WorldWideScience

Sample records for major component removal

  1. Big rock point restoration project BWR major component removal, packaging and shipping - planning and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, T.; Dam, S.; Papp, M.; Slade, J.; Slimp, B.; Nurden, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) at Charlevoix, MI was permanently shut down on August 29th 1997. In 1999 BNFL Inc.'s Reactor Decommissioning Group (RDG) was awarded a contract by Consumers Energy (CECo) for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Major Component Removal (MCR) project. BNFL Inc. RDG has teamed with MOTA, Sargent and Lundy and MDM Services to plan and execute MCR in support of the facility restoration project. The facility restoration project will be completed by 2005. Key to the success of the project has been the integration of best available demonstrated technology into a robust and responsive project management approach, which places emphasis on safety and quality assurance in achieving project milestones linked to time and cost. To support decommissioning of the BRP MCR activities, a reactor vessel (RV) shipping container is required. Discussed in this paper is the design and fabrication of a 10 CFR Part 71 Type B container necessary to ship the BRP RV. The container to be used for transportation of the RV to the burial site was designed as an Exclusive Use Type B package for shipment and burial at the Barnwell, South Carolina (SC) disposal facility. (author)

  2. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Coad, J.P.; Federici, G.

    2003-01-01

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating

  3. Sodium removal from Hallam Reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntsman, L.K.; Meservey, R.H.

    1979-08-01

    This report discussed the removal of sodium from major components of the Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. This facility contained the experimental ractor used to test the feasibility of sodium coolant. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy assigned EG and G Idaho, Inc., the task of carrying out this decontamination and decommissioning program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since their shipment to the INEL from Lincoln, Nebraska in 1968, the Hallam Reactor components had been stored in inert nitrogen to prevent the sodium in the components from reacting with moisture in the air. The procedure used to react the sodium in the components and to decontaminate them is discussed. Problems and unusual occurrences in the decontamination and decommissioning process are also reported

  4. Sodium removal, storage, and requalification of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.; Shimazaki, T.; Oliva, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to devise, develop, test, and evaluate techniques for sodium removal and storage of test specimens and components, and to expand and refine, by test and analysis, the sodium removal and storage techniques and procedures for use in processing typical LMFBR components

  5. Dual Component Removable Partial Denture shows improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... 2Faculty of Dentistry, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. 3Department of ... an example of poor oral condition caused mainly by periodontitis, and ... working model of the Dual Component Removable Partial Denture.

  6. Peach Bottom HTGR decommissioning and component removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, E.J.; Steward, K.P.; Iacono, J.V.

    1977-07-01

    The prime objective of the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program was to validate specific HTGR design codes and predictions by comparison of actual and predicted physics, thermal, fission product, and materials behavior in Peach Bottom. Three consecutive phases of the program provide input to the HTGR design methods verifications: (1) Nondestructive fuel and circuit gamma scanning; (2) removal of steam generator and primary circuit components; and (3) Laboratory examinations of removed components. Component removal site work commenced with establishment of restricted access areas and installation of controlled atmosphere tents to retain relative humidity at <30%. A mock-up room was established to test and develop the tooling and to train operators under simulated working conditions. Primary circuit ducting samples were removed by trepanning, and steam generator access was achieved by a combination of arc gouging and grinding. Tubing samples were removed using internal cutters and external grinding. Throughout the component removal phase, strict health physics, safety, and quality assurance programs were implemented. A total of 148 samples of primary circuit ducting and steam generator tubing were removed with no significant health physics or safety incidents. Additionally, component removal served to provide access fordetermination of cesium plateout distribution by gamma scanning inside the ducts and for macroexamination of the steam generator from both the water and helium sides. Evaluations are continuing and indicate excellent performance of the steam generator and other materials, together with close correlation of observed and predicted fission product plateout distributions. It is concluded that such a program of end-of-life research, when appropriately coordinated with decommissioning activities, can significantly advance nuclear plant and fuel technology development

  7. Dual Component Removable Partial Denture shows improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual Component Removable Partial Denture (DuCo RPD) is composed of a double base; lower and upper. The lower base, where the artificial teeth are attached, acts as a support and is in contact with the alveolar ridges and oral mucosa. Clasps are designed on the upper base, which acts towards the retention and ...

  8. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, M; Kanbe, M; Yagisawa, H; Sasaki, S; Kataoka, H; Fukada, T; Ishii, Y; Saito, R; Mimoto, Y [O-arai Engineering Centre, PNC, Ibaraki-ken, Tokio (Japan)

    1978-08-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  9. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.; Fukada, T.; Ishii, Y.; Saito, R.; Mimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  10. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.

    1978-02-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of ''JOYO'' and Dummy fuel assembly of ''JOYO'', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of ''JOYO'', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of ''JOYO'' and a proto-type Isolation valve of ''JOYO'' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental subassemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of ''MONJU'' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of Sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a ''JOYO'' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  11. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO 2 is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO 2 and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO 2 cooling has

  12. Removal of Shippingport Station primary system components and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Lipsett, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The dismantling workscope for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project was divided into subtasks to permit the work to be subcontracted to the maximum extent practicable. Major subtasks were identified and described by Activity specifications which could then be grouped into logical work packages to be put out for bid. Two of the largest dismantling work packages, removal of piping and components, were grouped together and designated as Activity Specifications 4 and 5. TLG Services, Inc. and Cleveland Wrecking Company formed a Joint Venture to perform this work during a two-year period at a cost of approximately $7 million. The major portions of this dismantling workscope are described. The primary system components within this workscope consist of the stainless steel reactor coolant piping, check valves, reactor coolant pumps, steam generators, and reactor purification demineralizers and coolers. The work performed, the heavy rigging preparations and procedures, the cutting tools used, component draining/capping techniques to prevent spills, contamination containment, airborne control techniques, and lessons learned during the removal of these primary system components are described. Summaries of crew size and composition, labor hours, duration hours and radiation exposure to workers are provided and discussed briefly. The successful completion of this work is evidence of the engineering, planning, equipment, materials and labor pool available to remove large, radioactively contaminated components safely. This experience will help decommissioning planners to prepare for the removal of reactor components in future decommissioning

  13. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  14. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Katrin; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Williams, John L; Fries, Ruedi

    2006-01-01

    Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively). The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent. PMID:17014722

  15. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  16. Mechanical components: fabrication of major reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of criticisms of quality assurance of mechanical plant and welded products within major reactor structures, taking into account experience gained on the AGR's. Various constructive recommendations are made aimed at furthering the objectives of quality assurance in the nuclear industry and making it more cost-effective. Current levels of quality related costs in the fabrication industry are provided as a basis for discussion. (U.K.)

  17. Non-aqueous removal of sodium from reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, F H; Steele, O P [Rockwell International, Atomics International Division, Canoga Park (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Reactor components from sodium-cooled systems. whether radioactive or not, must have the sodium removed before they can be safely handled for 1) disposal, 2) examination and test, or 3) decontamination, repair, and requalification. In the latter two cases, the sodium must be removed in a manner which will not harm the component. and prevent future use. Two methods for sodium removal using non-aqueous techniques have been studied extensively in the U.S.A. in the past few years: the Alcohol Process, which uses a fully denatured ethanol to react away the sodium; and the Evaporative Process, which uses heat and vacuum to evaporate the sodium from the component.

  18. Non-aqueous removal of sodium from reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, F.H.; Steele, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    Reactor components from sodium-cooled systems. whether radioactive or not, must have the sodium removed before they can be safely handled for 1) disposal, 2) examination and test, or 3) decontamination, repair, and requalification. In the latter two cases, the sodium must be removed in a manner which will not harm the component. and prevent future use. Two methods for sodium removal using non-aqueous techniques have been studied extensively in the U.S.A. in the past few years: the Alcohol Process, which uses a fully denatured ethanol to react away the sodium; and the Evaporative Process, which uses heat and vacuum to evaporate the sodium from the component

  19. Technical considerations relative to removal of sodium from LMFBR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J S; Asquith, J G

    1975-07-01

    Reviewed in this paper are technical considerations which are of importance in choosing between an alcohol process and a moist nitrogen process for the removal of sodium from LMFBR components. Results observed in laboratory tests and in the cleaning of large scale components (e.g. a 28 MWt Modular Steam Generator Test Unit) are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. UK fast reactor components - sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.M.; Bray, J.A.; Newson, I.H.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past two decades extensive experience on sodium removal techniques has been gained at the UKAEA's Dounreay Nuclear Establishment from both the Dounreay Fact Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Part 2 of the paper, which describes recent operations associated with the PFR, demonstrates the background to these views. This past and continuing experience is being used in forming the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination and requalification of components in the UK's future commercial fast reactors. Further improvements in techniques and in component designs can be expected in the course of the next few years. Consequently UK philosophy and approach with respect to maintenance and repair operations is sufficiently flexible to enable relevant improvements to be incorporated into the next scheduled fast reactor - the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CUR). This paper summarises the factors which are being taken into consideration in this continuously advancing field

  1. UK fast reactor components - sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, D M [FRDD, UKAEA, Risley (United Kingdom); Bray, J A; Newson, I H [UKAEA, Dounreay Nuclear Power Establishment, Thurso (United Kingdom)

    1978-08-01

    Over the past two decades extensive experience on sodium removal techniques has been gained at the UKAEA's Dounreay Nuclear Establishment from both the Dounreay Fact Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Part 2 of the paper, which describes recent operations associated with the PFR, demonstrates the background to these views. This past and continuing experience is being used in forming the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination and requalification of components in the UK's future commercial fast reactors. Further improvements in techniques and in component designs can be expected in the course of the next few years. Consequently UK philosophy and approach with respect to maintenance and repair operations is sufficiently flexible to enable relevant improvements to be incorporated into the next scheduled fast reactor - the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CUR). This paper summarises the factors which are being taken into consideration in this continuously advancing field.

  2. Aging and life extension of major light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the aging degradation of the major pressurized and boiling water reactor structures and components is given. The design and fabrication of each structure or component is briefly described followed by information on the associated stressors. Interactions between the design, materials and various stressors that cause aging degradation are reviewed. In many cases, aging degradation problems have occurred, and the plant experience to date is analyzed. The discussion summarize the available aging-related information and are supported with extensive references, including references to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents, Electric Power Research Institute reports, US and international conference proceedings and other publications

  3. UK fast reactor components. Sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.M.; Bray, J.A.; Newson, I.H.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive experience gained at the U.K.A.E.A. Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment is being applied to form the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination, and requalification of components in future commercial fast reactors. In the first part of a three part paper, the factors to be taken into account, showing the UK philosophy and approach to maintenance and repair operations are discussed. In the second part, PFR facilities for sodium removal and decontamination are described and some examples are given of cleaning components such as pumps, charge machine, cold trap baskets, and steam generator units. Similar facilities at DFR are briefly described. In the third part of the paper a short description is given of the Harwell mass transfer loop, currently used to study the deposition of activated stainless steel corrosion products. Decontamination method for pipework specimens cut from the loop are described and results of first screening tests of various chemical decontaminants are presented. (U.K.)

  4. A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, Steven S; Chu, Frances; Kearns, Daniel B; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    Microbes construct structurally complex multicellular communities (biofilms) through production of an extracellular matrix. Here we present evidence from scanning electron microscopy showing that a wild strain of the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis builds such a matrix. Genetic, biochemical and cytological evidence indicates that the matrix is composed predominantly of a protein component, TasA, and an exopolysaccharide component. The absence of TasA or the exopolysaccharide resulted in a residual matrix, while the absence of both components led to complete failure to form complex multicellular communities. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that a functional matrix can be assembled even when TasA and the exopolysaccharide are produced by different cells, reinforcing the view that the components contribute to matrix formation in an extracellular manner. Having defined the major components of the biofilm matrix and the control of their synthesis by the global regulator SinR, we present a working model for how B. subtilis switches between nomadic and sedentary lifestyles.

  5. Load transfer characteristics of unilateral distal extension removable partial dentures with polyacetal resin supporting components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, T; Chang, T; Caputo, A A

    2009-03-01

    To photoelastically examine load transfer by unilateral distal extension removable partial dentures with supporting and retentive components made of the lower stiffness polyacetal resins. A mandibular photoelastic model, with edentulous space distal to the right second premolar and missing the left first molar, was constructed to determine the load transmission characteristics of a unilateral distal extension base removable partial denture. Individual simulants were used for tooth structure, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Three designs were fabricated: a major connector and clasps made from polyacetal resin, a metal framework as the major connector with polyacetal resin clasp and denture base, and a traditional metal framework I-bar removable partial denture. Simulated posterior bilateral and unilateral occlusal loads were applied to the removable partial dentures. Under bilateral and left side unilateral loading, the highest stress was observed adjacent to the left side posterior teeth with the polyacetal removable partial denture. The lowest stress was seen with the traditional metal framework. Unilateral loads on the right edentulous region produced similar distributed stress under the denture base with all three designs but a somewhat higher intensity with the polyacetal framework. The polyacetal resin removable partial denture concentrated the highest stresses to the abutment and the bone. The traditional metal framework I-bar removable partial denture most equitably distributed force. The hybrid design that combined a metal framework and polyacetal clasp and denture base may be a viable alternative when aesthetics are of primary concern.

  6. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D.; Haggag, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments

  7. Miscellaneous component design for Tank 241SY101 pump removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    A mixer pump has been used to mitigate the hydrogen build-up in tank 241SY101 (SY101), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. New equipment is being prepared for the removal, transport, storage, and disposal of the test pump. The disposal equipment for the test pump now in tank SY101 includes a shipping container, a strong back, a lifting beam, a test weight, container support stands, a modified mock-up pump, a flexible receiver blast shield, a lifting yoke, and a yoke brace. The structural evaluations of container and strong back are detailed in another supporting document (WHC 1994a), the engineering analyses of flexible receiver blast shield/lifting yoke and yoke brace are given in other supporting documents (WHC 1994b, WHC 1994c), respectively. Engineering tasks that were contracted to Advanced Engineering Consultants (AEC) include the design and analysis of the following. Two spreader-beam lifting devices. a Container test weight. Container support saddles. Mock-up pump modification. This report documents the work description, design basis, assumptions, and design calculations provided by AEC for the above components. All AEC documents appear in Appendix A. Additional work conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) on the modified container test weight, modification to the mock-up pump, the removable support for the transport assembly, and saddle modification for air pallets also are included in this document

  8. Development and verification test of integral reactor major components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The conceptual designs for SG, MCP, CEDM to be installed in the integral reactor SMART were developed. Three-dimensional CAD models for the major components were developed to visualize the design concepts. Once-through helical steam generator was conceptually designed for SMART. Canned motor pump was adopted in the conceptual design of MCP. Linear pulse motor type and ballscrew type CEDM, which have fine control capabilities were studied for adoption in SMART. In parallel with the structural design, the electro-magnetic design was performed for the sizing motors and electro-magnet. Prototypes for the CEDM and MCP sub-assemblies were developed and tested to verify the performance. The impeller design procedure and the computer program to analyze the dynamic characteristics of MCP rotor shaft were developed. The design concepts of SG, MCP, CEDM were also invetigated for the fabricability.

  9. Development and verification test of integral reactor major components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The conceptual designs for SG, MCP, CEDM to be installed in the integral reactor SMART were developed. Three-dimensional CAD models for the major components were developed to visualize the design concepts. Once-through helical steam generator was conceptually designed for SMART. Canned motor pump was adopted in the conceptual design of MCP. Linear pulse motor type and ballscrew type CEDM, which have fine control capabilities were studied for adoption in SMART. In parallel with the structural design, the electro-magnetic design was performed for the sizing motors and electro-magnet. Prototypes for the CEDM and MCP sub-assemblies were developed and tested to verify the performance. The impeller design procedure and the computer program to analyze the dynamic characteristics of MCP rotor shaft were developed. The design concepts of SG, MCP, CEDM were also invetigated for the fabricability

  10. Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.

    2002-01-01

    The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.

  11. Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith G; McGeer, Patrick L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. To determine the factors involved, we examined the protective effects of coffee components. The test involved prevention of neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells that was induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interferon-γ released from activated microglia and astrocytes. We found that quercetin, flavones, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine protected SH-SY5Y cells from these toxins. They also reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from the activated microglia and astrocytes and attenuated the activation of proteins from P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). After exposure to toxin containing glial-stimulated conditioned medium, we also found that quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aging management of major light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Ware, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Review of technical literature and field experience has identified stress corrosion cracking as one of the major degradation mechanisms for the major light water reactor components. Three of the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms of current concern are (a) primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in pressurized water reactors, and (b) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in boiling water reactors. Effective aging management of stress corrosion cracking mechanisms includes evaluation of interactions between design, materials, stressors, and environment; identification and ranking of susceptible sites; reliable inspection of any damage; assessment of damage rate; mitigation of damage; and repair and replacement using corrosion-resistant materials. Management of PWSCC includes use of lower operating temperatures, reduction in residual tensile stresses, development of reliable inspection techniques, and use of Alloy 690 as replacement material. Management of IGSCC of nozzle and attachment welds includes use of Alloy 82 as weld material, and potential use of hydrogen water chemistry. Management of IASCC also includes potential use of hydrogen water chemistry

  13. A Study on Major Components of Bee Venom Using Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jin-Seon

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to study on major components of various Bee Venom(Bee Venom by electrical stimulation in Korea; K-BV I, Bee Venom by Microwave stimulation in Korea; K -BV II, 0.5rng/ml, Fu Yu Pharmaceutical Factory, China; C-BV, 1mg /ml, Monmouth Pain Institute, Inc., U.S.A.; A-BV using Electrophoresis. The results were summarized as follows: 1. In 1:4000 Bee Venom solution rate, the band was not displayed distinctly usmg Electrophoresis. But in 1: 1000, the band showed clearly. 2. The results of Electrophoresis at solution rate 1:1000, K-BV I and K-BVII showed similar band. 3. The molecular weight of Phospholipase A2 was known as 19,000 but its band was seen at 17,000 in Electrophoresis. 4. Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was different at solution rate 1:4000 ; C-BV was 250μg/ml, K-BV I was 190μg/ml, K-BV Ⅱ was 160μg/ml and C-BV was 45μg/ml. 5. Electrophoresis method was unuseful for analysis of Bee Venom when solution rate is above 1:4000 but Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was possible. These data from the study can be applied to establish the standard measurement of Bee Venom and prevent pure bee venom from mixing of another components. I think it is desirable to study more about safety of Bee Venom as time goes by.

  14. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang K L; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bartsch, Ronny P

    2015-01-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function. (paper)

  15. Correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Heidari, Zahra; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Hashemi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients in an academic hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 376 eyes of 188 patients who were referred to Farabi Eye Hospital for refractive surgery. Preoperative examinations including refraction and corneal topography were performed for all candidates to measure refractive and corneal astigmatism. Ocular residual astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. Pearson's correlation and ANOVA analysis were used to evaluate the strength of the association between different types of astigmatism. Both eyes were defined as cluster and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis were performed. Mean age of 119 women (63.3%) and 69 men (36.7%) was 27.8 ± 5.7 years. Mean refractive error based on spherical equivalent was -3.59 ± 1.95D (range, -0.54 to -10.22D). Mean refractive and corneal astigmatism was 1.97 ± 1.3D and 1.85 ± 1.01D, respectively. Mean amount of ORA was 0.65 ± 0.36D.There was a significant correlation between ORA and refractive astigmatism(r=0.23, pcorrelation between ORA and corneal astigmatism (r=0.13, p=0.014). There was a significant correlation between J0 and J45 values of ORA and corneal astigmatism (pcorrelation between ORA and refractive astigmatism, refractive and corneal astigmatism and a weak correlation between ORA and corneal astigmatism in refractive surgery candidates. Identifying the type of astigmatism and preoperative measurement of ocular residual astigmatism is highly recommended prior to any refractive surgery, especially in cases with significant astigmatism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Manufacturing and testing experience for FFTF major safety related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckinpaugh, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with FFTF Heat Transport System components during design, manufacturing, and prototype testing is dscussed. Specifically the special design features and the results of the testing performed to assure that the designs provide for safe operation are outlined. Particular emphasis is placed on the full size prototype testing programs and the valuable experience gained

  17. Examination of core components removed from CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Coleman, C.E.; Rodgers, D.K.; Davies, P.H.; Chow, C.K.; Griffiths, M.

