  5. Breast cancer scenario in a regional cancer centre in Eastern India over eight years--still a major public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Choudhuri, Maitrayee; Guha, Subhas; Biswas, Jaydip

    2012-01-01

    In spite of screening and early diagnostic tests, the upward trend of breast cancer has become a matter of great concern in both developed and developing countries. The data collected by Population Based Cancer Registry in Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, a regional cancer centre in Kolkata, from 1997 to 2004 gives an insight about the scenario of breast cancer in this part of Eastern India. The total no of female breast cancer cases were steadily increasing from 1997 to 2001 and only slightly lower from 2002 to 2004. and majority were in the 40-49 year old age group during this period. The next most commonly affected age group was 50-59 years. Regarding the distribution according to treatment, the main modality was surgery and radiotherapy followed by combined surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and then combined surgery and chemotherapy. The commonest type was ductal followed by lobular cancer. In this eight year study in CNCI, status of patients on last day of the respective year was assessed. Number of patients alive was 43.5% in 1997. The percentage gradually increased up to 2000 and then gradually decreased to 47.4% in 2004. Also with every passing year, percentage mortality gradually decreased from 25.7% in 1997 to 16.8% in 2004. Better pattern of care (diagnosis and treatment) was reflected in this picture. However, lost to follow up, which also implies non compliance to treatment, increased to 30.8% in 1997 to 35.8% in 2004. Due to the small number of male breast cancers, only female cases were considered. In conclusion, breast cancer continues to be a major problem in Kolkata, India.

  6. Skin cancer risk in autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostaki, D; Antonini, A; Peris, K; Fargnoli, M C

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous malignancies have been significantly associated with autoimmune connective tissue diseases (ACTDs). This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on skin cancer risk in the most prevalent ACTDs in dermatology including lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, dermatomyositis and Sjögren syndrome. Potential pathogenetic mechanisms for the association between ACTDs and malignancy involve disease-related impairment of immune system, sustained cutaneous inflammation, drug-associated immune suppression and increased susceptibility to acquired viral infections. An additional causal role might be played by environmental factors such as UV exposure and smoking. The occurrence of skin cancer can have a profound impact on the already compromised quality of life of ACTD patients. Therefore, effective screening and monitoring strategies are essential for ACTD patients as early detection and prompt therapeutic intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  7. [The association of lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, A; Azorin, J; Tchandjou Ngoko, L E; Valeyre, D; Morère, F; Destable, M D; de Saint-Florent, G

    1989-01-01

    This work is based on the retrospective study of the case history of 26 patients who were treated between September 1979 and January 1987 in the department of thoracic and vascular surgery at the Avicenne Hospital--and who were all suffering from both lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease. It is now well established by all the epidemiologic research that the link between lung cancer and atheromatous arterial disease is smoking tobacco. The risks involved in the misunderstanding of such an association are not without danger for the patient, particularly the risk of severe complication of possible coronary or carotid lesions, threatening survival; from this derives the necessity to decide automatically for a minimum of pre-surgery vascular investigations in the case of patients suffering from lung cancer. The therapeutic strategy in this association must be thorough, considering that there are three priorities in the vascular field which must absolutely be treated before the lung itself: --the coronary and carotid lesions which are likely to be complicated cancer after surgery and any state of emergency in the other vascular territories. The fight against tobacco smoking must also be considered as a priority aim.

  8. Truth or Spin? Disease Definition in Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lynette

    2017-08-01

    Are the small and indolent cancers found in abundance in cancer screening normal variations, risk factors, or disease? Naturalists in philosophy of medicine turn to pathophysiological findings to decide such questions objectively. To understand the role of pathophysiological findings in disease definition, we must understand how they mislead in diagnostic reasoning. Participants on all sides of the definition of disease debate attempt to secure objectivity via reductionism. These reductivist routes to objectivity are inconsistent with the Bayesian nature of clinical reasoning; when they appeal to the sciences, they are inconsistent with what philosophy of biology tells us about its natural kinds. Proposals that we narrow the scope of our claims in the disease definition debates (proposing adoption of a specific disease paradigm for a specific context) are useful, but paradigms can still distort our reasoning in particular cases, even when we are self-conscious about their status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Five recurrent BRCA1/2 mutations are responsible for cancer predisposition in the majority of Slovenian breast cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovic Srdjan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both recurrent and population specific mutations have been found in different areas of the world and more specifically in ethnically defined or isolated populations. The population of Slovenia has over several centuries undergone limited mixing with surrounding populations. The current study was aimed at establishing the mutation spectrum of BRCA1/2 in the Slovenian breast/ovarian cancer families taking advantage of a complete cancer registration database. A second objective was to determine the cancer phenotype of these families. Methods The original population database was composed of cancer patients from the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in Slovenia which also includes current follow-up status on these patients. The inclusion criteria for the BRCA1/2 screening were: (i probands with at least two first degree relatives with breast and ovarian cancer; (ii probands with only two first degree relatives of breast cancer where one must be diagnosed less than 50 years of age; and (iii individual patients with breast and ovarian cancer, bilateral breast cancer, breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 40 and male breast cancer without any other cancer in the family. Results Probands from 150 different families met the inclusion criteria for mutation analysis of which 145 consented to testing. A BRCA1/2 mutation was found in 56 (39%. Two novel large deletions covering consecutive exons of BRCA1 were found. Five highly recurrent specific mutations were identified (1806C>T, 300T>G, 300T>A, 5382insC in the BRCA1 gene and IVS16-2A>G in the BRCA2 gene. The IVS16-2A>G in the BRCA2 gene appears to be a unique founder mutation in the Slovenian population. A practical implication is that only 4 PCR fragments can be used in a first screen and reveal the cancer predisposing mutation in 67% of the BRCA1/2 positive families. We also observed an exceptionally high frequency of 4 different pathogenic missense mutations, all affecting one of

  10. Thyroid cancer in Graves' disease: is surgery the best treatment for Graves' disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamatea, Jade A U; Tu'akoi, Kelson; Conaglen, John V; Elston, Marianne S; Meyer-Rochow, Goswin Y

    2014-04-01

    Graves' disease is a common cause of thyrotoxicosis. Treatment options include anti-thyroid medications or definitive therapy: thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine (I(131) ). Traditionally, I(131) has been the preferred definitive treatment for Graves' disease in New Zealand. Reports of concomitant thyroid cancer occurring in up to 17% of Graves' patients suggest surgery, if performed with low morbidity, may be the preferred option. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of thyroid cancer and surgical outcomes in a New Zealand cohort of patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. This study is a retrospective review of Waikato region patients undergoing thyroid surgery for Graves' disease during the 10-year period prior to 1 December 2011. A total of 833 patients underwent thyroid surgery. Of these, 117 were for Graves' disease. Total thyroidectomy was performed in 82, near-total in 33 and subtotal in 2 patients. Recurrent thyrotoxicosis developed in one subtotal patient requiring I(131) therapy. There were two cases of permanent hypoparathyroidism and one of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Eight patients (6.8%) had thyroid cancer detected, none of whom had overt nodal disease. Five were papillary microcarcinomas (one of which was multifocal), two were papillary carcinomas (11 mm and 15 mm) and one was a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma. Thyroid cancer was identified in approximately 7% of patients undergoing surgery for Graves' disease. A low complication rate (<2%) of permanent hypoparathyroidism and nerve injury (<1%) supports surgery being a safe alternative to I(131) especially for patients with young children, ophthalmopathy or compressive symptoms. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Genetic parameters of subclinical macromineral disorders and major clinical diseases in postparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamadis, V; Banos, G; Panousis, N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Arsenos, G; Valergakis, G E

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic parameters of subclinical disorders associated with subclinical hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, subclinical hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia, as well as major clinical diseases after calving in Holstein cows. The secondary objective was to estimate the associated genetic and phenotypic correlations among these subclinical and clinical conditions after calving in Holstein cows. The study was conducted in 9dairy herds located in Northern Greece. None of the herds used any kind of preventive measures for milk fever (MF). A total of 1,021 Holstein cows with pedigree information were examined from November 2010 until November 2012. The distribution across parities was 466 (parity 1), 242 (parity 2), 165 (parity 3), and 148 (parity 4 and above) cows. All cows were subjected to a detailed clinical examination and blood was sampled on d 1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving. Serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K were measured in all samples, whereas β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) was measured only for d 8. The final data set included 4,064 clinical and 16,848 biochemical records (4,020 Ca, 4,019 P, 4,020Mg, 3,792K, and 997 BHB). Data of 1,988 observations of body condition score at d 1 and 8 were also available. All health traits were analyzed with a univariate random regression model. The genetic analysis for macromineral-related disorders included 986 cows with no obvious signs of MF (35 cows with MF were excluded). Analysis for other health traits included all 1,021 cows. A similar single record model was used for the analysis of BHB. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated with a series of bivariate analyses. Statistically significant daily heritabilities of subclinical hypocalcemia (0.13-0.25), hypophosphatemia (0.18-0.33), subclinical hypomagnesemia (0.11-0.38), and hyperphosphatemia (0.14-0.22) were low to moderate, whereas that of hypokalemia was low (0.08-0.10). The heritability of body

  12. Breast cancer in the lower jaw after reconstructive surgery with a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestle-Kraemling C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For head and neck as well as for oromaxillofacial surgery, the use of the pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC flap is a standard reconstructive technique after radical surgery for cancers in this region. We report to our knowledge for the first development of breast cancer in the PMMC flap in a 79 year old patient, who had undergone several operations in the past for recurring squamous cell carcinoma of the jaw. The occurrence of a secondary malignancy within the donor tissue after flap transfer is rare, but especially in the case of transferred breast tissue and the currently high incidence of breast cancer theoretically possible. Therefore preoperative screening mammography seems advisable to exclude a preexisting breast cancer in female patients undergoing such reconstruction surgery. Therapy for breast cancer under these circumstances is individual and consists of radical tumor resection followed by radiation if applicable and a standard systemic therapeutic regimen on the background of the patients individual prognosis due to the primary cancer.

  13. Built Environment, Selected Risk Factors and Major Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasmore Malambo

    Full Text Available Built environment attributes have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Therefore, identifying built environment attributes that are associated with CVD risk is relevant for facilitating effective public health interventions.To conduct a systematic review of literature to examine the influence of built environmental attributes on CVD risks.Multiple database searches including Science direct, CINAHL, Masterfile Premier, EBSCO and manual scan of reference lists were conducted.Studies published in English between 2005 and April 2015 were included if they assessed one or more of the neighborhood environmental attributes in relation with any major CVD outcomes and selected risk factors among adults.Author(s, country/city, sex, age, sample size, study design, tool used to measure neighborhood environment, exposure and outcome assessments and associations were extracted from eligible studies.Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used both cross-sectional design and Geographic Information System (GIS to assess the neighborhood environmental attributes. Neighborhood environmental attributes were significantly associated with CVD risk and CVD outcomes in the expected direction. Residential density, safety from traffic, recreation facilities, street connectivity and high walkable environment were associated with physical activity. High walkable environment, fast food restaurants, supermarket/grocery stores were associated with blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. High density traffic, road proximity and fast food restaurants were associated with CVDs outcomes.This study confirms the relationship between neighborhood environment attributes and CVDs and risk factors. Prevention programs should account for neighborhood environmental attributes in the communities where people live.

  14. Human colon cancers as a major problem in poland and in the world – medical and environmental issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Katarzyna Król

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological data have shown an increasing incidence and mortality of colon cancer cases in the past several years, not only in Poland but all over the world as well. Each year, approximately a million new cases of colon cancer are diagnosed and that is the cause of death of almost half a million patients in the world. The aim of this article is to present the epidemiology and the current state of scientific knowledge concerning etiology and pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases in human large intestine. Furthermore, this short review describes the essential risk factors and suggests the simple and effective ways of colon cancer prevention.Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in EU countries. Scientific studies have proved that genetic and hereditary factors have a strong influence on carcinogenesis in human colon. Moreover, environmental factors, such as dietary contribute to the development of colon neoplasm. The most useful tool to reduce high morbidity and mortality is a prevention. Screening tests in nonsymptomatic people from high-risk groups or populations enable diagnosis in the early stage of colorectal cancer. Many publications have reported that modification of lifestyle and daily diet also play a significant role in prevention.

  15. A major non-HLA locus in celiac disease maps to chromosome 19.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, van MJ; Meijer, JW; Sandkuijl, L.A.; Bardoel, A.F.; Mulder, C.J.J.; Pearson, PL; Houwen, RH; Wijmenga, C.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pathogenesis of celiac disease is still unknown despite its well-known association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and DQ8. It is clear that non-HLA genes contribute to celiac disease development as well, but none of the previous genome-wide screens in celiac disease

  16. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment: ever more used with major regional differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval debulking...

  17. Major Clinical Impact of Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in a Patient with a Borderline Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient with extensive and painful chest wall involvement from a metastatic borderline cancer of the ovary was treated with a carboplatin plus paclitaxel chemotherapy regimen. She achieved a rather dramatic improvement of pain control, a significant biochemical response with 75% reduction of the CA-125 antigen level, but only limited radiographic tumor regression. This experience emphasizes the potential clinical utility of platinum-based cytotoxic chemotherapy in the setting of symptomatic advanced borderline ovarian cancer.

  18. Comprehensive characterization of lncRNA-mRNA related ceRNA network across 12 major cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Li, Feng; Sun, Zeguo; Wu, Tan; Shi, Xinrui; Li, Jing; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to indirectly regulate mRNAs through shared microRNAs, which represents a novel layer of RNA crosstalk and plays critical roles in the development of tumor. However, the global regulation landscape and characterization of these lncRNA related ceRNA crosstalk in cancers is still largely unknown. Here, we systematically characterized the lncRNA related ceRNA interactions across 12 major cancers and the normal physiological states by integrating multidimensional molecule profiles of more than 5000 samples. Our study suggest the large difference of ceRNA regulation between normal and tumor states and the higher similarity across similar tissue origin of tumors. The ceRNA related molecules have more conserved features in tumor networks and they play critical roles in both the normal and tumorigenesis processes. Besides, lncRNAs in the pan-cancer ceRNA network may be potential biomarkers of tumor. By exploring hub lncRNAs, we found that these conserved key lncRNAs dominate variable tumor hallmark processes across pan-cancers. Network dynamic analysis highlights the critical roles of ceRNA regulation in tumorigenesis. By analyzing conserved ceRNA interactions, we found that miRNA mediate ceRNA regulation showed different patterns across pan-cancer; while analyzing the cancer specific ceRNA interactions reveal that lncRNAs synergistically regulated tumor driver genes of cancer hallmarks. Finally, we found that ceRNA modules have the potential to predict patient survival. Overall, our study systematically dissected the lncRNA related ceRNA networks in pan-cancer that shed new light on understanding the molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis. PMID:27580177

  19. Paget's disease of bone resembling bone metastasis from gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Shimoda, Yoko; Ishihara, Shingo; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Sano, Takaaki; Hirato, Junko; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-08-01

    A 74-year-old man had an endoscopic type 0'-IIc tumor in the upper gastric body on the greater curvature and biopsy showed the tumor to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (Group 5). He was referred to us for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Endoscopy revealed fold convergency, fold swelling, and fusion of the fold, indicating tumor invasion into the submucosa, which was outside the indications for ESD. In addition, there was an increase of serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase (ALP-III and ALP-IV) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (a bone metabolism marker), while (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the left pelvis and Th10, suggesting bone metastases. We first diagnosed gastric cancer with bone metastases; however, the symptoms suggested pathological bone fracture and no bone pain. Therefore, a computed tomography-guided aspiration bone biopsy was performed to exclude the possibility of Paget's disease of bone. Biopsy specimens revealed no tumor and a mosaic pattern. No increased uptake of (18)F-FAMT (L-[3-(18)F] α-methyltyrosine) supported a diagnosis of no bone metastases from gastric cancer. We finally diagnosed gastric cancer accompanied by Paget's disease of bone and performed a laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was U less 0-IIb, and U post 0-IIc ypT1a (M) N0H0P0M0 yp stage IA. In gastric cancer patients with suspected bone metastasis, we also need to consider Paget's disease of bone.

  20. Oligometastatic Disease in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer – How to Proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Berlth, Felix; Plum, Patrick S.; Betzler, Christopher; Stippel, Dirk L.; Popp, Felix; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the present study we review and discuss the current evidence and suggest how to proceed in the management of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer. Methods An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant articles was performed. Results Both the search for ‘oligometastasis', ‘oligometastases', ‘oligometastatic’, ‘oligometastatic disease’ as well as ‘esophageal’ and ‘esophageal cancer’ and the search for ‘oligometastasis', ‘oligometastases', ‘oligometastatic’, ‘oligometastatic disease’ as well as ‘gastric’, ‘gastric cancer’, ‘stomach’, and ‘stomach cancer’ yielded very few studies. Most data need to be extrapolated in general studies on oligometastatic diseases of different origins. No randomized controlled trial could be found. Conclusion In the absence of data to formulate recommendations on how to proceed in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer, a more aggressive treatment of oligometastatic disease can be considered in patients whose tumors show a more favorable neoplastic behavior after the ‘test of time’. The RENAISSANCE study will certainly deliver important data regarding this aspect. PMID:28612014

  1. Beyond the visible: Managing heart disease and cancer with nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindly, D. III

    2006-09-01

    Heart disease and cancer are the world's number one and two killers. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), heart disease kills 17 million people a year - almost one third of all deaths worldwide - and cancer causes 7 million deaths every year. Early and accurate diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of both heart disease and cancer. Nuclear medicine techniques are helping to provide the vital information that doctors need to make decisions about treatment and disease management for patients

  2. Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlik, Meinrad; Kállay, Enikoe; Cross, Heide S.

    2013-01-01

    Through a systematic search in Pubmed for literature, on links between calcium malnutrition and risk of chronic diseases, we found the highest degree of evidence for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as for hypertension, as the only major cardiovascular risk factor. Low calcium intake apparently has some impact also on cardiovascular events and disease outcome. Calcium malnutrition can causally be related to low activity of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This member of the family of 7-TM G-protein coupled receptors allows extracellular Ca2+ to function as a “first messenger” for various intracellular signaling cascades. Evidence demonstrates that Ca2+/CaSR signaling in functional linkage with vitamin D receptor (VDR)-activated pathways (i) promotes osteoblast differentiation and formation of mineralized bone; (ii) targets downstream effectors of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathway to inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation of colorectal cancer cells; (iii) evokes Ca2+ influx into breast cancer cells, thereby activating pro-apoptotic intracellular signaling. Furthermore, Ca2+/CaSR signaling opens Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductance channels in vascular endothelial cells, and also participates in IP3-dependent regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, the key intermediate of cardiomyocyte functions. Consequently, impairment of Ca2+/CaSR signaling may contribute to inadequate bone formation, tumor progression, hypertension, vascular calcification and, probably, cardiovascular disease. PMID:23340319

  3. Valvular Heart Disease in Cancer Patients: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Merrill H; Jahangir, Eiman; Polin, Nichole M

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac valvular disease as consequence of radiation and chemotherapy during treatment for malignancy is growing in its awareness. While the overwhelming emphasis in this population has been on the monitoring and preservation of left ventricular systolic function, we are now developing a greater appreciation for the plethora of cardiac sequelae beyond this basic model. To this end many institutions across the country have developed cardio-oncology programs, which are collaborative practices between oncologists and cardiologists in order to minimize a patient's cardiovascular risk while allowing them to receive the necessary treatment for their cancer. These programs also help to recognize early nuanced treatment complications such as valvular heart disease, and provide consultation for the most appropriate course of action. In this article we will discuss the etiology, prevalence, diagnosis, and current treatment options of valvular heart disease as the result of chemotherapy and radiation.

  4. Non-cancer diseases and non-targeted effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Guido, E-mail: guido.hildebrandt@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 9a, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Rostock, Suedring 75, 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    It is well established that moderate to high doses of radiation can increase the occurrence also of a variety of non-cancer effects in exposed individuals, but for radiation protection purposes it has generally been assumed that there is a threshold of dose below which no significant non-cancer effects (apart from hereditary disease) arise. In recent years, there is growing epidemiological evidence of excess risk of late occurring cardiovascular disease at much lower radiation doses and occurring over much longer intervals after radiation exposure without a clear cut threshold. However, the epidemiological evidence available so far for non-cancer health effects after exposure to moderate or low radiation doses is suggestive rather than persuasive. The mechanisms of radiation-induced vascular disease induction are far away from being understood. However, it seems to be very likely that inflammatory responses are involved. Recent experimental studies by Stewart et al. could demonstrate that high dose exposure to the cardiovascular system is associated with an earlier onset and accelerated development of macrophage-rich, inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions prone to intra-plaque hemorrhage and may also cause a decrease in myocardial perfusion. Both, macro-vascular and micro-vascular radiation effects involve the endothelium and pro-inflammatory signalling cascades. If modulation of inflammatory response is arguably also the most likely cause of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease after low dose exposure, this also implies a role for non-targeted radiation effects. In the absence of a convincing mechanistic explanation of the currently available epidemiological evidence for radiation-induced cardiovascular risk at low radiation doses, caution is required in the interpretation of the statistical associations. On the other hand, the possibility of such a causal explanation cannot be reliably excluded. Further epidemiological and biological evidence from currently

  5. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahingur, Sinem Esra; Yeudall, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host–microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25999952

  6. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arranz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  7. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

  8. Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, D.; Bianchi, Matteo; Landegren, Nils; Nordin, Jessika; Dalin, Frida; Mathioudaki, Argyri; Eriksson, G. N.; Hultin-Rosenberg, Lina; Dahlqvist, Johanna; Zetterqvist, H.; Karlsson, Andreas; Hallgren, Anna; Farias, F. H. G.; Murén, Eva; Ahlgren, Kerstin M.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAutoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addisons disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology. MethodsTo understand the genetic background of Addisons disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected se...

  9. Estimated Human and Economic Burden of Four Major Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, John M.; McGinnis, Justin J.; Tan, Litjen; Mercatante, Annette; Fortuna, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific inci...

  10. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  11. Major Histocompatibilty Complex-Restricted Adaptive Immune Responses to CT26 Colon Cancer Cell Line in Mixed Allogeneic Chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K W; Choi, B; Kim, Y M; Cho, C W; Park, H; Moon, J I; Choi, G-S; Park, J B; Kim, S J

    2017-06-01

    Although the induction of mixed allogeneic chimera shows promising clinical tolerance results in organ transplantation, its clinical relevance as an anti-cancer therapy is yet unknown. We introduced a mixed allogenic chimera setting with the use of a murine colon cancer cell line, CT26, by performing double bone marrow transplantation. We analyzed donor- and recipient-restricted anti-cancer T-cell responses, and phenotypes of subpopulations of T cells. The protocol involves challenging 1 × 10 5 cells of CT26 cells intra-hepatically on day 50 after bone marrow transplantation, and, by use of CT26 lysates and an H-2L d -restricted AH1 pentamer, flow cytometric analysis was performed to detect the generation of cancer-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at various time points. We found that immunocompetence against tumors depends heavily on cancer-specific CD8 + T-cell responses in a major histocompatibility complex-restricted manner; the evidence was further supported by the increase of interferon-γ-secreting CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that during the effector immune response to CT26 cancer challenge, there was a presence of central memory cells (CD62L hi CCR7 + ) as well as effector memory cells (CD62L lo CCR7 - ). Moreover, mixed allogeneic chimeras (BALB/c to C56BL/6 or vice versa) showed similar or heightened immune responses to CT26 cells compared with that of wild-type mice. Our results suggest that the responses of primary immunocompetency and of pre-existing memory T cells against allogeneic cancer are sustained and preserved long-term in a mixed allogeneic chimeric environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period after major colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeloef, S; Larsen, M H H; Schou-Pedersen, A M V

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period promotes myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of colon cancer surgery on endothelial function and the association with the l-arginine-nitric oxide...... was attenuated in the first days after colon cancer surgery indicating acute endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction correlated with disturbances in the L-arginine - nitric oxide pathway. Our findings provide a rationale for investigating the hypothesized association between acute endothelial...... dysfunction and cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02344771....

  13. Endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period after major colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeløf, Sara; Larsen, Mikkel Hjordt; Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt

    2017-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction in the early postoperative period promotes myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of colon cancer surgery on endothelial function and the association with the l-arginine-nitric oxide...... was attenuated in the first days after colon cancer surgery indicating acute endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction correlated with disturbances in the L-arginine – nitric oxide pathway. Our findings provide a rationale for investigating the hypothesized association between acute endothelial...... dysfunction and cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery. Clinical trial registration. NCT02344771....

  14. The major economic field diseases of cowpea in the humid agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea, which has now become an important protein source for the teeming populace of Nigerians especially those living in the humid agro-ecological zones of South-western Nigeria, is severely attacked by diseases. The causal agents of these diseases find the environment more conducive for survival and hence induce ...

  15. Transmission scenarios of major vector-borne diseases in Colombia, 1990-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Padilla

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Persistent epidemic and endemic transmission of vector-borne diseases in urban and rural settings in Colombia was observed mainly in the case of malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Such transmission was focused and had variable intensity patterns. On the other hand, the conditions that have favored the emergence of new arboviruses persist.

  16. Gab Docking Proteins in Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Nakaoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The docking proteins of the Grb2-associated binder (Gab family have emerged as crucial signaling compartments in metazoans. In mammals, the Gab proteins, consisting of Gab1, Gab2, and Gab3, are involved in the amplification and integration of signal transduction evoked by a variety of extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, antigens, and other molecules. Gab proteins lack the enzymatic activity themselves; however, when phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, they provide binding sites for multiple Src homology-2 (SH2 domain-containing proteins, such as SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85, phospholipase Cγ, Crk, and GC-GAP. Through these interactions, the Gab proteins transduce signals from activated receptors into pathways with distinct biological functions, thereby contributing to signal diversification. They are known to play crucial roles in numerous physiological processes through their associations with SHP2 and p85. In addition, abnormal Gab protein signaling has been linked to human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. In this paper, we provide an overview of the structure, effector functions, and regulation of the Gab docking proteins, with a special focus on their associations with cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammation.

  17. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to...

  18. Breast cancer as heterogeneous disease: contributing factors and carcinogenesis mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Abernethy, Amy P; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-07-01

    The observed bimodal patterns of breast cancer incidence in the U.S. suggested that breast cancer may be viewed as more than one biological entity. We studied the factors potentially contributing to this phenomenon, specifically focusing on how disease heterogeneity could be linked to breast carcinogenesis mechanisms. Using empirical analyses and population-based biologically motivated modeling, age-specific patterns of incidence of ductal and lobular breast carcinomas from the SEER registry (1990-2003) were analyzed for heterogeneity and characteristics of carcinogenesis, stratified by race, stage, grade, and estrogen (ER)/progesterone (PR) receptor status. The heterogeneity of breast carcinoma age patterns decreased after stratification by grade, especially for grade I and III tumors. Stratification by ER/PR status further reduced the heterogeneity, especially for ER(+)/PR(-) and ER(-)/(-) tumors; however, the residual heterogeneity was still observed. The number of rate-limiting events of carcinogenesis and the latency of ductal and lobular carcinomas differed, decreasing from grade I to III, with poorly differentiated tumors associated with the least number of carcinogenesis stages and the shortest latency. Tumor grades play important role in bimodal incidence of breast carcinoma and have distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Race and cancer subtype could play modifying role. ER/PR status contributes to the observed heterogeneity, but is subdominant to tumor grade. Further studies on sources of "remaining" heterogeneity of population with breast cancer (such as genetic/epigenetic characteristics) are necessary. The results of this study could suggest stratification rather than unification of breast cancer prevention strategies, risk assessment, and treatment.

  19. Neurocognitive differential diagnosis of dementing diseases: Alzheimer's Dementia, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Alyssa J; Parsons, Thomas D; McCue, Robert; Sellers, Alfred; Burns, William J

    2006-11-01

    Similarities in presentation of Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder, pose differential diagnosis challenges. The current study identifies specific neuropsychological patterns of scores for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychological domains directly assessed in the study included: immediate memory, delayed memory, confrontational naming, verbal fluency, attention, concentration, and executive functioning. The results reveal specific neuropsychological comparative profiles for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. The identification of these profiles will assist in the differential diagnosis of these disorders and aid in patient treatment.

  20. Imaging manifestations of acquired elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Harish; Cheng, Ken; Lau, Ken; Harish, Radhika; Bowden, Donald K.

    2016-01-01

    Development of an acquired systemic elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with chronic haemoglobinopathies such as beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease is well documented. There is paucity of any comprehensive literature on the radiological manifestations of this entity. This pictorial review aims to describe and illustrate the multi system and multi modality imaging findings of this condition.

  1. Trends of major disease outbreaks in the African region, 2003–2007 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy aimed at ... fevers (e.g. Ebola, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo fever and yellow fever). ... Conclusions: To successfully reduce the levels of morbidity and mortality resulting ...

  2. Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss as Risks for Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sadighi Shamami, M; Sadighi Shamami, M; Amini, S

    2011-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is a chronic destructive disease which occurs in adults, young people, and children. Periodontal disease and periodontal pathogens have been associated with several systemic diseases and more recently, several studies have suggested the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. Studies with adjustment for the effect of smoking exposure, have found significant positive associations with different cancer sites. This review has outlined recent epidemiolo...

  3. Curcumin and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD: Major Mode of Action through Stimulating Endogenous Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha S. Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa, has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD, an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP. Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD.

  4. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  5. Heterogeneous impact of smoking on major salivary gland cancer according to histopathological subtype: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawabe, Michi; Ito, Hidemi; Takahara, Taishi; Oze, Isao; Kawakita, Daisuke; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Murakami, Shingo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2018-01-01

    Major salivary gland cancers (M-SGCs) are rare, and have distinct heterogeneous histopathological subtypes. To the authors' knowledge, no consistent evidence of an association between cigarette smoking and the risk of M-SGCs has appeared to date. Furthermore, evidence of potential heterogeneity in the impact of smoking on histopathological subtypes is scarce, despite the fact that the histopathological subtypes of M-SGC exhibit different genetic features. The authors conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between smoking and M-SGC by histopathological subtype. Cases were 81 patients with M-SGCs and the controls were 810 age-matched and sex-matched first-visit outpatients without cancer treated at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital from 1988 to 2005. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were assessed by conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Smoking was found to be associated with a significantly increased risk of M-SGC overall, with an OR of 3.45 (95% CI, 1.58-7.51; P =.001) for heavy smokers compared with never-smokers. A significant dose-response relationship was observed (P for trend, .001). When stratified by histological subtype, no obvious impact of smoking was observed among patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). In contrast, smoking demonstrated a significantly increased risk of M-SGCs other than MEC, with an OR of 5.15 (95% CI, 2.06-12.87; Psmoking on risk between MEC and M-SGCs other than MEC (P for heterogeneity, .052). The results of the current study demonstrate a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and the risk of M-SGC overall. However, the impact of smoking appeared to be limited to M-SGCs other than MEC. Cancer 2018;124:118-24. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Risk of developing major depression and bipolar disorder among adolescents with atopic diseases: A nationwide longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have found an increased prevalence of atopic diseases among patients with major depression and bipolar disorder. But the temporal association between atopic diseases in adolescence and the subsequent risk of developing mood disorders has been rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Databases, 5075 adolescents with atopic diseases (atopic cohort) and 44,729 without (non-atopic cohort) aged between 10 and 17 in 2000 were enrolled into our study and followed to the end of 2010. Subjects who developed major depression or bipolar disorder during the follow-up were identified. The atopic cohort had an increased risk of developing major depression (HR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.93~3.11) and bipolar disorder (HR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.71~3.67) compared to the non-atopic cohort, with a dose-dependent relationship between having a greater number of atopic comorbidities and a greater likelihood of major depression (1 atopic disease: HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.29~2.50; 2 atopic comorbidities: HR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.93~3.04;≥3 atopic comorbidities: HR: 3.79, 95% CI: 3.05~4.72) and bipolar disorder (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 0.57~3.44; HR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.68~4.68; HR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.69~5.38). Having atopic diseases in adolescence increased the risk of developing major depression and bipolar disorder in later life. Further studies may be required to clarify the underlying mechanism between atopy and mood disorders, and to investigate whether prompt intervention may decrease the risk of subsequent mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelet count is associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P J; Hvas, A M; Frederiksen, H

    2016-01-01

    count (100-450×10(9)/L) and mortality, development of future cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or peripheral vascular disease), venous thromboembolism, bleeding or cancer in the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a register-based cohort study of 21......,252 adults (≥20years) from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS). Laboratory results from GESUS were linked to information from national registers regarding morbidity and death. Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, haemoglobin......, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein and Charlson comorbidity index. RESULTS: We found a U-shaped relationship between mortality and platelet count. Mortality was significantly increased for platelet count 300×10(9)/L. When categorizing platelet count using the interval 201-250×10(9)/L...

  8. OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a lar...... number of applications in the fields of non-melanoma skin cancer, malignant melanomas, psoriasis and dermatitis, infestations, bullous skin diseases, tattoos, nails, haemangiomas, and other skin diseases. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a large...

  9. A novel computer based expert decision making model for prostate cancer disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Martin B; Forman, Ernest H; Bayazit, Yildirim; Einstein, Douglas B; Resnick, Martin I; Stovsky, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    We propose a strategic, computer based, prostate cancer decision making model based on the analytic hierarchy process. We developed a model that improves physician-patient joint decision making and enhances the treatment selection process by making this critical decision rational and evidence based. Two groups (patient and physician-expert) completed a clinical study comparing an initial disease management choice with the highest ranked option generated by the computer model. Participants made pairwise comparisons to derive priorities for the objectives and subobjectives related to the disease management decision. The weighted comparisons were then applied to treatment options to yield prioritized rank lists that reflect the likelihood that a given alternative will achieve the participant treatment goal. Aggregate data were evaluated by inconsistency ratio analysis and sensitivity analysis, which assessed the influence of individual objectives and subobjectives on the final rank list of treatment options. Inconsistency ratios less than 0.05 were reliably generated, indicating that judgments made within the model were mathematically rational. The aggregate prioritized list of treatment options was tabulated for the patient and physician groups with similar outcomes for the 2 groups. Analysis of the major defining objectives in the treatment selection decision demonstrated the same rank order for the patient and physician groups with cure, survival and quality of life being more important than controlling cancer, preventing major complications of treatment, preventing blood transfusion complications and limiting treatment cost. Analysis of subobjectives, including quality of life and sexual dysfunction, produced similar priority rankings for the patient and physician groups. Concordance between initial treatment choice and the highest weighted model option differed between the groups with the patient group having 59% concordance and the physician group having only 42

  10. Cognitive processes of cancer patients: a major threat to patients' quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, D.; Rehna, T.; Hanif, R.

    2018-01-01

    To explore the effects of intrusive and deliberate rumination on the quality of life of cancer patients. Study Design:Descriptive cross-sectional design. Place and Duration of Study:PIMS and NORI Hospital between July to September 2016. Methodology:A sample of 100 cancer patients participated in the study. The patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were given a written consent form. Event related Rumination Inventory and WHO Quality of Life-Bref scale was used for data collection. Results:There were 57 male and 43 female patients within the age range of 18 to 66 years (mean = 36.62 +13.77 years). A significant negative correlation was found between intrusive rumination and all domains of quality of life as physical (r = -0.28, p<0.01), psychological (r = -0.19, p<0.01), social (r = -0.20, p<0.01), environmental (r = -0.17, p<0.05), and global (r = -0.26, p<0.01) functioning. Furthermore, results on regression analysis showed the significant prediction of the intrusive rumination on all domains of quality of life. The effect of deliberate rumination was found to be non-significant. Conclusion:Intrusive rumination significantly negatively predicted all domains of quality of life, whereas, quality of life of cancer patients was not significantly predicated by deliberate rumination. (author)

  11. Reactive Oxygen is a Major Factor Regulating Cell Division and Angiogenesis in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    .... These include lines developed from both primary and metastatic tumors. In addition, we surveyed three control cells lines, MCFlOA, MCFl2A, and 184A1 derived from either fibrocystic disease or breast reduction...

  12. Perioperative Management of Patients with Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Undergoing Major Orthopaedic Surgery: A Practical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtierotti, Roberta; Parisi, Marco; Ingegnoli, Francesca

    2018-04-01

    Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases often need orthopaedic surgery due to joint involvement. Total hip replacement and total knee replacement are frequent surgical procedures in these patients. Due to the complexity of the inflammatory rheumatic diseases, the perioperative management of these patients must envisage a multidisciplinary approach. The frequent association with extraarticular comorbidities must be considered when evaluating perioperative risk of the patient and should guide the clinician in the decision-making process. However, guidelines of different medical societies may vary and are sometimes contradictory. Orthopaedics should collaborate with rheumatologists, anaesthesiologists and, when needed, cardiologists and haematologists with the common aim of minimising perioperative risk in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with simple practical recommendations regarding perioperative management of drugs such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and tools for a risk stratification for cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk based on current evidence for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  13. Risk factors for postoperative delirium in patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Wang, Gangpu; Liu, Shengwen; Zhou, Shanghui; Lian, Ying; Zhang, Chenping; Yang, Wenjun

    2017-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is common after extensive surgery. This study aimed to collate and synthesize published literature on risk factors for delirium in patients with head and neck cancer surgery. Three databases were searched (MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library) between January 1987 and July 2016. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) was adopted to evaluate the study quality. Pooled odds ratios or mean differences for individual risk factors were estimated using the Mantel-Haenszel and inverse-variance methods. They provided a total of 1940 patients (286 with delirium and 1654 without), and predominantly included patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery. The incidence of postoperative delirium ranged from 11.50% to 36.11%. Ten statistically significant risk factors were identified in pooled analysis. Old age, age >70 years, male sex, duration of surgery, history of hypertension, blood transfusions, tracheotomy, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status grade at least III, flap reconstruction and neck dissection were more likely to sustain delirium after head and neck cancer surgery. Delirium is common in patients undergoing major head neck cancer surgery. Several risk factors were consistently associated with postoperative delirium. These factors help to highlight patients at risk of developing delirium and are suitable for preventive action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Association Between Screen-Detected Gallstone Disease and Cancer in a Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    , sigmoid colon, and rectal cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Breast cancer had a weak association with gallstone disease depending on other factors (10.6% of patients with gallstone disease vs 7.41% without; hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.11). Pooled...... ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.01). Right-side colon cancer was also associated with gallstone disease (2.57% of patients with gallstone disease vs 0.96% without; hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.78). Pancreatic, esophageal, gastric, pooled colorectal, left-side colon...... nongastrointestinal and prostate cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Conclusions: Screen-detected gallstone disease in the general population is associated with pooled gastrointestinal and right-side colon cancers. These associations are not due to detection bias or cholecystectomy. Further studies...

  15. Minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Previously we have reported our results on minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Briefly, B M-aspirates were collected from 817 patients at primary surgery. Tumor cells in B M were detected by immunocytochemistry using anticytokeratin-antibodies (A E1/ A E3). Analyses of the primary tumor included histological grading, vascular invasion and immunohistochemical detection of cerbB2, cathepsin D, p53 and ER/PgRexpression. These analyses were compared to clinical outcome. Median follow-up was 49 months. ITC were detected in 13.2% of the patients. The detection rate rose with increasing tumor size (p=0.011) and lymph node involvement (p<0.001). Systemic relapse and death from breast cancer occurred in 31.7% and 26.9% of the B M-positive versus 13.7% and 10.9% of B M-negative patients, respectively (p<0.001). Analyzing node-positive and node-negative patients separately, ITC-positivity was associated with poor prognosis in the node-positive group and in node-negative patients not receiving adjuvant therapy (T1N0). In multivariate analysis, ITC in B M was an independent prognostic factor together with N-, T-, ER/Pg R-status, histological grade and vascular invasion. Combination of several independent prognostic factors can classify subgroups of patients into excellent and high-risk prognosis groups. Like other groups we have investigated the clinical role of monitoring minimal residual disease before and after adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. One hundred and eighteen high risk stage II breast cancer patients entering the Scandinavian Study Group multicenter trial were randomized to 9 cycles of dose escalated and tailored FEC (5-flurouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) or standard FEC followed by high dose chemotherapy. B M samples at diagnosis and 6 months after completion of chemotherapy were assessed for the presence of I CT. Median observation time for patients was 68 months. ITC positivity in bone marrow was evaluated as a prognostic and predictive marker and

  16. Cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction-Major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas W; Gress, Donna M; Patil, Deepa T; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Kelsen, David P; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-07-08

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE New to the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual for epithelial cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction are separate, temporally related cancer classifications: 1) before treatment decision (clinical); 2) after esophagectomy alone (pathologic); and 3) after preresection therapy followed by esophagectomy (postneoadjuvant pathologic). The addition of clinical and postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groupings was driven by a lack of correspondence of survival, and thus prognosis, between both clinical and postneoadjuvant pathologic cancer categories (facts about the cancer) and pathologic categories. This was revealed by a machine-learning analysis of 6-continent data from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration, with consensus of the AJCC Upper GI Expert Panel. Survival is markedly affected by histopathologic cell type (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) in clinically and pathologically staged patients, requiring separate stage grouping for each cell type. However, postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groups are identical. For the future, more refined and granular data are needed. This requires: 1) more accurate clinical staging; 2) innovative solutions to pathologic staging challenges in endoscopically resected cancers; 3) integration of genomics into staging; and 4) precision cancer care with targeted therapy. It is the responsibility of the oncology team to accurately determine and record registry data, which requires eliminating both common errors and those related to incompleteness and inconsistency. Despite the new complexity of eighth edition staging of cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction, these key concepts and new directions will facilitate precision cancer care. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:304-317. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors: an evolutionary concept analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo JB

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline B Vo,1 Timiya S Nolan,1 David E Vance,1 Patricia A Patrician,2 Karen Meneses1 1Office of Research and Scholarship, 2Department of Family, Community Health, and Systems, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: More than 3.5 million breast cancer survivors are living in the US, and the overall five-year survival rate is approaching 90%. With increased survival and cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicities, there has been a rise in cardiovascular diseases among breast cancer survivors. Yet, cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors has not been well conceptualized. The purpose of this article was to analyze and define the concept of cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors. Methods: The databases CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed were used to identify articles that explored cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors. The search yielded 357 articles, which were reviewed for eligibility. Thirty articles were selected based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The concept of cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors was analyzed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis method. Results: The analysis suggests that cardiovascular disease risk among breast cancer survivors consists of several attributes: cancer treatment (chemotherapy, targeted therapies, radiation therapy, and endocrine therapy, modifiable risk factors (obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet, and smoking, and nonmodifiable risk factors (age, family history, and race. The antecedent identified includes breast cancer diagnosis and the consequence identified includes the development of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Findings suggest the need for increased education and understanding of ­cardiovascular disease risk among health care providers and patients. Survivorship care plans can incorporate cardiovascular disease risk monitoring and screening. Future research

  18. Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss as Risks for Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighi Shamami, M; Sadighi Shamami, M; Amini, S

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic destructive disease which occurs in adults, young people, and children. Periodontal disease and periodontal pathogens have been associated with several systemic diseases and more recently, several studies have suggested the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. Studies with adjustment for the effect of smoking exposure, have found significant positive associations with different cancer sites. This review has outlined recent epidemiologic researches pointing to a possible role for tooth loss and periodontal disease in carcinogenesis. In this review, articles were selected from PubMed between1995 and June 2010 including human. Amongst 5,984 articles identified from the electronic search, 17 articles were selected for a full-text reading based on the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. Nine out of 10 case-control studies reported a significant increase in the risk of oral cancer in patients with periodontitis and one with no significant association. Among 6 studies examining esophageal cancer and periodontal disease, 5 studies found a significant association between them and one study failed to find a significant increased risk of cancer. Also amongst 5 studies which focused on upper gastrointestinal, gastric cancer, and periodontal disease, 4 studies found an increased risk of cancer while one study did not report any relationship. In lung cancer evaluations, 3 out of 4 studies showed some levels of association between lung cancer and periodontal disease but after adjustment for smoking, no relationship were found. Three cohort studies have evaluated overall cancer rates in periodontal patients; two of them found small but significant association between cancers and periodontal disease. The results indicate that there is a possible link between cancer and severe periodontal disease after adjustment for smoking and drinking habits.

  19. Stress, anxiety and depression in heart disease patients: A major challenge for cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet-Gelinier, Jean-Christophe; Bonin, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular events and emotional disorders share a common epidemiology, thus suggesting fundamental pathways linking these different diseases. Growing evidence in the literature highlights the influence of psychological determinants in somatic diseases. A patient's socio-economic aspects, personality traits, health behavior and even biological pathways may contribute to the course of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac events often occur suddenly and the episode can be traumatic for people not prepared for such an event. In this review of the literature, the authors tackle the question of psychobiological mechanisms of stress, in a pathophysiological approach to fundamental pathways linking the brain to the heart. Various psychological, biological and genetic arguments are presented in support of the hypothesis that various etiological mechanisms may be involved. The authors finally deal with biological and psychological strategies in a context of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, in this context, cardiac rehabilitation, with its global approach, seems to be a good time to diagnose emotional disorders like anxiety and depression, and to help people to cope with stressful events. In this field, cardiac rehabilitation seems to be a crucial step in order to improve patients' outcomes, by helping them to understand the influence of psychobiological risk factors, and to build strategies in order to manage daily stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Lyme Disease: A Sourcebook for Teaching about a Major Environmental Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman D.; Stubbs, Harriett S.

    This book and others in the Changes in the Environment Series were produced as part of the GLOBE-NET Project, a partnership of science teachers and research scientists working on various aspects of global change. This book contains up-to-date information about Lyme disease, activities for the classroom, and other resources useful in teaching about…

  1. Major Chromosomal Breakpoint Intervals in Breast Cancer Co-Localize with Differentially Methylated Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Tang, Man-Hung [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (United States); Department of Oncology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Varadan, Vinay; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Zhang, Michael Q. [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (United States); The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Dimitrova, Nevenka, E-mail: nevenka.dimitrova@philips.com [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Hicks, James, E-mail: hicks@cshl.edu [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (United States)

    2012-12-27

    Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple chromosomal loci (copy number variation, or CNV), and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape, the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation, but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls (Wiedswang et al., 2003), where each sample has both high-resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions (DMR), coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated “fragile sites” in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 93 regional loci called breakpoint enriched DMR (BEDMRs) characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1 Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66%), concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3 Mb (35% of the cases), and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. Furthermore, BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors, e.g., JMJD1B, which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA

  2. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jieyun; Hu, Jing; Yu, Pei; Wang, Weiwang; Hu, Xingxue; Hou, Jinsong; Fang, Silian; Liu, Xiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC) surgery. Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later. The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP. Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  3. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyun Xu

    Full Text Available Postoperative pneumonia (POP is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC surgery.Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later.The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP.Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  4. Detection of metabolic syndrome features among childhood cancer survivors: A target to prevent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon1, Angela Maria Spinola-Castro1, Gil Guerra-Junior21Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo – UNIFESP/EPM, Brazil; 2Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, State University of Campinas – FCM/UNICAMP, BrazilAbstract: Along with the growing epidemic of obesity, the risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease morbidity, and mortality are increasing markedly. Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia commonly cluster together as a condition currently known as metabolic syndrome. Thus far, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction are the primary events of the metabolic syndrome. Several groups have recommended clinical criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonetheless, in what concerns children and adolescents, there are no unified definitions, and modified adult criteria have been suggested by many authors, despite major problems. Some pediatric disease states are at risk for premature cardiovascular disease, with clinical coronary events occurring very early in adult life. Survivors of specific pediatric cancer groups, particularly acute lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, testicular cancer, and following bone marrow transplantation, may develop metabolic syndrome traits due to: hormonal deficiencies (growth hormone deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, and gonadal failure, drug or radiotherapy damage, endothelial impairment, physical inactivity, adipose tissue dysfunction, and/or drug-induced magnesium deficiency. In conclusion, some primary and secondary prevention remarks are proposed in order to reduce premature cardiovascular disease risk in this particular group of patients.Keywords: metabolic syndrome X, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, obesity, growth hormone

  5. Supporting Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders and Their Caregivers: Effective Occupational Therapy Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallfield, Stacy

    Occupational therapy practitioners play a significant role in supporting adults with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders, as well as their caregivers, through all phases of the disease process. This editorial highlights the systematic reviews completed in collaboration with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project that summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice for this population. Readers are encouraged to translate and integrate this updated knowledge into everyday practice. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Distinct genetic control of parasite elimination, dissemination, and disease after Leishmania major infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurey, Irina; Kobets, Tetyana; Havelková, Helena; Slapničková, Martina; Quan, L.; Trtková, Kateřina; Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, M.; Stassen, A. P. M.; Hutson, A.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2009), s. 619-633 ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/06/1745; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:EC(XE) 05-1000004-7761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Leishmania major * Parasite elimination * QTL mapping Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.988, year: 2009

  7. Periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and head-and-neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.W.; Houcken, W.; Loos, B.G.; Schenkein, H.A.; Tezal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Interrelationships between periodontal infection and systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and, experimentally, with

  8. Multidisciplinary View of Alcohol Use Disorder: From a Psychiatric Illness to a Major Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gitto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder is a significant health problem being a cause of increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol-related illness has a relevant economic impact on the society and a negative influence on the life of patients and their family members. Psychosocial support might be useful in the management of people affected by alcohol use disorder since psychiatric and pharmaceutical approaches show some limits. In fact, many drugs are accessible for the treatment of alcohol disorder, but only Baclofen is functional as an anti-craving drug in patients with advanced liver disease. The alcohol-related liver damage represents the most frequent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe, and it is the main cause of death among adults with high alcohol consumption. The multidisciplinary action of clinical-psychologists, psychiatrics and hepatologists, is essential in the management of patients with alcohol liver disease especially in the case of liver transplantation. In general, the multidisciplinary approach is necessary in prevention, in framing patients and in the treatment. More resources should be used in prevention and research with the main aim of decreasing the harmful alcohol consumption.

  9. Multidisciplinary View of Alcohol Use Disorder: From a Psychiatric Illness to a Major Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Stefano; Golfieri, Lucia; Caputo, Fabio; Grandi, Silvana; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a significant health problem being a cause of increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol-related illness has a relevant economic impact on the society and a negative influence on the life of patients and their family members. Psychosocial support might be useful in the management of people affected by alcohol use disorder since psychiatric and pharmaceutical approaches show some limits. In fact, many drugs are accessible for the treatment of alcohol disorder, but only Baclofen is functional as an anti-craving drug in patients with advanced liver disease. The alcohol-related liver damage represents the most frequent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe, and it is the main cause of death among adults with high alcohol consumption. The multidisciplinary action of clinical-psychologists, psychiatrics and hepatologists, is essential in the management of patients with alcohol liver disease especially in the case of liver transplantation. In general, the multidisciplinary approach is necessary in prevention, in framing patients and in the treatment. More resources should be used in prevention and research with the main aim of decreasing the harmful alcohol consumption. PMID:26784248

  10. Initial Stage Affects Survival Even After Complete Pathologic Remission is Achieved in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Analysis of 70 Patients With Pathologic Major Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Park, Seung-Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and factors predictive for recurrence and survival in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma who achieved pathologic complete response (PCR) or microscopic residual disease (MRD) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: Outcomes were assessed in 70 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who achieved pathologic major response (53 with PCR and 17 with MRD) after preoperative CRT. Results: At a median follow-up of 38.6 months for surviving patients, 17 of 70 patients (24.3%) experienced disease recurrence and 31 (44.3%) died. Clinical stage (II vs III; p = 0.013) and pathologic response (PCR vs. MRD; p = 0.014) were independent predictors of disease recurrence. Median overall survival (OS) was 99.6 months (95% CI, 44.1-155.1 months) and the 5-year OS rate was 57%. Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 71.5 months (95% CI, 39.5-103.6 months) and the 5-year RFS rate was 51.3%. Median OS of patients with Stage II and Stage III disease was 108.8 months and 39.9 months, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 68.2% and 27.0%, respectively (p = 0.0003). In a subgroup of patients with PCR, median OS and RFS were also significantly different according to clinical stage. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical stage was an independent predictor of RFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Even though patients achieved major response after preoperative CRT, pretreatment clinical stage is an important prognostic marker for recurrence and survival. Patients with MRD have an increased recurrence risk but similar survival compared with patients achieved PCR.

  11. Emerging roles of the RB/E2F pathway in fatty liver disease and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matondo, R.B.

    2018-01-01

    Liver cancer in humans is ranked number five concerning cancer related deaths accounted worldwide. Many risk factors related to liver cancer have been identified including hepatitis virus infection, exposure to mycotoxins, and fatty liver disease. These risk factors predispose livers to develop

  12. Short and long term radiation induced cardiovascular disease in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease is well described as a late effect in cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Advancements in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have led to an increasing number of cancer survivors with resultant long-term side effects related to their cancer...

  13. Different genetic control of cutaneous and visceral disease after Leishmania major infection in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vladimirov, Vladimir; Badalová, Jana; Svobodová, M.; Havelková, Helena; Hart, A. A. M.; Blažková, Hana; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2003), s. 2041-2046 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/00/0760; GA ČR GA310/03/1381; GA MŠk OK 394 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI55000323; EC(XE) ERBI-C15-CT98-0317; EC(XE) BIO-4-CT98-0445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : genetic control * Leishmania major Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.875, year: 2003

  14. Pulmonary hypertension not a major feature of early mixed connective tissue disease: A prospective clinicoserological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD has features common to lupus, scleroderma and myositis with high levels of antibodies to U1 ribonucleoprotein (U1 RNP. Identification of a high incidence of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH has changed its prospect. We report the largest series from India. Settings and Design: Rheumatology unit of a tertiary care centre in India; prospective. Materials and Methods: Patients seen between January 2002 and June 2004, satisfying the Kasukawa criteria were enrolled. All patients had a complete laboratory work-up including pulmonary function test, 2-D echocardiography, and Schirmer′s test, antinuclear antibodies (ANA and antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens. HRCT of chest was done where indicated. All patients were given standard treatment and followed up regularly. Results: Out of 1500 patients, thirteen (one male were diagnosed to have MCTD. The median follow-up period was 18 months [Interquartile range (IQR 12-22]. The median age of onset of symptoms was 36 years (IQR 22-39 and the median duration of disease was three years (IQR 1.75-4. The most common manifestation was polyarthritis followed by puffy fingers. Sjogren′s syndrome, dysphagia and interstitial lung disease, was present in four, three and two patients respectively. Two patients each had myositis and migraine. None had PAH, serositis or renal involvement. Arthritis, puffy fingers and RaynaudÆs phenomenon were the most common manifestations at onset. All patients were positive for ANA and anti U1 RNP. Two patients each had antibodies to Sm and SSA. Response to treatment also was noted. Conclusion: Pulmonary artery hypertension is not common in early MCTD.

  15. SORL1 rare variants: a major risk factor for familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, G; Charbonnier, C; Wallon, D; Quenez, O; Bellenguez, C; Grenier-Boley, B; Rousseau, S; Richard, A-C; Rovelet-Lecrux, A; Le Guennec, K; Bacq, D; Garnier, J-G; Olaso, R; Boland, A; Meyer, V; Deleuze, J-F; Amouyel, P; Munter, H M; Bourque, G; Lathrop, M; Frebourg, T; Redon, R; Letenneur, L; Dartigues, J-F; Génin, E; Lambert, J-C; Hannequin, D; Campion, D

    2016-06-01

    The SORL1 protein plays a protective role against the secretion of the amyloid β peptide, a key event in the pathogeny of Alzheimer's disease. We assessed the impact of SORL1 rare variants in early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) in a case-control setting. We conducted a whole exome analysis among 484 French EOAD patients and 498 ethnically matched controls. After collapsing rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤1%), we detected an enrichment of disruptive and predicted damaging missense SORL1 variants in cases (odds radio (OR)=5.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(2.02-14.99), P=7.49.10(-5)). This enrichment was even stronger when restricting the analysis to the 205 cases with a positive family history (OR=8.86, 95% CI=(3.35-27.31), P=3.82.10(-7)). We conclude that predicted damaging rare SORL1 variants are a strong risk factor for EOAD and that the association signal is mainly driven by cases with positive family history.

  16. Vaccine prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa: Major advances, remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Harrison, Lee H

    2017-12-06

    Africa historically has had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease with high endemic rates and periodic epidemics. The meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa extending from Senegal to Ethiopia, has experienced large, devastating epidemics. However, dramatic shifts in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease have occurred recently. For instance, meningococcal capsular group A (NmA) epidemics in the meningitis belt have essentially been eliminated by use of conjugate vaccine. However, NmW epidemics have emerged and spread across the continent since 2000; NmX epidemics have occurred sporadically, and NmC recently emerged in Nigeria and Niger. Outside the meningitis belt, NmB predominates in North Africa, while NmW followed by NmB predominate in South Africa. Improved surveillance is necessary to address the challenges of this changing epidemiologic picture. A low-cost, multivalent conjugate vaccine covering NmA and the emergent and prevalent meningococcal capsular groups C, W, and X in the meningitis belt is a pressing need.

  17. Infectious bursal disease: seroprevalence and associated risk factors in major poultry rearing areas of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenbreie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Kebede, Fekadu; Lynch, Stacey E; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in eight districts of Ethiopia with the objectives of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of infectious bursal disease (IBD). From the total of 2,597 chicken serum samples examined using ELISA, 83.1 % were found positive. The highest seroprevalence was found at Mekele (90.3 %) while the lowest was recorded at Gondar district (69.8 %). These differences among the study areas were statistically significant (p 0.05). The seroprevalence of the disease was found high in young (≤ 8 weeks) age group (86.6 %) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in adults (>8 weeks) (72 %). This is also statistically significant (p < 0.05) between young and adult age groups. The prevalence of IBD in different production system indicated that higher seroprevalence was recorded in intensive production system (85.9 %) while the lowest was recorded in extensive production system (81.6 %). This difference is also statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  18. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Van De Poll-franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline; Van Herk-sukel, Myrthe P. P.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Rottmann, Nina; Horsbøl, Trine; Dalton, Susanne; Denollet, Johan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics in a

  19. Treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer and limited-disease small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Sharouni, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns the treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We described a systematic review on the clinical results of radiotherapy, combined or not with chemotherapy, for inoperable NSCLC stage III with the aim to define the

  20. Health effects of long-term exposure to air pollution: An overview of major respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic-Andersen Zorana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large number of studies provided convincing evidence for adverse effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution on human health, and served as basis for current USA and EU Air Quality Standards and limit values. Still, new knowledge is emerging, expanding our understanding of vast effects of exposure to air pollution on human health of this ubiquitous exposure affecting millions of people in urban setting. This paper focuses on the studies of health effects of long-term (chronic exposures to air pollution, and includes major chronic and acute diseases in adults and especially elderly, which will present increasing public health burden, due to improving longevity and projected increasing numbers of elderly. The paper gives overview over the most relevant and latest literature presented by different health outcomes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

  1. Etiologies of coronary artery disease in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopelson, G.; Herwig, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The growing number of patient reports of angina and myocardial infarction during cancer management prompted this review of coronary artery disease (CAD) in cancer patients. There is no definite evidence that cancer per se nor any particular tumor type predisposes to coronary atherosclerosis. Cardiac metastases can cause CAD via tumor emboli, extrinsic compression, or ostial obstruction; in these patients the diagnosis of CAD as a result of cardiac metastases often is not made until death. The course of these patients usually is fulminant. Tumor-associated coagulation disorders and non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis can cause coronary thromboemboli; treatment should be initiated early as these patients often are not in a terminal state when such CAD develops. Post-radiation CAD seen in experimental animals (via fibrosis and/or accelerated atherogenesis) can be extrapolated to the clinical situation. This is best evidenced by 10 young patients, with minimal coronary risk factors in most, who developed angina and/or myocardial infarction 2 to 100 months after chest radiotherapy; approximate mediastinal doses ranged from 1440 Roentgen to 5075 rad. In 5 patients there was no significant atherosclerosis beyond the radiation portals; 2 had successful saphenous vein bypass grafts. Lipid-lowering therapy may prevent post-radiotherapy atherogenesis in high risk individuals. Chemotherapy (acting directly or synergistically with radiotherapy) has caused angina and myocardial infarction within hours to days after the infusion of agents both classically cardiotoxic as well as others, although the exact mechanism(s) for coronary artery damage as a result of chemotherapy presently is unknown

  2. Investigating relationships between ancestry, lifestyle behaviors and perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer among Canadian women with British and with South Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Kimberley D; Berry, Tanya R; Courneya, Kerry S; McGannon, Kerry R; Norris, Colleen M; Rodgers, Wendy M; Spence, John C

    2018-04-01

    Ethnic minority groups including Asians in Canada have different knowledge and perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer compared with the ethnic majority group. Examine relationships between perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer, and lifestyle behaviors for Canadian women with British and with South Asian ancestry. Women with South Asian ( n = 170) and with British ( n = 373) ancestry ( M age = 33.01, SD = 12.86) reported leisure time physical activity, intended fruit and vegetable consumption, disease perceptions (ability to reduce risk, control over getting the diseases, and influence of family history), and demographic information. Mann-Whitney tests and multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between lifestyle behaviors and disease perceptions, with ancestry explored as a possible moderator. Participants with South Asian ancestry believed they had greater ability to reduce their risk and have control over getting breast cancer than participants with British ancestry. Family history influences on getting either disease was perceived as higher for women with British ancestry. Age was positively related to all three perceptions in both diseases. Intended fruit and vegetable consumption was positively related to perceptions of ability to reduce risk and control of both diseases, but was stronger for women with South Asian ancestry regarding perceptions of breast cancer. Leisure time physical activity was positively related to perceptions of control over getting heart disease for women with British ancestry. Women's disease perceptions can vary by ancestry and lifestyle behaviors. Accurate representation of diseases is essential in promoting effective preventative behaviors.