    1988-11-01

    Components in the core of a nuclear reactor degrade because the environment is severe. For example, in CANDU reactors the pressure tubes must contend with the effects of hot pressurised water and damage by a flux of fast neutrons. To evaluate any deterioration of components and determine the cause of the occasional failure, we have developed a wide range of remote-handling techniques to examine radioactive materials. As well as pressure tubes, we have examined calandria tubes, garter springs, end fittings, liquid-zone control units and flux detectors. The results from these examinations have produced solutions to problems and continually provide information to help understand the processes that may limit the lifetime of a component

  18. Control component structure and its removal from fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides methods and apparatus for securing and removing burnable poison rods to the spider in a fuel assembly. A pin is secured to one of the transverse ends of a burnable poison rod. The pin is seated in a bore that is formed in the spider arm appropriate to the rod under consideration. The burnable poison rod is separated from the spider arm by applying a force in a direction that is coincident with the longitudinal axis of the rod and its associated pin. The force is of sufficient magnitude to press the pin out of the spider arm

  19. Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, M. F. G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brasil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG contents were analyzed by HPLC and GC. The proximate composition of the fruits was also analyzed. The results relating to acidity, peroxide value and polar compounds indicate good quality of the oils obtained. Oleic acid ranging from 39.2 to 71.6% and palmitic acid ranging from 20.8 to 39.6% were the two major fatty acids in all the samples. The oils from inajá were characterized by the presence of significant amounts of lauric (4.6% and miristic (10.7% acids while in bacaba, buriti, pupunha and tucumã, as in most edible vegetable oils, only the fatty acids of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were present. Accordingly, the major TAG species in all the samples were POP, POO and OOO. The mesocarp of the palm fruit had a high content in lipids ranging from 17.0% for pupunha to 38.3% for bacaba, expressed as dry basis.Las palmeras nativas de la familia Arecaceae constituyen recursos alimentarios de gran importancia en la región amazónica. A pesar de su diversidad y utilidad, muchas especies son poco conocidas por lo que son de interés los estudios dirigidos a conocer la calidad y composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio

  20. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T [Bethel Park, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  1. Status of sodium removal and component decontamination technology in the SNR programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubold, W [INTERATOM GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Smit, C Ch [MT-TNO Dept. 50-MW Sodium Component Test Facility, Hengelo (Netherlands); Stade, K Ch [Kernkraftwerk-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    1978-08-01

    This paper summarizes the experience with sodium removal and component decontamination processes within the framework of the SNR project since the IAEA Specialists Meeting on 'Decontamination of Plant Components from Sodium and Radioactivity' at Dounreay, April 9-12, 1973. The moist nitrogen process has been successfully applied to remove sodium from all 66 fuel elements of the KNK I core. Progress has been obtained in removing sodium from fuel elements and large components by vacuum distillation. Areas where future development is required are identified. (author)

  2. Status of sodium removal and component decontamination technology in the SNR programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, W.; Smit, C.Ch.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1978-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience with sodium removal and component decontamination processes within the framework of the SNR project since the IAEA Specialists Meeting on 'Decontamination of Plant Components from Sodium and Radioactivity' at Dounreay, April 9-12, 1973. The moist nitrogen process has been successfully applied to remove sodium from all 66 fuel elements of the KNK I core. Progress has been obtained in removing sodium from fuel elements and large components by vacuum distillation. Areas where future development is required are identified. (author)

  3. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Removal of piping and equipment and removal of primary system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is a technical synopsis of the removal of contaminated and non-contaminated piping and equipment from the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document dismantling activities in support of reactor decommissioning. 5 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  4. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a customer...

  5. Posterior Femoral Single Limb Osteotomy for the Removal of Well-Fixed Modular Femoral Neck Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Fehring

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modular neck femoral components were introduced to optimize femoral neck anteversion, leg length, offset, and stability in total hip arthroplasty. However, concerns have been raised in recent years regarding early failure of these implants due to corrosion, pseudotumor, as well as fracture of the modular neck. Removing modular neck femoral implants is challenging as removal of the modular femoral neck leaves a proximally coated femoral stem level with the proximal bone of the femoral neck. We describe a posterior femoral single limb osteotomy  (posterior cut of an extended trochanteric osteotomy for the removal of a modular neck femoral component.

  6. The water vapor nitrogen process for removing sodium from LMFBR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippen, M D; Funk, C W; Lutton, J M [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Application and operation of the Water Vapor-Nitrogen Process for removing sodium from LMFBR components is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent efforts to verify the technological bases of the process, to refine the values of process parameters and to ensure the utility of the process for cleaning and requalifying components. (author)

  7. Chromate removal as influenced by the structural changes of soil components upon carbonization at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.Y.; Liu, J.C.; Chiang, P.N.; Wang, S.L.; Kuan, W.H.; Tzou, Y.M.; Deng, Y.; Tseng, K.J.; Chen, C.C.; Wang, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Surface fire could induce heat transferring into the soil, creating a carbonized environment, which may alter the chemical compositions of soil organic matters (SOM). In the study, a surface soil was carbonized at up to 600 °C with limited air to simulate soils experiencing a surface fire, and Cr(VI) removal on the carbonized soils was investigated. NMR and FTIR analyses demonstrated a remarkable change of SOM structures at 300–400 °C. TGA-MS spectra indicated that (e.g. C 2 H 4 , CH 3 OH and C 3 H 8 ) were the major components in the evolved gases from the pyrolyzed soil. A maximum amount of Cr(VI) removal (ca. 4 mg g −1 soil) occurred for the 200 °C-carbonized soils, attributed mainly to a significant increase of Cr(VI) reduction by 0.1 M KCl extractable organic carbon (EOC) with abundant carboxylic groups. Nonetheless, the formation of aromatic C upon carbonization of the soil at >400 °C may be responsible for Cr(VI) reduction. - Highlights: ► A maximum amount of Cr(VI) removal occurred for the 200 °C-carbonized soil. ► Extractable organic carbon (EOC) was increased upon carbonization of soil. ► EOC, enriched with carboxylic groups, enhances Cr(VI) reduction by the soil. ► The formation of aromatic C on a carbonized soil may be responsible for Cr(VI) reduction. ► Reductive product of Cr(III) tends to bond on high-temperature-modified soil. - This study first addresses the importance of surface fire-induced heat transferring into the soil to the transformations of environmental pollutants, i.e. chromium.

  8. Dual role of preputial gland secretion and its major components in sex recognition of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing

    2008-10-20

    This study was aimed at validating the sexual attractiveness of hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate, two putative pheromone compounds, from preputial gland secretion of mice. These two compounds have been reported to be among the major components of preputial gland secretion in both sexes but higher in quantity in males than females. In this study, we show that castration suppressed the production of the two compounds, further suggesting their association with maleness. Adding preputial gland secretion and the synthetic analogs of the two compounds to castrated male urine at their physiological levels in intact males increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to female mice, showing that the two compounds were indeed male pheromones. Furthermore, their sexual attractiveness disappeared upon removing the vomeronasal organs (VNOs) from female recipients. Replenishing castrated male urine with preputial gland secretion and the two compounds at their physiological levels in females increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to males. Such a reversal of sexual attractiveness for hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate suggests that they had opposing dual effects in sexual attractiveness in a dosage-dependent manner.

  9. Residual life assessment of major LWR components: NPAR approach and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Weidenhamer, G.H.; Vora, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) program is systematically addressing the technical issues associated with understanding and managing aging of major LWR components. Twenty-one major components have been identified and prioritized according to their relevance to plant safety. Qualitative aging assessment has identified pertinent design features, materials, stressors, environments, aging mechanisms. and failure modes for each of the components. Emerging inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods to characterize aging damage and mitigation methods to reduce the damage are currently being assessed. The results of all these assessments are used to develop life-assessment procedures for the components and are included in appropriate documents supporting the regulatory requirements for license renewal. (author)

  10. Aging assessment and mitigation for major LWR [light water reactor] components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Y.N.; Ware, A.G.; Conley, D.A.; MacDonald, P.E.; Burns, J.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the results of the Aging Assessment and Mitigation Project sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of the project is to develop an understanding of the aging degradation of the major light water reactor (LWR) structures and components and to develop methods for predicting the useful life of these components so that the impact of aging on the safe operation of nuclear power plants can be evaluated and addressed. The research effort consists of integrating, evaluating, and updating the available aging-related information. This paper discusses current accomplishments and summarizes the significant degradation processes active in two major components: pressurized water reactor pressurizer surge and spray lines and nozzles, and light water reactor primary coolant pumps. This paper also evaluates the effectiveness of the current inservice inspection programs and presents conclusions and recommendations related to aging of these two major components. 37 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Metal components of BWR containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed toward technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific

  12. An overview of ALARA considerations during Yankee Atomic`s Component Removal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, B.; Babineau, G.; Colby, B.; Cox, B. [Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Rowe, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In Februrary 1992, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) permanently shutdown Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, after thirty-two years of efficient operation. Yankee`s plan decommissioning is to defer dismantlement until a low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility is available. The plant will be maintained in a safe storage condition until a firm contract for the disposal of LLRW generated during decommissioning can be secured. Limited access to a LLRW disposal facility may occur during the safe storage period. Yankee intends to use these opportunities to remove components and structures. A Component Removal Project (CRP) was initiated in 1993 to take advantage of one of these opportunities. A Componenet Removal Project (CRP) was initiated in 1993 to take advantage of one of these opportunities. The CRP includes removal of four steam generators, the pressurizer, and segmentation of reactor vessel internals and preparation of LLRW for shipment and disposal at Chem-Nuclear`s Barnwell, South Carolina facility. The CRP is projected to be completed by June 1994 at an estimated total worker exposure of less than 160 person-rem.

  13. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  14. Effective Removal of Oil-mist and Odorous Component By Using Photocatalyst with Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Teruo; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Onishi, Hajime; Tada, Yukio; Takimoto, Akira

    The air cleaning is one of the social problems from the view of the living environment and the health recently. A commercial kitchen and food factory generate the exhaust gas including the odorous components and the oil-mist, but it is difficult to clean this gas without frequent maintenance for disposal of oil. Various ideas have been suggested and used for it, but the decisive solution has not been found yet. This paper is concerning of proposal of the photocatalyst method which used the condensation together to clean the gas including oil-mist and odorous component, and it was clarified experimentally about the influence of operation condition and surface shape of the condensation side for the removal of oil-mist and the odorous components of formaldehyde, amine and ammonia.

  15. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escobar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  16. Simulation of the removal of NET internal components with dynamic modeling software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquet, M.; Crutzen, Y.R.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.

    1989-01-01

    The replacement of the internal plasma-facing components (first-wall and blanket segments) for maintenance or at the end of their lifetime is an important aspect of the design of the next European torus (NET) and of the remote handling procedures. The first phase of development of the design software tool INVDYN (inverse dynamics) is presented, which will allow optimization of the movements of the internal segments during replacement, taking into account inertial effects and structural deformations. A first analysis of the removal of one NET internal segment provides, for a defined trajectory, the required generalized forces that must be applied on the crane system

  17. Experience on sodium removal from FBTR components in its operating phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambunathan, D.; Rao, M.S.; Krishnamachari, V.S.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.; Rajan, M.

    1997-01-01

    FBTR is a 40 MWt/13 MWe loop type, sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. There are two primary loops, two secondary loops and a common steam-water circuit. Criticality was achieved in 1985 and during the course of the 10 years of operation phase experience has been gained on the decontamination of certain core components, primary sodium pumps, CRDM parts, handling components and cold traps. This paper deals with the decontamination aspects of these components in detail. For core subassemblies a remote sodium cleaning system was provided in the hot cell. The unique feature of this system is that it pumps alcohol into wash chamber using compressed nitrogen. During cleaning, the sub assembly is loaded into the system using master slave manipulator and compressed nitrogen gas is used to pump alcohol into the system for cleaning the outer and inner surfaces of the sub assembly in cycles. Each cycle takes about 15 minutes and around 5 to 6 cycles of cleaning were employed to remove 100 g of sodium. The level of alcohol in the tank is measured by ultrasonic level probes. The used alcohol is pumped to medium active waste storage tank. Primary and secondary sodium pumps are the large components which were cleaned off sodium using steam and water in decontamination pit. Lower part of CRDM with a failed bellow was another component cleaned in decontamination pit. An electro decontamination technique was successfully developed to remove coloration on the lower part of CRDM for reuse. A stainless steel carrier with antimony capsule was the first radio active component to undergo sodium cleaning operation in decontamination pit meant for large primary sodium circuit components after making necessary modifications. Decontamination of other components such as fingers of grippers and scrapper rings of charging and discharging flasks was carried out with alcohol under inert atmosphere. The secondary loop cold trap was successfully cleaned by hydride decomposition and vacuum

  18. Characterization of the major nutritional components of Caryocar brasiliense fruit pulp by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Resck, Ines Sabioni; Mendonca, Marcio Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical fruit of Brazilian Cerrado, is well known in regional cookery and used in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Mass spectrometry and chromatographic methods have identified the organic composition of pequi fruit pulp; however, NMR spectroscopy is used for the first time to characterize the nutritional components of organic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. This spectroscopic technique determined the triacylglycerols in the pequi organic fraction, which is constituted mainly by oleate and palmitate esters, and detected the carbohydrate mixtures as the major components of aqueous and ethanolic fractions, respectively. In this study, presence of phenolic compounds was only evidenced in the ethanolic fraction. (author)

  19. Characterization of the major nutritional components of Caryocar brasiliense fruit pulp by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Genetica e Morfologia; Resck, Ines Sabioni; Mendonca, Marcio Antonio [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a typical fruit of Brazilian Cerrado, is well known in regional cookery and used in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Mass spectrometry and chromatographic methods have identified the organic composition of pequi fruit pulp; however, NMR spectroscopy is used for the first time to characterize the nutritional components of organic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts. This spectroscopic technique determined the triacylglycerols in the pequi organic fraction, which is constituted mainly by oleate and palmitate esters, and detected the carbohydrate mixtures as the major components of aqueous and ethanolic fractions, respectively. In this study, presence of phenolic compounds was only evidenced in the ethanolic fraction. (author)

  20. Matrix effects in PIXE evaluation of the major components in thick homogeneous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oystaeyen, B. van; Demortier, G.

    1983-01-01

    Matrix effects on the major component X-ray yields in PIXE measurements are studied in general terms with the Au-Cu-Ag matrix as practical example. Postulating firstly that all the major components may be simultaneously detected through one well-isolated peak for each of them, and secondly that a known reference material is available which contains all the elements of the unknown sample, we propose a direct method to extract the true concentrations of the latter taking into accout the matrix effects. The geometrical parameters describing the target location with respect to ion beam direction and detector position are also studied and a first attempt is made to include them in the data treatment. (orig.)

  1. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rady, Islam; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; Rady, Mohamad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle ba...

  2. Regulatory instrument review: Management of aging of LWR [light water reactor] major safety-related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, E.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report comprises Volume 1 of a review of US nuclear plant regulatory instruments to determine the amount and kind of information they contain on managing the aging of safety-related components in US nuclear power plants. The review was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Eight selected regulatory instruments, e.g., NRC Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations, were reviewed for safety-related information on five selected components: reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, primary piping, pressurizers, and emergency diesel generators. Volume 2 will be concluded in FY 1991 and will also cover selected major safety-related components, e.g., pumps, valves and cables. The focus of the review was on 26 NPAR-defined safety-related aging issues, including examination, inspection, and maintenance and repair; excessive/harsh testing; and irradiation embrittlement. The major conclusion of the review is that safety-related regulatory instruments do provide implicit guidance for aging management, but include little explicit guidance. The major recommendation is that the instruments be revised or augmented to explicitly address the management of aging

  3. (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of Anelaphus inflaticollis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A M; Swift, I P; Moreira, J A; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M

    2009-10-01

    We report the identification and field bioassays of a major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone of Anelaphus inflaticollis Chemsak, an uncommon desert cerambycine beetle. Male A. inflaticollis produced a sex-specific blend of components that included (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, (S)-2-hydroxyhexan-3-one, 2,3-hexanedione, and (2R,3R)- and (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediols. Field trials with baited bucket traps determined that the reconstructed synthetic pheromone blend and (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one alone attracted adult A. inflaticollis of both sexes, with significantly more beetles being attracted to the blend. We conclude that (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of A. inflaticollis, and our results suggest that one or more of the minor components may further increase attraction of conspecifics. Scanning electron microscopy showed that male A. inflaticollis have pores on the prothorax that are consistent in structure with sex-specific pheromone gland pores in related species. Males also displayed stereotyped calling behavior similar to that observed in other cerambycine species. This study represents the first report of volatile pheromones for a cerambycine species in the tribe Elaphidiini.

  4. Experience of partial dismantling and large component removal of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg, M.

    1987-01-01

    Not any of the French PWR reactors need to be decommissioned before the next decade or early 2000. However, feasibility studies of decommissioning have been undertaken and several dismantling scenarios have been considered including the dismantling of four PWR units and the on-site entombment of the active components into a reactor building for interim disposal. In addition to theoretical evaluation of radwaste volume and activity, several operations of partial dismantling of active components and decontamination activities have been conducted in view of dismantling for both PWR and BWR units. By analyzing the concept of both 900 and 1300 MWe PWR's, it appears that the design improvements taken into account for reducing occupational dose exposure of maintenance personnel and the development of automated tools for performing maintenance and repairs of major components, contribute to facilitate future dismantling and decommissioning operations

  5. BAYESIAN SEMI-BLIND COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR FOREGROUND REMOVAL IN INTERFEROMETRIC 21 cm OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Timbie, Peter T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sutter, P. M. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D., E-mail: lzhang263@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we present a new Bayesian semi-blind approach for foreground removal in observations of the 21 cm signal measured by interferometers. The technique, which we call H i Expectation–Maximization Independent Component Analysis (HIEMICA), is an extension of the Independent Component Analysis technique developed for two-dimensional (2D) cosmic microwave background maps to three-dimensional (3D) 21 cm cosmological signals measured by interferometers. This technique provides a fully Bayesian inference of power spectra and maps and separates the foregrounds from the signal based on the diversity of their power spectra. Relying only on the statistical independence of the components, this approach can jointly estimate the 3D power spectrum of the 21 cm signal, as well as the 2D angular power spectrum and the frequency dependence of each foreground component, without any prior assumptions about the foregrounds. This approach has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from interferometric 21 cm intensity mapping observations under idealized assumptions of instrumental effects. We also discuss the impact when the noise properties are not known completely. As a first step toward solving the 21 cm power spectrum analysis problem, we compare the semi-blind HIEMICA technique to the commonly used Principal Component Analysis. Under the same idealized circumstances, the proposed technique provides significantly improved recovery of the power spectrum. This technique can be applied in a straightforward manner to all 21 cm interferometric observations, including epoch of reionization measurements, and can be extended to single-dish observations as well.