  3. Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. A Benefit and Harm Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Yu, Tsung; Boyd, Cynthia; Puhan, Milo A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is widely used for prevention of cardiovascular disease. In recent years randomized trials also suggested a preventive effect for various types of cancer. We aimed to assess, in a quantitative way, benefits and harms of aspirin for primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and cancer

  4. Risk of ischemic heart disease in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darby, Sarah C.; Ewertz, Marianne; McGale, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer often involves some incidental exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation. The effect of this exposure on the subsequent risk of ischemic heart disease is uncertain.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer often involves some incidental exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation. The effect of this exposure on the subsequent risk of ischemic heart disease is uncertain....

  5. Maintaining bone health in prostate cancer throughout the disease continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Fred; Eastham, James

    2010-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent malignancy in men, with 604,506 new cases diagnosed yearly worldwide. Maintaining bone health is important during all stages of PC, including patients who experience bone loss from androgen-deprivation therapy and patients who develop bone metastases. Patients with bone metastases often experience severe bone pain and are at increased risk for potentially debilitating skeletal-related events. Bisphosphonates are a well-established treatment option for patients with bone metastases from solid tumors and bone lesions from multiple myeloma. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is the only bisphosphonate (BP) that has been extensively studied in patients with castration-recurrent PC and is indicated for treating patients with bone metastases from PC in conjunction with standard antineoplastic therapy. This review will examine the breadth of evidence supporting a role for ZOL and emerging therapies in managing patients with PC throughout the disease continuum. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Profiles of non-cancer diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunori Kodama; Saeko Fujiwara; Michiko Yamada; Fumiyoshi Kasagi; Yukiko Shimizu; Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a recent study of atomic bomb radiation and non-cancer diseases in the AHS (Adult Health Study) population by the RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation) along with a general discussion of previous studies. Recent studies have demonstrated almost certainly that uterine myoma is more frequent among atomic bomb survivors. It cannot, at present, be concluded that uterine myoma is caused by radiation, because there are no reported studies of other exposed populations. Further analyses including the role of confounding factors as well as molecular approaches are needed to verify this radiation effect. The relationship between atomic bomb radiation exposure and hyperparathyroidism can now be said to have been established in view of the strong dose response, the agreement with results of studies of other populations, the high risk in the younger survivors, and the biological plausibility. Future studies by molecular approaches, etc., are needed to determine the pathogenic mechanism. Among other benign tumours, a dose response has been demonstrated for tumours of the thyroid, stomach and ovary. Although fewer studies have been conducted than for cancer, a clear association between radiation and various benign tumours is emerging. 79 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  7. The impact of chronic kidney disease as a predictor of major cardiac events in patients with no evidence of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Moroi, Masao; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion images (MPI) generally show good prognosis for cardiovascular events. However, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and the interpretation of normal stress MPI has not been well established in CKD patients with no evidence of CAD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of stress MPI in CKD patients with no evidence of myocardial ischemia or infarction. Patients who had no history but were suspected of CAD and had normal stress MPI (n=307, male=208, age=67 years, CKD/non-CKD=46/261) were followed-up for 4.5 years. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration ratio of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina requiring hospitalization were defined as major cardiac events. Major cardiac events were observed in 3 of 261 (1.1%) non-CKD patients and 6 of 46 (13%) CKD patients (p<0.001, with log-rank test). CKD was an independent risk factor for major cardiac events (hazard ratio=13.1, p<0.001, multivariate Cox regression analysis). Normal stress MPI does not always promise a good prognosis for major cardiac events. Even in patients with no evidence of CAD from stress MPI, CKD can be an independent and significant risk factor for major cardiac events. (author)

  8. Cuban Monoclonal Antibodies for Radioimmunodiagnosis and Radioimmunotherapy of Cancer Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaco, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Centre of Molecular Immunology produces monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer diseases. We are mainly focus on two target systems; one is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) because there is a tremendous relationship between the EGF/EGF-R system and several human tumours such as lung, head and neck, ovarian breast and brain cancers; the second one is the ganglioside system, the relevance of certain gangliosides in tumour growth and metastatic dissemination has been well documented, GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside is particularly interesting due to its restrictive expression in normal human tissues. Nimotuzumab (h-R3) is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) that was obtained by complementarity-determining regions grafting of a murine mAb (ior egf/r3) to a human framework having remarkable antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects. A Phase I clinical trial was performed to evaluate the toxicity and clinical effect of an intracavitary (intracerebral) administration of a single dose of nimotuzumab (h-R3) labelled with increasing doses of 188Re. All patients bearing astrocytomas grade III/IV should be treated previously with conventional therapies and have an EGF-R overexpression in the tumour, demonstrated by immunohistochemical study. Maximal tolerated dose was 3 mg of the h-R3 labelled with 10 mCi of 188 Re. The radioimmunoconjugate showed a high retention in the surgical created resection cavity and the brain adjacent tissues with a mean value of 85.5% of the injected dose one hour post-administration. This radioimmunoconjugate may be relatively safe and a promising therapeutic approach for treating high grade gliomas. GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside is particularly interesting due to its restrictive expression in normal human tissues according to immunohistochemical studies, using either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. But both immunohistochemical and biochemical methods have strongly suggested its over-expression in human breast and colon

  9. Proteomics and plant disease: advances in combating a major threat to the global food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampitsch, Christof; Bykova, Natalia V

    2012-02-01

    The study of plant disease and immunity is benefiting tremendously from proteomics. Parallel streams of research from model systems, from pathogens in vitro and from the relevant pathogen-crop interactions themselves have begun to reveal a model of how plants succumb to invading pathogens and how they defend themselves without the benefit of a circulating immune system. In this review, we discuss the contribution of proteomics to these advances, drawing mainly on examples from crop-fungus interactions, from Arabidopsis-bacteria interactions, from elicitor-based model systems and from pathogen studies, to highlight also the important contribution of non-crop systems to advancing crop protection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Role of CT/PET in predicting nodal disease in head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singham, S.; Iyer, G.; Clark, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Introduction: Pre-treatment evaluation of the presence of cervical nodal metastases is important in head and neck cancers and has major prognostic implications. In this study, we aim to determine the accuracy of CT/PET as a tool for identifying such metastases. Methods: All patients from Royal Prince Alfred and Liverpool Hospitals, who underwent CT/PET for any cancer arising from the head and neck, and who underwent subsequent surgery (which included a neck dissection) within 8 weeks of the CT/PET were included. Nodal staging was undertaken by utilising imaging-based nodal classification, and comparison with pathologic data from the surgical specimen was made. PET was considered positive if the SUV was greater than 2. Results: We identified 111 patients from the above criteria. 80 of such patients were treated for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). CT/PET identified unsuspected metastatic disease in 6 patients. Correlation of CT/PET findings and the presence of disease at the primary site: sensitivity: 98%, specificity: 93%, positive predictive value (PPV): 98% and negative predictive value (NPV): 93%. Correlating CT/PET findings with the presence of nodal disease at any level: sensitivity: 95%, specificity: 88%, PPV: 95% and NPV: 88%. CT/PET was anatomically accurate in predicting the site of metastases in 62/74 (84%). Conclusion: PET is accurate in predicting both presence of nodal metastases and the level of involvement. CT/PET should be undertaken as a pre-operative tool to assist in planning the extent of surgery required in head and neck cancers.

  11. Comparative analysis of the long-term results of treatment in patients with Stages I-IIa breast cancer in relation to major prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Efimkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the long-term results of treatment in patients with Stages I-IIa breast cancer in relation to major prognostic factors re- vealed poor morphological factors that greatly influenced the lifespan of female patients, such as tumor invasion along the neural fibers, tumor necrosis, cancer emboli in the lymph gaps and vessels, vascular tumor invasion.

  12. Medical Cost Trajectories and Onsets of Cancer and NonCancer Diseases in US Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Akushevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Time trajectories of medical costs-associated with onset of twelve aging-related cancer and chronic noncancer diseases were analyzed using the National Long-Term Care Survey data linked to Medicare Service Use files. A special procedure for selecting individuals with onset of each disease was developed and used for identification of the date at disease onset. Medical cost trajectories were found to be represented by a parametric model with four easily interpretable parameters reflecting: (i prediagnosis cost (associated with initial comorbidity, (ii cost of the disease onset, (iii population recovery representing reduction of the medical expenses associated with a disease since diagnosis was made, and (iv acquired comorbidity representing the difference between post- and pre diagnosis medical cost levels. These parameters were evaluated for the entire US population as well as for the subpopulation conditional on age, disability and comorbidity states, and survival (2.5 years after the date of onset. The developed approach results in a family of new forecasting models with covariates.

  13. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in

  14. Effects of major geometric variations between intracavitary applications on pear-shaped isodose dimension in cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, R. Y.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The basic principal of intracavitary brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix is based on specific loading rules to achieve a pear-shaped isodose distribution centered around the cervix. Recently, ICRU Report 38 recommends a dose reference volume for reporting. Our previous studies have confirmed that there is considerable variations of geometry between applications. This study is to evaluate the effect of major geometric variations on pear-shaped isodose dimension in manual afterloading low-dose-rate system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred orthogonal films of 50 patients with cancer of the cervix (2 applications/patient) were reviewed for comparative measurements of geometric variations between applications. Major geometric variations were found for 13 patients in lengths of tandem, 7 patients in colpostats separation and 16 patients in vaginal packing. The direct measurement of these geometric variations were compared with the three-dimensional measurement of the pear-shaped isodose enclosed by the point A between the two applications. RESULTS: The geometric variations in the width of colpostats separation and length of tandem were directly related to the width and height of the pear-shaped isodose dimension. The geometric relationship between the colpostats and distal tandem had an important effect on the thickness of the pear-shape. In optimization of poor geometry for rectum or bladder wall, high dose volume centered around the cervix is reduced without changing the overall pear-shaped volume due to changing configuration of the pear-shaped isodose. In our selected patients with two applications, variations in vaginal packing had no direct effect on the width and thickness of the pear-shape due to other variables. CONCLUSION: Major geometric variations between applications greatly affect the dimension of the pear-shaped isodose distribution. Optimization of poor geometry is quite limited without compromising the high-dose volume centered around the

  15. Effective population sizes of a major vector of human diseases, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarman, Norah P; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Anderson, Eric C; Evans, Benjamin R; Pless, Evlyn; Cosme, Luciano V; Gonzalez-Acosta, Cassandra; Kamgang, Basile; Wesson, Dawn M; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-01

    The effective population size ( N e ) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that determines the relative strength of selection and random genetic drift, the effect of migration, levels of inbreeding, and linkage disequilibrium. In many cases where it has been estimated in animals, N e is on the order of 10%-20% of the census size. In this study, we use 12 microsatellite markers and 14,888 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to empirically estimate N e in Aedes aegypti , the major vector of yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. We used the method of temporal sampling to estimate N e on a global dataset made up of 46 samples of Ae. aegypti that included multiple time points from 17 widely distributed geographic localities. Our N e estimates for Ae. aegypti fell within a broad range (~25-3,000) and averaged between 400 and 600 across all localities and time points sampled. Adult census size (N c ) estimates for this species range between one and five thousand, so the N e / N c ratio is about the same as for most animals. These N e values are lower than estimates available for other insects and have important implications for the design of genetic control strategies to reduce the impact of this species of mosquito on human health.

  16. Association between physical activity and major depressive disorder among current or former smokers with pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Kane, Christy; Walker, Jerome F

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between physical activity and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a nationally representative sample of current or former smokers with pulmonary impairments. The analyzed sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 included 536 adults who indicated that they were current or former smokers, had at least mild pulmonary impairment (FEV1/FVCdepression and physical activity data. After controlling for asthma status, pulmonary impairment, age, poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), education, gender, marital status, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, comorbidity index, race-ethnicity, and smoking status, those who met physical activity guidelines had a 59% (odds ratio (OR)=0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18-0.94) lower odds of having MDD. Using multivariate linear regression with depression symptoms as the outcome variable, and after adjustments, physical activity was inversely associated with depression symptoms in a dose-response manner; lowest tertile was the referent group, middle tertile coefficient: -1.06 (95% CI: -1.98 to -0.14), and highest tertile coefficient: -1.10 (95% CI: -1.84 to -0.34). Physical activity inversely associates with MDD in adults with pulmonary impairments, and does so in a dose-response manner. This suggests that individuals with pulmonary impairments should be encouraged to engage in enjoyable, safe forms of physical activity in a progressive manner. © 2013.

  17. [Major depressive disorder in relation with coronary heart disease and stroke in Chinese adults aged 30-79 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C Q; Chen, Y P; Lv, J; Guo, Y; Sherliker, P; Bian, Z; Zhou, H Y; Tan, Y L; Chen, J S; Chen, Z M; Li, L M

    2016-06-18

    To investigate the associations of major depressive disorder with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in Chinese adults aged 30-79 years. In 2004-2008, China Kadoorie Biobank was conducted in 10 geographically defined regions (5 urban and 5 rural) of China. A total number of 512 891 participants aged 30-79 years were recruited in the baseline survey. A laptop-based electronic questionnaire was administrated face-to-face by trained health workers, collecting the general demographic and socio-economic status, dietary and other lifestyle behaviours (e.g. smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity), medical history and family history of common chronic diseases. Major depressive episodes (MDE) in the past 12 months were assessed with the World Health Organization composite international diagnostic interview-short form (CIDI-SF). The physical measurements included the heights and weights, which were used to calculate the body mass indexes (BMI).Chi squared and t test were used to compare the differences in participants characteristics according to their major depressive disorder. Logistic models were employed to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI of their major depressive disorder with prevalent coronary heart disease and stroke. Among the 512 891 participants, 3 281 (0.6%) showed an MDE in the preceding 12 months, 15 472 (3.0%) reported prevalent CHD, and 8 884 (1.7%) reported prevalent stroke. Major depressive disorder was significantly associated with an increased risk of CHD and risk of stroke. Age- and gender-adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.80 (1.53-2.12) for CHD and 2.53 (2.09-3.05) for stroke. The associations were significant after further adjustment for potential confounders, such as other socio-demographic status, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and BMI, prevalent hypertension, diabetes as well as family history of cardiovascular diseases (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.54-2.18 for CHD; OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.79-2.69 for stroke). Moreover, gender

  18. Plum pox virus and sharka: a model potyvirus and a major disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan Antonio; Glasa, Miroslav; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. PPV diversity is structured into at least eight monophyletic strains. First discovered in Bulgaria, PPV is nowadays present in most of continental Europe (with an endemic status in many central and southern European countries) and has progressively spread to many countries on other continents. Typical of potyviruses, the PPV genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), with a protein linked to its 5' end and a 3'-terminal poly A tail. It is encapsidated by a single type of capsid protein (CP) in flexuous rod particles and is translated into a large polyprotein which is proteolytically processed in at least 10 final products: P1, HCPro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, VPg, NIapro, NIb and CP. In addition, P3N-PIPO is predicted to be produced by a translational frameshift. PPV causes sharka, the most damaging viral disease of stone fruit trees. It also infects wild and ornamental Prunus trees and has a large experimental host range in herbaceous species. PPV spreads over long distances by uncontrolled movement of plant material, and many species of aphid transmit the virus locally in a nonpersistent manner. A few natural sources of resistance to PPV have been found so far in Prunus species, which are being used in classical breeding programmes. Different genetic engineering approaches are being used to generate resistance to PPV, and a transgenic plum, 'HoneySweet', transformed with the viral CP gene, has demonstrated high resistance to PPV in field tests in several countries and has obtained regulatory approval in the USA. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Psychological characteristics of systemic sclerosis patients and their correlation with major organ involvement and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemati, Christina V; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the psychological characteristics of personality, depression, anxiety, social support and coping strategies of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, their inter-correlations and their association with clinical symptoms. Patients with SSc (n=85) were interviewed and compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n=120) and healthy controls (HCs [n=125]). Psychological characteristics were assessed by the following psychometric scales: centre of epidemiological studies of depression (CES-D), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD), Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ), short form of social support (SSq), life experiences survey (LES) and ways of coping (WoC). Clinical data were collected at the same time of the interview. Both control groups were matched to SSc patients in terms of gender, age and educational status. Data were analysed with SPSS software. Compared to control groups, SSc patients expressed more symptoms of depression and anxiety, showed less extraversion and reported more negative life events. They coped less often with positive reappraisal, problem solving, seeking of support and assertiveness, while they sought more often divine help, and they expressed wishing and denial. Inactive disease was associated with a lower probability of reporting depressive symptoms and negative life events and with a higher probability of positively reevaluating a problem. Lung dysfunction, skin involvement, esophageal problems and oral aperture correlated with psychological features. Complications in psychological well-being characterise patients with SSc. This finding, as well as that of psychological characteristics correlating with organic factors, is an indication for designing supportive psycho-educational programmes as complementary therapies.

  20. Genetic Modification of Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; Wang, Weijia; Xu, Qi; Harper, James; Carroll, Danielle; Galinski, Mark S; Suzich, JoAnn; Jin, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Clinical development of a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as an oncolytic agent for cancer therapy has been hampered by its select agent status due to its pathogenicity in avian species. Using reverse genetics, we have generated a lead candidate oncolytic NDV based on the mesogenic NDV-73T strain that is no longer classified as a select agent for clinical development. This recombinant NDV has a modification at the fusion protein (F) cleavage site to reduce the efficiency of F protein cleavage and an insertion of a 198-nucleotide sequence into the HN-L intergenic region, resulting in reduced viral gene expression and replication in avian cells but not in mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, except for viral polymerase (L) gene expression, viral gene expression is not negatively impacted or increased by the HN-L intergenic insertion. Furthermore, the virus can be engineered to express a foreign gene while still retaining the ability to grow to high titers in cell culture. The recombinant NDV selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells and is able to drive potent tumor growth inhibition following intratumoral or intravenous administration in a mouse tumor model. The candidate is well positioned for clinical development as an oncolytic virus. Avian paramyxovirus type 1, NDV, has been an attractive oncolytic agent for cancer virotherapy. However, this virus can cause epidemic disease in poultry, and concerns about the potential environmental and economic impact of an NDV outbreak have precluded its clinical development. Here we describe generation and characterization of a highly potent oncolytic NDV variant that is unlikely to cause Newcastle disease in its avian host, representing an essential step toward moving NDV forward as an oncolytic agent. Several attenuation mechanisms have been genetically engineered into the recombinant NDV that reduce chicken pathogenicity to a level that is acceptable worldwide without impacting viral production in

  1. PARALLELS BETWEEN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND GENETIC VULNERABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Roberto; Petersen, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis of this review is that oxidative stress is the central factor in major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The major elements involved are inflammatory cytokines, the hypothalamic pituitary axis, the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal, and arginine vasopressin systems, which induce glucocorticoid and “oxidopamatergic” cascades when triggered by psychosocial stress, severe life threatening events, and mental-affective and somatic diseases. In individuals with a genomic vulnerability to depression these cascades may result in chronic depression-anxiety-stress spectra, resulting in MDD and other known depressive syndromes. In contrast, in subjects with genomic vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease, oxidative stress-induced brain damage triggers specific antioxidant defenses, i.e. increased levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) and aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau, resulting in paired helical filaments and impaired functions related to the ApoEε4 isoform, leading to complex pathological cascades culminating in AD. Surprisingly, all the AD associated molecular pathways mentioned in this review have been shown to be similar or analogous to those found in depression, including structural damage, i.e. hippocampal and frontal cortex atrophy. Other interacting molecular signals, i.e. GSK-3β, convergent survival factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and heat shock proteins), and transition-redox metals are also mentioned to emphasize the vast array of intermediates that could interact via comparable mechanisms in both MDD and AD. PMID:24927694

  2. The association of pioglitazone and urinary tract disease in type 2 diabetic Taiwanese: bladder cancer and chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yueh Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although studies have shown an association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer, the associated factors have not been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that may link pioglitazone to bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 34,970 study subjects were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in 2003 with follow-up from 2005 to 2009. The demographic characteristics of patients who had used and had never used pioglitazone, including age, sex, diabetes duration, urinary tract disease, nephropathy, bladder cancer, and cumulative dose and duration of pioglitazone therapy, were analyzed using the χ2 test. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the independent effects of pioglitazone on bladder cancer and newly developed chronic kidney disease. RESULTS: Among 3,497 ever users and 31,473 never users of pioglitazone, the respective incident cases of bladder cancer were 12 (0.4% and 72 (0.2%, and for newly developed chronic kidney disease 245 (8.1% and 663 (2.3%, respectively. Ever use of pioglitazone [1.59(1.32-1.91], cumulative dose of pioglitazone 10,500 mg [1.34 (1.04-1.73], and duration of therapy 12 months [1.39 (1.09-1.76] were associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association of pioglitazone use with bladder cancer development, however, there was an association with an increased risk of newly developed chronic kidney disease.

  3. The Cardio-oncology Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Care of Cancer Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Sarah; Pituskin, Edith; Paterson, D Ian

    2016-07-01

    Improved cancer survivorship has resulted in a growing number of Canadians affected by cancer and cardiovascular disease. As a consequence, cardio-oncology programs are rapidly emerging to treat cancer patients with de novo and preexisting cardiovascular disease. The primary goal of a cardio-oncology program is to preserve cardiovascular health to allow the timely delivery of cancer therapy and achieve disease-free remission. Multidisciplinary programs in oncology and cardiology have been associated with enhanced patient well-being and improved clinical outcomes. Because of the complex needs of these multisystem patients, a similar model of care is gaining acceptance. The optimal composition of the cardio-oncology team will typically involve support from cardiology, oncology, and nursing. Depending on the clinical scenario, additional consultation from dietetics, pharmacy, and social services might be required. Timely access to consultation and testing is another prerequisite for cardio-oncology programs because delays in treating cardiac complications and nonadherence to prescribed cancer therapy are each associated with poor outcomes. Recommended reasons for referral to cardio-oncology programs include primary prevention for those at high risk for cardiotoxicity and the secondary treatment of new or worsening cardiovascular disease in cancer patients and survivors. Management is multifaceted and can involve lifestyle education, pharmacotherapy, enhanced cardiovascular surveillance, and support services, such as exercise training. The lack of evidence to guide clinical decisions and recommendations in cardio-oncology is a major challenge and opportunity for health care professionals. Large multicentre prospective registries are needed to adequately power risk model calculations and generate hypotheses for novel interventions. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Prevalence and Regional Variation of Major Depressive Disorder Among Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease in the Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, Jesse A; Stone, David H; Goodney, Philip P; Nolan, Brian W; Stableford, Jennifer A; Brooke, Benjamin S; Powell, Richard J; Finn, Christine T

    2016-05-01

    Current evidence suggests an association between coronary artery disease and major depressive disorder (MDD). Data to support a similar association between peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and MDD are more limited. This study examines the prevalence and regional variation of both PAD and MDD in a large contemporary patient sample. All Medicare claims, part A and B, from January 2009 until December 2011 were queried using diagnosis codes specific for a previously validated clinical algorithm for PAD and major depression. Codes for PAD included those specific to cerebrovascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and peripheral vascular disease. Peripheral arterial disease prevalence, major depression prevalence, and coprevalence rates were determined, respectively. Regional variation of both conditions was determined using zip code data to identify potential endemic areas of disease intensity for both diagnoses. Over the study interval, the percentage of Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of PAD remained relatively constant (3.0%-3.7%, n = 0.85-1.06 million in part A and 17.4%-17.5%, n = 4.82-4.93 million in part B), and MDD showed a similar trend (1.6%-2.7%, n = 0.46-0.79 million in part A and 6.1%-6.7%, n = 1.69-1.90 million in part B). The observed rate of MDD in those with an established diagnosis of PAD was 5-fold higher than those without PAD in part A claims (1.8-fold in part B claims). Moreover, there was a significant linear geographic correlation among patients with PAD and MDD (r = .54, P ≤ .01). This study documents a correlation between PAD and MDD and may, therefore, identify an at-risk population susceptible to inferior clinical outcomes. Significant regional variation exists in the prevalence of PAD and MDD, though there appear to be specific endemic regions notable for both disorders. Accordingly, health-care resource allocation toward endemic regions may help improve population health among this at-risk cohort. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Genetic basis of kidney cancer: Role of genomics for the development of disease-based therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston

    2012-01-01

    Kidney cancer is not a single disease; it is made up of a number of different types of cancer, including clear cell, type 1 papillary, type 2 papillary, chromophobe, TFE3, TFEB, and oncocytoma. Sporadic, nonfamilial kidney cancer includes clear cell kidney cancer (75%), type 1 papillary kidney cancer (10%), papillary type 2 kidney cancer (including collecting duct and medullary RCC) (5%), the microphalmia-associated transcription (MiT) family translocation kidney cancers (TFE3, TFEB, and MITF), chromophobe kidney cancer (5%), and oncocytoma (5%). Each has a distinct histology, a different clinical course, responds differently to therapy, and is caused by mutation in a different gene. Genomic studies identifying the genes for kidney cancer, including the VHL, MET, FLCN, fumarate hydratase, succinate dehydrogenase, TSC1, TSC2, and TFE3 genes, have significantly altered the ways in which patients with kidney cancer are managed. While seven FDA-approved agents that target the VHL pathway have been approved for the treatment of patients with advanced kidney cancer, further genomic studies, such as whole genome sequencing, gene expression patterns, and gene copy number, will be required to gain a complete understanding of the genetic basis of kidney cancer and of the kidney cancer gene pathways and, most importantly, to provide the foundation for the development of effective forms of therapy for patients with this disease. PMID:23038766

  6. Radiation therapy: A major factor in the five-year survival analysis of women with breast cancer in Lagos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjuola, Samira B.L.; Popoola, Abiodun O.; Oludara, Mobolaji A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective study was carried out to examine five-year survival from breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and May 2008 in Nigerian women. Material and methods: Two hundred and twenty-four patients were entered into the study. Five-year survival was evaluated using proportional hazard model proposed by Cox to assess variables such as age of diagnosis, menopausal status, and stage of the disease in the two treatment groups: surgery/chemotherapy or surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Results: Findings revealed that the different staging of disease and treatment are independent predictors of disease outcome whereas age of diagnosis and menopausal status although associated with low hazards, are not significant. TNM Stage I (Hazard Ratio = 0.153, 95% CI 0.45–0.51, P = 0.003), II (Hazard Ratio = 0.245, 95% CI 0.12–0.46, P = 0.0001), and III (Hazard Ratio = 0.449, 95% CI 0.31–0.46, P = 0.0001) showed significantly greater survival rates compared to TNM Stage IV for patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy. Similarly, for patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy TNM Stage II (Hazard Ratio = 0.110, 95% CI 0.02–0.46, P = 0.003) and III (Hazard Ratio = 0.238, 95% CI 0.07–0.73, P = 0.012) also showed significantly greater survival rates compared to TNM Stage IV. Treatment had a significant impact on survival independent of stage, age, and menopausal status. Patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy had a significant increase in survival outcome for TNM Stage (II, P = 0.045; III, P = 0.0001); age groups (40–49, P = 0.021; 50–59, P = 0.016; 60–69, P = 0.017; >70, P = 0.025); and menopausal status (premenopausal, P = 0.049; postmenopausal, P = 0.0001) compared to those receiving surgery/chemotherapy. Conclusion: The five-year breast cancer survival rate in Lagos, Nigeria 24.1% (54/224) is relatively poor compared to most countries in the world and needs to be improved. Poor survival rates are mainly attributed to late

  7. The Benefit of Chemotherapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients With Residual Disease After Trimodality Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace J; Koshy, Matthew; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Horiba, M Naomi; Edelman, Martin J; Burrows, Whitney M; Battafarano, Richard J; Suntharalingam, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the potential benefits of chemotherapy in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation followed by surgery. At our institution, 145 patients completed trimodality therapy from 1993 to 2009. Neoadjuvant treatment predominantly consisted of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with a concurrent median radiation dose of 50.4 Gy. Sixty-two patients received chemotherapy postoperatively. The majority (49/62) received 3 cycles of docetaxel. Within the entire cohort, a 5-year overall survival (OS) benefit was found in those who received postoperative chemotherapy, OS 37.1% versus 18.0% (P=0.024). The response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation was as follows: 33.8% had a pathologic complete response and 62.8% with residual disease. A 5-year OS and cause-specific survival (CSS) advantage were associated with postoperative chemotherapy among those with macroscopic residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy: OS 38.7% versus 13.9% (P=0.016), CSS 42.8% versus 18.8% (P=0.048). This benefit was not seen in those with a pathologic complete response or those with microscopic residual. A stepwise multivariate Cox regression model evaluating the partial response group revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and M stage were independent predictors of overall and CSS. This analysis revealed that patients with gross residual disease after trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer who received postoperative chemotherapy had an improved overall and CSS. These data suggest that patients with residual disease after trimodality therapy and a reasonable performance status may benefit from postoperative chemotherapy. Prospective trials are needed to confirm these results to define the role of postoperative treatment after trimodality therapy.

  8. Extramammary Paget disease: review of patients seen in a non-melanoma skin cancer clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, J; Assaad, D; Breen, D; Fialkov, J; Antonyshyn, O; Balogh, J; Tsao, M; Kamra, J; Czarnota, G; Barnes, E A

    2010-10-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare skin disease commonly found in the anogenital region. In this study, we aimed to identify EMPD patients seen in the non-melanoma skin cancer clinic at Odette Cancer Centre and to describe the treatments delivered and outcomes achieved. From 2000 to 2009, 14 patients were seen. Initial treatment recommendations included imiquimod and surgical excision, although half the patients required more than one treatment modality, highlighting the difficulty of achieving complete eradication of this disease.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Median Lifetime on Radiation Risks Estimates for Cancer and Circulatory Disease amongst Never-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Lori J.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation risks are estimated in a competing risk formalism where age or time after exposure estimates of increased risks for cancer and circulatory diseases are folded with a probability to survive to a given age. The survival function, also called the life-table, changes with calendar year, gender, smoking status and other demographic variables. An outstanding problem in risk estimation is the method of risk transfer between exposed populations and a second population where risks are to be estimated. Approaches used to transfer risks are based on: 1) Multiplicative risk transfer models -proportional to background disease rates. 2) Additive risk transfer model -risks independent of background rates. In addition, a Mixture model is often considered where the multiplicative and additive transfer assumptions are given weighted contributions. We studied the influence of the survival probability on the risk of exposure induced cancer and circulatory disease morbidity and mortality in the Multiplicative transfer model and the Mixture model. Risks for never-smokers (NS) compared to the average U.S. population are estimated to be reduced between 30% and 60% dependent on model assumptions. Lung cancer is the major contributor to the reduction for NS, with additional contributions from circulatory diseases and cancers of the stomach, liver, bladder, oral cavity, esophagus, colon, a portion of the solid cancer remainder, and leukemia. Greater improvements in risk estimates for NS s are possible, and would be dependent on improved understanding of risk transfer models, and elucidating the role of space radiation on the various stages of disease formation (e.g. initiation, promotion, and progression).

  10. Acute postoperative digitalization of patients with arteriosclerotic heart disease after major surgery. A randomized haemodynamic study and proposal for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille-Brahe, N E; Engell, H C; Sørensen, M B

    1980-12-01

    Twenty patients with impaired left ventricular function during exercise, who underwent major vascular surgery for arteriosclerotic disease, were randomly digitalized in the immediate postoperative period. All patients had a smooth postoperative course. Haemodynamic measurements showed improved left ventricular function in those who received digitalis, since 60 min after full digitalization the digitalized patients had a highly significant decrease in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) with unchanged stroke volume index (SVI) and left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI). The same improvement in cardiac function was present the next morning. The present study provides haemodynamic data in support of clinical studies showing a beneficial effect of prophylactic digitalization in surgical patients with clinical signs of arteriosclerotic heart disease, though not in overt failure.

  11. Major depressive episodes are associated with poor concordance with therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients: the impact on disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Marroquín, Ricardo; Contreras-Yáñez, Irazú; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate associations between major depressive episodes (MDE), concordance with therapy (CwT) and disease outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Seventy-eight outpatients receiving ≥1 disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug and without significant comorbidity had concomitant rheumatic and psychiatric evaluations. CwT was defined according to a questionnaire. MDE was defined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the severity of depressive symptoms was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Appropriated statistic was used. IRB approval was obtained. Patients included (73 ♀) had (mean±SD) age of 44±10 years and (median, range) disease duration of 10 years (5.2-15.8). Current MDE were diagnosed in 24 patients (30.8%); 60 patients (76.9%) were CwT. Patient-non-CwT were more frequently diagnosed with MDE and tend to have higher BDI scores. They had significantly more disease activity according to patient-pain VAS and swollen joint counts. Both groups were similar regarding demographic variables, treatment and comorbid conditions. Forty-one patients (53%) had clinically important depressive symptoms (BDI≥10), among them 20 had mild depression, 14 moderate and 7 severe depression. Patient-non-CwT had more frequently moderate depression (according to BDI score) than their counterparts and similar tendency was found regarding severe depression. Patient-CwT who additionally had lower BDI scores had better disease outcomes than concordant patients with higher BDI scores. Similar results were found in non-CwT patients but statistical significance was limited to disease activity. Prevalence of current MDE in RA patients was of 31%; those patients had poorer CwT and worse outcomes than mentally healthy patients.

  12. Chronic disease influences over 40 major life-changing decisions (MLCDs): a qualitative study in dermatology and general medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Z U; Finlay, A Y; Bolton, C E; George, L; Halcox, J P; Jones, S M; Ketchell, R I; Moore, R H; Salek, M S

    2014-10-01

    Chronic disease not only impairs patients' psycho-social well-being but also influences major life-changing decisions (MLCDs). There is little information about the types of MLCDs affected and the long-term consequences. The aims were to identify the MLCDs influenced by chronic disease, to define 'MLCD' and to suggest support strategies for patients taking MLCDs. Adult dermatology patients explained how their chronic disease had influenced MLCDs in individual interviews. Adult patients from other medical specialities gave similar information by postal survey. NVivo8 software was used for qualitative analysis of data. Themes were categorized through a coding-recoding iterative process. There were 308 evaluable responses (male 55.2%; mean age = 51.8 years, mean disease duration = 19 years) from the 365 (55.7%) responses to the 655 patient invitations. These were used to generate themes to conceptualize 'MLCDs'. The most frequently reported MLCDs in the dermatology interviews concerned career choice (66%), job (58%), choice of clothing (54%), relationships (52%), education (44%), stopping swimming (34%), moving abroad (32%), not socializing (34%), wearing make-up (22%) and having children (22%). In the postal survey early retirement (40.6%), impact on job (29.4%), having children (24.8%), career choice (22.4%) and relationships (15.5%) were most commonly reported. The number of MLCDs reported by individuals was inversely related to age. Forty-one affected MLCD themes were grouped into 18 MLCD categories. A definition of MLCD was developed and strategies suggested to support patients. Chronic diseases influence a wide range of MLCDs. MLCDs are a novel domain in disease burden assessment. Clinicians' knowledge about this is important in patient management. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Periodontal Disease and Incident Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Xia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Li, Sheng; Leng, Wei-Dong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is linked to a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidence has suggested periodontal disease might be associated with lung cancer. However, their precise relationship is yet to be explored. Hence, this study aims to investigate the association of periodontal disease and risk of incident lung cancer using a meta-analytic approach. PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched up to June 10, 2015. Cohort and nested case-control studies investigating risk of lung cancer in patients with periodontal disease were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, as were their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect inverse-variance model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using the Q test as well as the I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots symmetry and Egger's test. Five cohort studies were included, involving 321,420 participants in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates based on adjusted data showed that periodontal disease was associated with a significant risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.36; I(2) = 30%). No publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association of periodontal disease and lung cancer remained significant in the female population. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that patients with periodontal disease are at increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  14. Multi-section CT angiography compared with digital subtraction angiography in diagnosing major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyare, Harpreet; Desigan, Sharmini; Nicholl, Helen; Guiney, Michael J.; Brookes, Jocelyn A.; Lees, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Major arterial hemorrhage is an uncommon but serious complication of pancreatitis with high morbidity and mortality. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been the gold standard for the detection of a visceral artery pseudoaneurysm or for the site of active bleeding in patients with pancreatitis. Multi-section CT angiography is a minimally invasive technique which can provide high-resolution and high-contrast images of the arterial lumen and wall, with a much lower risk of complication and morbidity compared to DSA. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of multi-section CT angiography for the diagnosis of arterial complications of inflammatory pancreatitic disease. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing visceral angiography for major bleeding as a complication of pancreatitis between 1998 and 2004 was performed. Twenty-nine studies in 25 patients (20 males, 5 females) with a mean age of 50.9 years (range 11-67 years) were identified where multi-section CT angiography was performed in the 24 h preceding the digital subtraction angiogram. Results: Digital subtraction angiography detected a pseudoaneurysm or contrast extravasation in 19 studies and no bleeding was demonstrated in 9 studies. CT angiography correctly identified the site and type of bleeding in 18 of the 19 positive studies. CT angiography detected extravasation of contrast in one study that was not demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography. The sensitivity and specificity for multi-section CT angiography for the detection of major arterial bleeding on a background of pancreatitis were 0.947 and 0.900, respectively. Conclusion: Multi-section CT angiography is a sensitive and accurate technique for the detection of major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease and should be considered as the first investigation in the management of these patients

  15. Group distribution characteristics of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Li Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the group distribution characteristics of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province. METHODS: Totally 5 353 residents were selected and researched by randomized cluster sampling in the major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province. Ocular examination and lachrymal duct flushing were carried out, and questionnaire survey on lachrymal duct obstruction was conducted. The ratio of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases and group distribution characteristics were analyzed based on above research. RESULTS: The prevalence ratios of lachrymal duct obstruction was 4.47% in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province, with 2.62% in urban area, and 5.93% in rural area respectively. Prevalence ratios of men and women group were 1.69% and 6.39% correspondingly. Difference between the two groups was statistically significant(χ2=67.2821, P=0.0000. The highest prevalence ratio was 40-69 year-old group, second one was 70-79 year-old group, especially for women in these groups. The prevalence ratios of Ledong, Lingshui, Baisha and Changjiang county were higher than those of Baoting, Qiongzhong county and Wuzhishan city. No significant difference was found between both eyes. CONCLUSION: In major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province, lachrymal duct obstruction mainly occurs in 40-79 year-old patients, with specially higher ratio of women. Statistically, significant difference of the prevalence ratio between urban and rural areas exists. The higher prevalence ratio is attributed to age, gender, geographical location, climate condition, health environment and so on. The prevalence ratio is higher in the dry and windy areas than in the humid and less windy areas.

  16. CYP1B1 genotype and risk of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and cancer in 50,000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, D.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 enzymes metabolize tobacco-smoke polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 17beta-estradiol. CYP1B1*3 (rs1056836 = Leu432Val = 4326C>G) and CYP1B1*4 (rs1800440 = Asn453Ser = 4390A>G) influence this metabolism. We, therefore, hypothesized that these two polymorphisms...... associate with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic heart disease (IHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer overall, tobacco-related cancer, and female cancer, possibly dependent on tobacco exposure. METHOD: We genotyped 10 391 adults from...... the Copenhagen City Heart Study, who had been followed prospectively for more than 30 years. Significant results were retested cross-sectionally in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) with 37 178 participants, and in the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study with 2379 cases and 33 220 controls...

  17. Refining a major QTL controlling spotted wilt disease resistance in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)and evaluating its contribution to the resistance variations in peanut germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), has been one of major diseases in cultivated peanut grown in the southeastern United States (US) since 1990. Previously a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling spotted wilt disease resistance was mapped to an interval of 2.55 cent...

  18. The role of mediastinoscopy in the diagnosis of non-lung cancer diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onat S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serdar Onat,1 Gungor Ates,2 Alper Avcı,3 Tekin Yıldız,4 Ali Birak,1 Cihan Akgul Ozmen,5 Refik Ulku1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, 2Department of Chest Diseases, Memorial Hospital, Diyarbakir, 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Çukurova University, Adana, 4Department of Chest Diseases, Yuksek Ihtisas Education and Research Hospital, Bursa, 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey Background: Mediastinoscopy is a good method to evaluate mediastinal lesions. We sought to determine the current role of mediastinoscopy in the investigation of non-lung cancer patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy.Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical parameters (age, gender, histological diagnosis, morbidity, mortality of all patients without lung cancer who consecutively underwent mediastinoscopy in Hospital of Faculty of Medicine of Dicle University between June 2003 and December 2016.Results: Two-hundred twenty nine patients without lung cancer who underwent mediastino­scopy for the pathological evaluation of mediastinum during the study period were included. There were 156 female (68% and 73 male (32% patients. Mean age was 52.6 years (range, 16 to 85 years. Mean operative time was 41 minutes (range, 25 to 90 minutes. Mean number of biopsies was 9.3 (range, 5 to 24. Totally, 45 patients (19.6% had previously undergone a nondiagnostic bronchoscopic biopsy such as transbronchial needle aspiration or endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. Mediastinoscopy was diagnostic for all patients. Diagnosis included sarcoidosis (n=100, tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=66, anthracosis lymphadenitis (n=44, lymphoma (n=11 metastatic carcinoma (n=5, and Castleman’s disease (n=1; there was a diagnosis of silicosis in one patient and tymoma in one patient. Neither operative mortality nor major complication developed. The only

  19. Health Benefits of Daily Walking on Mortality Among Younger-Elderly Men With or Without Major Critical Diseases in the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity contributes to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. However, the frequency of physical activity often declines with age, particularly among the elderly. Thus, we investigated the effects of daily walking on mortality among younger-elderly men (65–74 years with or without major critical diseases (heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancer. Methods: We assessed 1239 community-dwelling men aged 64/65 years from the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs of all-cause mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs according to daily walking duration and adjusted for potential confounders, including survey year, marital status, work status, education, smoking and drinking status, BMI, regular exercise, regular sports, sleeping time, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Results: For men without critical diseases, mortality risk declined linearly with increased walking time after adjustment for confounders (Ptrend = 0.018. Walking ≥2 hours/day was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27–0.90. For men with critical diseases, walking 1–2 hours/day showed a protective effect on mortality compared with walking <0.5 hours/day after adjustment for confounders (HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.06–1.20. Walking ≥2 hours/day showed no benefit on mortality in men with critical diseases, even after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Different duration of daily walking was associated with decreased mortality for younger-elderly men with or without critical diseases, independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, BMI, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Incorporating regular walking into daily lives of younger-elderly men may improve longevity and successful aging.

  20. Health Benefits of Daily Walking on Mortality Among Younger-Elderly Men With or Without Major Critical Diseases in the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjing; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Kawamura, Takashi; Wakai, Kenji; Ando, Masahiko; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes to the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. However, the frequency of physical activity often declines with age, particularly among the elderly. Thus, we investigated the effects of daily walking on mortality among younger-elderly men (65-74 years) with or without major critical diseases (heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancer). We assessed 1239 community-dwelling men aged 64/65 years from the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to daily walking duration and adjusted for potential confounders, including survey year, marital status, work status, education, smoking and drinking status, BMI, regular exercise, regular sports, sleeping time, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. For men without critical diseases, mortality risk declined linearly with increased walking time after adjustment for confounders (Ptrend = 0.018). Walking ≥2 hours/day was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.90). For men with critical diseases, walking 1-2 hours/day showed a protective effect on mortality compared with walking Walking ≥2 hours/day showed no benefit on mortality in men with critical diseases, even after adjustment for confounders. Different duration of daily walking was associated with decreased mortality for younger-elderly men with or without critical diseases, independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, BMI, medical status, disease history, and functional capacity. Incorporating regular walking into daily lives of younger-elderly men may improve longevity and successful aging.

  1. Impact of a child's cancer disease on parents' everyday life: a longitudinal study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; Grönqvist, Helena; Pöder, Ulrika; von Essen, Louise; Lindahl Norberg, Annika

    2017-01-01

    A child's cancer disease may disrupt the daily life of the affected family for a long period. The aim was to describe restrictions on parents' leisure activities and work/studies during and after the child's treatment. This study used data from a cohort of mothers and fathers (n = 246) of children diagnosed with cancer. Data was collected five times from two months after diagnosis to one year after end of treatment. Reports of restrictions were evaluated over time, between mothers and fathers, and in relation to parent-reported child symptom burden (The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale) and partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version). Two (51%) and four (45%) months after diagnosis, about half reported that their leisure activities were restricted at least some of the time. Corresponding percentages for restrictions on work/studies were 84% and 77%. One year after end of treatment, the great majority reported that their leisure activities (91%) and/or work/studies (76%) were never/seldom restricted. During treatment, more mothers than fathers reported restrictions on work/studies all/most of the time. After end of treatment, gender was only related to reports of restrictions among parents not reporting partial PTSD. More parents who reported being restricted all/most of the time also reported partial PTSD and/or a greater symptom burden for the child. Parents report frequent restrictions on everyday life during treatment. One year after end of treatment, parents report only a limited impact of the child's cancer on their leisure activities and work/studies. More parents who report restrictions also report partial PTSD and/or a greater child symptom burden. The effect of gender on restrictions varies depending on reports of partial PTSD. Future studies of gender differences regarding the impact of a child's cancer on parents' everyday life should thus consider mothers' and fathers' level of psychological distress.

  2. The expanding universe of cohesin functions: a new genome stability caretaker involved in human disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Linda; Menga, Stefania; Musio, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Cohesin is responsible for sister chromatid cohesion, ensuring the correct chromosome segregation. Beyond this role, cohesin and regulatory cohesin genes seem to play a role in preserving genome stability and gene transcription regulation. DNA damage is thought to be a major culprit for many human diseases, including cancer. Our present knowledge of the molecular basis underlying genome instability is extremely limited. Mutations in cohesin genes cause human diseases such as Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Roberts syndrome/SC phocomelia, and all the cell lines derived from affected patients show genome instability. Cohesin mutations have also been identified in colorectal cancer. Here, we will discuss the human disorders caused by alterations of cohesin function, with emphasis on the emerging role of cohesin as a genome stability caretaker.

  3. [Disease burden of liver cancer in the Chinese population, in 1990 and 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L J; Yin, P; Liu, Y N; Liu, J M; Qi, J L; Zhou, M G

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the disease burden of liver cancer in the Chinese population in 1990 and 2013. Data from Global Burden of Diseases 2013 (GBD2013) was used to analyze the disease burden of liver cancer in China. The main outcome measurements would include mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Again, GBD global standard population in 2013 was used as the reference population to calculate the age-standardized rate. Related changes on percentage from 1990 to 2013 were calculated to analyze the changing patterns of disease burden for liver cancer in China. In 2013, a total of 358 100 people died of liver cancer, with the crude death rate as 25.85/100 000, in China. Number of deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B was 163 600 (accounting for 45.69%). Number of deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis C was 134 200 (accounting for 37.48%) with DALY due to liver cancer appeared as 40.80 million person years. In 2013, the leading causes of DALY related to liver cancer was liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B, followed by liver cancer secondary to hepatitis C, liver cancer secondary to alcohol use, other liver cancers, with related DALYs as 4 652.0, 3 394.3, 964.3 and 592.1 thousands person years, respectively. The disease burdens of liver cancer secondary to various kinds of liver cancer were significantly higher in males than in females. Compared with 1990, the standardized mortality of liver cancer reduced by 25.00%, the DALY attributable to liver cancer increased by 16.95% and the standardized DALY rate attributable to liver cancer reduced by 33.47%. The burden of liver cancer secondary to hepatitis C became more serious and the standardized death rate increased by 106.18%, together with the standardized DALY rate increased by 91.68% in the past 23 years. Disease burden of liver cancer among young adults and the elderly were most serious. When comparing with the data in 1990, the standardized DALY rate showed declining trend in all the

  4. A Review of the Relationship between Tooth Loss, Periodontal Disease, and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Mara S.; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have investigated the association between periodontal disease, tooth loss, and several systemic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and preterm birth. Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, is highly prevalent in adult populations around the world, and may be preventable. Estimates of prevalence vary between races and geographic regions, with a marked increase in the occurrence of periodontal disease with advancing age. Worldwide estimates for the...

  5. Mortality from diseases other than cancer following low doses of ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Ashmore, P

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation at very high (radio-therapeutic) dose levels can cause diseases other than cancer, particularly heart diseases. There is increasing evidence that doses of the order of a few sievert (Sv) may also increase the risk of non-cancer diseases. It is not known, however......, whether such effects also occur following the lower doses and dose rates of public health concern. METHODS: We used data from an international (15-country) nuclear workers cohort study to evaluate whether mortality from diseases other than cancer is related to low doses of external ionizing radiation....... Analyses included 275 312 workers with adequate information on socioeconomic status, over 4 million person-years of follow-up and an average cumulative radiation dose of 20.7 mSv; 11 255 workers had died of non-cancer diseases. RESULTS: The excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv was 0.24 [95% CI (confidence...

  6. What do women with gynecologic cancer know about HPV and their individual disease? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pils, Sophie; Joura, Elmar A; Winter, Max-Paul; Shrestha, Anup; Jaeger-Lansky, Agnes; Ott, Johannes

    2014-05-30

    The vaccinations against human papilloma virus (HPV) are highly effective in preventing persistent infection. The level of knowledge about HPV and the consequences of an infection with this virus are low in the general population and in patients who suffer from HPV-associated diseases. We aimed to compare the level of knowledge about HPV and about the women's individual malignant disease between women with and without HPV-associated gynecologic cancer as well as the knowledge about individual malignant diseases. In a pilot study, 51 women with HPV-related cancer (cervical cancer: n=30; vulvar or vaginal cancer: n=21) and 60 women with non-HPV associated gynecologic malignancies (ovarian cancer: n=30; endometrial cancer, n=30) were included. They answered a questionnaire including questions about personal medical history, risk factors for cancer development, and HPV. The general level of knowledge of the term "HPV" was low (29.7%, 33/111) and it was similar in patients with HPV-related and non-HPV-associated cancer (18/60, 30.0% vs. 15/51, 29.4%, respectively; p=1.000). When asked about their disease, 80% (24/30) of women with ovarian cancer correctly named their diagnosis, followed by women with cervical cancer (73.3%, 22/30), endometrial cancer (70%, 21/30) and vaginal or vulvar cancer (42.9%, 9/21; p=0.008). The level of knowledge about HPV and the malignant diseases the patient suffered from was low. This applied even to patients with HPV associated malignancies.

  7. CD4 decline is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death in virally suppressed patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Gitte; Pedersen, Court; Obel, Niels; Gerstoft, Jan

    2013-07-01

    The clinical implications of a considerable CD4 decline despite antiretroviral treatment and viral suppression are unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a major CD4 decline could be a marker of cardiovascular disease or undiagnosed cancer. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were followed in the Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study in the period 1995-2010 with quarterly CD4 measurements. Associations between a CD4 decline of ≥30% and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were analyzed using Poisson regression with date of CD4 decline as a time-updated variable. We followed 2584 virally suppressed HIV patients for 13 369 person-years (PY; median observation time, 4.7 years). Fifty-six patients developed CD4 decline (incidence rate, 4.2/1000 PY [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.2-5.4]). CD4 counts dropped from a median of 492 cells/µL to 240 cells/µL. CD8, CD3, and total lymphocyte counts dropped concomitantly. No HIV-related factors, apart from treatment with didanosine, were associated with CD4 decline. The risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death increased markedly ≤6 months after CD4 decline (incidence rate ratio, 11.7 [95% CI, 3.6-37.4] and 13.7 [95% CI, 4.3-43.6], respectively, and mortality rate ratio 4.3 [95% CI, 1.1-17.6]). A major decline in CD4 count is associated with a marked increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death among virally suppressed HIV patients.

  8. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD...

  9. Cancer therapy trials employing level-of-evidence-1 disease forecast cancer biomarkers uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Harbeck, Nadia; Brünner, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Clinical research on cancer biomarkers is essential in understanding recent discoveries in cancer biology and heterogeneity of the cancer disease. However, there are only a few examples of clinically useful studies that have identified cancer biomarkers with clinical benefit. Urokinase-type plasm...

  10. Overweight and obesity: a review of their relationship to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, Laura R; Eynard, Aldo R; Díaz, María del Pilar; Navarro, Alicia; Muñoz, Sonia E

    2013-03-01

    Socioeconomic and demographic transformations are occurring very rapidly in some areas of the world, especially in South America, and are accompanied by changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, and the epidemiological profile of prevalent diseases. This review examines whether obesity and overweight are related to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America. Research carried out in more than 6,000 cases and controls was evaluated, along with most of the available publications related to South America. In South America, obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease are related mainly to aging, ethnicity effects, and preventable risky lifestyle conditions. Most of the studies that found an association between cancer and obesity are from the Southern Cone, the geographic area most affected by this pathology. Overall, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest in Chile, followed in decreasing order by Colombia, Peru, Argentina, and Ecuador, with differences noted between urban and rural areas or between urban and periurban areas. Obesity and cancer may be preventable, at least in part, by healthy behavior; hence, exercise, weight control, and healthy dietary habits are important to reduce the risk of these major chronic diseases. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  12. Left-sided breast cancer and risks of secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease. Effects of modern radiotherapy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Stefanie; Ballhausen, Hendrik; Weingandt, Helmut; Freislederer, Philipp; Schoenecker, Stephan; Niyazi, Maximilian; Belka, Claus [University Hospital, LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Simonetto, Cristoforo; Eidemueller, Markus [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Ganswindt, Ute [University Hospital, LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2018-03-15

    Modern breast cancer radiotherapy techniques, such as respiratory-gated radiotherapy in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) or volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) have been shown to reduce the high dose exposure of the heart in left-sided breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to comparatively estimate the excess relative and absolute risks of radiation-induced secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease for different modern radiotherapy techniques. Four different treatment plans were generated for ten computed tomography data sets of patients with left-sided breast cancer, using either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or VMAT, in free-breathing (FB) or DIBH. Dose-volume histograms were used for organ equivalent dose (OED) calculations using linear, linear-exponential, and plateau models for the lung. A linear model was applied to estimate the long-term risk of ischemic heart disease as motivated by epidemiologic data. Excess relative risk (ERR) and 10-year excess absolute risk (EAR) for radiation-induced secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease were estimated for different representative baseline risks. The DIBH maneuver resulted in a significant reduction of the ERR and estimated 10-year excess absolute risk for major coronary events compared to FB in 3D-CRT plans (p = 0.04). In VMAT plans, the mean predicted risk reduction through DIBH was less pronounced and not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The risk of radiation-induced secondary lung cancer was mainly influenced by the radiotherapy technique, with no beneficial effect through DIBH. VMAT plans correlated with an increase in 10-year EAR for radiation-induced lung cancer as compared to 3D-CRT plans (DIBH p = 0.007; FB p = 0.005, respectively). However, the EARs were affected more strongly by nonradiation-associated risk factors, such as smoking, as compared to the choice of treatment technique. The results indicate that 3D-CRT plans in DIBH pose the lowest

  13. Fengycin produced by Bacillus subtilis 9407 plays a major role in the biocontrol of apple ring rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Ru, Jinjiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Apple ring rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a serious apple disease in China. Bacillus subtilis 9407 was isolated from healthy apples and showed strong antifungal activity against B. dothidea. To identify the primary antifungal compound of B. subtilis 9407 and determine its role in controlling apple ring rot, a transposon mutant library was constructed using TnYLB-1, and a mutant completely defective in antifungal activity was obtained. The gene inactivated in the antifungal activity mutant had 98.5% similarity to ppsB in B. subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, which encodes one of the five synthetases responsible for synthesizing fengycin. A markerless ppsB deletion mutant was constructed. Compared with the wild-type strain, lipopeptide crude extracts from ΔppsB showed almost no inhibition of B. dothidea mycelial growth. Furthermore, fengycin-like lipopeptides (retention factor 0.1-0.2) that exhibited antifungal activity against B. dothidea were observed in the wild-type strain by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography analysis, but not in ΔppsB. Semipreparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) detection revealed that ΔppsB lost the ability to synthesize fengycin. These results suggest that ppsB is responsible for synthesizing fengycin and that fengycin is the major antifungal compound produced by B. subtilis 9407 against B. dothidea. Moreover, a biocontrol assay showed that the control efficacy of ΔppsB was reduced by half compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that fengycin plays a major role in controlling apple ring rot disease. This is the first report on the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent to control apple ring rot disease by the production of fengycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of major depression on heart rate variability and endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin Sunbul, Esra; Sunbul, Murat; Gulec, Huseyin

    Depression is an independent risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the cardiac autonomic functions and pro-inflammatory processes are potential biological factors. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of major depression on heart rate variability and endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable CAD. The study group included 65 CAD patients with a diagnosis of major depression and 54 CAD patients without major depression. All study population underwent transthoracic echocardiography, measurement of flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and 24-h holter recording for heart rate variability (HRV). Blood samples were drawn to determine the inflammatory parameters. Severity of depressive episode was assessed by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS). The distribution of age and sex was similar in the patient and control groups (P=0.715, 0.354, respectively). There was no significant difference in medications used between the groups. Echocardiographic parameters were similar between the groups. Inflammatory parameters were also similar between the groups. HRV parameters were significantly lower in the patient group than controls. The absolute FMD value and percentage FMD were significantly lower in the patient group than controls (Pgender (Pgender. Clinician should pay more attention for evaluation of depressive patients with CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving major amputation rates in the multicomplex diabetic foot patient: focus on the severity of peripheral arterial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechow, Andrej; Slesaczeck, Torsten; Münch, Dirk; Nanning, Thomas; Paetzold, Hartmut; Schwanebeck, Uta; Bornstein, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as well as diabetic neuropathy, is a risk factor for the development of diabetic foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences and predictors of outcome parameters in patients with diabetic foot by stratifying these subjects according to the severity of PAD. Research design and methods: In a prospective study, patients with new diabetic foot ulcers have been treated and investigated by structured healthcare. Subjects were recruited between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2007. All study participants underwent a 2-year follow-up observation period. The patients underwent a standardized examination and classification of their foot ulcers according to a modification of the University of Texas Wound Classification System. The severity of PAD was estimated by measurement of the ankle brachial index (ABI) and the continuous wave Doppler flow curve into undisturbed perfusion (0.9 diabetic foot were consecutively included into the study (69% male, mean age 66.3 ± 11.0 years, mean diabetes duration 15.8 ± 10.2 years). Major amputations (above the ankle) were performed in 4.7% of the patients. 22.1% of these subjects had decompensated PAD. These subjects had delayed ulcer healing, higher risk for major amputation [odds ratio (OR) 7.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8–21.2, p diabetic foot ulcers regarding to wound healing, major amputation and mortality. PMID:23730502

  16. Unilateral and Bilateral Breast Cancer in Women Surviving Pediatric Hodgkin's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Swati K.; Schwartz, Cindy; Fisher, Susan G.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Tarbell, Nancy; Muhs, Ann; Marcus, Karen J.; Mendenhall, Nancy; Mauch, Peter; Kun, Larry E.; Constine, Louis S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To define demographic and therapeutic associations with the risk of breast cancer in children treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD), particularly the frequency and interval to the development of contralateral breast cancer. Methods and Materials: All 398 female patients ( 12 years) were significant predictors of secondary breast cancer. Conclusions: Women surviving pediatric HD were found to have a 37-fold increase in the risk of breast cancer and a high likelihood of rapidly developing bilateral disease. Early-stage HD and age greater than 12 years at diagnosis of HD were independent risk factors. Higher radiation doses may augment risk, and pelvic radiation may be protective. Breast cancer screening methodology and frequency, plus the role of prophylaxis in patients with unilateral disease, require definition

  17. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  18. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoormans, Dounya; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics...... adjustment for depression, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical characteristics......., anxiety, and depression. By multivariable Cox regression analysis, we examined the risk associated with pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression for developing CVD after cancer diagnosis, adjusting for age, pharmaceutically treated hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus...

  19. [UV-irradiation-induced skin cancer as a new occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, T L; Drexler, H; Elsner, P; Schmitt, J

    2015-03-01

    With the revision of the German Ordinance on Occupational Diseases, skin cancer due to UV irradiation was amended as a new occupational disease to the list of occupational diseases in Germany. The new occupational disease BK 5103 has the following wording: "Squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis of the skin caused by natural UV irradiation". Actinic keratoses are to be considered as multiple according to this new occupational diseases if they occur as single lesions of more than five annually, or are confluent in an area > 4 cm(2) (field cancerization). It is estimated that more than 2.5 million employees are exposed to natural UV irradiation due to their work (outdoor workers) in Germany and therefore have an increased risk of skin cancer. In this article the medical and technical prerequisites which have to be fulfilled for this new occupational disease in Germany are introduced.