  6. A Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from EEG Data Using Morphological Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG signals contain a large amount of ocular artifacts with different time-frequency properties mixing together in EEGs of interest. The artifact removal has been substantially dealt with by existing decomposition methods known as PCA and ICA based on the orthogonality of signal vectors or statistical independence of signal components. We focused on the signal morphology and proposed a systematic decomposition method to identify the type of signal components on the basis of sparsity in the time-frequency domain based on Morphological Component Analysis (MCA, which provides a way of reconstruction that guarantees accuracy in reconstruction by using multiple bases in accordance with the concept of “dictionary.” MCA was applied to decompose the real EEG signal and clarified the best combination of dictionaries for this purpose. In our proposed semirealistic biological signal analysis with iEEGs recorded from the brain intracranially, those signals were successfully decomposed into original types by a linear expansion of waveforms, such as redundant transforms: UDWT, DCT, LDCT, DST, and DIRAC. Our result demonstrated that the most suitable combination for EEG data analysis was UDWT, DST, and DIRAC to represent the baseline envelope, multifrequency wave-forms, and spiking activities individually as representative types of EEG morphologies.

  7. CO2 Removal from Multi-component Gas Mixtures Utilizing Spiral-Wound Asymmetric Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, W.B.; Fahmy, M.F.M.; Gad, F.K.; EI-Aleem, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic procedure and a computer program have been developed for simulating the performance of a spiral-wound gas permeate for the CO 2 removal from natural gas and other hydrocarbon streams. The simulation program is based on the approximate multi-component model derived by Qi and Henson(l), in addition to the membrane parameters achieved from the binary simulation program(2) (permeability and selectivity). Applying the multi-component program on the same data used by Qi and Henson to evaluate the deviation of the approximate model from the basic transport model, showing results more accurate than those of the approximate model, and are very close to those of the basic transport model, while requiring significantly less than 1 % of the computation time. The program was successfully applied on the data of Salam gas plant membrane unit at Khalda Petroleum Company, Egypt, for the separation of CO 2 from hydrocarbons in an eight-component mixture to estimate the stage cut, residue, and permeate compositions, and gave results matched with the actual Gas Chromatography Analysis measured by the lab

  8. A Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from EEG Data Using Morphological Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    EEG signals contain a large amount of ocular artifacts with different time-frequency properties mixing together in EEGs of interest. The artifact removal has been substantially dealt with by existing decomposition methods known as PCA and ICA based on the orthogonality of signal vectors or statistical independence of signal components. We focused on the signal morphology and proposed a systematic decomposition method to identify the type of signal components on the basis of sparsity in the time-frequency domain based on Morphological Component Analysis (MCA), which provides a way of reconstruction that guarantees accuracy in reconstruction by using multiple bases in accordance with the concept of “dictionary.” MCA was applied to decompose the real EEG signal and clarified the best combination of dictionaries for this purpose. In our proposed semirealistic biological signal analysis with iEEGs recorded from the brain intracranially, those signals were successfully decomposed into original types by a linear expansion of waveforms, such as redundant transforms: UDWT, DCT, LDCT, DST, and DIRAC. Our result demonstrated that the most suitable combination for EEG data analysis was UDWT, DST, and DIRAC to represent the baseline envelope, multifrequency wave-forms, and spiking activities individually as representative types of EEG morphologies. PMID:28194221

  9. Maintenance service for major component of PWR plant. Replacement of pressurizer safe end weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Ueda, Takeshi; Suda, Naoki; Shintani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In October 2016, MHI completed the replacement of safe end weld of pressurizer (Pz) of Ringhals unit 3, which was the first maintenance work for main component of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Europe. For higher reliability and longer lifetime of PWR plant, MHI has conducted many kinds of maintenance works of main components of PWR plants in Japan against stress corrosion cracking due to aging degradation. Technical process for replacement of Pz safe end weld were established by MHI. MHI has experienced the work for 21 PWR units in Japan. That of Ringhals unit 3 was planned and conducted based on the experiences. In this work, Alloy 600 used for welds of nozzles of Pz was replaced with Alloy 690. Alloy 690 is more corrosive-resistant than Alloy 600. Specially designed equipment and technical process were developed and established by MHI to replace safe end weld of Pz and applied for the Ringhals unit 3 as a first application in Europe. The application had been performed in success and achieved the planned replacement work duration and total radiation dose by using sophisticated machining and welding equipment designed to meet the requirements to be small, lightweight and remote-controlled and operating by well skilled MHI personnel experienced in maintenance activities for major components of PWR plant in Japan. The success shows that the experience, activities and technology developed in Japan for main components of PWR plant shall be applicable to contribute reliable operations of nuclear power plants in Europe and other countries. (author)

  10. Design and development of major balance of plant components in solid oxide fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Wen-Tang; Huang, Cheng-Nan; Tan, Hsueh-I; Chao, Yu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County 32546 (Taiwan, Province of China); Yen, Tzu-Hsiang [Green Technology Research Institute, CPC Corporation, Chia-Yi City 60036 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    2013-07-01

    The balance of plant (BOP) of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system with a 2 kW stack and an electric efficiency of 40% is optimized using commercial GCTool software. The simulation results provide a detailed understanding of the optimal operating temperature, pressure and mass flow rate in all of the major BOP components, i.e., the gas distributor, the afterburner, the reformer and the heat exchanger. A series of experimental trials are performed to validate the simulation results. Overall, the results presented in this study not only indicate an appropriate set of operating conditions for the SOFC power system, but also suggest potential design improvements for several of the BOP components.

  11. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. They have been compiled using contributions from technical experts in typically 10 to 12 countries for each report, a feedback from a September 1994 Technical Committee Meeting attended by 53 technical experts from 21 Member States (who reviewed first drafts in specialized working groups), and review comments from invited specialists

  12. Development of technology on natural flaw fabrication and precise diagnosis for the major components in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jung Ho; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Doek Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a fabrication technology of natural flaw specimen of major components in NPPs and a technology of precise diagnosis for failure and degradation of components using natural flaw specimen. 1) Successful development of the natural flaw fabrication technology of SG tube 2) Evaluation of ECT signal and development of precise diagnosis using natural flaws. - Determination of length, depth, width, and multiplicity of fabricated natural flaws. - Informations about detectability and accuracy of ECT evaluation on various kinds of defects are collected when the combination of probe and frequency is changed. - An advanced technology for precise ECT evaluation is established. 3) Application of precise ECT diagnosis to failure analysis of SG tube in operation. - Fretting wear of KSNP SG. - ODSCC at tube expanded region of KSNP SG. - Determination of through/non-through wall of axial crack

  13. Differential effects of adding and removing components of a context on the generalization of conditional freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felisa; Quinn, Jennifer J; Fanselow, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Rats were conditioned across 2 consecutive days where a single unsignaled footshock was presented in the presence of specific contextual cues. Rats were tested with contexts that had additional stimulus components either added or subtracted. Using freezing as a measure of conditioning, removal but not addition of a cue from the training context produced significant generalization decrement. The results are discussed in relation to the R. A. Rescorla and A. R. Wagner (1972), J. M. Pearce (1994), and A. R. Wagner and S. E. Brandon (2001) accounts of generalization. Although the present data are most consistent with elemental models such as Rescorla and Wagner, a slight modification of the Wagner-Brandon replaced-elements model that can account for differences in the pattern of generalization obtained with contexts and discrete conditional stimuli is proposed.

  14. The heat removal capability of actively cooled plasma-facing components for the ITER divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missirlian, M.; Richou, M.; Riccardi, B.; Gavila, P.; Loarer, T.; Constans, S.

    2011-12-01

    Non-destructive examination followed by high-heat-flux testing was performed for different small- and medium-scale mock-ups; this included the most recent developments related to actively cooled tungsten (W) or carbon fibre composite (CFC) armoured plasma-facing components. In particular, the heat-removal capability of these mock-ups manufactured by European companies with all the main features of the ITER divertor design was investigated both after manufacturing and after thermal cycling up to 20 MW m-2. Compliance with ITER requirements was explored in terms of bonding quality, heat flux performances and operational compatibility. The main results show an overall good heat-removal capability after the manufacturing process independent of the armour-to-heat sink bonding technology and promising behaviour with respect to thermal fatigue lifetime under heat flux up to 20 MW m-2 for the CFC-armoured tiles and 15 MW m-2 for the W-armoured tiles, respectively.

  15. The heat removal capability of actively cooled plasma-facing components for the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M; Richou, M; Loarer, T; Riccardi, B; Gavila, P; Constans, S

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive examination followed by high-heat-flux testing was performed for different small- and medium-scale mock-ups; this included the most recent developments related to actively cooled tungsten (W) or carbon fibre composite (CFC) armoured plasma-facing components. In particular, the heat-removal capability of these mock-ups manufactured by European companies with all the main features of the ITER divertor design was investigated both after manufacturing and after thermal cycling up to 20 MW m - 2. Compliance with ITER requirements was explored in terms of bonding quality, heat flux performances and operational compatibility. The main results show an overall good heat-removal capability after the manufacturing process independent of the armour-to-heat sink bonding technology and promising behaviour with respect to thermal fatigue lifetime under heat flux up to 20 MW m - 2 for the CFC-armoured tiles and 15 MW m - 2 for the W-armoured tiles, respectively.

  16. The accuracy of the diffusion theory component of removal-diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, I.J.

    1976-03-01

    The neutron fluxes in five neutron shields consisting of water, concrete, graphite, iron and an iron-water lattice respectively, have been calculated using P 1 theory, diffusion theory with the usual transport correction for anisotropic scattering (DT), and diffusion theory with a diagonal transport correction (DDT). The calculations have been repeated using transport theory for the flux above 0.5 MeV and the diffusion theories for lower energies. Comparisons with transport theory calculations reveal the accuracy of each diffusion theory when it is used for flux evaluation at all energies, and also its accuracy when used for flux evaluation below 0.5 MeV given the correct flux above 0.5 MeV. It is concluded that the diffusion component of removal-diffusion theory has adequate accuracy unless the high energy diffusion entering the shield is significantly larger than the removal flux. In general, P 1 and DT are more accurate than DDT and give similar fluxes except for shields having a large hydrogen content, in which case DT is better. Therefore it is recommended that DT be used in preference to P 1 theory or DDT. (author)

  17. Temporal variations of PM1 major components in an urban street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubero, E; Galindo, N; Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal changes in the levels of PM1 and its main components (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-) and NH4 (+)) were studied in an urban street canyon in southeastern Spain. Although PM1 levels did not show an evident seasonal cycle, strong variations in the concentrations of its major components were observed. Ammonium sulfate, the main secondary inorganic compound, was found to be of regional origin. Its formation was favored during summer due to increased photochemical activity. In contrast, the concentrations of particulate ammonium nitrate, which is thermally unstable, were highest in winter. Although traffic emissions are the dominant source of EC in the city, variations in traffic intensity could not explain the seasonal cycle of this component. The higher EC concentrations during the cold months were attributed to the lower dispersion conditions and the increase in EC emissions. Special attention has been given to variations in organic carbon levels since it accounted for about one third of the total PM1 mass. The concentrations of both total OC and secondary OC (SOC) were maxima in winter. The observed seasonal variation in SOC levels is similar to that found in other southern European cities where the frequency of sunny days in winter is high enough to promote photochemical processes.

  18. A procedure for evaluating residual life of major components in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Fujimori, H.; Ibe, E.; Kuniya, J.; Hayashi, M.; Fuse, M.; Yamauchi, K.

    1995-01-01

    A computer program for evaluating residual life of major components in boiling water reactors is proposed. It divides the stress corrosion cracking process into two stages; a probabilistic crack generation stage and a deterministic crack propagation one. The minimum period of the crack generation stage is evaluated assuming an exponential distribution of the stage. The crack propagation rate is calculated by the slip-dissolution/film-rupture model. The neutron flux and fluence dependence of the neutron radiation effects on material properties was evaluated by using theoretical models of radiation damage. The computer program works on an engineering work station. Evaluated results are displayed as a map of the residual life, or as graphs of crack length evolution

  19. Melittin, a major peptide component of bee venom, and its conjugates in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Islam; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Rady, Mohamad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-08-28

    Melittin (MEL), a major peptide component of bee venom, is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy. This agent has shown a variety of anti-cancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Despite a convincing efficacy data against variety of cancers, its applicability to humans has met with challenges due to several issues including its non-specific cytotoxicity, degradation and hemolytic activity. Several optimization approaches including utilization of nanoparticle based delivery of MEL have been utilized to circumvent the issues. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the anticancer effects of bee venom and MEL on different kinds of cancers. Further, we also present the available information for the possible mechanism of action of bee venom and/or MEL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacological activity of salvinorin A, the major component of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listos, Joanna; Merska, Alicja; Fidecka, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum (i.e., "magic mint") is a member of the Sage family that has been historically used for divination and shamanism by the Mazatecs. Today, S. divinorum has become increasingly popular as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic effects. The non-nitrogenous diterpene, salvinorin A, the major active component of S. divinorum, is responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of this plant. Here, we described the behavioral effects of salvinorin A in animals including the addictive, antinociception and antidepressant properties of the drug. The present paper also demonstrates the not well recognized (or unclear) mechanisms of action of salvinorin A. The last part of the paper presents information about the legal status of S. divinorum and its derivatives. Taking into account the increasing popularity and consumption of salvinorin A and S. divinorum today, it is important to collect all data on the pharmacological profile of this plant and its products.

  1. Thermal-structural response of EBR-II major components under reactor operational transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Lee, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, the LMFBR safety research has been focused primarily on severe but highly unlikely accident, such as hypothetical-core-disruptive accidents (HCDA's), and not enough attention has been given to accident prevention, which is less severe but more likely sequence. The objective of the EBR-II operational reliability testing (ORT) is to demonstrate that the reactor can be designed and operated to prevent accident. A series of mild duty cycles and overpower transients were designed for accident prevention tests. An assessment of the EBR-II major plant components has been performed to assure structural integrity of the reactor plant for the ORT program. In this paper, the thermal-structural response and structural evaluation of the reactor vessel, the reactor-vessel cover, the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the superheater are presented

  2. Comparative study on major bioactive components in natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Wu, Yan-Wen; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Major bioactive components in various Calculus Bovis, including natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, were comparatively studied. An approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and evaporative light scattering detections (HPLC/UV/ELSD) was established to simultaneously determinate six bioactive components thereof, including five bile acids (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid) and bilirubin. ELSD and UV detector were applied to detect bile acids and bilirubin respectively. The assay was performed on a C(18) column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze twenty-one Calculus Bovis extraction samples, and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The result indicated the variations among Calculus Bovis samples under different developmental conditions. Artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, especially in-vitro cultured ones, which contain total bioactive constituents no less than natural products and have the best batch-to-batch uniformity, suffice to be used as substitutes of natural Calculus Bovis.

  3. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P < 0.0001). MetS was independent of pertinent MACE risk factors except age and previous cardiac disease. Among MetS components, dysglycemia provided greatest hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. Stress-based fatigue assessment of major component in NPP using modified Green's function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Han Ok; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Jae Boong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the modified GFA which can consider temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using a neural network (NN) and weight factor. To verify the modified GFA, thermal stresses by the proposed method are compared with those by FEM. Finally, pros and cons of the new method as well as technical findings from the assessment are discussed to show applicability of them. In this paper, the modified GFA considering temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using NN and weight factor. To verify the proposed method, thermal stresses by the modified Green's function are compared with those by FEM and the results between two methods show a good agreement. Finally, it is anticipated that more precise fatigue evaluation is performed by using the proposed method. Recently, 434 nuclear reactors are being operated in the world. Among them, about 40% reactors are being operated beyond their design life or will be approaching their life. During the long term operation, various degradation mechanisms are occurred. Fatigue damage caused by alternating operational stresses in terms of temperature or pressure change is the one of important damage mechanisms in the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Although components important to safety were designed to withstand the fatigue damage, cumulative usage factor (CUF) at some locations can exceed the design limit beyond the design life. So, it is necessary to monitor the fatigue damage of major components during the long term operation. Researches on fatigue monitoring system (FMS) have been widely performed. In USA, the FatiguePro was developed by EPRI and was applied to the CE, WEC, B and W and GE type reactors. In Korea, the Kori unit 1 which started commercial operation in 1978 is being operated beyond its design life. At the stage of the license renewal, various plans for degradation mechanisms were established and reviewed. And, in case of fatigue damage, to monitor the fatigue damage of major components

  5. In vitro susceptibility of Trypanosoma brucei brucei to selected essential oils and their major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sonya; Cavadas, Cláudia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; do Céu Sousa, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated. Of the 17 essential oils screened three showed high trypanocidal activity (IC 50  oils had no cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells showing the highest values of Selectivity Index (63.4, 9.0 and 11.8, respectively). The oils of Distichoselinum tenuifolium, Lavandula viridis, Origanum virens, Seseli tortuosom, Syzygium aromaticum, and Thymbra capitata also exhibited activity (IC 50 of 10-25 μg/mL) but showed cytotoxicity on macrophages. Of the nine compounds tested, α-pinene (IC 50 of 2.9 μg/mL) and citral (IC 50 of 18.9 μg/mL) exhibited the highest anti-trypanosomal activities. Citral is likely the active component of C. citratus and α-pinene is responsible for the antitrypanosomal effects of J. oxycedrus. The present work leads us to propose the J. oxycedrus, C. citratus and L. luisieri oils as valuable sources of new molecules for African Sleeping Sickness treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the Compositional Variability of the Major Components of Hydrothermal Plumes in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the major components of hydrothermal plumes in seafloor hydrothermal fields are critical for an improved understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the large-scale distribution of elements in the submarine environment. The composition of major components in hydrothermal plume water column samples from 25 stations has been investigated in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough. The physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal plume water in the Okinawa Trough have been affected by input of the Kuroshio current, and its influence on hydrothermal plume water from the southern Okinawa Trough to the middle Okinawa Trough is reduced. The anomalous layers of seawater in the hydrothermal plume water columns have higher K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, B3+, Ca2+/SO42-, and Mn2+/Mg2+ ratios and higher optical anomalies than other layers. The Mg2+, SO42-, Mg2+/Ca2+, and SO42-/Mn2+ ratios of the anomalous layers are lower than other layers in the hydrothermal plume water columns and are consistent with concentrations in hydrothermal vent fluids in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that the chemical variations of hydrothermal plumes in the Tangyin hydrothermal field, like other hydrothermal fields, result in the discharge of high K+, Ca2+, and B3+ and low Mg2+ and SO42- fluid. Furthermore, element ratios (e.g., Sr2+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Cl− in hydrothermal plume water columns were found to be similar to those in average seawater, indicating that Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/Cl− ratios of hydrothermal plumes might be useful proxies for chemical properties of seawater. The hydrothermal K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and B3+ flux to seawater in the Okinawa Trough is about 2.62–873, 1.04–326, 1.30–76.4, and 0.293–34.7 × 106 kg per year, respectively. The heat flux is about 0.159–1,973 × 105 W, which means that roughly 0.0006% of ocean heat is supplied by seafloor hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough.

  7. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  8. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; (IIT); (US-FDA); (IT)

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  9. On the major ductile fracture methodologies for failure assessment of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Julio R.B.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P. de; Landes, John D.

    1996-01-01

    In structures like nuclear reactor components there is a special concern with the loads that may occur under postulated accident conditions. These loads can cause the stresses to go well beyond the linear elastic limits, requiring the use of ductile fracture mechanics methods to the prediction of the structure behavior. Since the use of numerical methods to apply EPFM concepts is expensive and time consuming, the existence of analytical engineering procedures are of great relevance. The lack of precision in detail, as compared with numerical nonlinear analyses, is compensated by the possibility of quick failure assessments. This is a determinant factor in situations where a systematic evaluation of a large range of geometries and loading conditions is necessary, like in thr application of the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept on nuclear piping. This paper outlines four ductile fracture analytical methods, pointing out positive and negative aspects of each one. The objective is to take advantage of this critical review to conceive a new methodology, one that would gather strong points of the major existent methods and would try to eliminate some of their drawbacks. (author)

  10. Alpinia Essential Oils and Their Major Components against Rhodnius nasutus, a Vector of Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamiris de A. de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Alpinia are widely used by the population and have many described biological activities, including activity against insects. In this paper, we describe the bioactivity of the essential oil of two species of Alpinia genus, A. zerumbet and A. vittata, against Rhodnius nasutus, a vector of Chagas disease. The essential oils of these two species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituent of A. zerumbet essential oil (OLALPZER was terpinen-4-ol, which represented 19.7% of the total components identified. In the essential oil of A. vittata (OLALPVIT the monoterpene β-pinene (35.3% was the main constituent. The essential oils and their main constituents were topically applied on R. nasutus fifth-instar nymphs. In the first 10 min of application, OLALPVIT and OLALPZER at 125 μg/mL provoked 73.3% and 83.3% of mortality, respectively. Terpinen-4-ol at 25 μg/mL and β-pinene at 44 μg/mL provoked 100% of mortality. The monitoring of resistant insects showed that both essential oils exhibited antifeedant activity. These results suggest the potential use of A. zerumbet and A. vittata essential oils and their major constituents to control R. nasutus population.