  20. Therapeutic Targeting of Lipid Droplets as Disease Markers in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Defective Autophagy and Increased Lipid Droplet Biogenesis in vitro and in vivo in Ovarian Cancer. American Association of Cancer Research , May 18-22...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0119 TITLE: Therapeutic Targeting of Lipid Droplets as Disease Markers in Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release

  1. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Muranen, Taru A.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittom?ki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breas...

  2. Factors associated with disease-specific survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a global public health problem and is associated with high mortality. Lung cancer could be largely avoided by reducing the prevalence of smoking. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of social, behavioral, and clinical factors on the survival time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at Cancer Hospital I of the José Alencar Gomes da Silva National Cancer Institute, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2000 and 2003. This was a retrospective hospital cohort study involving 1,194 patients. The 60-month disease-specific survival probabilities were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method for three stage groups. The importance of the studied factors was assessed with a hierarchical theoretical model after adjustment by Cox multiple regression. The estimated 60-month specific-disease lethality rate was 86.0%. The 60-month disease-specific survival probability ranged from 25.0% (stages I/II) to 2.5% (stage IV). The performance status, the intention to treat, and the initial treatment modality were the major prognostic factors identified in the study population. In this cohort of patients, the disease-specific survival probabilities were extremely low. We identified no factors that could be modified after the diagnosis in order to improve survival. Primary prevention, such as reducing the prevalence of smoking, is still the best method to reduce the number of people who will suffer the consequences of lung cancer. O câncer de pulmão é um problema de saúde pública global e é associado a elevada mortalidade. Ele poderia ser evitado em grande parte com a redução da prevalência do tabagismo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos de fatores sociais, comportamentais e clínicos sobre o tempo de sobrevida de pacientes com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas atendidos, entre 2000 e 2003, no Hospital do Câncer I do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, localizado na

  3. The Platino project: methodology of a multicenter prevalence survey of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in major Latin American cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Padilla Rogelio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in many developed countries appears to be increasing. There is some evidence from Latin America that COPD is a growing cause of death, but information on prevalence is scant. It is possible that, due to the high frequency of smoking in these countries, this disease may represent a major public health problem that has not yet been recognized as such. The PLATINO study is aimed at measuring COPD prevalence in major cities in Latin America. Methods/Design A multi-country survey is being carried out in major cities in Latin America. In each metropolitan area, a population-based sample of approximately 1,000 individuals aged 40 years or older is being interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Eligible subjects are submitted to pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry, and classified according to several criteria for COPD. Anthropometric examinations are also performed. Several risk factors are being studied, including smoking, socioeconomic factors, exposure to domestic biomass pollution, occupational exposure to dust and hospital admissions due to respiratory conditions during childhood. Whether or not subjects affected by COPD are aware of their disease, and if so how it is being managed by health services, is also being investigated, as are the consequences of this condition on quality of life and work performance. Results At the present time, the study is completed in São Paulo, Mexico City and Montevideo; Chile has started the study in March 2004 and it will be followed by Venezuela; two other metropolitan areas could still join the PLATINO project. Similar sampling procedures, with stratification for socio-economic status, are being used in all sites. Strict coordination, training and standardization procedures have been used to ensure comparability of results across sites. Overall 92% of the pre-bronchodilator spirometry tests fulfilled ATS criteria of

  4. White paper of radiotherapy in France. Twelve objectives to improve one of the major cancer treatments -2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, Bruno; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Maingon, Philippe; Mornex, Francoise; Azria, David; Barillot, Isabelle; Chauvet, Bruno; Denis, Fabrice; Lartigau, Eric; Lipinski, Francis; Maingon, Philippe; Mornex, Francoise; Ardiet, Jean-Michel; Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Caudrelier, Valerie; Diaz, Olivia; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Martel, Catherine de; Dubray, Bernard; Estivalet, Stephane; Faivre, Jean-Christophe; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Ferlay, Jacques; Fumagalli, Ingrid; Giraud, Philippe; Hennequin, Christophe; Henoch, Herve; Khodri, Mustapha; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Llacer, Carmen; Lorchel, Fabrice; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Meyrieux, Charlotte; Noel, Georges; Oozeer, Rashid; Peiffert, Didier; Pourel, Nicolas; Pradier, Olivier; Rocher, Francois; Thureau, Sebastien; Eschwege, Francois; Martin, Philippe; Parmentier Gerard; Eschwege, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This white paper aims at presenting the status and perspectives of radiotherapy in France, at proposing solutions for the improvement of treatment quality and safety. Along with surgery and chemotherapy, radiotherapy is one of the major techniques of cancer treatment and the first part gives an overview of increased needs due to population ageing, of the fast technical advances (better definition of target volumes and doses, better taking into account of anatomy variations and movements), of the impact of these advances on treatment results for various types of cancer, and of the current status of equipment (a slow evolution is noticed) and future needs. The second part addresses the various professions and their demography. The third part examines how to correct the unequal access to care with respect to geography, to equipment and treatment quality, or to delay before treatment. It also evokes collaborations between centres, the diffusion of good practices, specialisation, and makes some proposals for an equal access to care. The fourth part highlights quality and security improvements due to quality control practices, recommendations, prevention actions and risk management. The next part addresses the financial aspect and makes some proposals to reduce inequalities and archaisms. It also compares costs in France and in Europe. The report then gives an overview of the administrative and professional environment and of the different involved bodies, and outlines the need of a better coordination. Patient information is discussed (patients are better informed) as well as support cares. The last parts address activities of research and development and the organisation and possibilities offered by education and training

  5. Prodrugs activated by reactive oxygen species for use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    Prodrugs activated predominantly or exclusively in inflammatory tissue, more particularly prodrugs of methotrexate and derivatives thereof, which are selectively activated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in inflammatory tissues associated with cancer and inflammatory diseases, as well as method...

  6. 78 FR 76507 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Cancer (Malignant Neoplastic Diseases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... include updating the medical terminology in the listings. For example, we would replace the term ``Hodgkin... Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Cancer (Malignant Neoplastic Diseases); Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  7. Epigenetic Transgenerational Actions of Vinclozolin on the Development of Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K.; Anway, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor (e.g., vinclozolin) during embryonic gonadal sex determination appears to alter the male germ line epigenome and subsequently promotes transgenerational adult onset disease. The epigenetic mechanism involves the induction of new imprinted-like genes/DNA sequences in the germ line that appear to transmit disease phenotypes. The disease phenotypes include testis abnormalities, prostate disease, kidney disease, immune abnormalities, and tumor development. This epigenetic transgenerational disease mechanism provides a unique perspective from which to view inheritable adult onset disease states, such as cancer, and ultimately offers new insights into novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:17956218

  8. Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Jansen, M.C.F.; Klerk, M.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We quantified the public health benefit of fruits and vegetables on the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using currently available human data. Design: We reviewed over 250 observational studies on cancer and CVD. Relative risks (RRs) for high versus low intake of

  9. Investigating the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and cancer using GWAS summary statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Yen Chen Anne; Cho, Kelly; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Cormack, Jean; Blalock, Kendra; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Figueiredo, Jane; James Gauderman, W.; Gong, Jian; Green, Roger C.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Harju, John F.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Jacobs, Eric J; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Manion, Frank J.; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Peters, Ulrike; Raskin, Leon; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Hunter, David J.; Lindström, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Ahsan, Habib; Whittemore, Alice S.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Crisponi, Laura; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Easton, Douglas F.; Turnbull, Clare A.; Rahman, Nazneen; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fred; Travis, Ruth C.; Riboli, Elio; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil E; Landi, Maria Teresa; Heinrich, Joachim; Risch, Angela; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.; Amos, Christopher I; Liang, Liming; Driver, Jane A.; IGAP Consortium, Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT); Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE)

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence from both epidemiology and basic science suggest an inverse association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer. We examined the genetic relationship between AD and various cancer types using GWAS summary statistics from the IGAP and GAME-ON consortia. Sample size ranged from

  10. Incidence and clinical findings of benign, inflammatory disease in patients resected for presumed pancreatic head cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, T. M.; Reeders, J. W.; Bosma, A.; Moojen, T. M.; Smits, N. J.; Allema, J. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The differentiation between cancer and benign disease in the pancreatic head is difficult. The aim of this study was to examine common features in a group of patients that had undergone pancreatoduodenectomy for a benign, inflammatory lesion misdiagnosed as pancreatic head cancer.

  11. Disease insight and treatment perception of men on active surveillance for early prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; van Vugt, Heidi A.; Korfage, Ida J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the levels of knowledge of prostate cancer and the perception of active surveillance (AS) in men on AS, as AS for early prostate cancer instead of radical treatment might partly solve the over-treatment dilemma in this disease, but might be experienced as a complex and

  12. Radical surgery in patients with residual disease after (chemo)radiation for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Aniek; Arts, Henriette J. G.; Klip, Harry; Nijhuis, Esther R.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Reyners, Anna K. L.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Thomas, Gillian; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine possible impact of routinely scheduled biopsies and more radical surgery for residual central disease in locally advanced cervical cancer after (chemo) radiation. Methods/Materials: Data were analyzed of a consecutive series of cervical cancer

  13. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease following breast cancer : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gernaat, S. A.M.; Ho, P. J.; Rijnberg, N.; Emaus, M. J.; Baak, L. M.; Hartman, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Verkooijen, H. M.

    Purpose: Breast cancer incidence and survival is high, which results in high prevalence of breast cancer survivors. The risk of (death from) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is higher in patients exposed to cardiotoxic treatments, in particular if they have pre-existing CVD risk factors. This study

  14. Tracing differences between male and female breast cancer : Both diseases own a different biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, Robert; van Diest, Paul J.; Buerger, Horst; Korsching, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare and poorly characterized disease. In the present study we used a novel biomathematical model to further characterize MBC and to identify differences between male and female breast cancer (FBC). Methods and results: A total of 134 cases of MBC were stained

  15. Gastric cancer: a primer on the epidemiology and biology of the disease and an overview of the medical management of advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Kelsen, David P

    2010-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite recent advances in targeted therapy and understanding of the biology and development of the malignancy, progress in the treatment of gastric cancer has been limited. Most newly diagnosed patients will present with incurable disease, and have a median survival of less than 1 year. Although the disease has widespread ethnic and epidemiologic differences, medical management of gastric cancer does not distinguish among the various disease subtypes. The recent report of the ToGA phase III study has validated Her2 as a molecular target in this disease, supporting the concept that a greater understanding of the biology of gastric cancer subsets may improve treatment selection and overall outcome of individual patients. This article summarizes the epidemiology and ethnic variation of this disease to crystalize subtypes of gastric cancer in the context of current and future medical management of advanced disease.

  16. Impact of palliative care consultative service on disease awareness for patients with terminal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Hung, Yu-Shin; Kao, Chen-Yi; Su, Po-Jung; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Liau, Chi-Ting; Lin, Yung-Chang; Liaw, Chuang-Chi; Wang, Hung-Ming

    2013-07-01

    Awareness of the status of disease among terminally ill cancer patients is an important part of the end-of-life care. We have evaluated how palliative care consultative service (PCCS) affects patient disease awareness and determined who may benefit from such services in Taiwan. In total, 2,887 terminally ill cancer patients consecutively received PCCS between January 2006 and December 2010 at a single medical center in Taiwan, after which they were evaluated for disease awareness. At the beginning of PCCS, 31 % of patients (n = 895) were unaware of their disease status. The characteristics of these 895 patients were analyzed retrospectively to determine variables pertinent to patient disease awareness after PCCS. In total, 485 (50 %) of the 895 patients became aware of their disease at the end of PCCS. Factors significantly associated with higher disease awareness included a longer interval between the date of hospital admission and that of PCCS referral (>4 weeks versus ≤2 weeks), a longer duration of PCCS (>14 days versus ≤7 days), the male gender, divorced marital status (versus married), and family awareness (versus lack of family awareness). Lower disease awareness was associated with older age (age > 75 years versus age = 18-65 years), referral from non-oncology departments, and primary cancer localization (lung, colon-rectum, or urological versus liver). Disease awareness is affected by multiple factors related to the patients, their families, and the clinicians. The promotion of PCCS increased disease awareness among terminally ill cancer patients in Taiwan.

  17. Fibrocystic disease and breast cancer risk (а review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bespalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationship between etiology and risk factors of fibrocystic disease (FCD and breast cancer (BC, pathogenesis of FCD in connection with increasing risk of BC, assessment of BC risk in patients with FCD; pathogenetic treatment of FCD aimed for preventing BC; the use of the drug progestogel for the treatment of FCD and prevention of BC. FCD and BC have general etiology and the most risk factors are identical for the both pathologies. Multiple risk factors disturb hormonal balance in the organism of a woman, cause hyperestrogenism and epithelium hyperproliferation in the mammary tissue that results in the development of FCD and at presenceof congenital or acquired gene damage results in the development of BC. Decision value for the estimation of degree of a BC risk in patients with FCD has morphological research of mammary tissue got at a biopsy. The risk of developing BC for non-proliferative FCD does not rise or is minimal. Proliferative FCD without atypia or with atypia was associated with significantly increased BC risk in 2 or 4 times, correspondingly. The risk of developing BC for FCD with ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ is maximal and may be increased in 12 times. Progestogel is hormonal medicinal drug containing progesterone for local application. Results of undertaken studies and supervisions allow to conclude that progestogel is not only effective and safe drug for pathogenetic treatment of FCD and thus could be regarded as indirect factor to decrease BC risk.

  18. Understanding the relationship between the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Hospital Compare star rating, surgical case volume, and short-term outcomes after major cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Deborah R; Norton, Edward C; Ellimoottil, Chad; Ye, Zaojun; Dupree, James M; Herrel, Lindsey A; Miller, David C

    2017-11-01

    Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) Hospital Compare star rating and surgical case volume have been publicized as metrics that can help patients to identify high-quality hospitals for complex care such as cancer surgery. The current study evaluates the relationship between the CMS' star rating, surgical volume, and short-term outcomes after major cancer surgery. National Medicare data were used to evaluate the relationship between hospital star ratings and cancer surgery volume quintiles. Then, multilevel logistic regression models were fit to examine the association between cancer surgery outcomes and both star rankings and surgical volumes. Lastly, a graphical approach was used to compare how well star ratings and surgical volume predicted cancer surgery outcomes. This study identified 365,752 patients undergoing major cancer surgery for 1 of 9 cancer types at 2,550 hospitals. Star rating was not associated with surgical volume (P cancer surgery outcomes (mortality, complication rate, readmissions, and prolonged length of stay). The adjusted predicted probabilities for 5- and 1-star hospitals were 2.3% and 4.5% for mortality, 39% and 48% for complications, 10% and 15% for readmissions, and 8% and 16% for a prolonged length of stay, respectively. The adjusted predicted probabilities for hospitals with the highest and lowest quintile cancer surgery volumes were 2.7% and 5.8% for mortality, 41% and 55% for complications, 12.2% and 11.6% for readmissions, and 9.4% and 13% for a prolonged length of stay, respectively. Furthermore, surgical volume and the star rating were similarly associated with mortality and complications, whereas the star rating was more highly associated with readmissions and prolonged length of stay. In the absence of other information, these findings suggest that the star rating may be useful to patients when they are selecting a hospital for major cancer surgery. However, more research is needed before these ratings can

  19. Decreased health-related quality of life in disease-free survivors of differentiated thyroid cancer in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kwang-Won

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern regarding the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of long-term survivors of thyroid cancer has risen due to the rapid increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer, which generally has an excellent prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of HRQOL in disease-free survivors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC and to evaluate the important determinants of HRQOL. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which we interviewed consecutive disease-free survivors of DTC. Three different validated questionnaires ("EORTC QLQ-C30" for various functional domains, the "brief fatigue inventory (BFI" and the "hospital anxiety and depression scale" (HADS were used. Data from a large, population based survey of 1,000 people were used as a control. Results The response rate for the questionnaires was 78.9% (316/401. Disease-free survivors of DTC showed a decreased HRQOL in all five functional domains (physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social on the EORTC QLQ-C30 compared with controls (P P Conclusions Although disease-free survivors of DTC are expected to have disease-specific survival comparable to the general population, they experience a significantly decreased HRQOL. Anxiety, depression, and fatigue were the major determinants of the decreased HRQOL. Supportive psychological care should be integrated into the management of long-term survivors of DTC.

  20. Diverticular disease and colon cancer: a real association between the two diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Paolo; Rossini, Matteo; Papadia, Cinzia; Lorenzo, Viani; Labonia, Domenico; Sianesi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    During the last century the incidence of diverticular disease (DD), as well as the prevalence of colonic adenocarcinoma (ADK), recorded a marked increase in Western populations. In literature has been reported a higher incidence of sigmoid colon carcinoma associated with diverticular disease suggesting a possible sharing of risk factors and pathogens between these two pathologies. We prospectively examined 165 patients undergoing left colonic resection from May 2010 to December 2012 at the operating unit of General Surgery and Organ Transplantation of University Hospital of Parma , dividing them into three groups: affected by left colon cancer (120 cases), affected by complicated diverticular disease (29 cases) and affected by both diseases (16 cases). In this last group the indication for surgery has always been oncology based. All cases have been subjected to a 6 months minimum follow-up. The average age of patients operated for colonic ADK was 69.91 years. The average age of patients operated for ADK and concomitant DD, compared to that of patients treated for single DD, was statistically higher (73.8 ± 6.89 VS 60.9 ± 13.5, p = 0.004). It was found instead a higher diverticular inflammation degree in patients treated for DD compared with those treated for ADK associated with DD. No patient with ADK associated with DD showed hepatic metastases, whereas among patients with just ADK, peritoneal carcinomatosis was recorded in 2.6% of cases and liver metastases, always synchronous, in 11 .5%. The lymph nodes positivity instead, has presented a prevalence of 33.5% in patients with ADK and of 7% in patients with associated DD. In our study and its comparison with literature we found in synthesis multiple clinical evidences of a possible association between the two diseases. The role played by DD would lead to an early diagnosis of colonic ADK. It remains to be analyzed however the possible etiopathogenetic correlation over time between the two clinical entities

  1. Increased risk of breast cancer in splenectomized patients undergoing radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chung T.; Bogart, Jeffrey A.; Adams, James F.; Sagerman, Robert H.; Numann, Patricia J.; Tassiopoulos, Apostolos; Duggan, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Second malignancies have been reported among patients who were treated by radiation therapy or chemotherapy alone or in combination. Studies have implied an increased risk of breast cancer in women who received radiotherapy as part of their treatment for Hodgkin's disease. This review was performed to determine if there is an association between splenectomy and subsequent breast cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and thirty-six female patients with histologically proven Hodgkin's disease were seen in the Division of Radiation Oncology between 1962 and 1985. All patients received mantle or mediastinal irradiation as part of their therapy. The risk of breast cancer was assessed and multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the following variables: patient age, stage, dose and extent of radiation field, time after completing radiation therapy, splenectomy, and chemotheraphy. Results: Breast cancer was observed in 11 of 74 splenectomized patients and in none of 62 patients not splenectomized. The mean follow-up was 13 years in splenectomized patients and 16 years, 7 months in nonsplenectomized patients. Nine patients developed invasive breast cancer and two developed ductal carcinoma in situ. Splenectomy was the only variable independently associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (p < 0.005) in multiple linear regression analysis; age, latency, and splenectomy considered together were also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our data show an increased risk of breast cancer in splenectomized patients who had treatment for Hodgkin's disease. A multiinstitutional survey may better define the influence of splenectomy relative to developing breast cancer in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. The risk of breast cancer should be considered when recommending staging laparotomy, and we recommend close follow-up examination including routine mammograms for female patients successfully treated for

  2. Aldosterone synthase gene is not a major susceptibility gene for progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanasambandan Ramanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most common heritable kidney disease and is characterized by bilateral renal cysts. Hypertension is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD and mortality in patients with ADPKD. The aldosterone synthase gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been extensively studied as hypertension candidate genes. The present study is aimed to investigate the potential modifier effect of CYP11B2 gene on the progression of CKD in ADPKD. One hundred and two ADPKD patients and 106 healthy controls were recruited based on Ravine inclusion and exclusion criteria. The three tag-SNPs within CYP11B2 gene (rs3802230, rs4543, and rs4544 were genotyped using FRET-based KASPar method. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to assess the potential associations between these polymorphisms and CKD stages. Mantel- Haenszel stratified analysis was used to explore confounding and interaction effects of these polymorphisms. Of the three tag-SNPs genotyped, rs4544 polymorphism was monomorphic and rs3802230 deviated Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The CYP11B2 tag-SNPs did not show significant association with ADPKD or CKD. Further, these polymorphisms did not exhibit confounding effect on the relationship between CKD progression and hypertension. Our results suggest that aldosterone synthase gene is not a major susceptibility gene for progression of CKD in South Indian ADPKD patients.

  3. Estimated Human and Economic Burden of Four Major Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John M; McGinnis, Justin J; Tan, Litjen; Mercatante, Annette; Fortuna, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific incidence rates obtained from the literature by age-specific 2013 Census population data. We then multiplied the estimated number of cases for a given population by age-specific, estimated medical and indirect (non-medical) costs per case. Adult VPDs examined were: (1) influenza, (2) pneumococcal disease (both invasive disease and pneumonia), (3) herpes zoster (shingles), and (4) pertussis (whooping cough). Sensitivity analyses simulated the impact of various epidemiological scenarios on the total estimated economic burden. Estimated US annual cost for the four adult VPDs was $26.5 billion (B) among adults aged 50 years and older, $15.3B (58 %) of which was attributable to those 65 and older. Among adults 50 and older, influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis made up $16.0B (60 %), $5.1B (19 %), $5.0B (19 %), and $0.4B (2 %) of the cost, respectively. Among those 65 and older, they made up $8.3B (54 %), $3.8B (25 %), $3.0B (20 %), and 0.2B (1 %) of the cost, respectively. Most (80-85 %) pneumococcal costs stemmed from nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NPP). Cost attributable to adult VPD in the United States is substantial. Broadening adult immunization efforts beyond influenza only may help reduce the economic burden of adult VPD, and a pneumococcal vaccination effort, primarily focused on reducing NPP, may constitute a logical starting place. Sensitivity analyses revealed that a pandemic influenza season or change in size of the US elderly population

  4. Abnormal function of monoamine oxidase-A in comorbid major depressive disorder and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Mallinger, Alan G

    2012-11-01

    The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the best described medical comorbidities. The presence of MDD increases the risk of cardiac admissions and mortality and increases healthcare costs in patients with CVD, and similarly, CVD affects the course and outcome of MDD. The potential shared biological mechanisms involved in these comorbid conditions are not well known. However, the enzyme monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), which has a key role in the degradation of catecholamines, has been associated with the pathophysiology and therapeutics of both MDD and CVD. Increased MAO-A activity results in the dysregulation of downstream targets of this enzyme and thus affects the pathophysiology of the two diseases. These deleterious effects include altered noradrenaline turnover, with a direct elevation in oxidative stress parameters, as well as increased platelet activity and cytokine levels. These effects were shown to be reversed by MAO inhibitors. Here, a model describing a key role for the MAO-A in comorbid MDD and CVD is proposed, with focus on the shared pathophysiological mechanisms and the potential therapeutic relevance of agents targeting this enzyme.

  5. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoormans, Dounya; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Pedersen, Susanne S; Rottmann, Nina; Horsbøl, Trine; Dalton, Susanne; Denollet, Johan

    2017-11-01

    To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics in a population-based observational study. Adult 1-year breast cancer survivors (n = 7227), diagnosed between 01-01-1999 and 12-31-2010, with no history of CVD, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Drug dispensing data were derived from the PHARMO Database Network and used as proxy for CVD, anxiety, and depression. By multivariable Cox regression analysis, we examined the risk associated with pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression for developing CVD after cancer diagnosis, adjusting for age, pharmaceutically treated hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus in the year prior to cancer diagnosis, tumor stage, and cancer treatment. During the 13-year follow-up period, 193 (3%) breast cancer survivors developed CVD. Women pharmaceutically treated for anxiety in the year prior to their cancer diagnosis had a 48% increased hazard for CVD [HR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.05-1.08] after full adjustment. This association was restricted to breast cancer survivors who were 65 years or younger. Depression was not associated with CVD risk [HR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.52-1.53]. Older age [HR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.05-1.08], hypertension [HR = 1.80; 95% CI 1.32-2.46], and hypercholesterolemia [HR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.15-2.33] were associated with an increased hazard for incident CVD, whereas hormone therapy [HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.42-0.83] was protective. Anxiety present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis increases the risk of incident CVD in 1-year breast cancer survivors, after adjustment for depression, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical characteristics.

  6. The patient, disease status, and treatment options for prostate cancer: stages B1 and B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma palpably confined to the prostate is clinically defined as stage B. Although potentially curable in many, if not most, instances, there is no disputing that the optimal management of patients with stage B neoplasms is one of the most uncertain and controversial issues in modern urologic oncology. The present uncertainty can be related to three major factors: 1) competing causes of death in patients commonly older than 50 years of age; 2) the variable and unpredictable natural course of localized prostatic cancer as reflected by the three, at least in part, independent variables of growth rate, metastatic potential, and therapeutic responsiveness; and 3) the multiplicity and effectiveness of a variety of treatments in producing effects on the tumor favorable to the patient. The relative effectiveness of different treatments has been and remains clouded by a constantly changing array of clinical staging techniques, selection criteria for treatment, and definitions of response, and by the general absence of satisfactory control data. Experiences with patients receiving no treatment, various forms of irradiation, and radical excision have indicated a general similarity in at least 10-year survival rates and clinically manifest local failure rates among comparable substages of stage B prostatic cancer. Since suitable control data are lacking, one may conclude that a variety of treatments offer similar prospects of benefit or that none of the treatments is producing significant beneficial effect and that survivals are a consequence of the natural history of stage B disease. A Possibility that has yet to be evaluated is that different treatments produce benefit in different segments of the stage B prostatic cancer population, and the challenge today is to recognize and define such neoplasms that may respond most appropriately to one form of therapy or another

  7. Breast cancer onset in twins and women with bilateral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Mikael; Hall, Per; Edgren, Gustaf

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known of the onset of breast cancer in high-risk populations. We investigated the risk of breast cancer in twin sisters and in the contralateral breast taking family history into consideration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 2,499 fe...

  8. Potential Strategies to Address the Major Clinical Barriers Facing Stem Cell Regenerative Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Patricia K; Neofytou, Evgenios; Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-11-01

    Although progress continues to be made in the field of stem cell regenerative medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, significant barriers to clinical implementation still exist. To summarize the current barriers to the clinical implementation of stem cell therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and to discuss potential strategies to overcome them. Information for this review was obtained through a search of PubMed and the Cochrane database for English-language studies published between January 1, 2000, and July 25, 2016. Ten randomized clinical trials and 8 systematic reviews were included. One of the major clinical barriers facing the routine implementation of stem cell therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease is the limited and inconsistent benefit observed thus far. Reasons for this finding are unclear but may be owing to poor cell retention and survival, as suggested by numerous preclinical studies and a small number of human studies incorporating imaging to determine cell fate. Additional studies in humans using imaging to determine cell fate are needed to understand how these factors contribute to the limited efficacy of stem cell therapy. Treatment strategies to address poor cell retention and survival are under investigation and include the following: coadministration of immunosuppressive and prosurvival agents, delivery of cardioprotective factors packaged in exosomes rather than the cells themselves, and use of tissue-engineering strategies to provide structural support for cells. If larger grafts are achieved using these strategies, it will be imperative to carefully monitor for the potential risks of tumorigenicity, immunogenicity, and arrhythmogenicity. Despite important achievements to date, stem cell therapy is not yet ready for routine clinical implementation. Significant research is still needed to address the clinical barriers outlined herein before the next wave of large clinical trials is under way.

  9. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Notice of Charter..., that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, HHS, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K52, Atlanta...

  10. Demoralization Syndrome Among Elderly Patients with Cancer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ting Ko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Demoralization is distinctive psychological distress that involves hopelessness, helplessness, loss of purpose and meaning, and existential distress. Cancer patients' demoralization has been well documented, but little is known regarding older cancer patients and the related factors. Therefore, this study evaluated demoralization syndrome in older cancer patients. Methods: Cancer patients over 61 years old (n = 113, female 59.3%, mean age 65.7 years, range 61–80 diagnosed with heterogeneous types of cancer were recruited. They completed questionnaires in a hospital's inpatient and outpatient units. Their demoralization was measured using the Demoralization Scale-Mandarin Version (DS-MV. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9, Distress Thermometer (DT, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI were used to measure other psychological statuses and the association with demoralization. Results: The mean DS-MV score was 28.1 (SD = 16.3. In this sample, 57.7% had moderate to high demoralization (18.6% had moderate demoralization, and 38.1% had high demoralization. Twenty-three percent reported a DT score of five and above, 5.5% reported a PHQ-9 score of 10 and above, and 23.9% reported a BSS score greater than zero. Demoralization was associated with suicide ideation, depression, distress, lower education, and the cancer site. Demoralization was not associated with posttraumatic growth, gender, work status, or religion. Conclusion: More than half of older cancer patients have moderate to high demoralization and it is associated with depression, suicide ideation, and distress. Screening and interventions that are better tailored to older cancer patients could improve the quality of care in cancer treatment. Keywords: aged, cancer, depression, hospice care/psychology, morale

  11. Age at death of major cardiovascular diseases in 13 cohorts. The seven countries study of cardiovascular diseases 45-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Kafatos, Anthony; Kromhout, Daan

    2018-03-23

    To explore age at death (AD) for major cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors in originally middle-aged men followed nearly to extinction in the Seven Countries Study. Thirteen cohorts of men aged 40-59 years (N = 10,628) in seven countries (USA, Finland, the Netherlands, Italy, Serbia, Greece, Japan) were enrolled in late 1950s and early 1960s and were followed 45 years for mortality. AD was computed for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke (STR), heart disease of uncertain aetiology (HDUE) and for all-causes. AD was compared across CHD-HDUE-STR. Cox models were computed for each end-point using baseline age, cigarettes smoking, systolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol. After 45 years 92.9% of men had died. The most common CVD death was CHD in most cohorts except some Mediterranean and Japanese cohorts where STR or HDUE were most prevalent. In 13 cohorts mean AD was 74.5, 73.5, 75.7 and 79.1 years, respectively, for all-cause, CHD, STR and HDUE mortality (all possible differences were significant). The difference, across cohorts, between the highest and the lowest mean AD was 12.9, 9.0 and 4.7 years for CHD, HDUE and STR mortality, respectively. Risk factors explored were significant predictors of all three CVD end-points, except serum cholesterol, specific to CHD mortality. AD is a useful indicator of previous health and aging populations. STR and HDUE are diseases appearing later in life, thus being associated with a higher AD compared with CHD mortality.

  12. Management of cancer-associated thrombosis in people with advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Simon; Johnson, Miriam J

    2012-06-01

    The management of venous thromboembolism in the cancer population is clearly established. Low molecular weight heparin has a greater efficacy than warfarin in the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis and is recommended as the preferred therapy. However, the evidence informing these recommendations excluded patients with poor prognosis or performance status, thrombocytopenia, bleeding or brain metastases. Furthermore, there is limited data on the management of venous thromboembolism resistant to anticoagulation, a phenomenon frequently encountered in the advanced cancer population. This paper will review the management of cancer-associated thrombosis with a particular focus on challenging clinical situations faced by palliative care teams looking after patients with advanced disease.

  13. The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) in lung cancer: implications for disease progression and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotteas, Elias A; Boulas, Panagiotis; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Tsagkouli, Sofia; Tsoukalas, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2014-09-01

    The intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane molecule and a distinguished member of the Immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that participates in many important processes, including leukocyte endothelial transmigration, cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, cell polarity and tissue stability. ICAM-1and its soluble part are highly expressed in inflammatory conditions, chronic diseases and a number of malignancies. In the present article we present the implications of ICAM-1 in the progression and prognosis of one of the major global killers of our era: lung cancer. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Is cancer a chronic disease? Comparison of health‐related quality of life and health care use in cancer survivors and patients with a chronic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Hopman, E.J.C.; Donker, G.A.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of cancer survivors steadily increases. The long‐term planning of care in the survivorship phase necessitates a different approach than the short‐term planning in the treatment phase. Principles of disease management programs could provide an interesting perspective to improve

  15. Systematic identification of core transcription factors mediating dysregulated links bridging inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and colorectal cancer (CRC, which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes.

  16. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD...... of symptoms, and extent of the disease, with pancolitis having a more severe inflammation burden and risk of the dysplasia-carcinoma cascade. Considering the chronic nature of the disease, it is remarkable that there is such a low incidence of CRC in some of the population-based studies, and possible...... in Crohn's disease, the number was significantly increased in relation to the expected number....

  17. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Ellervik, Christina; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background- We hypothesized that the estrogen receptor (ESR1) IVS1-397T/C polymorphism affects high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer of reproductive organs, and hip fracture. Methods and Results- We studied...... thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism), cancer of reproductive organs (breasts, ovaries, uterus, and prostate), and hip fracture. We also studied patients with ischemic heart disease (n=2495), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (n=856), and breast cancer (n=1256) versus general population...... controls. The CC, CT, and TT genotypes had general population frequencies of 21%, 50%, and 29%, respectively. Cross-sectionally, genotype did not influence high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy. In the cohort study, there were no differences in risks of CVD, cancer...

  18. Analysis and visualization of disease courses in a semantically-enabled cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, Angel; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Boeker, Martin

    2017-09-29

    Regional and epidemiological cancer registries are important for cancer research and the quality management of cancer treatment. Many technological solutions are available to collect and analyse data for cancer registries nowadays. However, the lack of a well-defined common semantic model is a problem when user-defined analyses and data linking to external resources are required. The objectives of this study are: (1) design of a semantic model for local cancer registries; (2) development of a semantically-enabled cancer registry based on this model; and (3) semantic exploitation of the cancer registry for analysing and visualising disease courses. Our proposal is based on our previous results and experience working with semantic technologies. Data stored in a cancer registry database were transformed into RDF employing a process driven by OWL ontologies. The semantic representation of the data was then processed to extract semantic patient profiles, which were exploited by means of SPARQL queries to identify groups of similar patients and to analyse the disease timelines of patients. Based on the requirements analysis, we have produced a draft of an ontology that models the semantics of a local cancer registry in a pragmatic extensible way. We have implemented a Semantic Web platform that allows transforming and storing data from cancer registries in RDF. This platform also permits users to formulate incremental user-defined queries through a graphical user interface. The query results can be displayed in several customisable ways. The complex disease timelines of individual patients can be clearly represented. Different events, e.g. different therapies and disease courses, are presented according to their temporal and causal relations. The presented platform is an example of the parallel development of ontologies and applications that take advantage of semantic web technologies in the medical field. The semantic structure of the representation renders it easy to

  19. Adjusting a cancer mortality-prediction model for disease status-related eligibility criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel Marek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volunteering participants in disease studies tend to be healthier than the general population partially due to specific enrollment criteria. Using modeling to accurately predict outcomes of cohort studies enrolling volunteers requires adjusting for the bias introduced in this way. Here we propose a new method to account for the effect of a specific form of healthy volunteer bias resulting from imposing disease status-related eligibility criteria, on disease-specific mortality, by explicitly modeling the length of the time interval between the moment when the subject becomes ineligible for the study, and the outcome. Methods Using survival time data from 1190 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center, we model the time from clinical lung cancer diagnosis to death using an exponential distribution to approximate the length of this interval for a study where lung cancer death serves as the outcome. Incorporating this interval into our previously developed lung cancer risk model, we adjust for the effect of disease status-related eligibility criteria in predicting the number of lung cancer deaths in the control arm of CARET. The effect of the adjustment using the MD Anderson-derived approximation is compared to that based on SEER data. Results Using the adjustment developed in conjunction with our existing lung cancer model, we are able to accurately predict the number of lung cancer deaths observed in the control arm of CARET. Conclusions The resulting adjustment was accurate in predicting the lower rates of disease observed in the early years while still maintaining reasonable prediction ability in the later years of the trial. This method could be used to adjust for, or predict the duration and relative effect of any possible biases related to disease-specific eligibility criteria in modeling studies of volunteer-based cohorts.

  20. Trends in Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease, Stroke, and Stomach Cancer: from past to future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe common occurrence of chronic diseases – such as ischemic heart diseases (IHD, stroke, and stomach cancer in most populations and the attendant mortality, loss of independence, impaired quality of life, and social and economic costs are compelling reasons for public health

  1. Awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer and heart disease among adults in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Waller, Jo; Jarvis, Martin J; Humphries, Steve E; Wardle, Jane

    2009-02-01

    To examine and compare awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer and heart disease in a single UK representative sample. Two open-ended questions about cancer and heart disease risk factors were included in a population-based survey of 1747 adults. Responses were coded for four lifestyles with established links to both diseases: smoking, eating an unhealthy diet, drinking excessive alcohol and physical inactivity. Awareness of lifestyle risk factors was low for both diseases, although higher for heart disease than cancer. The average number identified by respondents was 2.1 (heart disease) and 1.4 (cancer). The strongest predictor was education (both pUnhealthy lifestyles make a significant contribution to ill health and mortality. Increased public awareness of the links between lifestyles and commonly feared diseases might help people understand the potential health consequences of their actions and encourage them to make much-needed lifestyle changes. Efforts are needed to improve public health messages about how lifestyle risk factors impact on the chances of developing these important diseases.

  2. Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: One cause, two diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Tara A; Schiller, John T

    2017-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes greater than 5% of cancers worldwide, including all cervical cancers and an alarmingly increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). Despite markedly reduced cervical cancer incidence in industrialized nations with organized screening programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, as developing countries lack resources for universal, high-quality screening. In the United States, HPV-related OPC is only 1 of 5 cancers with a rising incidence since 1975 and now has taken over the cervix as the most common site of HPV-related cancer. Similar trends follow throughout North America and Europe. The need for early detection and prevention is paramount. Despite the common etiologic role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC, great disparity exists between incidence, screening modalities (or lack thereof), treatment, and prevention in these 2 very distinct cohorts. These differences in cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC and their impact are discussed here. Cancer 2017;123:2219-2229. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. [Disease-free survival related factors in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Arias, Cristina; Ocón, Olga; Fernández, Mariana F; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Sánchez, María José; Aneiros, José; Torné, Pablo; Olea, Nicolás

    2014-10-07

    To evaluate the relationship between the clinical and pathological parameters of the primary tumor and disease-free survival (DFS) in a sample of hospital cases of invasive breast cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 635 patients recruited at San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) between 1994 and 2006. Information on the primary tumor and the outcomes of patients was collected by reviewing the medical records. Predictors of recurrence and/or metastasis and DFS (follow up of 3, 5 and 10 years) were analyzed by using Cox regression analysis. Multivariate models adjusted for age, tumor size, lymph nodal status, histological grade and estrogen and progesterone receptor expression showed a higher risk of recurrence and/or metastasis and lower DFS (adjusted relative risk, 95% confidence intervals) with tumor size (3 yrs: 3.00, 1.79-5.03; 5 yrs: 2.56, 1.65-3.98; 10 yrs: 2.16, 1.44-3.24), lymph nodal status (3 yrs: 4.58, 2.42-8.65; 5 yrs: 3.84, 2.35-6.30; 10 yrs: 3.08, 2.05-4.61), lymphovascular invasion (5 yrs: 1.88, 1.16-3.04; 10 yrs: 2.19, 1.43-3.35), multifocal and/or multicenter tumors (3 yrs: 2.69, 1.46-4.96; 5 yrs: 1.90, 1.08-3.35) and p53 protein expression (3 yrs: 2.03, 1.00-4.09). DFS was positively associated with an increased expression of progesterone receptor (3 yr: 0.48, 0.26-0.89; 5 yrs: 0.58, 0.35-0.97; 10 yrs: 0.59, 0.38-0.90). The biological characteristics of the primary tumor can be used to identify patients with distinctive prognoses and DFS, and could be helpful in making individual follow up strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in

  5. Trends in pediatric echocardiography and the yield for congenital heart disease in a major cardiac referral hospital in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoke, Clovis; Balti, Eric; Menanga, Alain; Dzudie, Anastase; Lekoubou, Alain; Kingue, Samuel; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common condition in children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where it is associated with poor outcomes. Diagnosis of CHD in SSA depends essentially on echocardiography, which is available only in few urban referral centers. Our aim was to assess time changes in the pattern of referral for pediatric echocardiography and the subsequent diagnosis of structural CHD in a major SSA city. All pediatric echocardiography performed between 2004 and 2013 at the echocardiography laboratory of the Yaounde General Hospital were reviewed. The primary indication of the study and the presence of structural CHD were recorded. Between 2004 and 2013, 9,390 echocardiograms were performed and 834 (8.9%) children aged 1 day to 15 years underwent echocardiography at the center, and 227 (27.2%) cases of definite structural CHD were diagnosed, with 123 (54.2%) in boys. The most frequent indications for echocardiography were heart murmurs (40%) and the suspicion of CHD (37.4%). The commonest CHD was ventricular septal defect (VSD) (30%) with tetralogy of Fallot being the most frequent cyanotic heart lesion (5.3%). The proportion of pediatric echocardiography decreased from 13.3% in 2004-2005 to 6.1% in 2012-2013 (P=0.001) but not in a linear fashion (P=0.072 for linear trend).The diagnosis of structural CHD increased from 25.1% in 2004-2005 to 27.1% in 2012-2013. This increase however was non-significant (P=0.523) and did not follow a linear trend (P=0.230). The pattern of referral for pediatric echocardiography at this center has changed over time, but diagnosis of structural CHD has remained the same. Improving access to this diagnostic procedure and subsequent treatment of diagnosed CHD will help improving the outcome of the disease in this setting.

  6. Endothelin 1 gene is not a major modifier of chronic kidney disease advancement among the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapareddy Shiva Nagendra Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by the presence of numerous cysts in the kidney and manifest with various renal and extra-renal complications leading to ESRD. Endothelin may contribute to various renal and extra-renal manifestations pointing to genetic and environmental modifying factors that alter the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD in ADPKD. In the present study we investigated six genes coding for endothelin 1 (EDN1 tagging-single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs to unravel the EDN1 gene modifier effect for renal disease progression in ADPKD. Materials and Methods: The tag-SNPs were genotyped using FRET-based KASPar method in 108 ADPKD patients and 119 healthy subjects. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to determine the association between ADPKD and EDN1 tag-SNPs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of tag-SNPs on CKD progression. The relationship between different CKD stages and hypertension and their interaction Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis was performed. Results: All loci are polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Distribution of EDN1 genotypes and haplotypes in control and ADPKD is not statistically significant. Five SNPs covering 3.4 kb forming single LD block, but the LD was not strong between SNPs. The EDN1 genotypes are not contributing to the CKD advancement among the ADPKD patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that the EDN1 gene is not a major modifier of CKD advancement among ADPKD patients.

  7. Spiritual Needs among Patients with Chronic Pain Diseases and Cancer Living in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büssing, Arndt; Janko, Annina; Baumann, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    . Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional study, standardized questionnaires were provided to German patients with chronic pain diseases (and cancer), i.e., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ), Spirituality/Religiosity and Coping (SpREUK-15), Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp), Brief Multidimensional Life......Objective Research has shown that several patients report unmet psychosocial and spiritual needs. While most studies focus on patients with advanced stages of disease, we intended to identify unmet spiritual needs in patients with chronic pain diseases and cancer living in a secular society...... Satisfaction Scale, Interpretation of Illness Questionnaire, and Escape from Illness (Escape). Results We enrolled 392 patients (67% women, mean age 56.3 ± 13.6 years; 61% Christian denomination) with chronic pain diseases (86%) and cancer (14%). Religious Needs (mean score 0.5 ± 0.8 on the scale...

  8. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina M Drozd

    Full Text Available One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  9. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  10. Socioeconomic variation in incidence of primary and secondary major cardiovascular disease events: an Australian population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Rosemary J; Soga, Kay; Joshy, Grace; Calabria, Bianca; Attia, John; Wong, Deborah; Banks, Emily

    2016-11-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects disadvantaged people, but reliable quantitative evidence on socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence in Australia is lacking. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic variation in rates of primary and secondary CVD events in mid-age and older Australians. Baseline data (2006-2009) from the 45 and Up Study, an Australian cohort involving 267,153 men and women aged ≥ 45, were linked to hospital and death data (to December 2013). Outcomes comprised first event - death or hospital admission - for major CVD combined, as well as myocardial infarction and stroke, in those with and without prior CVD (secondary and primary events, respectively). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome in relation to education (and income and area-level disadvantage), separately by age group (45-64, 65-79, and ≥ 80 years), adjusting for age and sex, and additional sociodemographic factors. There were 18,207 primary major CVD events over 1,144,845 years of follow-up (15.9/1000 person-years), and 20,048 secondary events over 260,357 years (77.0/1000 person-years). For both primary and secondary events, incidence increased with decreasing education, with the absolute difference between education groups largest for secondary events. Age-sex adjusted hazard ratios were highest in the 45-64 years group: for major CVDs, HR (no qualifications vs university degree) = 1.62 (95% CI: 1.49-1.77) for primary events, and HR = 1.49 (1.34-1.65) for secondary events; myocardial infarction HR = 2.31 (1.87-2.85) and HR = 2.57 (1.90-3.47) respectively; stroke HR = 1.48 (1.16-1.87) and HR = 1.97 (1.42-2.74) respectively. Similar but attenuated results were seen in older age groups, and with income. For area-level disadvantage, CVD gradients were weak and non-significant in older people (> 64 years). Individual-level data are important for quantifying socioeconomic variation in CVD incidence, which

  11. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney didease and end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Bjarne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo Friis; Strandgaard, Svend Valdemar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31...... December 2008. Methods. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular......, cerebrovascular, infection, other and unknown. Results. Cardiovascular disease was the major cause of death. A multivariate competing risk model comparing the two 8-year periods, adjusted for age at ESRD, gender and treatment modality, showed that deaths from cardiovascular disease decreased by 35% [hazard ratios...

  12. Sudden bilateral hearing loss in gastric cancer as the only symptom of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakusic Z

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoran Rakusic,1 Ana Misir Krpan,1 Darija Stupin Polancec,2 Antonia Jakovcevic,3 Vesna Bisof1 1Department of Oncology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, 2Fidelta Ltd for Research and Development, 3Department of Pathology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract: This paper reports a case of sudden bilateral deafness as the first symptom of gastric cancer, an extremely rare and atypical clinical situation. Because common signs of stomach cancer were absent, the patient was first evaluated in the Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital Center, Zagreb. Only after expanded diagnostic evaluation and rapid progression of the disease in such a case is a malignant tumor suspected. Treatment is mostly ineffective. The unusual presentation of the disease and the rapid course may indicate a hereditary predisposition. Inactivation of tumor suppressor gene DFNA5 was found in 50% of gastric cancers, but of a non-metastasized phenotype. Inactivated DFNA5, otherwise described in hereditary bilateral deafness, perhaps favors the development of deafness in patients with gastric cancer. Our patient had a positive multiple viral antibody titer in serum, inactivated DFNA5 in both gastric cancer tissues and cerebellar metastases, and a metastatic form of the disease. If sudden deafness occurs in elderly patients, the possibility of malignant tumor should be taken into consideration. The link between gastric cancer and the DFNA5 gene is unclear and requires further research. Keywords: deafness, gastric cancer, DFNA5 gene, meningeal carcinomatosis

  13. The role of pre-invasive disease in overdiagnosis: A microsimulation study comparing mass screening for breast cancer and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, Paula A; Rozemeijer, Kirsten; Naber, Steffie K; Heijnsdijk, Eveline Am; van Rosmalen, Joost; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-12-01

    Although early detection of cancer through screening can prevent cancer deaths, a drawback of screening is overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis has been much debated in breast cancer screening, but less so in cervical cancer screening. We examined the impact of overdiagnosis by comparing two screening programmes in the Netherlands. We estimated overdiagnosis rates by microsimulation for breast cancer screening and cervical cancer screening, using a cohort of women born in 1982 with lifelong follow-up. Overdiagnosis estimates were made analogous to two definitions formed by the UK 2012 breast screening review. Pre-invasive disease was included in both definitions. Screening prevented 921 cervical cancers (-55%) and 378 cervical cancer deaths (-59%), and 169 (-1.3%) breast cancer cases and 970 breast cancer deaths (-21%). The cervical cancer overdiagnosis rate was 74.8% (including pre-invasive disease). Breast cancer overdiagnosis was estimated at 2.5% (including pre-invasive disease). For women of all ages in breast cancer screening, an excess of 207 diagnoses/100,000 women was found, compared with an excess of 3999 diagnoses/100,000 women in cervical cancer screening. For breast cancer, the frequency of overdiagnosis in screening is relatively low, but consequences are evident. For cervical cancer, the frequency of overdiagnosis in screening is high, because of detection of pre-invasive disease, but the consequences per case are relatively small due to less invasive treatment. This illustrates that it is necessary to present overdiagnosis in relation to disease stage and consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. [Motivations and obstacles to occupational disease claims in lung cancer patients: an exploratory psychosocial study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britel, Manon; Pérol, Olivia; Blois Da Conceiçao, Stéphanie; Ficty, Manon; Brunet, Houria; Avrillon, Virginie; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-10-02

    The proportion of lung cancers with an occupational origin has been estimated to be between 10 and 20%. They are largely under-reported, as 60% are not compensated as occupational disease. Although most patients are not familiar with the process of compensation, other factors could explain this under-reporting. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that could impact patients with occupational lung cancer to claim for compensation. We conducted a case study involving semi-structured interviews with eight lung cancer patients enrolled in a cohort designed to systematically screen occupational exposures and propose claims for compensation to work-related cancer patients. Seven interviewed patients were familiar with occupational cancers, but most of them did not believe that past exposure could be related to their current disease. Patients associated compensation claims with a long and complex procedure for an abstract purpose. Several patients expressed a certain attachment to their employers. Interviewed patients often considered compensation claims to be a grievance procedure against the employers whom they did not consider to be responsible for their disease. Lung cancer is itself an obstacle to compensation considering the aggressive treatments and related adverse events, the poor medium-term prognosis and the predominant role of smoking in the etiology of the disease. Patients mentioned the financial compensation and the role of healthcare professionals as key elements to motivate them to claim for compensation.

  15. Germline Cas9 expression yields highly efficient genome engineering in a major worldwide disease vector, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Bui, Michelle; Yang, Ting; Bowman, Christian S; White, Bradley J; Akbari, Omar S

    2017-12-05

    The development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies has dramatically increased the accessibility and efficiency of genome editing in many organisms. In general, in vivo germline expression of Cas9 results in substantially higher activity than embryonic injection. However, no transgenic lines expressing Cas9 have been developed for the major mosquito disease vector Aedes aegypti Here, we describe the generation of multiple stable, transgenic Ae. aegypti strains expressing Cas9 in the germline, resulting in dramatic improvements in both the consistency and efficiency of genome modifications using CRISPR. Using these strains, we disrupted numerous genes important for normal morphological development, and even generated triple mutants from a single injection. We have also managed to increase the rates of homology-directed repair by more than an order of magnitude. Given the exceptional mutagenic efficiency and specificity of the Cas9 strains we engineered, they can be used for high-throughput reverse genetic screens to help functionally annotate the Ae. aegypti genome. Additionally, these strains represent a step toward the development of novel population control technologies targeting Ae. aegypti that rely on Cas9-based gene drives. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. [Control of major cardiovascular risk factors of ischemic heart disease in secondary prevention in Aragón: COCINA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucalon Arenal, J M; Buisac Ramón, C; Marin Ibáñez, A; Castan Ruiz, S; Blay Cortes, M G; Barrasa Villar, J I

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease remains a leading cause of death in Spain. According to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) and European national societies, secondary prevention for these patients consists of control of major cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and suitable lifestyle habits. To determine the degree of control of CVRF in the Aragonese population in secondary prevention. Cross-sectional study of a sample of 705 patients of Aragon who had suffered a cardiac event, selected opportunistically in consultations of family physicians participating in the 3 provinces of Aragon. The study was conducted in the second half of 2012. To measure the degree of control of different FRVC and lifestyle habits in this population. Anthropometric, different cardiovascular risk factors, treatment and lifestyle. 58% of men and 52% of women met criteria for monitoring of measured variables. The best result was obtained with smoking cessation and the worst with BMI. Hypertension, Dyslipidemia and Diabetes Mellitus achieve poor control results. The results show that the degree of control of CVRF is still low, especially in variables such as dyslipidemia and Diabetes Mellitus. Only 16.5% of control patients met criteria given the pharmacologically-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of Interventions for Caregivers of People With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Canton, Kerry; Connor, Susan E; Giller, Ilana; Lipman, Stacy; Sager, Suzanne

    The goal of the evidence review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders that facilitate the ability to maintain participation in the caregiver role. Scientific literature published in English between January 2006 and April 2014 was reviewed. Databases included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Of 2,476 records screened, 43 studies met inclusion criteria. Strong evidence shows that multicomponent psychoeducational interventions improve caregiver quality of life (QOL), confidence, and self-efficacy and reduce burden; cognitive reframing reduces caregiver anxiety, depression, and stress; communication skills training improves caregiver skill and QOL in persons with dementia; mindfulness-based training improves caregiver mental health and reduces stress and burden; and professionally led support groups enhance caregiver QOL. Strong evidence exists for a spectrum of caregiver interventions. Translation of effective interventions into practice and evaluation of sustainability is necessary. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: a preventable noncommunicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Prazuck, Thierry; Lethu, Thérèse; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Meye, Jean-François; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Infections caused by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for 7.7% of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. This disease is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and 50,000 deaths yearly, further increased by HIV infection. Areas covered: The current status of cervical cancer associated with HPV in sub-Saharan Africa has been systematically revised. The main issues discussed here are related to the public health burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and predictions for the coming decades, including molecular epidemiology and determinants of HPV infection in Africa, and promising prevention measures currently being evaluated in Africa. Expert commentary: By the year 2030, cervical cancer will kill more than 443,000 women yearly worldwide, most of them in sub-Saharan Africa. The increase in the incidence of cervical cancer in Africa could counteract the progress made by African women in reducing maternal mortality and longevity. Nevertheless, cervical cancer is a potentially preventable noncommunicable disease, and intervention strategies to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health concern should be urgently implemented.

  19. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  20. Modelling breast cancer tumour growth for a stable disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isheden, Gabriel; Humphreys, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Statistical models of breast cancer tumour progression have been used to further our knowledge of the natural history of breast cancer, to evaluate mammography screening in terms of mortality, to estimate overdiagnosis, and to estimate the impact of lead-time bias when comparing survival times between screen detected cancers and cancers found outside of screening programs. Multi-state Markov models have been widely used, but several research groups have proposed other modelling frameworks based on specifying an underlying biological continuous tumour growth process. These continuous models offer some advantages over multi-state models and have been used, for example, to quantify screening sensitivity in terms of mammographic density, and to quantify the effect of body size covariates on tumour growth and time to symptomatic detection. As of yet, however, the continuous tumour growth models are not sufficiently developed and require extensive computing to obtain parameter estimates. In this article, we provide a detailed description of the underlying assumptions of the continuous tumour growth model, derive new theoretical results for the model, and show how these results may help the development of this modelling framework. In illustrating the approach, we develop a model for mammography screening sensitivity, using a sample of 1901 post-menopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

  1. Molecular mapping of qBK1 WD , a major QTL for bakanae disease resistance in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sais-Beul; Hur, Yeon-Jae; Cho, Jun-Hyeon; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Heon; Cho, Soo-Min; Song, You-Chun; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan; Kim, Tae-sung; Park, Yong-Jin; Oh, Myung-Kyu; Park, Dong-Soo

    2018-01-01

    Background Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring ba...

  2. Cytochrome P450 1B1 and 2C9 genotypes and risk of ischemic vascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize present knowledge of genetic variation in cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and 2C9 (CYP2C9) genes and risk of tobacco-related cancer, female cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ischemic vascular disease. The CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 enzymes metabolize pol...

  3. Incidence, management, and course of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algaba, Alicia; Guerra, Iván; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Quintanilla, Elvira; López-Serrano, Pilar; García-Sánchez, María Concepción; Casis, Begoña; Taxonera, Carlos; Moral, Ignacio; Chaparro, María; Martín-Rodríguez, Daniel; Martín-Arranz, María Dolores; Manceñido, Noemí; Menchén, Luis; López-Sanromán, Antonio; Castaño, Ángel; Bermejo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] are at increased risk for developing some types of neoplasia. Our aims were to determin the risk for cancer in patients with IBD and to describe the relationship with immunosuppressive therapies and clinical management after tumor diagnosis. Retrospective, multicenter, observational, 5-year follow-up, cohort study. Relative risk [RR] of cancer in the IBD cohort and the background population, therapeutic strategies, and cancer evolution were analyzed. A total of 145 cancers were diagnosed in 133 of 9100 patients with IBD (global cumulative incidence 1.6% vs 2.4% in local population; RR = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.78). Patients with IBD had a significantly increased RR of non-melanoma skin cancer [RR = 3.85; 2.53-5.80] and small bowel cancer [RR = 3.70; 1.23-11.13]. After cancer diagnosis, IBD treatment was maintained in 13 of 27 [48.1%] patients on thiopurines, in 2 of 3 on methotrexate [66.6%], none on anti-TNF-α monotherapy [n = 6] and 4 of 12 [33.3%] patients on combined therapy. Rate of death and cancer remission during follow-up did not differ [p > 0.05] between patients who maintained the treatment compared with patients who withdrew [5% vs 8% and 95% vs 74%, respectively]. An association between thiopurines [p = 0.20] or anti-TNF-α drugs [p = 0.77] and cancer was not found. Patients with IBD have an increased risk for non-melanoma skin cancer and small bowel cancer. Immunosuppresive therapy is not related to a higher overall risk for cancer or worse tumor evolution in patients who maintain these drugs after cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Physical Activity, Biomarkers, and Disease Outcomes in Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenreich, Christine M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; McTiernan, Anne; Alfano, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    controlled trials of exercise with biomarker and cancer-specific disease endpoints, such as recurrence, new primary cancers, and cancer-specific mortality in cancer survivors, are warranted. PMID:22570317

  5. Janus-Faced Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Exosomes for the Good and the Bad in Cancer and Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Zöller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells originally described to hamper immune responses in chronic infections. Meanwhile, they are known to be a major obstacle in cancer immunotherapy. On the other hand, MDSC can interfere with allogeneic transplant rejection and may dampen autoreactive T cell activity. Whether MDSC-Exosomes (Exo can cope with the dangerous and potentially therapeutic activities of MDSC is not yet fully explored. After introducing MDSC and Exo, it will be discussed, whether a blockade of MDSC-Exo could foster the efficacy of immunotherapy in cancer and mitigate tumor progression supporting activities of MDSC. It also will be outlined, whether application of native or tailored MDSC-Exo might prohibit autoimmune disease progression. These considerations are based on the steadily increasing knowledge on Exo composition, their capacity to distribute throughout the organism combined with selectivity of targeting, and the ease to tailor Exo and includes open questions that answers will facilitate optimizing protocols for a MDSC-Exo blockade in cancer as well as for strengthening their therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune disease.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer: a distinct molecular subtype of the disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Alexandre Andrade Dos Anjos; Lima, Enaldo Melo de; Kazzi, Ana Izabela; Chaves, Gabriela Freitas; Mendonça, Diego Cavalheiro de; Maciel, Marina Mara; Santos, José Sebastião Dos

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 90% of the world population is infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Usually, it infects B lymphocytes, predisposing them to malignant transformation. Infection of epithelial cells occurs rarely, and it is estimated that about to 10% of gastric cancer patients harbor EBV in their malignant cells. Given that gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with a global annual incidence of over 950,000 cases, EBV-positive gastric cancer is the largest group of EBV-associated malignancies. Based on gene expression profile studies, gastric cancer was recently categorized into four subtypes; EBV-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomically stable and chromosomal instability. Together with previous studies, this report provided a more detailed molecular characterization of gastric cancer, demonstrating that EBV-positive gastric cancer is a distinct molecular subtype of the disease, with unique genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, reflected in a specific phenotype. The recognition of characteristic molecular alterations in gastric cancer allows the identification of molecular pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival, with the potential to identify therapeutic targets. These findings highlight the enormous heterogeneity of gastric cancer, and the complex interplay between genetic and epigenetic alterations in the disease, and provide a roadmap to implementation of genome-guided personalized therapy in gastric cancer. The present review discusses the initial studies describing EBV-positive gastric cancer as a distinct clinical entity, presents recently described genetic and epigenetic alterations, and considers potential therapeutic insights derived from the recognition of this new molecular subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma.