  11. Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Amrita; Campbell, Kate M.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Roebbert, Yvonne; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Borch, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Historically, it is believed that crystalline uraninite, produced via the abiotic reduction of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) is the dominant reduced U species formed in low-temperature uranium roll-front ore deposits. Here we show that non-crystalline U(IV) generated through biologically mediated U(VI) reduction is the predominant U(IV) species in an undisturbed U roll-front ore deposit in Wyoming, USA. Characterization of U species revealed that the majority (~58-89%) of U is bound as U(IV) to C-containing organic functional groups or inorganic carbonate, while uraninite and U(VI) represent only minor components. The uranium deposit exhibited mostly 238U-enriched isotope signatures, consistent with largely biotic reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). This finding implies that biogenic processes are more important to uranium ore genesis than previously understood. The predominance of a relatively labile form of U(IV) also provides an opportunity for a more economical and environmentally benign mining process, as well as the design of more effective post-mining restoration strategies and human health-risk assessment.

  12. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  13. Elwha River dam removal: A major opportunity for salmon and steelhead recolonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pess, George R.; Brenkman, Samuel J.; Winans, Gary A.; McHenry, Michael L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Beechie, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    In this in-depth paper, authors George R. Pess, Gary A. Winans and Timothy J. Beechie of the NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, Samuel J. Brenkman of the National Park Service, Olympic National Park, Michael L. McHenry of the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe and Jeffrey J. Duda of the U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center in Seattle, provide an historical overview of the Elwha River system, and its native anadromous fish runs and the prospect of their recolonization after the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams are removed.

  14. Removal method of fluorescent dyes as pretreatment for measurement of major ion concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Takuma; Kashiwaya, Koki; Kodama, Hiroki; Miyajima, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    The major ion concentration and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen can provide important information for migration of groundwater. Sometimes, quantitative estimation of these chemical and isotopic characteristics of solution is necessary for groundwater containing fluorescent dyes, which are used in drilling borehole and tracer experiments. However, sometimes correct estimation is disturbed by dyes and they become a cause of troubles for measurement equipments. Thus development of method to remove dyes is required so that the characteristics of groundwater can be estimated without the negative effect of dyes on measurement or equipments. In this study, removal of four representative dyes (Uranin, Eosin, Naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium(NAP) and Amino G acid potassium salt (AG)) was investigated. Uranin and Eosin were found to be removed by non-ionic synthetic resin: HP2MG. 99.99% of the dyes were removed from initial solutions containing dyes with 10 mg/L after contact with resin, while the contact had little effect on ion concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Thus the chemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater samples containing Uranin and Eosin can be obtained by using the HP2MG resin. On the other hand, the NAP and AG were found to be difficult to remove by the HP2MG resin but they were able to be removed by anion exchange resin (Dowex 1x8). Though contact of solution with Dowex 1x8 did not affect cation concentrations and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, anion concentrations were changed by the contact. Therefore the Dowex 1x8 is only applicable to estimation of the cation concentrations and isotope ratio of hydrogen and oxygen. When both anion and cation concentrations from the samples were necessary, Uranin or Eosin were recommended as a tracer in drilling or tracer experiments. (author)

  15. Effects of Selected Root Exudate Components on Nitrogen Removal and Development of Denitrifying Bacteria in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates, particularly low molecular weight carbon (LMWC substrates, are major drivers of bacterial diversity and activity in the rhizosphere environment. However, it is not well understood how specific LMWC compounds—such as organic acids, soluble sugars, and amino acids—influence the community structures of denitrifying bacteria or if there are specific functions of LMWC substrates that preferentially respond to nitrogen (N removal in constructed wetlands (CWs. To address these knowledge gaps, we added mixtures of artificial exudates to CW microcosms containing N pollutant. N removal efficiency was observed over a 48-h experimental period, and at the end of the experiment, DNA was extracted from microbial samples for assessment of the bacterial community. The removal efficiencies of TN for the exudates treatments were higher than for control groups by 47.1–58.67%. Organic acid and soluble sugar treatments increased N removal, while amino acids were negative to N removal. The microbial community was changed when artificial exudates were added, but there were no significant relationships between LMWC compounds and bacterial community composition. These results indicate that although the responses of community structures of denitrifying bacteria to LMWC additions are still uncertain, there is evidence for N removal in response to exudate additions across LMWC types.

  16. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  17. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  18. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover

  19. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN MAJOR COMPONENTS OF FORESTS LOCATED IN FIVE LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major uncertainties concerning the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle is the lack of adequate data on the carbon content of all their components. The goal of this study was to contribute to filling this data gap by estimating the quantity of carbon in ...

  20. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, M.B.

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR

  1. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitka Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980’s. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT.

  2. Replacement of major nuclear power plant components for service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Problems are discussed associated with replacement of nuclear power plant components with the aim to extend their original scheduled life. The existing foreign experience shows that it is technically feasible to replace practically all basic components for which the necessity of replacement is established. Data is summed up on the replacement of steam generators in US and West German nuclear power plants showing the duration of the job, the total consumption of manhours, the collective dose equivalent and the cost. Attention is also focused on implemented and projected replacements of circulation pipes in nuclear power plants abroad. Based on these figures, the cost is estimated of the replacement of the reactor vessel and the steam generators for WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that even based on a conservative estimate, the extension by 20 years of the service life of a nuclear power plant is economically more effective than the construction of a new plant. (Z.M.) 2 tabs., 15 refs., 3 figs

  3. The Removal of EOG Artifacts From EEG Signals Using Independent Component Analysis and Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Teng, Chaolin; Li, Kuo; Zhang, Zhonglin; Yan, Xiangguo

    2016-09-01

    The recorded electroencephalography (EEG) signals are usually contaminated by electrooculography (EOG) artifacts. In this paper, by using independent component analysis (ICA) and multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD), the ICA-based MEMD method was proposed to remove EOG artifacts (EOAs) from multichannel EEG signals. First, the EEG signals were decomposed by the MEMD into multiple multivariate intrinsic mode functions (MIMFs). The EOG-related components were then extracted by reconstructing the MIMFs corresponding to EOAs. After performing the ICA of EOG-related signals, the EOG-linked independent components were distinguished and rejected. Finally, the clean EEG signals were reconstructed by implementing the inverse transform of ICA and MEMD. The results of simulated and real data suggested that the proposed method could successfully eliminate EOAs from EEG signals and preserve useful EEG information with little loss. By comparing with other existing techniques, the proposed method achieved much improvement in terms of the increase of signal-to-noise and the decrease of mean square error after removing EOAs.

  4. Numerical simulation of extraction behavior of major components in the CMPO-TBP-HNO3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, M.; Koma, Y.; Koyama, T.; Funasaka, H.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical simulation code was developed in order to find the optimum condition for separation and the recovery of TRU (TRansUranium) elements in the octyl(phenyl)-N,N-di-isobutyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) - tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) - HNO 3 solvent extraction system. This code is able to predict the extraction behavior of americium and europium in the system containing many components. Calculations of concentration profiles of americium and lanthanides were carried out for a counter current experiment with laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The calculated profiles were in agreement with the experimental ones. The effect of oxalic acid was also included in the calculation and was discussed. (authors)

  5. Monitoring aquatic environment pollution : a major component of environment management system part-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Khan, M.H.; Sheikh, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The quality of water suitable for simple disinfection and filtration is presented in this article. Aquatic monitoring requires sampling frequencies along the alignment of surface water bodies. It is necessary to control the industrial effluents discharge in to river and sewers. Unlike wastes from entirely domestic sources, however industrial effluents may contain a very large variety of unnatural components which necessitates greater considerations in setting suitable discharge limits and, perhaps closer surveillance to ensure that standards are met. Several suggestion and example of different types of effluent have been described. All the examples given are sufficiently convincing that Pakistan can learn a great deal from international experiences in environmental pollution to avoid catastrophes. (A.B.)

  6. Rebuilding the foundations: major renovations to the mental health component of an undergraduate nursing curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Deborah; Garrick, Helen; McKay, Marie

    2012-10-01

    Concerns relating to the adequacy of nurses' preparation for the care of people with mental illness prompted significant revision of the mental health component in a Bachelor of Health Science nursing programme in New Zealand that prepares approximately 200 students per year. Working collaboratively with clinical providers, university staff developed and introduced three courses (equivalent to 450 hours of learning) specifically focused on mental health science, inpatient practice, and primary community mental health practice. This paper provides an overview of the new courses and reports the findings of an appreciative inquiry evaluation of this curriculum innovation. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future.

  8. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future

  9. Comparison of major and trace components of Chinese and Canadian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puling Liu; Jervis, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    INAA was used to determine 32 major and trace elements in 21 soil samples collected from the Loess Plateau, China, and Ontario, Canada. The elemental concentrations determined in different layers of each soil, have been used for comparison in order to find out the general characteristics and any significant differences between Canadian and Chinese soils which developed from similar parent materials. This data can be useful to pedologists and geochemists to study the elemental behaviours and the influences of climate and environment on soil formation. Effort is directed to applying a statistical factor pattern recognition method to these soils for possible use in future soil erosion and transport studies in China. From this study, four soil factors were resolved each for the Chinese and Canadian soils. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  10. Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Costa de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

  11. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  12. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors.

  13. High Heat Flux Interactions and Tritium Removal from Plasma Facing Components by a Scanning Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.; Hassanein, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new technique for studying high heat flux interactions with plasma facing components is presented. The beam from a continuous wave 300 W neodymium laser was focused to 80 W/mm2 and scanned at high speed over the surface of carbon tiles. These tiles were previously used in the TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] inner limiter and have a surface layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon that was codeposited during plasma operations. Laser scanning released up to 84% of the codeposited tritium. The temperature rise of the codeposit on the tiles was significantly higher than that of the manufactured material. In one experiment, the codeposit surface temperature rose to 1,770 C while for the same conditions, the manufactured surface increased to only 1,080 C. The peak temperature did not follow the usual square-root dependence on heat pulse duration. Durations of order 100 ms resulted in brittle destruction and material loss from the surface, while a duration of approximately 10 ms showed minimal change. A digital microscope imaged the codeposit before, during, and after the interaction with the laser and revealed hot spots on a 100-micron scale. These results will be compared to analytic modeling and are relevant to the response of plasma facing components to disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDEs) in next-step magnetic fusion devices

  14. [Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology focused on cannabidiol, a major component of the fiber-type cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuso

    2013-01-01

    Considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, and it has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), several studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. In the present report, the author summarizes findings indicating that; 1) CBDA is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and ii) CBDA possesses an anti-migrative potential for highly invasive cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. Further, the author introduces recent findings on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the CBD derivative, CBD-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD), that exhibits inhibitory activity toward 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the production of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). These studies establish CBD as both an important experimental tool and as a lead compound for pharmaceutical development. In this review, the author further discusses the potential uses of CBD and its derivatives in future medicines.

  15. The case for SAR as the major component of a hyperthermia treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem facing clinical hyperthermia is the lack of a useful unit of treatment. Most attempts at a treatment unit have utilized some function of temperature and time. Having accepted the validity of such a hypothetical units, one is faced with the formidable problem of obtaining a three dimensional temperature profile so that thermal dose can be determined. A corollary is the desirability of obtaining uniform temperature in the treatment volume. Various studies suggest that a uniform SAR is a more desirable goal when radiotherapy is to be used in combination with hyperthermia. The synergy between radiation and hyperthermia is maximized in low pH regions of tumor which are presumably also hypoxic. These regions are poorly perfused, likely to heat readily, and are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of radiation alone. On the other hand, well perfused regions of tumor are likely sensitive to radiation, and benefit less from the combination treatment. Other studies have definitely shown that tissue temperatures in the range normally associated with desirable hyperthermia treatment result in severe vascular damage. This damage could be expected to unnecessarily compromise the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Models in the literature can be combined to verify these observations

  16. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  17. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy studies of Artepillin C, the major component of green propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuri, Isamara Julia; Costa, Adriano Batista; Ito, Amando Siuiti; Pazin, Wallance Moreira

    2018-06-01

    The bioactivity of propolis against several pathogens is well established, leading to the extensive consumption of that bee product to prevent diseases. Brazilian green propolis, collected by the species Apis mellifera, is one of the most consumed in the world. The chemical composition of green propolis is complex and it has been shown that it displays antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, especially due to the high content of Artepillin C. The molecule is a derivative of cinnamic acid with two prenylated groups, responsible for the improvement of the affinity of the compound for lipophilic environment. A carboxylic group (COOH) is also present in the molecule, making it a pH-sensitive compound and the pH-dependent structure of Artepillin C, may modulate its biological activity related to interactions with the cellular membrane of organisms and tissues. Molecular properties of Artepillin C on aqueous solution were examined by optical absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Acid-base titration based on the spectral position of the near UV absorption band, resulted in the pKa value of 4.65 for the carboxylic group in Artepillin C. In acidic pH, below the pKa value, an absorption band raised around 350 nm at Artepillin C concentration above 50 μM, due to aggregation of the molecule. In neutral pH, with excitation at 310 nm, Artepillin C presents dual emission at 400 and 450 nm. In pH close to the pKa, the optical spectra show contribution from both protonated and deprotonated species. A three-exponential function was necessary to fit the intensity decays at the different pHs, dominated by a very short lifetime component, around 0.060 ns. The fast decay resulted in emission before fluorescence depolarization, and in values of fluorescence anisotropy higher than could be expected for monomeric forms of the compound. The results give fundamental knowledge about the protonation-deprotonation state of the

  18. Molecular cloning of human protein 4.2: A major component of the erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, L.A.; Chien, Shu; Lambert, K.; Chang, Longsheng; Bliss, S.A.; Bouhassira, E.E.; Nagel, R.L.; Schwartz, R.S.; Rybicki, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Protein 4.2 (P4.2) comprises ∼5% of the protein mass of human erythrocyte (RBC) membranes. Anemia occurs in patients with RBCs deficient in P4.2, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining RBC stability and integrity. The authors now report the molecular cloning and characterization of human RBC P4.2 cDNAs. By immunoscreening a human reticulocyte cDNA library and by using the polymerase chain reaction, two cDNA sequences of 2.4 and 2.5 kilobases (kb) were obtained. These cDNAs differ only by a 90-base-air insert in the longer isoform located three codons downstream from the putative initiation site. The 2.4- and 2.5-kb cDNAs predict proteins of ∼77 and ∼80 kDa, respectively, and the authenticity was confirmed by sequence identity with 46 amino acids of three cyanogen bromide-cleaved peptides of P4.2. Northern blot analysis detected a major 2.4-kb RNA species in reticulocytes. Isolation of two P4.2 cDNAs implies existence of specific regulation of P4.2 expression in human RBCs. Human RBC P4.2 has significant homology with human factor XIII subunit a and guinea pig liver transglutaminase. Sequence alignment of P4.2 with these two transglutaminases, however, revealed that P4.2 lacks the critical cysteine residue required for the enzymatic crosslinking of substrates

  19. Monitoring aquatic environment pollution: a major component of environment management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Khan, M.H.; Sheikh, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is based on the international experiences mostly of the UK (United Kingdom) and Europe on monitoring aquatic pollution and controlling water pollution which have a long history of the legislation involved. The U.K. control of water pollution and regulatory laws are very effective as in shown by the fact that 96 percent of rivers in England and Wales are suitable for potable supplies with conventional water treatment. Current British legislation is basically contained n the 1951, 1960 and 1974 acts of parliament in the U.K. A common feature of all this environment legislation is the high level of consultation which has taken place between government and all concerned and al those concerned in the development of legislation and drawing up regulations etc. and involved in implementation of them. Similarly considerable discussion takes place with the controlling authorities by dischargers over the detailed implementation of legislation in the U.K. Consequently these harmonious attitudes have been responsible for the effectiveness of the U.K. legislation. In the U.K. control of discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground water is vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges of industrial effluents to sewers and to all natural waters including underground waters in vested in the regional water authorities, which on application, issue consent permitting discharges to be made subject to conditions and limitations in the consent/authorisation/approval. The paper critically reviews major aspects of the philosophy of aquatic pollution control and monitoring, as statistics reveal deadly state of liquid effluent contamination water bodies in Pakistan. Without prompt installation of treatment plants we may face a tragedy of catastrophic magnitude. (author)

  20. Component resolution reveals additional major allergens in patients with honeybee venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julian; Blank, Simon; Müller, Sabine; Bantleon, Frank; Frick, Marcel; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Lidholm, Jonas; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Detection of IgE to recombinant Hymenoptera venom allergens has been suggested to improve the diagnostic precision in Hymenoptera venom allergy. However, the frequency of sensitization to the only available recombinant honeybee venom (HBV) allergen, rApi m 1, in patients with HBV allergy is limited, suggesting that additional HBV allergens might be of relevance. We performed an analysis of sensitization profiles of patients with HBV allergy to a panel of HBV allergens. Diagnosis of HBV allergy (n = 144) was based on history, skin test results, and allergen-specific IgE levels to HBV. IgE reactivity to 6 HBV allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) was analyzed by ImmunoCAP. IgE reactivity to rApi m 1, rApi m 2, rApi m 3, nApi m 4, rApi m 5, and rApi m 10 was detected in 72.2%, 47.9%, 50.0%, 22.9%, 58.3%, and 61.8% of the patients with HBV allergy, respectively. Positive results to at least 1 HBV allergen were detected in 94.4%. IgE reactivity to Api m 3, Api m 10, or both was detected in 68.0% and represented the only HBV allergen-specific IgE in 5% of the patients. Limited inhibition of IgE binding by therapeutic HBV and limited induction of Api m 3- and Api m 10-specific IgG4 in patients obtaining immunotherapy supports recent reports on the underrepresentation of these allergens in therapeutic HBV preparations. Analysis of a panel of CCD-free HBV allergens improved diagnostic sensitivity compared with use of rApi m 1 alone, identified additional major allergens, and revealed sensitizations to allergens that have been reported to be absent or underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John (Conterra AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB (Sweden)); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Bjoern (Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)); Waber, Niklaus (Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)); Gimeno, Maria (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Gascoyne, Mel (GGP Inc. (United Kingdom))

    2008-09-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  2. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Waber, Niklaus; Gimeno, Maria; Gascoyne, Mel

    2008-09-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  3. Characterization of secondary organic aerosol from photo-oxidation of gasoline exhaust and specific sources of major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengkun; Zhang, Peng; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Haixu

    2018-01-01

    To further explore the composition and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components from the photo-oxidation of light aromatic precursors (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB)) and idling gasoline exhaust, a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) was employed. Peaks of the molecular ions of the SOA components with minimum molecular fragmentation were clearly observed from the mass spectra of SOA, through the application of soft ionization methods in VUV-PIMS. The experiments comparing the exhaust-SOA and light aromatic mixture-SOA showed that the observed distributions of almost all the predominant cluster ions in the exhaust-SOA were similar to that of the mixture-SOA. Based on the characterization experiments of SOA formed from individual light aromatic precursors, the SOA components with molecular weights of 98 and 110 amu observed in the exhaust-SOA resulted from the photo-oxidation of toluene and m-xylene; the components with a molecular weight of 124 amu were derived mainly from m-xylene; and the components with molecular weights of 100, 112, 128, 138, and 156 amu were mainly derived from 1,3,5-TMB. These results suggest that C 7 -C 9 light aromatic hydrocarbons are significant SOA precursors and that major SOA components originate from gasoline exhaust. Additionally, some new light aromatic hydrocarbon-SOA components were observed for the first time using VUV-PIMS. The corresponding reaction mechanisms were also proposed in this study to enrich the knowledge base of the formation mechanisms of light aromatic hydrocarbon-SOA compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: CANDU reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring, and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs) including the Soviet designed water moderated and water cooled energy reactors (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which

  5. Assessment and Management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g., caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs; and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of

  6. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and ware out of components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of heavy water moderated reactors (HWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  7. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  8. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety. Primary piping in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. The

  9. Identification of the Major Components of Buddleja officinalis Extract and Their Metabolites in Rat Urine by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mohan; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ruirui; Lu, Lina; Yu, Guohua; Ma, Xiaoyun; Liu, Aoxue; Guo, Yafang; Zhao, Haiyu

    2016-10-01

    Buddleja officinalis Maxim, one of the most popular herbal medicines in China, is widely prescribed for curing eye diseases for centuries. In this study, the major components of B. officinalis extract (BOE) and their metabolites in rat urine were detected and identified by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap). A total of 19 compounds, including 8 flavonoids and 11 phenylethanoid glycosides, were confirmed or tentatively identified from BOE. In vivo, 33 components, including 3 prototypes and 30 metabolies, were confirmed or tentatively identified in rat urine samples. The metabolic pathways of different types of compounds were also proposed. This study would effectively narrow the range of potentially bioactive constituents of BOE and shed light to its action mechanism. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. REMOVAL OF U(VI) IN MULTI-COMPONENT SYSTEMS BY ADSORPTION USING ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM RICE STRAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YAKOUT, S.M.; RIZK, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of low cost activated carbon derived from rice straw has been investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods for radionuclides removal from wastewater. The adsorption studies were carried out in multi-component systems. The effects of common cations and anions on uranium uptake were investigated. Different cations under investigation showed marginal effect on the adsorption of uranium, except in case of iron ion where the adsorption was significantly depressed by the addition of Fe ion (R % was 20%). Coexistence of iron ions at high levels may compete strongly for the adsorption sites with uranium ions resulting in a substantial reduction of uranium removal. The prepared activated carbon showed good selectivity in uranium extraction even in the presence of large concentrations (100 ppm) of anionic complexing agents and common electrolyte species.The simultaneous presence of both U(VI) / Th(IV) reduced sorption through competition for sorption sites on carbon surface. It is concluded that multi-species adsorption can be significantly affected by adsorbate interactions. Understanding these interactions needs great attention in adsorption study in the future

  11. Kernel principal component analysis residual diagnosis (KPCARD): An automated method for cosmic ray artifact removal in Raman spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Boyan; Calvet, Amandine; Casamayou-Boucau, Yannick; Ryder, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    A new, fully automated, rapid method, referred to as kernel principal component analysis residual diagnosis (KPCARD), is proposed for removing cosmic ray artifacts (CRAs) in Raman spectra, and in particular for large Raman imaging datasets. KPCARD identifies CRAs via a statistical analysis of the residuals obtained at each wavenumber in the spectra. The method utilizes the stochastic nature of CRAs; therefore, the most significant components in principal component analysis (PCA) of large numbers of Raman spectra should not contain any CRAs. The process worked by first implementing kernel PCA (kPCA) on all the Raman mapping data and second accurately estimating the inter- and intra-spectrum noise to generate two threshold values. CRA identification was then achieved by using the threshold values to evaluate the residuals for each spectrum and assess if a CRA was present. CRA correction was achieved by spectral replacement where, the nearest neighbor (NN) spectrum, most spectroscopically similar to the CRA contaminated spectrum and principal components (PCs) obtained by kPCA were both used to generate a robust, best curve fit to the CRA contaminated spectrum. This best fit spectrum then replaced the CRA contaminated spectrum in the dataset. KPCARD efficacy was demonstrated by using simulated data and real Raman spectra collected from solid-state materials. The results showed that KPCARD was fast ( 1 million) Raman datasets. - Highlights: • New rapid, automatable method for cosmic ray artifact correction of Raman spectra. • Uses combination of kernel PCA and noise estimation for artifact identification. • Implements a best fit spectrum replacement correction approach.

  12. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  13. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Removal of radioactive sodium from experimental breeder reactor-II components and conversion to a disposable solid waste: alcohol recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusl, J.R.; Washburn, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive sodium is removed from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II components by immersing the components in denatured alcohol until the sodium has reacted with the alcohol. The resulting radioactive sodium-alcohol solution must be processed to separate and convert the sodium to a solid waste for disposal. A process was developed and is described that converts radioactive sodium dissolved in alcohol to a dry powdered carbonate waste product and recovers the alcohol for reuse. The sodium-alcohol waste solution, after adjustment for proper sodium and water content, is fed to a wiped-film evaporator operated at 190 0 C and maintained with a CO 2 atmosphere that converts the dissolved sodium to anhydrous Na 2 CO 3 . The end product, about85 to 90 wt% Na 2 CO 3 , is directed into a 208-l (55-gal) drum for disposal. Alcohol distilled during the process is condensed, collected, and dried for immediate reuse. The composition of the alcohol is not altered in the process

  15. Assessment and Management of Ageing of Major Nuclear Power Plant Components Important to Safety: Steam Generators. 2011 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    At present there are over four hundred forty operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Ageing degradation of the systems, structures of components during their operational life must be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This IAEA-TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuteriumuranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of ageing management and economic planning. The target audience of the reports consists of technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The component addressed in the present publication is the steam

  16. Altered expression of γ-secretase components in animal model of major depressive disorder induced by reserpine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Hwang, In-Sik; Kim, Ji-Eun; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Young-Ju; Goo, Jun-Seo; Lee, Eon-Pil; Choi, Hae-Wook; Kim, Hong-Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2012-06-01

    Altered expression of neurotrophic factors as well as neuroinflammation is commonly associated with Major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether or not reserpine-induced MDD affects the expression of AD-related proteins, the expression of γ-secretase components and substrate were measured in brains of ICR mice following reserpine treatment for 15 days. In active avoidance test, total response time and peak slightly increased in the 2 mg/kg reserpine (RSP2)-treated group compared to vehicle-treated group (Pprecursor protein (APP) was enhanced in the RSP1 and RSP2-treated groups compared to the vehicle-treated group, whereas expression of γ-secretase components decreased (P<0.03). Among the three components of the γ-secretase complex, nicastrin protein underwent the largest decrease in expression, as detected by Western blotting (P<0.03). Therefore, the data presented here provide additional evidence about the pathological correlation between MDD and AD.

  17. Effects of flue gas components on removal of elemental mercury over Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Chuan; Shen, Boxiong; Li, Fukuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC exhibited high Hg"0 removal activity. • SO_2 restrained Hg"0 oxidation and adsorption due to the formation of SO_4"2"−. • The formation of NH_3 to NH_4"+ restrained the Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation. - Abstract: The adsorption and oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg"0) under various flue gas components were investigated over a series of Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC catalysts, which were synthesized by an impregnation method. To discuss the mechanism, the catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as N_2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the presence of 500 ppm SO_2 in the flue gas significantly restrained the Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation over 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC due to the formation of SO_4"2"− species. Hg"0 could be oxidized to HgCl_2 in the presence of HCl, because the Deacon process occurred. NO would react with active oxygen to form NO_2-containing species, which facilitated Hg"0 oxidation. While the presence of NO limited the Hg"0 adsorption on 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC due to the competitive adsorption of NO with Hg"0. The addition of NH_3 in the flue gas significantly restrained Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation, because the formed NH_4"+ species covered the active adsorption sites on the surfaces, and further limited Hg"0 oxidation. However, when NO and NH_3 were simultaneously added into the flue gas, the Hg"0 oxidation efficiency of 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC exhibited a relatively high value (72%) at 250 °C, which indicated the practicability to use Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC for Hg"0 removal under SCR conditions.

  18. Component-resolved evaluation of the content of major allergens in therapeutic extracts for specific immunotherapy of honeybee venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Etzold, Stefanie; Darsow, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant...... major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom. The allergen content of these therapeutic extracts might differ due...... to natural variations of the source material or different down-stream processing strategies of the manufacturers. Since variations of the allergen content of therapeutic HBV extracts might be associated with therapeutic failure, we adressed the component-resolved allergen composition of different therapeutic...

  19. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of well-fixed components in femoral revision arthroplasty with controlled segmentation of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Georgiou, Christos S; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Kouzelis, Antonis

    2014-12-31

    The transfemoral and the extended trochanteric osteotomies are the most common osteotomies used in femoral revision, both when proximal or diaphyseal fixation of the new component has been decided. We present an alternative approach to the trochanteric osteotomies, most frequently used with distally fixated stems, to overcome their shortcomings of osteotomy migration and nonunion, but, most of all, the uncontrollable fragmentation of the femur. The procedure includes a complete circular femoral osteotomy just below the stem tip to prevent distal fracture propagation and a subsequent preplanned segmentation of the proximal femur for better exposure and fast removal of the old prosthesis. The bone fragments are reattached with cerclage wires to the revision prosthesis, which is safely anchored distally. A modified posterolateral approach is used, as the preservation of the continuity of the abductors, the greater trochanter, and the vastus lateralis is a prerequisite. Between 2006 and 2012, 47 stems (33 women, 14 men, mean age 68 years, range 39-88 years) were revised using this technique. They were 12 (26%) stable and 35 (74%) loose prostheses and were all revised to tapered, fluted, grit-blasted stems. No fracture of the trochanters or the distal femur occurred intraoperatively. Mean follow-up was 28 months (range 6-70 months). No case of trochanteric migration or nonunion of the osteotomies was recorded. Restoration of the preexisting bone defects occurred in 83% of the patients. Three patients required repeat revision due to dislocation and one due to a postoperative periprosthetic fracture. None of the failures was attributed to the procedure itself. This new osteotomy technique may seem aggressive at first, but, at least in our hands, has effectively increased the speed of the femoral revision, particularly for the most difficult well-fixed components, but not at the expense of safety.

  1. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, D G; Bérubé, K A; Jones, T P; Anderson, S; Pooley, F D; Richards, R J

    2002-07-01

    The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation.

  2. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of the precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt

  3. Preventive effects of a major component of green tea, epigallocathechin-3-gallate, on hepatitis-B virus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamese, Murat; Aydogdu, Sabiha; Karamese, Selina Aksak; Altoparlak, Ulku; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the major world health problems. Epigallocatechin-3 gallate is the major component of the polyphenolic fraction of green tea and it has an anti-viral, anti-mutagenic, anti- tumorigenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, and/or pro-apoptotic effects on mammalian cells. In this study, our aim was to investigate the inhibition of HBV replication by epigallocatechin-3 gallate in the Hep3B2.1-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. HBV-replicating Hep3B2.1-7 cells were used to investigate the preventive effects of epigallocatechin-3 gallate on HBV DNA replication. The expression levels of HBsAg and HBeAg were determined using ELISA. Quantitative real-time-PCR was applied for the determination of the expression level of HBV DNA. Cytotoxicity of epigallocathechin-3-gallate was not observed in the hepatic carcinoma cell line when the dose was lower than 100 μM. The ELISA method demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3 gallate have strong effects on HBsAg and HBeAg levels. Also it was detected by real-time PCR that epigallocatechin-3 gallate could prevent HBV DNA replication. The obtained data pointed out that although the exact mechanism of HBV DNA replication and related diseases remains unclear, epigallocatechin-3 gallate has a potential as an effective anti-HBV agent with low toxicity.

  4. Positive effect of removal of subchondral bone plate for cemented acetabular component fixation in total hip arthroplasty: a randomised RSA study with ten-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flivik, G; Kristiansson, I; Ryd, L

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that the removal of the subchondral bone plate (SCBP) for cemented acetabular component fixation in total hip arthroplasty (THA) offers advantages over retention by improving the cement-bone interface, without jeopardising implant stability. We have previously published two-year follow-up data of a randomised controlled trial (RCT), in which 50 patients with primary osteoarthritis were randomised to either retention or removal of the SCBP. The mean age of the retention group (n = 25, 13 males) was 70.0 years (sd 6.8). The mean age in the removal group (n = 25, 16 males) was 70.3 years (sd 7.9). Now we have followed up the patients at six (retention group, n = 21; removal group, n = 20) and ten years (retention group: n = 17, removal group: n = 18), administering clinical outcome questionnaires and radiostereometric analysis (RSA), and determining the presence of radiolucent lines (RLLs) on conventional radiographs. RSA demonstrated similar translation and rotation patterns up to six years. Between six and ten years, proximal acetabular component migration and changes of inclination were larger in the retention group, although the mean differences did not reach statistical significance. Differences in migration were driven by two patients in the SCBP retention group with extensive migration versus none in the SCBP removal group. The significant difference (p < 0.001) in the development of radiolucent lines in the retention group, previously observed at two years, increased even further during the course of follow-up (p < 0.001). While recognising SCBP removal is a more demanding technique, we conclude that, wherever possible, the SCBP should be removed to improve the cement-bone interface in order to maximise acetabular component stability and longevity. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels. 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1120 documented ageing assessment and management practices for pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations and boric acid corrosion/wastage of RPV heads, which threatened the integrity of the RPV heads. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1120 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update IAEA-TECDOC-1120 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RPVs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR RPV integrity in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  6. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  7. Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and is source dependent, with whey protein thought to be particularly satiating. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to the unique mixture of proteins in whey or to the major constituent individual proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). The objective of the study was to compare the effects of isoenergetic (~2100kJ, ~500kcal) preload meals enriched (~50g protein) with either whey protein isolate (WP), β-lactoglobulin (BL) isolate or α-lactalbumin (AL) isolate, on food intake at an ad libitum test meal 120min later and subjective ratings of appetite (hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption and fullness) using visual analogue scales (VAS). Twenty adult normal-weight women (mean age 24.2±0.8years; mean BMI 22.7±0.4kg/m 2 ) participated in the study which used a single-blind completely randomised block design, where each subject consumed each of the three preload meals. Energy intake at the ad libitum test meal and total energy intakes (preload+test meal) did not differ between the three preload meals (p>0.05). There were no significant differences observed for the VAS scores and net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) during the 120min following consumption of the three preload meals for subjective ratings of appetite (p>0.05). The findings show that the satiating effect of whey protein was similar to that of BL or AL individually and suggest that the major whey protein components BL and AL do not mediate the satiating effect of whey protein. The present human trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12615000344594. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-05-11

    Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s) of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  11. Characterization of the major histopathological components of thyroid nodules using sonographic textural features for clinical diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Jer; Yu, Sung-Nien; Tzeng, Jeh-En; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chang, Ku-Yaw; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Hsiao, Fu-Tsung; Wei, Chang-Kuo

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the characteristic sonographic textural feature that represents the major histopathologic components of the thyroid nodules was objectively quantified to facilitate clinical diagnosis and management. A total of 157 regions-of-interest thyroid ultrasound image was recruited in the study. The sonographic system used was the GE LOGIQ 700), (General Electric Healthcare, Chalfant St. Giles, UK). The parameters affecting image acquisition were kept in the same condition for all lesions. Commonly used texture analysis methods were applied to characterize thyroid ultrasound images. Image features were classified according to the corresponding pathologic findings. To estimate their relevance and performance to classification, ReliefF was used as a feature selector. Among the various textural features, the sum average value derived from co-occurrence matrix can well reflect echogenicity and can effectively differentiate between follicles and fibrosis base thyroid nodules. Fibrosis shows lowest echogenicity and lowest difference sum average value. Enlarged follicles show highest echogenicity and difference sum average values. Papillary cancer or follicular tumors show the difference sum average values and echogenicity between. The rule of thumb for the echogenicity is that the more follicles are mixed in, the higher the echo of the follicular tumor and papillary cancer will be and vice versa for fibrosis mixed. Areas with intermediate and lower echo should address the possibility of follicular or papillary neoplasm mixed with either follicles or fibrosis. These areas provide more cellular information for ultrasound guided aspiration

  12. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichiro Nishibayashi

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells.

  13. Principal component analysis of early alcohol, drug and tobacco use with major depressive disorder in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kesheng; Liu, Ying; Ouedraogo, Youssoufou; Wang, Nianyang; Xie, Xin; Xu, Chun; Luo, Xingguang

    2018-05-01

    Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old are comorbid and correlated. This study included 6239 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the past year and 72,010 controls from the combined data of 2013 and 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). To deal with multicollinearity existing among 17 variables related to early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to infer PC scores and then use weighted multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations of potential factors and PC scores with MDD. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The overall prevalence of MDD was 6.7%. The first four PCs could explain 57% of the total variance. Weighted multiple logistic regression showed that PC 1 (a measure of psychotherapeutic drugs and illicit drugs other than marijuana use), PC 2 (a measure of cocaine and hallucinogens), PC 3 (a measure of early alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana use), and PC 4 (a measure of cigar, smokeless tobacco use and illicit drugs use) revealed significant associations with MDD (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.08-1.16, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.18, and OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09-1.21, respectively). In conclusion, PCA can be used to reduce the indicators in complex survey data. Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old were found to be associated with increased odds of adult MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aller, Glenn S.; Carson, Jeff D.; Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin; Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J.; Luo, Lusong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. → EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. → Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. → These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K i values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  15. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Fen Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power (RP, β-carotene bleaching (BCB activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%, thymol (14.36% and carvacrol (12.33%, and eugenol (0.87%, respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability.

  16. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 4. North American Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  18. In-depth investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass wastes based on three major components: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lili; Yan, Rong; Liu, Yongqiang; Jiang, Wenju

    2010-11-01

    The artificial biomass based on three biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) were developed on the basis of a simplex-lattice approach. Together with a natural biomass sample, they were employed in enzymatic hydrolysis researches. Different enzyme combines of two commercial enzymes (ACCELLERASE 1500 and OPTIMASH BG) showed a potential to hydrolyze hemicellulose completely. Negligible interactions among the three components were observed, and the used enzyme ACCELLERASE 1500 was proven to be weak lignin-binding. On this basis, a multiple linear-regression equation was established for predicting the reducing sugar yield based on the component proportions in a biomass. The hemicellulose and cellulose in a biomass sample were found to have different contributions in staged hydrolysis at different time periods. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of rice straw was conducted to validate the computation approach through considerations of alkaline solution pretreatment and combined enzymes function, so as to understand better the nature of biomass hydrolysis, from the aspect of three biomass components.