  7. Psychosocial intervention effects on adaptation, disease course and biobehavioral processes in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    A diagnosis of cancer and subsequent treatments place demands on psychological adaptation. Behavioral research suggests the importance of cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in facilitating adaptation during active treatment and throughout cancer survivorship, which forms the rationale for the use of many psychosocial interventions in cancer patients. This cancer experience may also affect physiological adaptation systems (e.g., neuroendocrine) in parallel with psychological adaptation changes (negative affect). Changes in adaptation may alter tumor growth-promoting processes (increased angiogenesis, migration and invasion, and inflammation) and tumor defense processes (decreased cellular immunity) relevant for cancer progression and the quality of life of cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that psychosocial intervention can improve psychological and physiological adaptation indicators in cancer patients. However, less is known about whether these interventions can influence tumor activity and tumor growth-promoting processes and whether changes in these processes could explain the psychosocial intervention effects on recurrence and survival documented to date. Documenting that psychosocial interventions can modulate molecular activities (e.g., transcriptional indicators of cell signaling) that govern tumor promoting and tumor defense processes on the one hand, and clinical disease course on the other is a key challenge for biobehavioral oncology research. This mini-review will summarize current knowledge on psychological and physiological adaptation processes affected throughout the stress of the cancer experience, and the effects of psychosocial interventions on psychological adaptation, cancer disease progression, and changes in stress-related biobehavioral processes that may mediate intervention effects on clinical cancer outcomes. Very recent intervention work in breast cancer will be used to illuminate emerging trends in molecular probes of

  8. An analysis of content in comprehensive cancer control plans that address chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections as major risk factors for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Richardson, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV) infections are among the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Chronic viral hepatitis is the cause of most primary liver cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer deaths globally and the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The extent to which comprehensive cancer control (CCC) programs in states, tribal governments and organizations, territories, and Pacific Island jurisdictions address chronic hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C infections as risk factors for liver cancer or recommend interventions for liver cancer prevention in their CCC plans remains unknown. We searched CCC plans for this information using the search tool at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/ncccp/ to access the content of plans for this information. A combination of key search terms including "liver cancer", "hepatitis", "chronic alcohol", and "alcohol abuse" were used to identify potential content regarding liver cancer risk factors and prevention. Relevant content was abstracted for further review and classification. Of 66 (Although CDC funds 65 programs, one of the Pacific Island Jurisdiction grantees is the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This national program supports four FSM states, each of which submits a cancer plan to CDC for a total of 69 plans. During this time period, 66 plans were available on the website.) CCC plans, 27% (n = 18) addressed liver cancer using the above-mentioned search terms. In the 23 plans that addressed HBV and/or HCV, there were 25 goals, objectives, strategies, and outcomes aimed at reducing the incidence or prevalence of HBV and/or HCV infection. While nearly a third of CCC programs identify at least one goal, objective, strategy, outcome, or prevention program to reduce cancer burden in their CCC plans, few plans discuss specific actions needed to reduce the burden of liver cancer.

  9. Predictors of Locally Advanced Disease at Presentation and Clinical Outcomes Among Cervical Cancer Patients Admitted at a Tertiary Hospital in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassali, Mercy Nkuba; Tadele, Melese; Nkuba, Robert Michael; Modimowame, Jamieson; Enyeribe, Iwuh; Katse, Edwin

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to determine predictors of locally advanced disease at presentation and clinical outcomes among cervical cancer patients in Botswana to inform interventional strategies. Retrospective review of 149 medical records of new cervical cancer patients was conducted between August 2016 and February 2017 at the Princess Marina Hospital. Data collected included sociodemographics, presenting symptoms, stage of disease, comorbidities, interventions, and clinical outcomes. STATA 12 was used for data analysis. Frequencies were used to describe patient demographics and clinical variables. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between stage of disease at presentation and patient characteristics. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Mean age was 49.5 years. Nine (89.2%) in 10 patients had locally advanced cervical cancer (stage IB1-IVB). Two thirds (65.1%) were human immunodeficiency virus positive. Previous cervical cancer screening was low at 38.3%. Common symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding, low abdominal pain, and malodorous vaginal discharge reported among 75.8%, 66.4%, and 39.6% of cases, respectively. Overall, 32 (21.5%) were declared cured, 52 (34.9%) improved, and 11 (7.4%) opted for home-based care. Hospital deaths were 41 (27.5%). Major causes of death were renal failure (48.7%) and severe anemia (39%). Thirteen (8.7%) were lost to follow-up. Being unmarried (odds ratio [OR], 3.9), lack of cervical cancer screening (OR, 6.68), presentation with vaginal bleeding (OR, 7.69), and low abdominal pain (OR, 4.69) were associated with advanced disease at presentation. Lack of cervical cancer screening, vaginal bleeding, low abdominal pain, and unmarried status were associated with advanced disease at presentation. We recommend scale-up of cervical cancer screening and its integration into routine human immunodeficiency virus care. Capacity building in gynecologic oncology and palliative

  10. Detectability of T Measurable diseases in advanced gastric cancer in FDG PET CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sun Young; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Young Chul; Jeong, Eugene; Kim, Seung Eun; Choe, Jae Gol

    2012-01-01

    Usefulness of FDG PET CT in monitoring response in locally advanced gastric cancer has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the related factors to detect measurable diseases in advanced gastric cancer on FDG PET CT. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer. We defined the measurable diseases when there was visualized tumor of which maximum standardized uptake value(SUVmax) was higher than 1.35*SUVmax of liver + 2*SD of liver SUV. We evaluated what kinds of factors from the clinicopathologic features were related to identifying measurable diseases. Of 38 patients with advanced gastric cancer, 18 (50%) had measurable tumors on FDG PET CT. Measurable tumors were significantly more frequent in well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (70.5% vs 35.3%, p<0.05), in the tumors located at antrum or angle (66.7% vs 29.4%, p<0.05) and in the elderly group (age of 55 years old or more, 72.0% vs 8.3%, p<0.001) than the others, respectively. By multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis was the only independent predictor for the measurable disease on FDG PET CT. We found that age at diagnosis, as well as histologic types and location of tumors, were the affecting factors to detect measurable disease on FDG PET CT in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Our study suggests that elderly patients of age of 55 years old or more can frequently have T measurable disease on FDG PET CT in advanced gastric cancer and FDG PET CT will be helpful to monitor measurable disease

  11. A genome-wide association study in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: identification of two major susceptibility loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumar G Pillai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable variability in the susceptibility of smokers to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The only known genetic risk factor is severe deficiency of alpha(1-antitrypsin, which is present in 1-2% of individuals with COPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS in a homogenous case-control cohort from Bergen, Norway (823 COPD cases and 810 smoking controls and evaluated the top 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the family-based International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN; 1891 Caucasian individuals from 606 pedigrees study. The polymorphisms that showed replication were further evaluated in 389 subjects from the US National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT and 472 controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS and then in a fourth cohort of 949 individuals from 127 extended pedigrees from the Boston Early-Onset COPD population. Logistic regression models with adjustments of covariates were used to analyze the case-control populations. Family-based association analyses were conducted for a diagnosis of COPD and lung function in the family populations. Two SNPs at the alpha-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA 3/5 locus were identified in the genome-wide association study. They showed unambiguous replication in the ICGN family-based analysis and in the NETT case-control analysis with combined p-values of 1.48 x 10(-10, (rs8034191 and 5.74 x 10(-10 (rs1051730. Furthermore, these SNPs were significantly associated with lung function in both the ICGN and Boston Early-Onset COPD populations. The C allele of the rs8034191 SNP was estimated to have a population attributable risk for COPD of 12.2%. The association of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP locus on chromosome 4 was also consistently replicated, but did not reach genome-wide significance levels. Genome-wide significant association of the HHIP locus with lung function was identified in the Framingham Heart study (Wilk et al., companion article

  12. Parents' knowledge and attitude regarding their child's cancer and effectiveness of initial disease counseling in pediatric oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Nair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine parent's knowledge, attitude and psychosocial response regarding their child's cancer and treatment after initial disease counseling by doctor. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire based study of 43 mothers of newly diagnosed pediatric cancer patients undergoing treatment in pediatric oncology division. Mothers received initial counseling regarding their child's cancer and treatment from the doctor. Questionnaire was administered 2-6 months after initial counseling and mothers self-reported their responses. Results: 83% mothers had school level education only and 84% belonged to lower and middle socio-economic status. More than 80% mothers knew the name of their child's cancer, type of treatment received by child and approximate duration of treatment. 93% knew regarding painful procedures and 84% mothers reported knowledge about chemotherapy side effects. Hope of cure and satisfaction with treatment were reported by 90% mothers. 81% mothers reported high levels of anxiety and 66% worried regarding painful procedures. As high as 60% of parents were afraid to send their child outside to play and 40% were afraid to send their child to school. 40% mothers wanted more information regarding child's higher education, married life & fertility. On statistical analysis, mother's age, educational status or family background did not influence their knowledge and attitude. Conclusion: Relevant information about child's cancer and treatment can be imparted effectively even to mothers with school level education. This knowledge helps to instill hopeful attitude, confidence and satisfaction in parents. Anxiety and fear related to cancer persists in mothers even after the initial stress period is over. Pain related to injections and procedures is a major concern in parents. Involvement of counselor in the treating team is desirable to overcome these problems.

  13. Functional genomic analysis identifies indoxyl sulfate as a major, poorly dialyzable uremic toxin in end-stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jhawar

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure is characterized by progressive renal scarring and accelerated arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease despite what is considered to be adequate hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In rodents with reduced renal mass, renal scarring has been attributed to poorly filtered, small protein-bound molecules. The best studied of these is indoxyl sulfate (IS.We have attempted to establish whether there are uremic toxins that are not effectively removed by hemodialysis. We examined plasma from patients undergoing hemodialysis, employing global gene expression in normal human renal cortical cells incubated in pre- and post- dialysis plasma as a reporter system. Responses in cells incubated with pre- and post-dialysis uremic plasma (n = 10 were compared with responses elicited by plasma from control subjects (n = 5. The effects of adding IS to control plasma and of adding probenecid to uremic plasma were examined. Plasma concentrations of IS were measured by HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography.Gene expression in our reporter system revealed dysregulation of 1912 genes in cells incubated with pre-dialysis uremic plasma. In cells incubated in post-dialysis plasma, the expression of 537 of those genes returned to baseline but the majority of them (1375 remained dysregulated. IS concentration was markedly elevated in pre- and post-dialysis plasma. Addition of IS to control plasma simulated more than 80% of the effects of uremic plasma on gene expression; the addition of probenecid, an organic anion transport (OAT inhibitor, to uremic plasma reversed the changes in gene expression.These findings provide evidence that hemodialysis fails to effectively clear one or more solutes that effect gene expression, in our reporter system, from the plasma of patients with uremia. The finding that gene dysregulation was simulated by the addition of IS to control plasma and inhibited by addition of an OAT inhibitor to uremic plasma identifies IS

  14. Major depressive disorder, personality disorders, and coping strategies are independent risk factors for lower quality of life in non-metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, Paul; Champagne, Anne-Laure; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for lower quality of life (QOL) in non-metastatic breast cancer patients. Our study included 120 patients from the University Hospital Centers of Tours and Poitiers. This cross-sectional study was conducted 7 months after patients' breast cancer diagnosis and assessed QOL (Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 = QLQ-C30), socio-demographic characteristics, coping strategies (Brief-COPE), physiological and biological variables (e.g., initial tumor severity and types of treatment received), the existence of major depressive disorder (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), and pain severity (Questionnaire de Douleur Saint Antoine). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (Vragenlijst voor Kenmerken van de Persoonlijkheid questionnaire). We used multiple linear regression models to determine which factors were associated with physical, emotional, and global QOL. Lower physical QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, younger age, a more severe initial tumor stage, and the use of the behavioral disengagement coping. Lower emotional QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, the existence of a personality disorder, a more severe pain level, higher use of self-blame, and lower use of acceptance coping strategies. Lower global QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, the existence of a personality disorder, a more severe pain level, higher use of self-blame, lower use of positive reframing coping strategies, and an absence of hormone therapy. Lower QOL scores were more strongly associated with variables related to the individual's premorbid psychological characteristics and the manner in which this individual copes with the cancer (e.g., depression, personality, and coping) than to cancer-related variables (e.g., treatment types and cancer severity). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Test performance of faecal occult blood testing for the detection of bowel cancer in people with chronic kidney disease (DETECT protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Narelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In patients without kidney disease, screening is a major strategy for reducing the risk of cancer and improving the health outcomes for those who developed cancers by detecting treatable cancers at an early stage. Among those with CKD, the effectiveness, the efficacy and patients' preferences for cancer screening are unknown. Methods/Design This work describes the protocol for the DETECT study examining the effectiveness, efficiency and patient's perspectives of colorectal cancer screening using immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (iFOBT for people with CKD. The aims of the DETECT study are 1 to determine the test performance characteristics of iFOBT screening in individuals with CKD, 2 to estimate the incremental costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD compared to no screening and 3 to elicit patients' perspective for colorectal cancer screening in the CKD population. Three different study designs will be used to explore the uncertainties surrounding colorectal cancer screening in CKD. A diagnostic test accuracy study of iFOBT screening will be conducted across all stages of CKD in patients ages 35-70. Using individually collected direct healthcare costs and outcomes from the diagnostic test accuracy study, cost-utility and cost-effective analyses will be performed to estimate the costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be undertaken in a subset of participants from the diagnostic test accuracy study to investigate the perspectives, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening among individuals with CKD. Discussion The DETECT study will target the three major unknowns about early cancer detection in CKD. Findings from our study will provide accurate and definitive estimates of screening efficacy and efficiency for colorectal cancer, and

  16. The innate immune signaling in cancer and cardiometabolic diseases: Friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Zhang, Yaxing; Yang, Ling; Li, Hongliang

    2017-02-28

    The innate immune system is responsible for sensing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by several types of germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). It has the capacity to help the human body maintain homeostasis under normal conditions. However, in pathological conditions, PAMPs or DAMPs trigger aberrant innate immune and inflammatory responses and thus negatively or positively influence the progression of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. Interestingly, we found that some elements of innate immune signaling are involved in these diseases partially via immune-independent manners, indicating a deeper understanding of the function of innate immune signaling in these diseases is urgent. In this review, we summarize the primary innate immune signaling pathways and their association with cancer and cardiometabolic diseases, with the aim of providing effective therapies for these diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variations in breast cancer histology and treatment patterns between the major ethnic groups of South West Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunji; Yap, Mei Ling; Boxer, Miriam M; Chong, Shanley; Duggan, Kirsten; Kaadan, Nasreen; Delaney, Geoffrey P

    2017-12-19

    Studies in the United States and United Kingdom have demonstrated ethnic variations in breast cancer receptor status, histology, and treatment access. This study aimed to investigate whether ethnicity variation similarly exists in Australia. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2006 and 2011 across all public hospitals in the South Western Sydney Local Health District were identified and patient data collected retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between various biologic and treatment parameters and ethnicity. Ethnicity was found to have an influence on age of diagnosis, histology, treatment utilization, and recurrence in breast cancer patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prognostic value of preoperative Ca125 and Tag72 serum levels and their correlation to disease relapse and survival in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitaki, Eva; Vorgias, George; Vlahos, George; Rodolakis, Alexandros

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate preoperative serum levels of Ca125 and Tag72-4 tumour markers and investigate if abnormal levels correlate to mortality and disease-free survival. Retrospective observational study of a cohort of 282 women (mean age 62.3, SD 10.5 years) with primary endometrial cancer included all consecutive cases treated in a tertiary Gynaecological oncology Center. Excluded cases with other cancer or previous cancer treatment, major abdominal pathology or inflammation, endometriosis. Preoperative serum Tag72 and Ca125 levels were determined and evaluated in relation to disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific overall survival (DOS). Raised Ca125 correlates to worse overall disease-specific survival (66.1 vs 87.8 months, p = 0.021) and Tag72 correlates to shorter disease-free survival (69.2 vs 67.3 months, p = 0.021) and higher recurrence rate (13.5 vs 6 %, p = 0.021). When both Ca125 and Tag72 are abnormal DFS and DOS are worse. 93.3 % (72.3 months) vs 82.4 %, (61.3 months) p = 0.018 and 96.3 % (74.8 months) vs 88.2 %, (65.9 months) p = 0.021, respectively. This study enhances the value of preoperative tumour markers and their prognostic value. Ca125 and Tag72 appear to be good predictors of poor prognosis in patients with endometrial cancer.

  19. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, C.H.L.; Hu, S.; Haverman, T.M.; Stokman, M.; Napeñas, J.J.; Bos-den Braber, J.; Gerber, E.; Geuke, M.; Vardas, E.; Waltimo, T.; Jensen, S.B.; Saunders, D.P.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. Review method: A literature search was conducted in the

  20. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs; Stokman, Monique; Napeñas, Joel J; Braber, Jacolien Bos-den; Gerber, Erich; Geuke, Margot; Vardas, Emmanouil; Waltimo, Tuomas; Jensen, Siri Beier; Saunders, Deborah P

    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the

  1. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. METHODS: We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using mult...

  2. Risk Factors for Rectal Stump Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M.W.M.D.; van Oijen, M.G.H.; Vleggaar, F.P.; Siersema, P.D.; Broekman, M.M.T.J.; Oldenburg, B.; van Bodegraven, A.A.; Dijkstra, G.; Hommes, D.; de Jong, D.J.; Stokkers, P.C.F.; van der Woude, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with long-standing colitis carry an increased risk of colorectal cancer and are therefore enrolled in colonoscopic surveillance programs. It is presently not known if endoscopic surveillance of patients with colitis with a closed rectal stump after a subtotal colectomy is

  3. Risk factors for rectal stump cancer in inflammatory bowel disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, M.W.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Vleggaar, F.P.; Siersema, P.D.; Broekman, M.M.T.J.; Oldenburg, B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with long-standing colitis carry an increased risk of colorectal cancer and are therefore enrolled in colonoscopic surveillance programs. It is presently not known if endoscopic surveillance of patients with colitis with a closed rectal stump after a subtotal colectomy is

  4. A breast cancer gene signature for indolent disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaye, Leonie J. M. J.; Drukker, Caroline A.; Dreezen, Christa; Witteveen, Anke; Chan, Bob; Snel, Mireille; Beumer, Inès J.; Bernards, Rene; Audeh, M. William; van't Veer, Laura J.; Glas, Annuska M.

    2017-01-01

    Early-stage hormone-receptor positive breast cancer is treated with endocrine therapy and the recommended duration of these treatments has increased over time. While endocrine therapy is considered less of a burden to patients compared to chemotherapy, long-term adherence may be low due to potential

  5. Cigarettes, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease: the effects of inhalation and tar yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higenbottam, T; Shipley, M J; Rose, G

    1982-06-01

    Ten-year mortality rates for lung cancer and coronary heart disease have been related to cigarette smoking habits in 17 475 male civil servants aged 40-64 and in sample of 8089 male British residents aged 35-69. Both diseases were more frequent in smokers. Lung cancer rates were higher overall for "non-inhalers", particularly in heavy smokers. Tar yield correlated with the risk of lung cancer in non-inhalers but less so in inhalers. Conversely, coronary deaths were more common among inhalers, and the effect of tar/nicotine yield (such as it was) was confined to inhalers. It appears that there are subtle interactions between the amount smoked, the tar/nicotine yield of the cigarette, and the style of smoking. Thus the effects of a change in cigarette characteristics are hard to predict, and they may be different for respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Pet Ownership and the Risk of Dying from Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults Without Major Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogechi, Imala; Snook, Kassandra; Davis, Bionca M; Hansen, Andrew R; Liu, Fengqi; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    In a recent statement, the American Heart Association stated "There are scant data on pet ownership and survival in people without established cardiovascular disease (CVD)". This study sought to fill this gap. We analyzed nationally representative data of 3964 adults aged ≥50 who were free from major physical illnesses. Pet ownership was assessed at baseline between 1988 and 1994. Vital status was followed through December 31st 2006. With dogs being most popular pets owned by 22.0 (standard error 0.34) % of the participants, 34.6 % of the study population owned a pet. Pet ownership was associated with low rates of CVD deaths [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69 (95 % CI 0.45-1.07)] and stroke [0.54 (0.28-1.01)] at borderline significant levels among women. These associations were adjusted for physical activity and largely attributed to having a cat rather than a dog. Among cat owners, the HR of all CVD deaths was 0.62 (0.36-1.05) and the HR of dying from stroke was 0.22 (0.07-0.68) compared with non-cat owners. The corresponding HRs among dog owners were 0.82 (0.51-1.34) and 0.76 (0.34-1.71) respectively. No similar associations were observed among men. The hazard of dying from hypertension was not associated with pet ownership for both men and women. Owning a cat rather than a dog was significantly associated with a reduced hazard of dying from CVD events, in particular, stroke. The protection pets confer may not be from physical activities, but possibly due to personality of the pet owners or stress-relieving effects of animal companionship.

  7. Prenatal screening for major congenital heart disease: assessing performance by combining national cardiac audit with maternity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Helena M; Kovacevic, Alexander; van der Heijden, Laila B; Pfeiffer, Patricia W; Franklin, Rodney Cg; Gibbs, John L; Averiss, Ian E; Larovere, Joan M

    2014-03-01

    Determine maternity hospital and lesion-specific prenatal detection rates of major congenital heart disease (mCHD) for hospitals referring prenatally and postnatally to one Congenital Cardiac Centre, and assess interhospital relative performance (relative risk, RR). We manually linked maternity data (3 hospitals prospectively and another 16 retrospectively) with admissions, fetal diagnostic and surgical cardiac data from one Congenital Cardiac Centre. This Centre submits verified information to National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR-Congenital), which publishes aggregate antenatal diagnosis data from infant surgical procedures. We included 120 198 unselected women screened prospectively over 11 years in 3 maternity hospitals (A, B, C). Hospital A: colocated with fetal medicine, proactive superintendent, on-site training, case-review and audit, hospital B: on-site training, proactive superintendent, monthly telemedicine clinics, and hospital C: sonographers supported by local obstetrician. We then studied 321 infants undergoing surgery for complete transposition (transposition of the great arteries (TGA), n=157) and isolated aortic coarctation (CoA, n=164) screened in hospitals A, B, C prospectively, and 16 hospitals retrospectively. 385 mCHD recorded prospectively from 120 198 (3.2/1000) screened women in 3 hospitals. Interhospital relative performance (RR) in Hospital A:1.68 (1.4 to 2.0), B:0.70 (0.54 to 0.91), C:0.65 (0.5 to 0.8). Standardised prenatal detection rates (funnel plots) demonstrating inter-hospital variation across 19 hospitals for TGA (37%, 0.00 to 0.81) and CoA (34%, 0.00 to 1.06). Manually linking data sources produced hospital-specific and lesion-specific prenatal mCHD detection rates. More granular, rather than aggregate, data provides meaningful feedback to improve screening performance. Automatic maternal and infant record linkage on a national scale, requires verified, prospective maternity audit and integration of

  8. Membrane omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency as a preventable risk factor for comorbid coronary heart disease in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  9. Differences in coronary artery disease by CT angiography between patients developing unstable angina pectoris vs. major adverse cardiac events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlett, Christopher L. [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany); Nance, John W. Jr. [Heart and Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Heart and Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); O’Brien, Terrence X. [Heart and Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); The Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States); Ebersberger, Ullrich [Heart and Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Centre Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Headden, Gary F. [Heart and Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bamberg, Fabian [Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Munich, Grosshadern Campus, and Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Patients developing UAP had overall more atherosclerosis as patients without any events. • Patients developing MACE had only more mixed plaque as those developing UAP. • Different atherosclerotic plaque components by CTA carry different prognostic value. - Abstract: Objective: CT angiography (CTA) has prognostic value in patients. But it is unknown whether differences in atherosclerosis by CTA predict the development of unstable angina pectoris (UAP) vs. major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Methods: We followed patients undergoing CTA as part of their acute chest pain work-up. Primary outcome was the development of UAP or MACE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, revascularization) during a minimum follow-up of 12-months. CTAs were assessed for extent and composition of coronary plaque and stenosis. Ordinal regression with a 3-level outcome (no events, UAP, MACE) was applied. Results: Among 315 patients, 22 developed UAP and 31 MACE. While UAP patients had higher atherosclerosis burden with respect to all assessed features compared to patients with no events (p ≤ 0.02), only mixed plaque extent was significantly different between UAP and MACE patients (p = 0.02). The odds ratio was 4.55 for being in a higher disease-level comparing patients with low extent to those with no mixed plaque, and 3.02 comparing patients with high to those with low. These findings remained after adjustments for potential confounders. Conclusion: The extent of mixed coronary plaque is different between patients who develop UAP vs. MACE, supporting the hypothesis that it is a more culprit morphology.

  10. Dietary supplementation with Cynodon dactylon (L.) enhances innate immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeswaran, B; Ilavenil, S; Ravikumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Indian major carp (Catla catla) was subjected to study the immunostimulatory effects when the grass Cynodon dactylon(L) ethanolic extract administrated as feed supplement. C. catla was fed with 0% (Control), 0.05% (group I), 0.5% (group II) and 5% (group III) extract provided for 60 days. Blood samples were collected at every 10 days of interval up to 60 days for analyzing the non-specific humoral (lysozyme activity, antiprotease activity and haemolytic complement) and cellular (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, myeloperoxidase activity) immune response study. The results indicate that C. dactylon ethanolic extract administered as feed supplement significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the experimental diet groups, significantly increased response of non-specific immunity was seen in group III (5%). Disease resistant analysis against Aeromonas hydrophila was performed in control group and plant extract treated fish for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Relative percent survival rate (RPS) was observed in treated samples, which is directly proportional to concentration of the extract. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for Matrix Metalo Proteinase (MMPs) were examined in spleen at 7th and 28th days of feeding. Administration of C. dactylon mixed diet delayed the lymphocyte destruction with positive ultrastructural changes. An induced stress (A. hydrophila infection) was observed by using MMPs expression, which was reduced in the experimental diet groups than the control. All these experimental results prove that C. dactylon ethanolic extract enhances the immunity of Catla fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A screening algorithm for early detection of major depressive disorder in head and neck cancer patients post-treatment: Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Melissa; Rosberger, Zeev; Ianovski, Lola E; Hier, Michael; Zeitouni, Anthony; Kost, Karen; Mlynarek, Alex; Black, Martin; MacDonald, Christina; Richardson, Keith; Zhang, Xun; Fuhrmann, Fabienne; Chartier, Gabrielle; Frenkiel, Saul

    2018-03-13

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify predictors of Major Depressive Disorder in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients in the immediate post-treatment period (ie, at 3 months post-diagnosis), with a focus on previously unexamined historical and contextual factors. Prospective longitudinal study of 223 consecutive adults (72% participation) newly diagnosed with a first occurrence of primary HNC, including validated psychometric measures, Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM Disorders, and medical chart reviews. The 3-month period prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder was 20.4%; with point prevalences of 6.8% upon HNC diagnosis, 14.2% at 3 months, and 22.6% lifetime. Patients most susceptible to developing Major Depressive Disorder in the immediate post-treatment period: were diagnosed with advanced-stage cancer rather than early-stage cancer (O.R. = 4.94, P = 0.04), received surgery only (O.R. = 8.73, P = 0.04), presented a lifetime history of Anxiety Disorder on SCID-I (O.R. = 6.62; P = 0.01), and indicated higher pre-treatment levels of anxiety on the HADS (O.R. = 0.45, P = 0.05). Our results outline the predominant role of anxiety upon diagnosis as a precursor to post-treatment Major Depressive Disorder, suggesting the need for identification and prophylactic treatment of anxiety upon diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients. Further investigation into pathways by which pre-treatment anxiety predisposes to post-treatment Major Depressive Disorder in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Regulation of Inflammatory Pathways in Cancer and Infectious Disease of the Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Adefuye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading gynaecological malignancies worldwide. It is an infectious disease of the cervix, associated with human papillomavirus infection (HPV, infection with bacterial agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Furthermore, it is an AIDS-defining disease with an accelerated mortality in HIV-infected women with cervical cancer. With the introduction of robust vaccination strategies against HPV in the developed world, it is anticipated that the incidence of cervical cancer will decrease in the coming years. However, vaccination has limited benefit for women already infected with high-risk HPV, and alternative therapeutic intervention strategies are needed for these women. Many pathological disorders, including cervical cancer, are characterised by the exacerbated activation and maintenance of inflammatory pathways which are considered to be regulated by infectious agents. In cervical cancer, hyperactivation of these inflammatory pathways and regulation of immune infiltrate into tissues can potentially play a role not only in tumorigenesis but also in HIV infection. In this paper we will discuss the contribution of inflammatory pathways to cervical cancer progression and HIV infection and the role of HIV in cervical cancer progression.

  13. Prognosis method to predict small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to develop an effective radiological symptom-complex of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic breast disease by using multivariate statistical methods.Materials and methods. Radiological findings of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic mastopathy were analyzed in 100 patients with histologically verified diagnosis.Results. It was revealed that the conventional approach to the analysis of mammograms based on the detection of the primary, secondary and indirect mammographic signs of small-sized breast cancer is not effective enough - the sensitivity of mammography is only 62%. Fibrocystic disease and moderate-to-severe sclerosing adenosis make small-sized breast cancer hard to visualize by mammography. The detailed analysis of mammograms allowed us to identify the additional manifestations of small-sized breast cancer affected by mastopathy. The computer program allowing us to evaluate the risk of small-size breast cancer and the diagnostic algorithm for detecting small size breast cancer with sensitivity of 92% were developed. 

  14. Regulation of Inflammatory Pathways in Cancer and Infectious Disease of the Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, Anthonio; Sales, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading gynaecological malignancies worldwide. It is an infectious disease of the cervix, associated with human papillomavirus infection (HPV), infection with bacterial agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Furthermore, it is an AIDS-defining disease with an accelerated mortality in HIV-infected women with cervical cancer. With the introduction of robust vaccination strategies against HPV in the developed world, it is anticipated that the incidence of cervical cancer will decrease in the coming years. However, vaccination has limited benefit for women already infected with high-risk HPV, and alternative therapeutic intervention strategies are needed for these women. Many pathological disorders, including cervical cancer, are characterised by the exacerbated activation and maintenance of inflammatory pathways which are considered to be regulated by infectious agents. In cervical cancer, hyperactivation of these inflammatory pathways and regulation of immune infiltrate into tissues can potentially play a role not only in tumorigenesis but also in HIV infection. In this paper we will discuss the contribution of inflammatory pathways to cervical cancer progression and HIV infection and the role of HIV in cervical cancer progression. PMID:24278714

  15. HIV and Cancer Interaction Highlights Need to Address Disease Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global landscape of disease highlights disparities that exist between nations. An estimated 36 million people worldwide live with HIV and AIDS, of which only 1 million are located within the United States. While the diagnosis of a life-threatening disease can be devastating, individuals with HIV and AIDS frequently bear an additional burden of stigma and discrimination.

  16. Dismicrobism in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer: Changes in response of colocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Giovanni; Tralongo, Pietro; Damiani, Provvidenza; Sinagra, Emanuele; Di Trapani, Benedetto; Zeenny, Marie Noelle; Hajj Hussein, Inaya; Jurjus, Abdo; Leone, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of 10%-15% developing colorectal cancer (CRC) that is a common disease of high economic costs in developed countries. The CRC has been increasing in recent years and its mortality rates are very high. Multiple biological and biochemical factors are responsible for the onset and progression of this pathology. Moreover, it appears absolutely necessary to investigate the environmental factors favoring the onset of CRC and the promotion of colonic health. The gut microflora, or microbiota, has an extensive diversity both quantitatively and qualitatively. In utero, the intestine of the mammalian fetus is sterile. At birth, the intestinal microbiota is acquired by ingesting maternal anal or vaginal organisms, ultimately developing into a stable community, with marked variations in microbial composition between individuals. The development of IBD is often associated with qualitative and quantitative disorders of the intestinal microbial flora (dysbiosis). The healthy human gut harbours about 10 different bacterial species distributed in colony forming units which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in health and in the progression of diseases such as IBD and CRC. In healthy subjects, the main control of intestinal bacterial colonization occurs through gastric acidity but other factors such as endoluminal temperature, competition between different bacterial strains, peristalsis and drugs can influence the intestinal microenvironment. The microbiota exerts diverse physiological functions to include: growth inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms, synthesis of compounds useful for the trophism of colonic mucosa, regulation of intestinal lymphoid tissue and synthesis of amino acids. Furthermore, mucus seems to play an important role in protecting the intestinal mucosa and maintaining its integrity. Changes in the microbiota composition are mainly

  17. Major challenges to scale up of visual inspection-based cervical cancer prevention programs: the experience of Guatemalan NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA ef...

  18. Cancer or no cancer: the influence of trait anxiety and diagnosis on quality of life with breast cancer and benign disease: a prospective, longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer-Dekker, Claudia M. G.; de Vries, Jolanda; Mertens, Marlies C.; Roukema, Jan A.; van der Steeg, Alida F. W.

    2013-01-01

    High trait anxiety (HTA) causes an impaired quality of life (QOL) and fatigue in women with breast cancer (BC) and benign breast disease (BBD). We examined whether the lowered QOL was determined solely by the personality characteristic HTA or by the combination of personality and diagnosis. In a

  19. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mortality, and incident cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancers, and fractures: a 13-y prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D is associated with many health conditions, but optimal blood concentrations are still uncertain. We examined the prospective relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations [which comprised 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2] and subsequent mortality by the cause and incident diseases in a prospective population study. Serum vitamin D concentrations were measured in 14,641 men and women aged 42-82 y in 1997-2000 who were living in Norfolk, United Kingdom, and were followed up to 2012. Participants were categorized into 5 groups according to baseline serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D increasing vitamin D category were 1, 0.84 (0.74, 0.94), 0.72 (0.63, 0.81), 0.71 (0.62, 0.82), and 0.66 (0.55, 0.79) (P-trend disease, diabetes, or cancer, HRs for a 20-nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D were 0.92 (0.88, 0.96) (P disease, 0.89 (0.85, 0.93) (P respiratory disease, 0.89 (0.81, 0.98) (P = 0.012) (563 events) for fractures, and 1.02 (0.99, 1.06) (P = 0.21) (3121 events) for incident total cancers. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations predict subsequent lower 13-y total mortality and incident cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and fractures but not total incident cancers. For mortality, lowest risks were in subjects with concentrations >90 nmol/L, and there was no evidence of increased mortality at high concentrations, suggesting that a moderate increase in population mean concentrations may have potential health benefit, but 120 nmol/L.

  20. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  1. A case of immunoglobulin G-4 related sclerosing disease mimicking lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Shim, Mi Suk; Lee, Hyang Im

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related sclerosing disease is a recently described systemic fibro-inflammatory disease associated with an elevated circulating level of IgG4 and extensive IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, resulting in sclerosing inflammation involving various body organs. We experienced one case where surgery confirmed IgG4-related sclerosing disease as a solitary lung mass mimicking lung cancer. We report radiologic findings including chest computed tomography and positron emission tomography computed tomography, with clinical manifestations of IgG4-related sclerosing disease.

  2. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in inflammatory bowel disease and related colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuming; Zhu, Yaqun; Pu, Wangyang; Xiao, Li; Li, Kai; Xing, Chungen; Jin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Both of chronic inflammation and abnormal immune in inflammatory bowel disease can induce colon cancer. Previous research showed that cell apoptosis and necrosis become the main source of circulating DNA in the peripheral blood during tumorigenesis that reduced along with methylation degree. However, its role in the process of colitis transforming to colon cancer is not clarified. Drinking 3% DSS was used to establish colitis model, while 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) combined with azo oxidation methane (AOM) intraperitoneal injection was applied to establish colitis related colon cancer model. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in peripheral blood were tested. Morphology observation, HE staining, and p53 and β-catenin expression detection confirmed that drinking 3% DSS and 3% DSS combined with AOM intraperitoneal injection can successfully establish colitis and colitis associated colorectal cancer models. Circulating DNA level in colitis and colon cancer mice increased by gradient compared with control, while significant difference was observed between each other. Circulating DNA methylation level decreased obviously in colitis and colon cancer, and significant difference was observed between each other. Abnormal protein expression, circulating DNA and its methylation level in ulcerative colitis associated colorectal tissues change in gradient, suggesting that circulating DNA and its methylation level can be treated as new markers for colitis cancer transformation that has certain significance to explore the mechanism of human ulcerative colitis canceration.

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with lung cancer: prevalence, impact and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyratos D

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dionisios Spyratos, Eleni Papadaki, Sofia Lampaki, Theodoros Kontakiotis Pulmonary Department, Lung Cancer Oncology Unit, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, G. Papanicolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer share a common etiological factor (cigarette smoking and usually coexist in everyday clinical practice. The prevalence of COPD among newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer sometimes exceeds 50%. COPD is an independent risk factor (2–4 times higher than non-COPD subjects for lung cancer development.The presence of emphysema in addition to other factors (e.g., smoking history, age could be incorporated into risk scores in order to define the most appropriate target group for lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography. Clinical management of patients with coexistence of COPD and lung cancer requires a multidisciplinary oncology board that includes a pulmonologist. Detailed evaluation (lung function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise test and management (inhaled drugs, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation of COPD should be taken into account for lung cancer treatment (surgical approach, radiotherapy. Keywords: lung cancer, COPD, coexistence, risk factor, therapy decisions 

  4. Benign breast disease, mammographic breast density, and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Weaver, Donald L; Vachon, Celine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-07-17

    Benign breast disease and high breast density are prevalent, strong risk factors for breast cancer. Women with both risk factors may be at very high risk. We included 42818 women participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium who had no prior diagnosis of breast cancer and had undergone at least one benign breast biopsy and mammogram; 1359 women developed incident breast cancer in 6.1 years of follow-up (78.1% invasive, 21.9% ductal carcinoma in situ). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression analysis. The referent group was women with nonproliferative changes and average density. All P values are two-sided. Benign breast disease and breast density were independently associated with breast cancer. The combination of atypical hyperplasia and very high density was uncommon (0.6% of biopsies) but was associated with the highest risk for breast cancer (HR = 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.52 to 8.09, P < .001). Proliferative disease without atypia (25.6% of biopsies) was associated with elevated risk that varied little across levels of density: average (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.69, P = .003), high (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.68 to 2.44, P < .001), or very high (HR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.72, P < .001). Low breast density (4.5% of biopsies) was associated with low risk (HRs <1) for all benign pathology diagnoses. Women with high breast density and proliferative benign breast disease are at very high risk for future breast cancer. Women with low breast density are at low risk, regardless of their benign pathologic diagnosis.

  5. NORMALIZATION OF THE VASCULATURE FOR TREATMENT OF CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shom; Duda, Dan G.; Xu, Lei; Munn, Lance L.; Boucher, Yves; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2012-01-01

    New vessel formation (angiogenesis) is an essential physiological process for embryologic development, normal growth, and tissue repair. Angiogenesis is tightly regulated at the molecular level. Dysregulation of angiogenesis occurs in various pathologies and is one of the hallmarks of cancer. The imbalance of pro- and anti-angiogenic signaling within tumors creates an abnormal vascular network that is characterized by dilated, tortuous, and hyperpermeable vessels. The physiological consequences of these vascular abnormalities include temporal and spatial heterogeneity in tumor blood flow and oxygenation and increased tumor interstitial fluid pressure. These abnormalities and the resultant microenvironment fuel tumor progression, and also lead to a reduction in the efficacy of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. With the discovery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a major driver of tumor angiogenesis, efforts have focused on novel therapeutics aimed at inhibiting VEGF activity, with the goal of regressing tumors by starvation. Unfortunately, clinical trials of anti-VEGF monotherapy in patients with solid tumors have been largely negative. Intriguingly, the combination of anti-VEGF therapy with conventional chemotherapy has improved survival in cancer patients compared with chemotherapy alone. These seemingly paradoxical results could be explained by a “normalization” of the tumor vasculature by anti-VEGF therapy. Preclinical studies have shown that anti-VEGF therapy changes tumor vasculature towards a more “mature” or “normal” phenotype. This “vascular normalization” is characterized by attenuation of hyperpermeability, increased vascular pericyte coverage, a more normal basement membrane, and a resultant reduction in tumor hypoxia and interstitial fluid pressure. These in turn can lead to an improvement in the metabolic profile of the tumor microenvironment, the delivery and efficacy of exogenously administered therapeutics

  6. An analysis of the clinical features of lung cancer in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Atsuro; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Goto, Hisatsugu; Toyoda, Yuko; Tezuka, Toshifumi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Patients with connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are at increased risk for lung cancer (LC); interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common form of organ dysfunction in cases of CTD. However, the influence of ILD on the treatment and prognosis in LC patients with CTD is unclear. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 27 patients among all patients with CTD at our institution were diagnosed with primary LC. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, treatment modalities, and outcomes of these patients, and evaluated the potential prognostic factors. Forty-four LC patients without CTD were also analyzed as a control cohort. LC patients with CTD had a significantly higher incidence of ILD as a complication compared with those without CTD (52% and 14%, respectively). CTD-associated ILD (CTD-ILD) at diagnosis was associated with significantly worse survival in LC patients with CTD. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the complication of CTD-ILD was an independent poor prognostic factor in LC patients with CTD. The incidence of acute exacerbation (AE) of CTD-ILD was 21% among LC patients with CTD, and all of these patients died despite intensive treatment including high-dose corticosteroids. The restrictions in curative therapy for LC due to the presence of ILD and AE of CTD-ILD were thought to be the major reasons for the poor outcome. LC patients with CTD had a high prevalence of ILD, and the presence of CTD-ILD was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in a major cancer center for the treatment of severe cancer-related pain and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jeffrey; Gulati, Amitabh

    2015-06-01

    Cancer pain is difficult to treat, often requiring a multimodal approach. While medication management remains the mainstay for the treatment of cancer pain, medications are often associated with undesired side effects. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) provides a potential adjunctive method for treating cancer pain with minimal side effects. Few studies have been performed evaluating the efficacy of TENS on cancer pain. We sought to examine the usefulness of TENS on all cancer patients and to specifically look at the use of TENS as a goal-directed therapy to improve functionality. Retrospective cohort study. Since 2008, patients with chronic cancer pain and on multimodal pain regimens were trialed with TENS. Those patients who showed an improvement in pain symptoms or severity were educated about and provided with a TENS unit for use at home. Pain symptoms and scores were monitored with the visual analog scale (VAS), the numerical rating pain (NRP) scale, and Short-Form McGill Questionnaire at the start of TENS treatment and at 2 months follow-up. TENS proved beneficial in 69.7% of patients over the course of 2 months. In TENS responsive patients, VAS scores decreased by 9.8 on a 0-100 mm scale (P TENS provides a beneficial adjunct for the treatment of cancer pain, especially when utilized as a goal-directed therapy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thy...

  9. Colonoscopy surveillance for dysplasia and colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalykke, Claus; Jensen, Michael Dam; Fallingborg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been highly debated as risk estimates from different studies vary greatly. The present national Danish guideline on colonoscopy surveillance for dysplasia and colorectal cancer in patients......, in some subgroups of patients the risk is increased. These subgroups of patients, who should be offered colonoscopy surveillance, include patients with ulcerative colitis having extensive disease and a long disease duration (10-13 years); early age at onset (less than 19 years of age) of ulcerative...... colitis; and patients with ulcerative colitis as well as Crohn´s disease with a concomitant diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. A colonoscopy surveillance program is recommended in these subgroups with intervals ranging from every 3-6 months to every 5 years, using chromoendoscopy with targeted...

  10. Evaluation of heart disease in patients with beta-thalessemia major referred to Shahid Madanni Hospital in Khorram Abad in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2004-06-01

    Conclusions: Based on the X2 test, there was a postive correlation between age, age of Desferal use, and serum ferretin with cardiac disease (P<0.05. However, there was no correlation between age and blood group with cardiac disease. It is suggested that patients with beta-thalessemia major have blood transfusions and use Deseral regularly. Also, it is necessary to periodically evaluate the heart function of these patients.

  11. Major complications of radiotherapy in cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. A 10 year retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.L.; Lindberg, R.D.; Lane, E.; Goepfert, H.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the late effects and associated morbidity of radiotherapy on normal tissue, patients with squamous carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx were retrospectively reviewed. Between 1964 and 1975, 569 patients with cancer of the floor of the mouth, oral tongue, tonsil, and retromolar trigone region of the anterior faucial pillar had their primary lesions treated by radiotherapy alone for cure. One hundred twenty-eight of the patients were evaluable for this study. Bone and soft tissue morbidity were graded according to the late radiation scoring scheme of the radiation therapy oncology group of the European Organization on Research and Treatment of Cancer, tallying only grade 4 changes. Patients were further classified according to site of tumor, age, sex, tumor stage, histologic grade, and dental status--none of which had a positive correlation with complications. Of 31 evaluable patients with cancer of the floor of the mouth (median follow-up 136 months), 71 percent (22 of 31 patients) had at least one complication involving bone (osteonecrosis, pathologic fracture) or mucus membrane (ulcer). Sixty-one percent (25 of 41 patients) with primary cancer of the oral tongue had grade 4 sequelae (median follow-up 112 months). In 26 patients with cancer of the tonsil, 13 (50 percent) had grade 4 sequelae (median follow-up 113 months). This included 11 patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of osteonecrosis, 6 of whom required mandibulectomy. Patients with cancer of the retromolar trigone region of the anterior faucial pillar fared the best (median follow-up 122 months). Late sequelae were noted in 40 percent (12 of 30 patients). The morbidity attendant to cure by radiotherapy included at least one significant complication of bone or soft tissue in 40 to 70 percent of the patients, depending on the location of the primary tumor. There was also a positive correlation with dose of radiation received

  12. Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W; Baker, I A; Sweetnam, P M; Bainton, D; O'Brien, J R; Whitehead, P J; Elwood, P C

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that hemostatic factors and white blood cell count are predictive of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The relations of fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count to the incidence of IHD in the Caerphilly and Speedwell prospective studies are described. The two studies have a common core protocol and are based on a combined cohort of 4,860 middle-aged men from the general population. The first follow-up was at a nearly constant interval of 5.1 years in Caerphilly and 3.2 years in Speedwell; 251 major IHD events had occurred. Age-adjusted relative odds of IHD for men in the top 20% of the distribution compared with the bottom 20% were 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.5) for fibrinogen, 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-7.4) for viscosity, and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.9) for white blood cell count. Associations with IHD were similar in men who had never smoked, exsmokers, and current smokers, and the results suggest that at least part of the effect of smoking on IHD is mediated through fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count. Multivariate analysis shows that white blood cell count is an independent risk factor for IHD as is either fibrinogen or viscosity, or possibly both. Jointly, these three variables significantly improve the fit of a logistic regression model containing all the main conventional risk factors. Further, a model including age, smoking habits, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count predicts IHD as well as one in which the three hemostatic/rheological variables are replaced by total cholesterol, diastolic pressure, and body mass index. Jointly, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are important risk factors for IHD.

  13. Disease-Specific Mortality of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients in Korea: A Multicenter Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLittle is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients and its risk factors in Korea.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005.ResultsMean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97% and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%. Mean size of the primary tumor was 1.6±1.0 cm. Approximately 40% of patients had cervical lymph node (LN metastases and 1.3% had synchronous distant metastases. During 11.3 years of follow-up, 150 disease-specific mortalities (1.9% occurred; the 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rate was 98%. According to the year of diagnosis, the number of disease-specific mortality was not different. However, the rate of disease-specific mortality decreased during the study period (from 7.7% to 0.7%. Older age (≥45 years at diagnosis, male, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC versus PTC, larger tumor size (>2 cm, presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM stage were independent risk factors of disease-specific mortality of DTC patients.ConclusionThe rate of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients was 1.9%; the 10-year DSS rate was 98% during 1996 to 2005. Older age at diagnosis, male, FTC, larger tumor size, presence of ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages were significant risk factors of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients.

  14. Vegetable Oils Consumption as One of the Leading Cause of Cancer and Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    This review takes a deep look at increases in the incidence of cancer and heart disease after the introduction of industrial vegetable oils in the world. Most vegetable oils are highly processed and refined products, which completely lack the essential nutrients. Omega-6 Linoleic acid from vegetable oils increases oxidative stress in the body of humans, contributing to endothelial dysfunction and heart disease. The consumption of these harmful oils which are high in mega-6 polyunsaturated fat...

  15. Guide-line of the radio-iodine (131I) therapy in Graves' disease and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yutaka; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    2005-01-01

    Radio-iodine ( 131 I) therapy has been using in Graves' disease and well differentiated thyroid cancer. The rules of control in the discharge from radio-isotope hospital were notified in 1999 in Japan. Guideline of the 131 I therapy in Graves' disease and thyroid cancer were prepared by sub-group of Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  16. Diverticular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: Incidental Diagnosis or Real Association? Final Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Jaroslaw

    2016-10-01

    Associations between diverticular disease of the colon and the colorectal cancer has been studied for >60 years. Observational, cross-sectional, and case-control studies as well as large population-based studies gave conflicting results and association was not fully proven. Obtaining the proof was difficult because both diseases share similar clinical characteristics, both increase with age, and both involve similar dietary factors. Long-term observations are difficult as diagnostic methods changed over time from barium enema 50 to 60 years ago, through endoscopy, up to CT and MR in recent years. Cancer or adenomas may be missed within diverticular segment; diverticula may be underreported in patients with colon cancer diagnosis. Most recent 2 large cohort studies have solved the dilemma. These studies have clearly shown that diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer after the first year of diagnosis. Within the first year of diagnosis the association is strong, most probably due to difficulties with differential diagnosis and misclassifications and shared symptoms. Findings of these studies have led to the conclusion that colon cancer has to be excluded using modern techniques after the first episode of suspected diverticulitis.

  17. Mechanical stress as the common denominator between chronic inflammation, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eLevy Nogueira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of common diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and cancer are currently poorly understood. Inflammation is a common risk factor for cancer and AD. Recent data, provided by our group and from others, demonstrate that increased pressure and inflammation are synonymous. There is a continuous increase in pressure from inflammation to fibrosis and then cancer. This in line with the numerous papers reporting high interstitial pressure in cancer. But most authors focus on the role of pressure in the lack of delivery of chemotherapy in the center of the tumor. Pressure may also be a key factor in carcinogenesis. Increased pressure is responsible for oncogene activation and cytokine secretion. Accumulation of mechanical stress plays a key role in the development of diseases of old age such as cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis. Growing evidence suggest also a possible link between mechanical stress in the pathogenesis of AD. The aim of this review is to describe environmental and endogenous mechanical factors possibly playing a pivotal role in the mechanism of chronic inflammation, AD and cancer.

  18. Inherited Disease Genetics Improves the Identification of Cancer-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of biologically significant variants in cancer genomes is critical to therapeutic discovery, but it is limited by the statistical power needed to discern driver from passenger. Independent biological data can be used to filter cancer exomes and increase statistical power. Large genetic databases for inherited diseases are uniquely suited to this task because they contain specific amino acid alterations with known pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms. However, no rigorous method to overlay this information onto the cancer exome exists. Here, we present a computational methodology that overlays any variant database onto the somatic mutations in all cancer exomes. We validate the computation experimentally and identify novel associations in a re-analysis of 7362 cancer exomes. This analysis identified activating SOS1 mutations associated with Noonan syndrome as significantly altered in melanoma and the first kinase-activating mutations in ACVR1 associated with adult tumors. Beyond a filter, significant variants found in both rare cancers and rare inherited diseases increase the unmet medical need for therapeutics that target these variants and may bootstrap drug discovery efforts in orphan indications.

  19. Outcomes following negative prostate biopsy for patients with persistent disease after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Cohen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: When faced with biochemical recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, clinicians must determine whether the recurrence is local or systemic. Post radiotherapy prostate biopsies to detect persistent local disease are difficult to interpret histopathologically and are subject to sampling error. Our study examines outcomes for patients with a negative prostate biopsy performed for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels after prostate radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 238 prostate cancer patients with a negative biopsy following definitive radiotherapy. Seventy-five of these patients had biochemical recurrence at the time of biopsy. A negative biopsy was defined as the absence of prostate cancer without radiation-treatment effect in the specimen. RESULTS: Patients underwent biopsy at a mean of 41 months after the completion of radiation. They had a mean PSA of 6. Patients were followed for an average of 63 months. Thirty-two patients (43% developed metastasis, and 11 (15% died of prostate cancer despite a negative post-radiation biopsy. Five of nine patients (56% with sequential biopsies had a positive second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PSA recurrence and a negative post-radiation biopsy have a high chance of persistent local disease, progression, and death from prostate cancer. Furthermore, an initial negative biopsy does not rule-out local recurrence. Patients with biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer need to be evaluated earlier for local recurrence.

  20. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease:Associations with Renal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRusso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephro pathological changes are commonly observed in the non tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy. In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with radical nephrectomy. Despite emerging evidence that partial nephrectomy provides equivalent local tumor control to radical nephrectomy while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer.

  1. Radiation effect on non-cancer diseases among a-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, G.; Akahoshi, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Neriishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Hakoda, M. [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    It has been well documented in the literature that radiation induces DNA damages and increases cancer risk. Besides cancer risk, the Life Span Study (LSS) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that has been conducted since 1950 by RERF demonstrated an increase in non-cancer death by cardiovascular diseases and chronic liver diseases (1). Since LSS analysis depends on death certificate, a physiological mechanism has not been elucidated how radiation increases the incidence of non-cancer diseases. In order to elucidate radiation effect on non-fatal disorders, RERF has conducted the Adult Health Study (AHS) since 1958 where 23,000 A-bomb survivors have been examined every other year. This study suggested that radiation exposure about 55 years before reduced the immune response to pathogens such as HB virus and Chlamydia pneumoniae, increased the levels of serum inflammatory markers, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis/liver cirrhosis and senile cataract, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Our colleagues reported a dose-dependent decrease in the CD4 T cell number among A-bomb survivors (2,3). Since chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are causative of atherogenic cardiovascular diseases or cataract, we speculate a decrease in the immune response to pathogens, at least in part, is one of the mechanisms that A-bomb exposure increased non-cancer diseases. When the levels of inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were analyzed among subjects with evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, significantly higher levels of CRP were associated with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in those subjects receiving >1Gy than those receiving <5mGy. It is well known that high CRP is one of the risk factors of arteriosclerosis (4,5). Thus, A-bomb exposure seems to augment inflammatory response to pathogens, though of which mechanisms are not clear now.

  2. A unified pathogenesis for kidney diseases, including genetic diseases and cancers, by the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Yil

    2017-06-01

    Every cell of an organism is separated and protected by a cell membrane. It is proposed that harmony between intercellular communication and the health of an organism is controlled by a system, designated the protein-homeostasis-system (PHS). Kidneys consist of a variety of types of renal cells, each with its own characteristic cell-receptor interactions and producing characteristic proteins. A functional union of these renal cells can be determined by various renal function tests, and harmonious intercellular communication is essential for the healthy state of the host. Injury to a kind of renal cells can impair renal function and induce an imbalance in total body health. Every acute or chronic renal disease has unknown etiologic substances that are responsible for renal cell injury at the molecular level. The immune/repair system of the host should control the etiologic substances acting against renal cells; if this system fails, the disease progresses to end stage renal disease. Each renal disease has its characteristic pathologic lesions where immune cells and immune proteins, such as immunoglobulins and complements, are infiltrated. These immune cells and immune proteins may control the etiologic substances involved in renal pathologic lesions. Also, genetic renal diseases and cancers may originate from a protein deficiency or malfunctioning protein under the PHS. A unified pathogenesis for renal diseases, including acute glomerulonephritis, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, genetic renal diseases such as Alport syndrome, and malignancies such as Wilms tumor and renal cell carcinoma, is proposed using the PHS hypothesis.

  3. Health-related quality of life and health care use in cancer survivors compared with patients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, Marianne J; Korevaar, Joke C; Hopman, Petra E P C; Donker, Gé A; Schellevis, François G; Rijken, Mieke P M

    2016-03-15

    The number of cancer survivors is steadily increasing and these patients often experience long-lasting health problems. To make care for cancer survivors sustainable for the future, it would be relevant to put the effects of cancer in this phase into perspective. Therefore, the authors compared health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health care use among cancer survivors with that of patients with chronic diseases. Patients diagnosed at age >18 years with a cancer with a 5-year survival rate > 20% and no distant metastases at the time of diagnosis and patients aged >18 years with physician-diagnosed somatic chronic diseases without cancer were sent a questionnaire. HRQOL was measured with the RAND-36, a measure of HRQOL. Self-reported health care use was measured for general practitioner care, specialist care, rehabilitative care, physical therapy, ambulatory mental health care, and occupational health care. A total of 601 cancer survivors and 1052 patients with chronic diseases without cancer were included in the current study. Multimorbidity was observed in 63% of the cancer survivors and 61% of the patients with chronic diseases. The HRQOL of the cancer survivors was significantly better than that of patients with chronic diseases after adjustment for age and sex. For the mental functioning subscale, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Cancer survivors were found to be less likely to have visited a general practitioner or cardiologist compared with patients with chronic diseases. When considering physical HRQOL and health care use, cancer survivors appear to fare better than the average patient with chronic diseases. No difference in mental functioning was observed in the current study. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Convergence of decreasing male and increasing female incidence rates in major tobacco-related cancers in Europe in 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Renteria, Elisenda; Sharp, Linda; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Comber, Harry; Baas, Paul; Bray, Freddie; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Smoking prevalence has been declining in men all over Europe, while the trend varies in European regions among women. To study the impact of past smoking prevalence, we present a comprehensive overview of the most recent trends in incidence, during 1988-2010, in 26 countries, of four of the major cancers in the respiratory and upper gastro-intestinal tract associated with tobacco smoking. Data from 47 population-based cancer registries for lung, laryngeal, oral cavity and pharyngeal, and oesophageal cancer cases were obtained from the newly developed data repository within the European Cancer Observatory (http://eco.iarc.fr/). Truncated age-standardised incidence rates (35-74 years) by calendar year, average annual percentage change in incidence over 1998-2007 were calculated. Smoking prevalence in selected countries was extracted from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Health Organization databases. There remained great but changing variation in the incidence rates of tobacco-related cancers by European region. Generally, the high rates among men have been declining, while the lower rates among women are increasing, resulting in convergence of the rates. Female lung cancer rates were above male rates in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden (35-64 years). In lung and laryngeal cancers, where smoking is the main risk factor, rates were highest in central and eastern Europe, southern Europe and the Baltic countries. Despite a lowering of female smoking prevalence, female incidence rates of lung, laryngeal and oral cavity cancers increased in most parts of Europe, but were stable in the Baltic countries. Mixed trends emerged in oesophageal cancer, probably explained by differing risk factors for the two main histological subtypes. This data repository offers the opportunity to show the variety of incidence trends by sex among European countries. The diverse patterns of trends reflect varied exposure to risk factors. Given the heavy cancer

  5. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the dat....../treatment protocols. The use of chlorhexidine, fluoride mouth rinses as well as composite resin, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC), and amalgam restorations over conventional GIC in post head and neck radiation patients who are compliant fluoride users is recommended....

  6. [The joint effects of major lifestyle factors on stomach cancer risk among Chinese men: a prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Zheng, W; Li, H L; Gao, J; Fang, J; Gao, L F; Liu, D K; Shu, X O; Xiang, Y B

    2017-05-06

    Objective: To investigate the combined impact of lifestyle factors on stomach cancer risk. Methods: We analyzed the data from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) (2002-2013). The SMHS was conducted in eight neighborhood communities of urban Shanghai. From 2002 through June 2006, 61 480 residents aged 40 to 74 years old with no history of cancer were recruited. Failure time was the date of stomach cancer incidence, death or date of the last follow-up (December 31, 2013). The first two in-person follow-up surveys were conducted in 2004-2008, and 2008-2011, respectively. Using data on lifestyle, the healthy lifestyle index (HLI) was developed. The following lifestyle factors were included: smoking, alcohol consumption, diet habit, overweighted and physical activity. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association of stomach cancer risk with lifestyle factors and HLI. Results: Over 9.28 years' follow-up, 477 incident cases of stomach cancer were identified from 59 503 study participants. Participants with zero, one, two, three, four, and five favorable lifestyle behaviors accounted for 3.44% ( n= 2 045), 18.14% ( n= 10 793), 33.68% ( n= 20 041), 29.43% ( n= 17 511), 12.82% ( n= 7 627), and 2.50% ( n= 1 486), respectively. Among all the five lifestyle factors, smoking and alcohol use were significantly related to stomach cancer risk. The relative risk of stomach cancer was 0.71 (95 %CI : 0.57-0.87) for those who never smoked or quitted smoking for no less than 10 years and 0.70 (95 %CI : 0.55-0.90) for those who consumed alcohol no more than 14 drinks per week. For each increment of healthy lifestyle index, the relative risk of stomach cancer was 0.86 (95 %CI : 0.79-0.95). Compared to men with none or one healthy lifestyle factor, the relative risk for those with four or five was 0.62 (95 %CI : 0.46-0.83). When we rebuilt HLI using more categories of each lifestyle factors, the HLI ranged from 0 to 11. For each point increase, the relative risk