  19. Fuel removal from plasma-facing components by oxidation-based techniques. An overview of surface conditions after oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, M.J.; De Temmerman, G.; Sergienko, G.; Sundelin, P.; Emmoth, B.; Philipps, V.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen-assisted fuel removal is reported for laboratory-prepared a-C:D films and for layers obtained by boronisation in a tokamak and then exposed to a helium-oxygen glow discharge in TEXTOR. Oxidation of thick mixed-material co-deposits under laboratory conditions is also presented. The essential results are following: (i) laboratory-prepared amorphous deuterated carbon (a-C:D) layers are decomposed efficiently by the He-O 2 glow: D and C contents are decreased by a factor of 45-220 and 25-60, respectively; (ii) the same treatment of the boronised films leads to the release of D but no removal of carbon is observed; (iii) the thermal oxidation (at 300 deg. C in air under laboratory conditions) of co-deposits on PFC and probes exposed to the SOL reduces the D content by a factor of 4-5 after 2 h, whereas nearly complete fuel removal (98%) occurs after 10 h at 300 deg. C. The study shows that the fuel removal efficiency is dependent on the overall composition of the mixed layer. It is high from pure a-C:D films but distinctly less efficient from real co-deposits

  20. A Cost Analysis of the Decision to Cannibalize Major Components of the Navy's H-60 Helicopters at the Operational Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kowalski, Danny

    2000-01-01

    ... often make a decision to cannibalize without considering the total cost of their decision This thesis examines the costs incurred by an operational H-6O helicopter squadron to cannibalize major...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Essential oils of Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angusti folia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium and their components; linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ¿-pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor,

  2. Integrated pharmacokinetics of major bioactive components in MCAO rats after oral administration of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaxu; Qian, Zhilei; Li, Huan; Guo, Liwei; Pan, Linmei; Zhang, Qichun; Tang, Yuping

    2012-05-07

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT, or Oren-gedoku-to in Japanese), an important multi-herb remedy in China and other Asia countries, has been used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia for decades. According to the previous studies we have reported, an HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of berberine, palmatine, baicalin, baicalein and geniposide simultaneously in MCAO rat plasma after administration of HLJDT aqueous extract. A classified integral pharmacokinetic method was put forward after having compared the integrated concentration-time profile with that of single component. An AUC based weighting approach was used for integrated principle. The results indicated the classified integral pharmacokinetic profile of index components from HLJDT could reveal the pharmacokinetic behavior of original components, and was corresponding to the holistic pharmacological effects of anti-ischemia with HLJDT. This study was aimed to explore an approach that could be applied to integrate the pharmacokinetic behavior of different components derived from HLJDT. The integrated pharmacokinetic results also provided more information for further understanding of the clinical cerebrovascular disease in use of HLJDT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilization of fish bone as adsorbent of Fe3+ ion by controllable removal of its carbonaceous component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhadi, M.; Kusumawardani, R.; Widiyowati, I. I.; Wirhanuddin; Nur, H.

    2018-05-01

    The performance of fish bone to adsorb Fe3+ ion in solution was studied. Powdered fish bone and carbonized fish bone were used as adsorbent. All absorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and TG analysis. Powdered fish bone and carbonized fish bone were effective as adsorbent for removing Fe3+ ion in solution. The metal adsorptions of Fe3+ ion were 94 and 98% for powdered fish bone and fish bone which carbonized at 400 and 500 °C.

  4. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  5. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Regina M.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Smit, Filip; Cuijpers, Pim; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  6. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, R.; Willemsen, M.C.; Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Schippers, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  7. Chemosensory responses to the repellent nepeta essential oil and its major component nepetalactone by the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, a vector of zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepeta essential oil (Neo) (catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, an important vector of...

  8. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  9. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in great tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  10. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  11. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  12. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Concrete containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The report presents the results of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Management of Ageing of Concrete Containment Buildings (CCBs) addressing current practices and techniques for assessing fitness-for-service and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of CANDU reactor, BWR reactor, PWR reactor and WWER plants. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues

  13. Integrated Lecture and Laboratory Chemistry Components of Science Education Program for Early and Middle Childhood Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Two new chemistry courses were developed for early childhood and middle childhood education majors. The results of a pre- and posttest in the courses indicate success in developing student content knowledge and ability to problem solve. In addition these courses are designed to develop preservice teachers' understanding of the National Science Education Standards and foster support for implementing these standards in their classrooms. These courses provide materials, resources, and guidance in implementing the standards in their future teaching careers.

  14. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  15. Source heterogeneity for the major components of ~3.7 Ga banded iron formations (Isua Greenstone Belt, Western Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Polat, Ali

    2006-01-01

    of the protocrustal landmass (eNd(3.7 Ga)   + 1.6). The validity of two different and periodically interacting water masses (an essentially two-component mixing system) in the deposition of alternating iron- and silica-rich layers is also reflected by systematic trends in germanium (Ge)/silicon (Si) ratios....... These suggest that significant amounts of silica were derived from unexposed and/or destroyed mafic Hadean landmass, unlike iron which probably originated from oceanic crust following hydrothermal alteration by deep percolating seawater. Ge/Si distributional patterns in the early Archean Isua BIF are similar...... of the depositional environment and to the understanding of depositional mechanisms of these earliest chemical sediments. Rare earth element (REE)-yttrium (Y) patterns of the individual mesobands show features of modern seawater with diagnostic cerium (Ce/Ce ), presodymium (Pr/Pr ) and Y/holmium (Ho) anomalies. Very...

  16. Complement component C1r mediated cleavage of the heavy chain of the major histocompatibility class I antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1992-01-01

    Apart from cleaving C1s, we demonstrate for the first time that: 1) at concentrations found in serum, the activated forms of the complement components C1r in addition to C1s can cleave the heavy chain of MHC class I antigens, 2) the cleavage by C1r and C1s is seemingly dependent upon a native con......-chain of MHC class I was shown to take place between the alpha 2- and alpha 3- domains as estimated by the Con A-Sepharose precipitation pattern on SDS-PAGE. The alpha 1/alpha 2 fragment was still shown to interact with beta 2-microglobulin as shown by immunoprecipitation....

  17. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... chondrocytes express these four cardinal components of basement membranes and demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that the proteins are present in bovine and mouse cartilage tissues and are deposited in a thin pericellular structure. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed high laminin concentration...... becomes less distinct, especially in areas of obvious mechanical attrition. Interestingly, individual laminin subunits were located in different zones of the cartilage, with laminin alpha1 showing preferential localization around a select population of superficial layer chondrocytes. We propose...

  18. Adverse Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts and the Major Components in the Stems of Impatiens balsamina L. on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Fang Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae, an annual herb found throughout China, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, our knowledge regarding the adverse effects of I. balsamina in vivo is very limited. In this present study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model was employed to fully assess the adverse effects of hydroalcoholic (EtOH 55% extracts of I. balsamina stems (HAEIBS in vivo. After exposure to 10 mg/mL HAEIBS, the major organism-level endpoints of C. elegans of percent survival, frequency of head thrash and body bends, and reproduction had decreased by 24%, 30%, and 25%, respectively. The lifespan of C. elegans was also greatly reduced after HAEIBS exposure compared to the controls. The active compounds in HAEIBS were separated using high speed countercurrent chromatograph (HSCCC and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Two compounds, lawsone and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ, and their adverse effects were then more thoroughly detailed in this study. It was found that lawsone is the major toxin in HAEIBS with a higher toxicity than MNQ in terms of negative impact on C. elegans mortality, locomotion, reproduction, and lifespan. Our data also suggests that the C. elegans model may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity of other Chinese medicines, plant extracts, and/or compounds.

  19. Gravitational separation of major atmospheric components observed in the stratosphere over Syowa Station, Antarctica, Kiruna, Sweden and Sanriku, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Ishidoya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the gravitational separation of atmospheric components in the stratosphere, air samples collected using an aircraft during the Arctic Airborne Measurement Program 2002 (AAMP02 were analyzed for the O_2 N_2 ratios (δ(O_2 N_2, δ^N of N_2, δ^O of O_2 and Ar N_2 ratio (δ(Ar N_2. The relationship between observed stratospheric δ^N of N_2, δ^O of O_2 and δ(Ar N_2 over the Svalbard Islands and Barrow showed mass-dependent fractionation of atmospheric components in the stratosphere, which suggested that gravitational separation could be observable in the lowermost stratosphere inside the polar vortex. By examining the rates of change in δ(O_2 Nv and δ^C of CO_2 relative to the CO_2 concentration, such observed correlations were bound to be mainly attributable to upward propagation of their seasonal cycles produced in the troposphere and height-dependent air age as well as gravitational separation in the stratosphere. Air samples collected over Syowa Station, Antarctica, Kiruna, Sweden and Sanriku, Japan using balloon-borne cryogenic air samplers were analyzed for δ^N of Nv and δ^O of O_2. Strength of the gravitational separation was a function of latitude, showing the largest separation inside the polar vortex over Kiruna. It is suggested that information on increase of gravitational separation with height is useful in understanding the vertical transport of air masses in the stratosphere. By comparing the gravitational separations, mean age of air and N_2O concentration at two height intervals with N_2O concentrations > 125 ppb and < 45 ppb, the effect of descending air was found to be more significant over Kiruna than over Syowa Station and Sanriku. The variation in the gravitational separation with height is found to be weaker in the region with N_2O concentrations between 45 and 125 ppb than in other regions, which might suggest that vertical mixing of air occurred in this region.

  20. Pressure-Driven Poiseuille Flow: A Major Component of the Torque-Balance Governing Pacific Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, I. L.; Iaffaldano, G.; Davies, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pacific Plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians-Japan, Marianas-Izu-Bonin, and Tonga-Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub-Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e., Couette flow) and that the associated shear stresses at the lithosphere's base are resisting such motion. Recent studies on glacial isostatic adjustment and lithosphere dynamics provide tighter constraints on the viscosity and thickness of Earth's asthenosphere and, therefore, on the amount of shear stress that asthenosphere and lithosphere mutually exchange, by virtue of Newton's third law of motion. In light of these constraints, the notion that subduction is the main driver of present-day Pacific Plate motion becomes somewhat unviable, as the pulling force that would be required by slabs exceeds the maximum available from their negative buoyancy. Here we use coupled global models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics to show that the sub-Pacific asthenosphere features a significant component of pressure-driven (i.e., Poiseuille) flow and that this has driven at least 50% of the Pacific Plate motion since, at least, 15 Ma. A corollary of our models is that a sublithospheric pressure difference as high as ±50 MPa is required across the Pacific domain.

  1. Identification and differentiation of major components in three different “Sheng-ma” crude drug species by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue Fan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifugae Rhizoma (Sheng ma is a Ranunculaceae herb belonging to a composite family and well known in China. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Pharmacopoeia of the People׳s Republic of China contains three varieties (Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz., Cimicifuga foetida L. and Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. which have been used clinically as “Sheng-ma”. However, the chemical constituents of three components of “Sheng-ma” have never been documented. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of the main components of “Sheng-ma” was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The present study reveals the major common and distinct chemical constituents of C. dahurica, C. foetida and C. heracleifolia and also reports principal component and statistical analyses of these results. The components were identified by comparing the retention time, accurate mass, mass spectrometric fragmentation characteristic ions and matching empirical molecular formula with that of the published compounds. A total of 32 common components and 8 markers for different “Sheng-ma” components were identified. These findings provide an important basis for the further study and clinical utilities of the three “Sheng-ma” varieties.

  2. Analysis of Major Nutritional Components of Pleurotus pulmonarius During the Cultivation in Different Indoor Environmental Conditions on Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariqul Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated in three different environmental conditions, in ambient indoor environment (System 1, in humidifying without ventilation (System 2 and in humidifying with ventilation (System 3 to analyse the major nutritional contents. Sawdust was the main substrate for all the cultivation systems. The lowest temperature and the highest optimal humidity were found in System 3. The temperature and humidity had shown statistically significant among the three cultivation Systems. The highest numbers of flushes was found both in System 2 and System 3 but System 1 was produced mushrooms till 3rd flush. About 29.5%, 28.3%, 28.5% protein; 59.0%, 55.8%, 54.3% carbohydrate and 3.8%, 3.5%, 3.3% lipid were found in System 1, System 2 and System 3 respectively. The protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents were shown statistically insignificant among the cultivation systems. The highest value of protein, carbohydrate and lipid were found for the sample of 1st flush in all the cultivation systems but the values were started to decrease with the increased numbers of flushes significantly. So, this study shown that, although the environmental conditions of the three cultivation systems were varied significantly but the protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents were existed their normal values in all cases but the values were decreased by the increased numbers of flushes.

  3. CD34+ mesenchymal cells are a major component of the intestinal stem cells niche at homeostasis and after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Nigro, Giulia; Jacob, Jean-Marie; Dulauroy, Sophie; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2017-01-24

    The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34 + Gp38 + αSMA - mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5 + IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34 + Gp38 + cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5 + IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1. CD34 + Gp38 + cells develop after birth in the intestinal submucosa and expand around the crypts during the third week of life in mice, independently of the microbiota. We further show that pericryptal CD34 + gp38 + cells are rapidly activated by intestinal injury, up-regulating niche factors Gremlin1 and R-spondin1 as well as chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors with key roles in gut immunity and tissue repair, including IL-7, Ccl2, Ptgs2, and Amphiregulin. Our results indicate that CD34 + Gp38 + mesenchymal cells are programmed to develop in the intestine after birth to constitute a specialized microenvironment that maintains IESCs at homeostasis and contribute to intestinal inflammation and repair after injury.

  4. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA f...

  5. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis properties of the oil of Amomum tsao-ko and its major component, geraniol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Peng, Cheng; Peng, Fu; Xie, Chengbin; Wang, Pinjia; Sun, Fenghui

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonosis, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) and 5-nitroimidazole drugs are used for the treatment. However, a growing number of T. vaginalis isolates are resistant to these drugs, which make it becomes an urgent issue. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-T. vaginalis activity of the essential oil from A. tsao-ko used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a spice and its main component, geraniol. The anti-T. vaginalis activities of A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol were evaluated by the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in vitro. The morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, sub-MLC concentration treatment with sub-MLC A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol was also performed. This study shows that MLC/IC50 of A. tsao-ko essential oil was 44.97 µg/ml/22.49 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv1, and 89.93 µg/ml/44.97 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv2. Those of geraniol were 342.96 µg/ml/171.48 µg/ml, respectively. After A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol treatment, obvious similar morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by TEM: the nuclear membrane was damaged, nuclei were dissolved, and the chromatin was accumulated; in the cytoplasm, numerous vacuoles appeared, rough endoplasmic reticulum dilated, the number of ribosomes were reduced, organelles disintegrated, the cell membrane was partially damaged, with cytoplasmic leakage, and cell disintegration was observed. The action time did not increase the effect of A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol against T. vaginalis, as no significant difference was observed after sub-MLC concentration treatment for 1, 3, and 5 h with A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol. The study describes the first report on the activity and morphological changes of A. tsao-ko essential oil and

  6. Metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of triptolide, a major active component of the herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuying; Liu, Zhaohua; Li, Xinxiu; Xing, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Triptolide (TP) shows promising anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity but with severe toxicity. TP is a natural reactive electrophile containing three epoxide groups, which are usually linked to hepatotoxicity via their ability to covalently bind to cellular macromolecules. In this study, metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of TP were evaluated in glutathione (GSH)-depleted (treated with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, BSO) and aminobenzotriazole (ABT; a non-specific inhibitor for P450s)-treated mice. The toxicity of TP in mice was evaluated in terms of mortality and levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). In incubates with NADPH- and GSH-supplemented liver microsomes, seven GSH conjugates derived from TP were detected. In mice, these hydrolytically unstable GSH conjugates underwent γ-glutamyltranspeptidase/dipeptidases-mediated hydrolysis leading to two major cysteinylglycine conjugates, which underwent further hydrolysis by dipeptidases to form two cysteine conjugates of TP. In ABT-treated mice, the hydroxylated metabolites of TP were found at a lower level than normal mice, and their subsequent conjugated metabolites were not found. The level of cysteinylglycine and cysteine conjugates derived from NADPH-independent metabolism increased in mice treated with both TP and BSO (or ABT), which could be the stress response to toxicity of TP. Compared with normal mice, mortality and ALT levels were significantly higher in TP-treated mice, indicating the toxicity of TP. Pretreatment of ABT increased the toxicity caused by TP, whereas the mortality decreased in GSH-depleted mice. Metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes to less reactive metabolites implied a high potential for detoxification of TP. The GSH conjugation pathway also contributed to TP's detoxification in mice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  8. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of and verification test integral reactor major components - Development of manufacturing process and fabrication of prototype for SG and CEDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Hwa Kyu; Kim, Yong Kyu; Choi, Yong Soon; Kang, Ki Su; Hyun, Young Min [Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co., LTD., Changwon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Integral SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) type reactor is under conceptual design. Because major components is integrated within in a single pressure vessel, compact design using advanced technology is essential. It means that manufacturing process for these components is more complex and difficult. The objective of this study is to confirm the possibility of manufacture of Steam Generator, Control Element Drive Mechanism(CEDM) and Reactor Assembly which includes Reactor Pressure Vessel, it is important to understand the design requirement and function of the major components. After understanding the design requirement and function, it is concluded that the helical bending and weld qualification of titanium tube for Steam Generator and the applicability of electron beam weld for CEDM step motor parts is the critical to fabricate the components. Therefore, bending mock-up and weld qualification of titanium tube was performed and the results are quite satisfactory. Also, it is concluded that electron beam welding technique can be applicable to the CEDM step motor part. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 46 tabs.

  10. Development of a web-based aging monitoring system for an integrity evaluation of the major components in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae-Boong; Yeum, Seung-Won; Ko, Han-Ok; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Hong-Key; Choi, Young-Hwan; Park, Youn-Won

    2010-01-01

    Structural and mechanical components in a nuclear power plant are designed to operate for its entire service life. Recently, a number of nuclear power plants are being operated beyond their design life to produce more electricity without shutting down. The critical issue in extending a lifetime is to maintain the level of safety during the extended operation period while satisfying the international regulatory standards. However, only a small portion of these components are of great importance for a significant aging degradation which would deeply affect the long-term safety and reliability of the related facilities. Therefore, it is beneficial to build a monitoring system to measure an aging status. While a number of integrity evaluation systems have been developed for NPPs, a real-time aging monitoring system has not been proposed yet . This paper proposes an expert system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plants based on a Web-based Reality Environment (WRE). The proposed system provides the integrity assessment for the major mechanical components of a nuclear power plant under concurrent working environments. In the WRE, it is possible for users to understand a mechanical system such as its size, geometry, coupling condition etc. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the proposed system can be used for a more efficient integrity evaluation of the major components subjected to an aging degradation.

  11. Development of a web-based aging monitoring system for an integrity evaluation of the major components in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Boong, E-mail: boong33@skku.ed [SAFE Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeum, Seung-Won; Ko, Han-Ok; Kim, Young-Jin [SAFE Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Key; Choi, Young-Hwan; Park, Youn-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 34 Gwahak-ro, Yusong-ku, Teajon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Structural and mechanical components in a nuclear power plant are designed to operate for its entire service life. Recently, a number of nuclear power plants are being operated beyond their design life to produce more electricity without shutting down. The critical issue in extending a lifetime is to maintain the level of safety during the extended operation period while satisfying the international regulatory standards. However, only a small portion of these components are of great importance for a significant aging degradation which would deeply affect the long-term safety and reliability of the related facilities. Therefore, it is beneficial to build a monitoring system to measure an aging status. While a number of integrity evaluation systems have been developed for NPPs, a real-time aging monitoring system has not been proposed yet . This paper proposes an expert system for the integrity evaluation of nuclear power plants based on a Web-based Reality Environment (WRE). The proposed system provides the integrity assessment for the major mechanical components of a nuclear power plant under concurrent working environments. In the WRE, it is possible for users to understand a mechanical system such as its size, geometry, coupling condition etc. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the proposed system can be used for a more efficient integrity evaluation of the major components subjected to an aging degradation.

  12. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Long Truong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss (alopecia is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA, 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS, or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  13. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Van-Long; Bak, Min Ji; Lee, Changook; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2017-09-08

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  14. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  15. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (ppeople with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical and behavioral conditions is needed in these patients. Risks of individual antipsychotics should be considered when making treatment choices. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  16. H-binding of size- and polarity-fractionated soil and lignite humic acids after removal of metal and ash components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Marios; Leenheer, Jerry A.; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    A fractionation technique, combining dialysis removal of metal and ash components with hydrofluoric acid and pH 10 citrate buffer followed by chromatography of dialysis permeate on XAD-8 resin at decreasing pH values, has been applied to lignite humic acid (lignite-HA) and soil humic acid (soil-HA). H-binding data and non ideal competitive adsorption-Donnan model parameters were obtained for the HA fractions by theoretical analysis of H-binding data which reveal a significant increase of the carboxyl and the phenolic charge for the lignite-HA fractions vs. the parental lignite humic acid (LParentalHA). The fractionated lignite-HA material consisted mainly of permeate fractions, some of which were fulvic acid-like. The fractionated soil-HA material consisted mainly of large macromolecular structures that did not permeate the dialysis membrane during deashing. Chargeable groups had comparable concentrations in soil-HA fractions and parental soil humic acid (SParentalHA), indicating minimal interference of ash components with carboxyl and phenolic (and/or enolic) groups. Fractionation of HA, combined with theoretical analysis of H-binding, can distinguish the supramolecular vs. macromolecular nature of fractions within the same parental HA.

  17. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  18. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  19. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  20. Identification of human cytochrome P450 and UGT enzymes involved in the metabolism of ferulic acid, a major bioactive component in traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Lin; Tan, Yan; Yang, Hai-Ying; Lu, Chuang; Gao, Yue; Li, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is an active component of herbal medicines. One of the best documented activities of FA is its antioxidant property. Moreover, FA exerts antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the metabolic pathways of FA in humans remain unclear. To identify whether human CYP or UGT enzymes are involved in the metabolism of FA, reaction phenotyping of FA was conducted using major CYP-selective chemical inhibitors together with individual CYP and UGT Supersomes. The CYP- and/or UGT-mediated metabolism kinetics were examined simultaneously or individually. Relative activity factor and total normalized rate approaches were used to assess the relative contributions of each major human CYPs towards the FA metabolism. Incubations of FA with human liver microsomes (HLM) displayed NADPH- and UDPGA-dependent metabolism with multiple CYP and UGT isoforms involved. CYPs and UGTs contributed equally to the metabolism of FA in HLM. Although CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 appeared to be the major contributors in the CYP-mediated clearance, their contributions to the overall clearance are still minor (medicines because multiple phase I and phase II enzymes are involved in its metabolism. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  2. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  3. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS, indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  4. Estimation of Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K in major food components using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Bhati, Sharda

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements: Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K were determined in major food components such as cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, milk etc. The trace elements in food samples were determined using neutron activation analysis technique which involves instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Whereas, the trace elements Th, Cs, K and Sr, are important in radiation protection; Fe and Zn are of importance in nutrition studies and Ca and I have dual importance, both in nutrition and radiation protection. The results of analysis show that among the food materials, higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Sr, K, Fe, Zn and Co were found in cereals and pulses. In case of Ca, the milk appears to be the main contributor towards its dietary intake. The estimated concentrations of the trace elements in food components can be employed in determining the daily dietary intake of these elements which in turn can be used for their biokinetic studies. (author)

  5. Protective effects of Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang), and its major component mangiferin, on iron-induced oxidative damage to rat serum and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Barrios, Mariela Forrellat; Curti, Carlos; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Lemus, Yeny; Martínez, Ioanna; Riaño, Annia; Delgado, René

    2008-01-01

    In vivo preventive effects of a Mangifera indica L extract (Vimang) or its major component mangiferin on iron overload injury have been studied in rats given respectively, 50, 100, 250 mg kg(-1) body weight of Vimang, or 40 mg kg(-1) body weight of mangiferin, for 7 days prior to, and for 7 days following the administration of toxic amounts of iron-dextran. Both Vimang or mangiferin treatment prevented iron overload in serum as well as liver oxidative stress, decreased serum and liver lipid peroxidation, serum GPx activity, and increased serum and liver GSH, serum SOD and the animals overall antioxidant condition. Serum iron concentration was decreased although at higher doses, Vimang tended to increase it; percent tranferrin saturation, liver weight/body mass ratios, liver iron content was decreased. Treatment increased serum iron-binding capacity and decreased serum levels of aspartate-amine transferase (ASAT) and alanine-amine transferase (ALAT), as well as the number of abnormal Kupffer cells in iron-loaded livers. It is suggested that besides acting as antioxidants, Vimang extract or its mangiferin component decrease liver iron by increasing its excretion. Complementing earlier in vitro results from our group, it appears possible to support the hypothesis that Vimang and mangiferin present therapeutically useful effects in iron overload related diseases.

  6. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  7. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Muthu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation and is stored in a specialised organelle called lipid droplets (LDs. Both the LDs and body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP. It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of S. quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17. The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129mg/L compared to control (236mg/L on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  8. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javee, Anand; Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan; Pallissery, Steffi James; Arumugam, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation, which is stored in a specialized organelle called lipid droplets (LDs). Both the LDs or lipid body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of Scenedesmus quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174 μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241 μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17). The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129 mg/L) compared to control (236 mg/L) on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  9. [Effect of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on transport of major components of Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun-zuan; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential oil of Xiangfu Siwu decoction (XFSWD) has strong pharmacological activity, its special physical and chemical properties restrict the clinical application and curative effect. In this paper, Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil (XFS-WO) was prepared by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The present study is to investigate the effect of β-CD inclusion complex on the transport of major components of XFSWO using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, thus to research the effect of this formation on the absorption of drugs with low solubility and high permeability, which belong to class 2 in biopharmaceutics classification system. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of senkyunolide A, 3-n-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, dehydrocostus lactone and α-cyperone, which are active compounds in XFSWO. The transport parameters were analyzed and compared in free oil and its β-CD inclusion complex. The result revealed that the formation of XFSWO/β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the transportation and absorption of major active ingredients than free oil. Accordingly, it can be speculated that cyclodextrin inclusion complex can improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Above all these mentioned researches, it provided foundation and basis for physiological disposition and pharmaceutical study of XFSWD.

  10. The Virome and Its Major Component, Anellovirus, a Convoluted System Molding Human Immune Defenses and Possibly Affecting the Development of Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Freer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome, a thriving and complex microbial community colonizing the human body, has a broad impact on human health. Colonization is a continuous process that starts very early in life and occurs thanks to shrewd strategies microbes have evolved to tackle a convoluted array of anatomical, physiological, and functional barriers of the human body. Cumulative evidence shows that viruses are part of the microbiome. This part, called virome, has a dynamic composition that reflects what we eat, how and where we live, what we do, our genetic background, and other unpredictable variables. Thus, the virome plays a chief role in shaping innate and adaptive host immune defenses. Imbalance of normal microbial flora is thought to trigger or exacerbate many acute and chronic disorders. A compelling example can be found in the respiratory apparatus, where early-life viral infections are major determinants for the development of allergic diseases, like asthma, and other non-transmissible diseases. In this review, we focus on the virome and, particularly, on Anelloviridae, a recently discovered virus family. Anelloviruses are major components of the virome, present in most, if not all, human beings, where they are acquired early in life and replicate persistently without causing apparent disease. We will discuss how modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems by Anelloviruses can influence the development of respiratory diseases in childhood and provide evidence for the use of Anelloviruses as useful and practical molecular markers to monitor inflammatory processes and immune system competence.

  11. Major Lipid Body Protein: A Conserved Structural Component of Lipid Body Accumulated during Abiotic Stress in S. quadricauda CASA-CC202

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javee, Anand [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Sulochana, Sujitha Balakrishnan [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India); Pallissery, Steffi James [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Arumugam, Muthu, E-mail: arumugam@niist.res.in [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Trivandrum (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India)

    2016-11-23

    Abiotic stress in oleaginous microalgae enhances lipid accumulation, which is stored in a specialized organelle called lipid droplets (LDs). Both the LDs or lipid body are enriched with major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). It serves as a major structural component and also plays a key role in recruiting other proteins and enzymes involved in lipid body maturation. In the present study, the presence of MLDP was detected in two abiotic stress condition namely nitrogen starvation and salt stress condition. Previous research reveals that nitrogen starvation enhances lipid accumulation. Therefore, the effect of salt on growth, biomass yield, and fatty acid profile is studied in detail. The specific growth rate of Scenedesmus quadricauda under the salt stress of 10mM concentration is about 0.174 μ and in control, the SGR is 0.241 μ. An increase in the doubling time of the cells shows that the rate of cell division decreases during salt stress (2.87–5.17). The dry biomass content also decreased drastically at 50mM salt-treated cells (129 mg/L) compared to control (236 mg/L) on the day 20. The analysis of fatty acid composition also revealed that there is a 20% decrease in the saturated fatty acid level and 19.9% increment in monounsaturated fatty acid level, which makes salt-mediated lipid accumulation as a suitable biodiesel precursor.

  12. Involvement of major components from Sporothrix schenckii cell wall in the caspase-1 activation, nitric oxide and cytokines production during experimental sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo Silva; Alegranci, Pâmela; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, involving all layers of skin and the subcutaneous tissue. The role of innate immune toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the defense against this fungus has been reported, but so far, there were no studies on the effect of cell wall major components over the cytosolic oligo-merization domain (NOD)-like receptors, important regulators of inflammation and responsible for the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, whose functions are dependents of the caspase-1 activation, that can participate of inflammasome. It was evaluated the percentage of activation of caspase-1, the production of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-17, IFN-γ and nitric oxide in a Balb/c model of S. schenckii infection. It was observed a decreased activity of caspase-1 during the fourth and sixth weeks of infection accompanied by reduced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-17 and high production of nitric oxide. IFN-γ levels were elevated during the entire time course of infection. This temporal reduction in caspase-1 activity coincides exactly with the reported period of fungal burden associated with a transitory immunosuppression induced by this fungus and detected in similar infection models. These results indicate the importance of interaction between caspase-1, cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the host defense against S. schenckii infection, suggesting a participation the inflammasome in this response.

  13. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-08-10

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

  15. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of nitrogen removal rate and biomass, ethanol, and methane production yields by combination of four major duckweeds and three types of wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Tadashi; Hanaoka, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Morikawa, Masaaki; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-01

    To assess the potential of duckweeds as agents for nitrogen removal and biofuel feedstocks, Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, Lemna gibba, and Landoltia punctata were cultured in effluents of municipal wastewater, swine wastewater, or anaerobic digestion for 4 days. Total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (T-DIN) of 20-50 mg/L in effluents was effectively removed by inoculating with 0.3-1.0 g/L duckweeds. S. polyrhiza showed the highest nitrogen removal (2.0-10.8 mg T-DIN/L/day) and biomass production (52.6-70.3 mg d.w./L/day) rates in all the three effluents. Ethanol and methane were produced from duckweed biomass grown in each effluent. S. polyrhiza and L. punctata biomass showed higher ethanol (0.168-0.191, 0.166-0.172 and 0.174-0.191 g-ethanol/g-biomass, respectively) and methane (340-413 and 343-408 NL CH 4 /kg VS, respectively) production potentials than the others, which is related to their higher carbon and starch contents and calorific values. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. EBR-II facility for cleaning and maintenance of LMR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cleaning and maintenance of EBR-II sodium wetted components is accomplished in a separate hands-on maintenance facility known as the Sodium Components Maintenance Shop (SCMS). Sodium removal is mostly done using alcohol but steam or water is used. The SCMS has three alcohol cleaning systems: one for small nonradioactive components, one for small radioactive components, and one for large radioactive components. The SCMS also has a water-wash station for the removal of sodium with steam or water. An Alcohol Recovery Facility removes radioactive contaminants from the alcohol and reclaims the alcohol for reuse. Associated with the large components cleaning system is a major component handling system

  18. 樱桃核主要成分分析及其抗氧化性研究%Major Components and Antioxidant Capability Analysis of Cherry Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄天元; 肖军霞

    2014-01-01

    樱桃可以加工成樱桃汁、樱桃酒、樱桃醋、樱桃果脯等农副产品,而樱桃核却在加工中成为废弃物。以大紫红和崂山红樱桃核为材料,测定了其主要成分,并分别对其水、石油醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇提取物进行了抗氧化性研究。结果表明,樱桃核中主要含有水分、蛋白质和油脂等成分,崂山红樱桃核的4种提取物的还原能力、羟基自由基抑制率和超氧阴离子抑制率最高的均为水提取物,分别达到0.27%、61.5%和38.7%,这说明崂山红樱桃核中起抗氧化作用的主要是水溶性成分。%Cherry can be processed to juice, wine, vinegar and preserve, but the cherry stone is often discarded as a waste. In this paper, the major components in the stone of Dazhihong cherry and Laoshan red cherry were determined and the antioxidant capabilities of the aqueous extract, pettroleum extract, ethyl acetate extract, and n-butanol extract of Laoshan red cherry stone were measured. The results indicated that the cherry stones consisted mainly of water, protein, and lipid. The aqueous extract of the stone of Laoshan red cherry had the highest reducing capability, hydroxyl radical inhibition rate and superoxide anion inhibition activity compared with other organic solvent extracts, reaching 0.27 %,61.5 % and 38.7 % respecitvely, implying that the antioxidant capability of Laoshan red cherry stone was contributed mainly by water-soluble components.

  19. Major components of metabolic syndrome and nutritional intakes in different genotype of UCP2 -866G/A gene polymorphisms in patients with NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Farajnia, Safar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad-Asghari

    2016-06-14

    It has been suggested that dietary modifications in combination with genetic predisposition play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In the current study we aimed to investigate the major components of metabolic syndrome in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nutritional intakes according to different genotype of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) -866G/A gene polymorphism in these patients. In this study 151 participants including 75 patients with NAFLD and 76 healthy individuals were enrolled. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Physical activity was obtained by metabolic equivalent questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments were conducted by a trained researcher and body mass index and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose, liver enzymes and lipid profiles were measured. Polymorphisms of -866G/A UCP2 gene was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Serum triglyceride concentrations in 53.3 % of NAFLD patients compared with 35.5 % of control group was more than 150 mg/dl (P = 0.034). A significantly higher prevalence of low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations was also observed in female NAFLD patients (P  0.05). However, according to genotypes patients with AG genotype had significantly higher protein consumption compared with control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher consumption of dietary iron and copper in NAFLD patients with AG genotype was only observed among patients with NAFLD. However, the comparison of macro and micronutrient intakes in control group sound for stronger differences for AA genotype although these differences did not achieve significant threshold. A high prevalence of metabolic abnormalities was reported among NAFLD patients. Additionally, among NAFLD group

  20. Cytotoxicity of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract and its major component, casticin, correlates with differentiation status in leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hidetomo; Yuan, Bo; Nishimura, Yoshio; Imai, Masahiko; Furutani, Ryota; Kamoi, Saki; Seno, Misako; Fukushima, Shin; Hazama, Shingo; Hirobe, Chieko; Ohyama, Kunio; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Takagi, Norio; Hirano, Toshihiko; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) exhibits cytotoxic activities against various types of solid tumor cells, whereas its effects on leukemia cells has not been evaluated to date. In this study, the effects of Vitex and its major component, casticin, on leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and U-937, were investigated by focusing on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Identification and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy showed that casticin accounted for approximate 1% weight of Vitex. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of Vitex and casticin was observed in both cell lines, and HL-60 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin compared to U-937 cells. Furthermore, compared to unstimulated HL-60 cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (VD₃)-differentiated HL-60 cells acquired resistance to Vitex/casticin based on the results from cell viability and apoptosis induction analysis. Since the HL-60 cell line is more immature than the U-937 cell line, these results suggested that the levels of cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin were largely attributed to the degree of differentiation of leukemia cells; that is, cell lines with less differentiated phenotype were more susceptible than the differentiated ones. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PMA upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HL-60 cells, and that anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody not only abrogated PMA-induced aggregation and adhesion of the cells but also restored its sensitivity to Vitex. These results suggested that ICAM-1 plays a crucial role in the acquired resistance in PMA-differentiated HL-60 cells by contributing to cell adhesion. These findings provide fundamental insights into the clinical application of Vitex/casticin for hematopoietic malignancy.

  1. Three-dimensional components of selfhood in treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder: A resting-state qEEG imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A

    2017-05-01

    Based on previous studies implicating increased functional connectivity within the self-referential brain network in major depressive disorder (MDD), and considering the functional roles of three distinct modules of such brain net (responsible for three-dimensional components of Selfhood) together with the documented abnormalities of self-related processing in MDD, we tested the hypothesis that patients with depression would exhibit increased connectivity within each module of the self-referential brain network and that the strength of these connections would correlate positively with depression severity. Applying the electroencephalogram (EEG) operational synchrony analysis to extract three modules of the self-referential brain network in 12 medication-free depressive outpatients and 10 control subjects we have found an increase in the strength of EEG synchrony within all three modules in depressive patients (though non-significant for the right module). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis that used 3 factors (values of synchrony strength for all three modules) as input indicated that combined increase in the strength of synchrony in all three modules was positively associated with severity of depression. Taken together the findings of this study suggest that depression is primarily associated with hypersynchrony in all three modules of the brain self-referential network (the anterior module been responsible for "witnessing observation and first-person perspective", the left posterior module been responsible for "reflective agency and narration" and the right posterior module been responsible for "bodily representational-emotional agency"), thus contributing to excessive self-focus, rumination, and body tension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prophylactic administration of an extract from Plantaginis Semen and its major component aucubin inhibits mechanical allodynia caused by paclitaxel in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugunobu Andoh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX causes peripheral neuropathy as a major dose-limiting side effect, and this peripheral neuropathy is difficult to control. Our previous report showed that prophylactic repetitive administration of goshajinkigan (牛車腎氣丸 niú chē shèn qì wán, but not hachimijiogan (八味地黃丸 bā wèi dì huáng wán, which lacks two of the constituents of goshajinkigan, inhibited PTX-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Thus, the herbal medicines Plantaginis Semen (車前子 chē qián zǐ or Achyranthis Radix (牛膝 niú xī may contribute to the inhibitory action of goshajinkigan on the exacerbation of PTX-induced mechanical allodynia [Andoh et al, J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2014; 4: 293–297]. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether an extract of Plantaginis Semen (EPS or Achyranthis Radix (EAR would relieve PTX-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. A single intraperitoneal injection of PTX caused mechanical allodynia, which peaked on day 14 after injection. Repetitive oral administration of EPS, but not EAR, starting from the day after PTX injection significantly inhibited the exacerbation of PTX-induced mechanical allodynia. Repetitive intraperitoneal injection of aucubin, one of the main components of EPS, starting from the day after PTX injection also significantly reduced PTX-induced mechanical allodynia. However, repetitive intraperitoneal injection of geniposide acid (a precursor of aucubin or catalpol (a metabolite of aucubin did not prevent the exacerbation of mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that prophylactic administration of EPS is effective for preventing the exacerbation of PTX-induced allodynia. Aucubin may contribute to the inhibitory action of EPS on the exacerbation of PTX-induced allodynia.

  3. The Major Mobilization of the Unconscious and the Total Removal of Resistance in Davanloo's Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy Part II: Treating the Transference Neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Davanloo's Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy has been the subject of various reviews. The first article in this series focused on a review of Davanloo's early work as well as a discussion of some of his most recent research findings. A case from the Montreal closed circuit training program was reviewed. This second article will focus on Davanloo's views on the transference neurosis and how its development should be avoided at all costs. There will be further exploration of the case presented in Part I from the Montreal closed circuit training program. There will also be a special focus on detecting the transference neurosis when present and the technical interventions needed to lay the foundations for removing it.

  4. The Major Mobilization of the Unconscious and the Total Removal of Resistance in Davanloo's Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy Part I: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Davanloo's Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy has been the subject of various reviews. Davanloo has published extensively on his early work, but there have been no publications on his most recent work-most notably his Montreal Closed-circuit training program. This program focuses on his most recent discoveries and techniques and is a unique, videotaped supervisory program. It focuses on self-assessment and peer-assessment. It is also a unique format in which to review Davanloo's theoretical conceptions of resistance and the transference component of the resistance. This paper will review the early work of Davanloo as well as his most recent research findings. A case from the Montreal Closed-circuit training program will be reviewed in detail to highlight these findings.

  5. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines: Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2 and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) - Phase II (Neurological and Reproductive Performance Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    creatinine (CREA), globulin (GLOB), glucose (GLU), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglycerides (TRIG), and major electrolyte concentrations (Na+; K+; Cl...positioning an index finger along the abdomen. The finger was removed and the latency for the pup to roll over and obtain the prone posture with all four paws...paternal exposures: p = 0.371, ANOVA); the stillbirth index (fraction of pups dead at birth; maternal exposures: p = 0.349; maternal and paternal

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines (Phase III): Two Generation Developmental and Reproductive Safety Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2, and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    creatinine (CREA), globulin (GLOB), glucose (GLU), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglycerides (TRIG), and major electrolyte concentrations (Na+; K+; Cl... index finger along the abdomen. The finger was removed and the latency for the pup to roll over and obtain the prone posture with all four paws on...to controls for dams exhibiting evidence of pregnancy (mating index ) and for pregnant dams producing live offspring (gestation index ) were

  7. Development of the TRSSS-1 Satellite as the Major Component of the Space Based Information System(SBIS) for Effective Decision Support System for Thailand's Natural Resources and Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Musigasam, Weerapant; Ditsariyakue, Praneet; Aphicholati, Navanit; Vibulsresth, Suvit

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes development of the first Thailand Remote Sensing Satellite System (TRSSS-1) by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), Ministry of Science Technology and Environment (MOSTE). The TRSSS-1 project has primarily been developed as a major component of the Space Base Information System (SBIS) for effective decision support system for Thailand's natural resources and environmental management. The Space Based Information System consists of three components namely, the u...

  8. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  9. A systematic investigation of SO2 removal dynamics by coal-based activated cokes: The synergic enhancement effect of hierarchical pore configuration and gas components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Liu, Xin; Tang, Xiaofan; Wu, Shaohua

    2015-12-01

    For the aim to break through the long-term roadblock to porous carbon based SO2 removal technology, typical coal-based activated cokes differing in terms of surface area, pore configuration and surface functional properties, were employed to investigate the SO2 removal dynamics. Among the employed activated cokes, the one with a hierarchically porous structure greatly enhanced the SO2 removal dynamics under the simulated flue gas compositions. More detailedly, SO2 separate adsorption property under normal temperature and pressure evidenced that monolayer SO2 molecules anchoring on micropore surface is the main adsorption pattern. The catalytic oxidation of SO2 follows the Eley-Rideal mechanism by which SO2 was firstly oxidized by molecular oxygen into SO3 which could depart partially to release the active sites for further adsorption. For the role of hierarchical pore configuration, it was proposed that micropores serve as gas adsorption and reaction accommodation, meso-/macropores act as byproduct H2SO4 transport and buffing reservoirs, which may in turn gives rise to the recovery of active sites in micropores and guarantees the continuous proceeding of sulfur-containing species transformation in the micropores. The present results suggest that pore configuration or interconnecting pattern, but not mere surface area or pore volume, should be favourably considered for optimizing heterogeneous gas-solid adsorption and reaction.

  10. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a.

  11. Removing an intersubject variance component in a general linear model improves multiway factoring of event-related spectral perturbations in group EEG studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jeffrey S; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Ferree, Thomas C

    2013-03-01

    Linear statistical models are used very effectively to assess task-related differences in EEG power spectral analyses. Mixed models, in particular, accommodate more than one variance component in a multisubject study, where many trials of each condition of interest are measured on each subject. Generally, intra- and intersubject variances are both important to determine correct standard errors for inference on functions of model parameters, but it is often assumed that intersubject variance is the most important consideration in a group study. In this article, we show that, under common assumptions, estimates of some functions of model parameters, including estimates of task-related differences, are properly tested relative to the intrasubject variance component only. A substantial gain in statistical power can arise from the proper separation of variance components when there is more than one source of variability. We first develop this result analytically, then show how it benefits a multiway factoring of spectral, spatial, and temporal components from EEG data acquired in a group of healthy subjects performing a well-studied response inhibition task. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. In vitro activity of essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Lippia gracilis and their major chemical components against Thielaviopsis paradoxa, causal agent of stem bleeding in coconut palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Rodrigues da Costa e Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Lippia sidoides, Lippia gracilis and their main chemical components were investigated for in vitro control of Thielaviopsis paradoxa. Mycelial growth and a number of pathogen conidia were inhibited by the essential oil of L. sidoides at all concentrations tested (0.2; 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 µL mL-1. L. sidoides oil contained 42.33% thymol and 4.56% carvacrol, while L. gracilis oil contained 10% thymol and 41.7% carvacrol. Mycelial growth and conidial production of T. paradoxa were completely inhibited by thymol at a 0.3 µL m-1 concentration. The results suggest that thymol could potentially be used for controlling coconut stem bleeding.

  13. Effect of medium components on the production of a biosurfactant from Candida tropicalis applied to the removal of hydrophobic contaminants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ranielly M; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; de Souza, José Edson G; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2010-05-01

    The influence of medium constituents on the production of biosurfactants by Candida tropicalis cultivated in waste frying oil was investigated according to a fractional factorial 2(5-1) design. The combined effect of the C/N(inorganic), C/Fe, C/Mg, and C/P ratios and yeast extract on surface tension reduction, biosurfactant yield, emulsification activity, and biomass were studied. The highest biosurfactant yield was reached when low C/Mg and low C/P ratio variables were combined, while the cell growth was favored by increasing the nitrogen concentration. The highest surface tension net decrease, on the other hand, was observed at low yeast extract concentration, low C/Fe, and high C/P ratios. Emulsification indices against lubrication and automobile waste oil of approximately 65 to 95% were observed. The crude biosurfactant produced in the medium--formulated with 2% waste frying oil, 0.067% NH4Cl, 0.025% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.067% KH2PO4, and 0.0026% FeCl3.6H2O--removed approximately 78 to 97% of the petroleum and motor oil adsorbed in sand samples.

  14. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  15. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  16. Influence of non-dietary factors on the prevalence of abdominal obesity as a major component of the metabolic syndrome among 17-18-year-old youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Broniecka, Anna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Youth nutrition and their nutritional status are conditioned by many factors, some of the main ones being: economic, social, climatic, cultural, and psychological factors as well as nutritional knowledge. With the growing problem of overweight and obesity among children and young people, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is also increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of demographic, sociological and psychological factors on the incidence of obesity among 17-18-year-old adolescents from Wroclaw and vicinity as a major risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome. The study was conducted in three upper-secondary schools in Wroclaw, Poland. In the surveyed group (17-18 years old, n = 269) girls accounted for 59.5% and boys constituted 40.5%. Majority of young people were Wroclaw citizens (72.9%). Centile charts elaborated by the Children's Memorial Health Institute were adopted for the evaluation of anthropometric parameters. Evaluation of the impact of non-dietary factors on the manner of nutrition was carried out using own questionnaire. Based on the tests, abdominal obesity was determined among 34.5% of adolescents aged 17 years and among 65.5% of these aged 18 years. Obesity was more common in girls carrying genetic burden of the disease. Youth with the largest waist circumference most often declared to use slimming diets - 6.7%, and the lowest hunger sensation in stress - 3.4%. In addition, 30.5% of the adolescents with the smallest waist circumference and 11.5% with the largest waist circumference declared to be non-smoking. Occasional alcohol consumption was declared by 30.1% of young people with the smallest waist circumference, and 13.4% with the largest waist circumference. Youth with abdominal obesity significantly more likely than those with normal waist circumference applied slimming diets. Significant impact on the formation of abdominal obesity among girls had inherited disease burden.

  17. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory capacity of Rhus coriaria L. extract and its major component methyl gallate on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by optical profilometry: Potential applications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacergius, Tomas; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Kirkliauskiene, Agne; Gabe, Vika; Adawi, Azmi; Rayan, Mahmoud; Qutob, Mutaz; Stukas, Rimantas; Utkus, Algirdas; Zeidan, Mouhammad; Rayan, Anwar

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) bacterium is the most well recognized pathogen involved in pathogenesis of dental caries. Its virulence arises from its ability to produce a biofilm and acidogenicity, causing tooth decay. Discovery of natural products capable to inhibit biofilm formation is of high importance for developing health care products. To the best of our knowledge, in all previous scientific reports, a colorimetric assay was applied to test the effect of sumac and methyl gallate (MG) on S. mutans adherence. Quantitative assessment of the developed biofilm should be further performed by applying an optical profilometry assay, and by testing the effect on both surface roughness and thickness parameters of the biofilm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the effect of sumac extract and its constituent MG on biofilm formation using an optical profilometry assay. Testing antibacterial activity of the sumac extract and its fractions revealed that MG is the most bioactive component against S. mutans bacteria. It reduced S. mutans biofilm biomass on the polystyrene surface by 68‑93%, whereas 1 mg/ml MG was able to decrease the biofilm roughness and thickness on the glass surface by 99%. MG also prevented a decrease in pH level by 97%. These bioactivities of MG occurred in a dose‑dependent manner and were significant vs. untreated bacteria. The findings are important for the development of novel pharmaceuticals and formulations of natural products and extracts that possess anti‑biofilm activities with primary applications for oral health, and in a broader context, for the treatment of various bacterial infections.

  19. Natural deep eutectic solvents as the major mobile phase components in high-performance liquid chromatography-searching for alternatives to organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Adam T; Fraige, Karina; Leme, Gabriel Mazzi; da Silva Bolzani, Vanderlan; Hilder, Emily F; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Arrua, R Dario; Funari, Cristiano Soleo

    2018-06-01

    Over the past six decades, acetonitrile (ACN) has been the most employed organic modifier in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), followed by methanol (MeOH). However, from the growing environmental awareness that leads to the emergence of "green analytical chemistry," new research has emerged that includes finding replacements to problematic ACN because of its low sustainability. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) can be produced from an almost infinite possible combinations of compounds, while being a "greener" alternative to organic solvents in HPLC, especially those prepared from natural compounds called natural DES (NADES). In this work, the use of three NADES as the main organic component in RP-HPLC, rather than simply an additive, was explored and compared to the common organic solvents ACN and MeOH but additionally to the greener ethanol for separating two different mixtures of compounds, one demonstrating the elution of compounds with increasing hydrophobicity and the other comparing molecules of different functionality and molar mass. To utilize NADES as an organic modifier and overcome their high viscosity monolithic columns, temperatures at 50 °C and 5% ethanol in the mobile phase were used. NADES are shown to give chromatographic performances in between those observed for ACN and MeOH when eluotropic strength, resolution, and peak capacity were taken into consideration, while being less environmentally impactful as shown by the HPLC-Environmental Assessment Tool (HPLC-EAT) metric. With the development of proper technologies, DES could open a new class of mobile phases increasing the possibilities of new separation selectivities while reducing the environmental impact of HPLC analyses. Graphical abstract Natural deep eutectic solvents versus traditional solvents in HPLC.

  20. CD40-CD40 Ligand Pathway is a Major Component of Acute Neuroinflammation and Contributes to Long-term Cognitive Dysfunction after Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Monique; Danieslki, Lucinéia Gainski; Vieira, Andriele; Florentino, Drielly; Dall'Igna, Dhébora; Galant, Letícia; Sonai, Beatriz; Vuolo, Francieli; Mina, Franciele; Pescador, Bruna; Dominguini, Diogo; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Petronilho, Fabrícia

    2015-03-26

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. It is not understood what the exact mechanism is for the brain dysfunction that occurs in septic patients, but brain inflammation and oxidative stress are a possible theory. Such events can occur through the alteration of molecules that perpetuate the inflammatory response. Thus, it is possible to postulate that CD40 may be involved in this process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of CD40-CD40L pathway activation in brain dysfunction associated with sepsis in an animal model. Microglia activation induces the upregulation of CD40-CD40L, both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of microglia activation decreases levels of CD40-CD40L in the brain and decreases brain inflammation, oxidative damage and blood brain barrier dysfunction. Despite this, anti-CD40 treatment does not improve mortality in this model. However, it is able to improve long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors. In conclusion, there is a major involvement of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in long-term brain dysfunction in an animal model of sepsis.

  1. CD40–CD40 Ligand Pathway Is a Major Component of Acute Neuroinflammation and Contributes to Long-term Cognitive Dysfunction after Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Monique; Danieslki, Lucinéia Gainski; Vieira, Andriele; Florentino, Drielly; Dall’Igna, Dhébora; Galant, Letícia; Sonai, Beatriz; Vuolo, Francieli; Mina, Franciele; Pescador, Bruna; Dominguini, Diogo; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Petronilho, Fabrícia

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. It is not understood what the exact mechanism is for the brain dysfunction that occurs in septic patients, but brain inflammation and oxidative stress are a possible theory. Such events can occur through the alteration of molecules that perpetuate the inflammatory response. Thus, it is possible to postulate that CD40 may be involved in this process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of CD40–CD40L pathway activation in brain dysfunction associated with sepsis in an animal model. Microglia activation induces the upregulation of CD40–CD40L, both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of microglia activation decreases levels of CD40–CD40L in the brain and decreases brain inflammation, oxidative damage and blood brain barrier dysfunction. Despite this, anti-CD40 treatment does not improve mortality in this model. However, it is able to improve long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors. In conclusion, there is a major involvement of the CD40–CD40L signaling pathway in long-term brain dysfunction in an animal model of sepsis. PMID:25822797

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-09

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  3. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen (IIT); (US-FDA)

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  4. Component-resolved microarray analysis of IgE sensitization profiles to Felis catus major allergen molecules in Russian cat-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, Anna Sergeevna; Sudina, Anna Evgenevna; Cherkashina, Anna Sergeevna; Stukolova, Olga Alekseevna

    We aimed to determine the profile of IgE reactivity to three major cat allergens, Fel d 1, Fel d 2 and Fel d 4, in cat-allergic patients in the Moscow region in Russia. sIgE levels to recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (Fel d 1 and Fel d 4) and to Fel d 2 protein purified from cat serum were measured using a microarray method developed in our laboratory. Sera from 174 anonymous subjects with a positive reaction (≥0.35 IU/mL) to cat dander extract (e1, ImmunoCAP) and 56 negative controls were used for IgE testing. Fel d 1 was recognized by 92.5%, Fel d 2 by 29.9% and Fel d 4 by 39.1% of the tested patient sera. The sensitivity to these three proteins was approximately 98% compared to cat dander extract (correlation coefficient to ImmunoCAP is 0.94 with PPV = 0.99 and NPV = 0.95). These predictive values appeared to be even more statistically significant than the divergence between the ISAC IgE test and the extract-based singleplex ImmunoCAP. The combination of the three investigated proteins (Fel d 1, Fel d 2 and Fel d 4) is suitable for in vitro molecular (serological) diagnosis of cat allergy in this region as a complement to cat dander extract. Moreover, with this method, we found distinction between Fel d 2 and other Feline sIgEs formation.

  5. Effects and mechanisms of Shaofu-Zhuyu decoction and its major bioactive component for Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Sha, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Kavin Yue; Guo, Jianming; Yu, Li; Liu, Pei; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-06-20

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medical sciences in clinical application. The Chinese herbal formula, Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD), is considered as an effective prescription for treating Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis (CSBS) primary dysmenorrhea. The previous studies showed the SFZYD exhibited significant anti-inflammation and analgesic effect. In this present study the metabolomics of CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats and the cytokine transcription in PHA stimulated-PBMC were investigated to explore the effects and mechanisms. Explore a valuable insight into the effects and mechanisms of SFZYD on Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats. We established CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats according the clinical symptoms. A targeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based metabolomic platform was used to evaluate the metabolic profiling changes and the intervention effects by SFZYD. The PBMC cell was adopted to explore the mechanisms by analyzing the signaling pathway evaluated by expression of inflammatory cytokines, c-jun and c-fos and corresponding phosphorylation levels. Estradiol, oxytocin, progesterone, endothelin, β-endorphin and PGF2α were restored back to the normal level after the treatment of SFZYD. Total twenty-five metabolites (10 in plasma and 15 in urine), up-regulated or down-regulated, were identified. These identified biomarkers underpinning the metabolic pathway including pentose and glucuronate interconversions, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism are disturbed in model rats. Among these metabolites, twenty one potential biomarkers were regulated after SFZYD treated. The compound of paeoniflorin, a major bioactive compound in SFZYD, was proved to regulate the MAPK signaling pathway by inhibiting the expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, INFγ, c-jun and c-fos in PHA stimulated-PBMC. These findings

  6. Hot gas filtration: Investigations to remove gaseous pollutant components out of flue gas during hot gas filtration. Final report; HGR: Untersuchung zur Minimierung von gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Rauchgasen bei der Heissgasfiltration. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A; Gross, R; Renz, U

    1998-07-01

    Power plants with gas and steam turbines in pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized gasification processes enable power generation of coal with high efficiency and little emissions. To run these plants the cleaning of the flue gas is necessary before entering the turbines under the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ceramic filter elements are the most probable method for hot gas cleaning. A simultaneous reduction of gaseous pollutant components under these conditions could help to make the whole process more efficient. The aim of the project is to integrate the catalytic reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides into the hot gas filtration with ceramic filter elements as a one step mecanism. The project is focused on: - the catalytic behaviour of ferruginous ashes of brown coal, - the effectiveness of calcinated aluminates as a catalyst to remove uncombusted hydrocarbons in a hot gas filtration unit, - numerical simulation of the combined removal of particles and gaseous pollutant components out of the flue gas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschicht- oder mit Druckvergasungsverfahren ermoeglichen die Verstromung von Kohle mit hohem Wirkungsgrad und niedrigen Emissionen. Eine Voraussetzung fuer den Betrieb dieser Anlagen ist die Entstaubung der Rauchgase bei hohen Temperaturen und Druecken. Abreinigungsfilter mit keramischen Elementen werden dazu eingesetzt. Eine Reduzierung gasfoermiger Schadstoffe unter den gleichen Bedingungen koennte die Rauchgaswaesche ersetzen. Ziel des Gesamtvorhabens ist es, die Integration von Heissgasfiltration und katalytischem Abbau der Schadstoffe Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlenwasserstoffe und Stickoxide in einem Verfahrensschritt zu untersuchen. Die Arbeitsschwerpunkte dieses Teilvorhabens betreffen - die katalytische Wirkung eisenhaltiger Braunkohlenaschen, - die Wirksamkeit des Calciumaluminats als Katalysator des Abbaus unverbrannter Kohlenwasserstoffe im Heissgasfilter

  7. TMI-2 reactor-vessel head removal and damaged-core-removal planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, J.A.; Hultman, C.W.; Lewis, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    A major milestone in the cleanup and recovery effort at TMI-2 will be the removal of the reactor vessel closure head, planum, and damaged core fuel material. The data collected during these operations will provide the nuclear power industry with valuable information on the effects of high-temperature-dissociated coolant on fuel cladding, fuel materials, fuel support structural materials, neutron absorber material, and other materials used in reactor structural support components and drive mechanisms. In addition, examination of these materials will also be used to determine accident time-temperature histories in various regions of the core. Procedures for removing the reactor vessel head and reactor core are presented

  8. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  9. Evaluation methods for corrosion damage of components in cooling systems of nuclear power plants by coupling analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (1). Major targets and development strategies of the evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Uchida, Shunsuke; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ninokata, Hisashi; Hiranuma, Naoki; Dosaki, Koji; Nishida, Koji; Akiyama, Minoru; Saitoh, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Problems in major components and structural materials in nuclear power plants have often been caused by flow induced vibration and corrosion and their overlapping effects. In order to establish safe and reliable plant operation, future problems for structural materials should be predicted based on combined analyses of flow dynamics and corrosion and they should be mitigated before becoming serious issues for plant operation. Three approaches have been prepared for predicting future problems in structural materials: 1. Computer program packages for predicting future corrosion fatigue on structural materials, 2. Computer program packages for predicting future corrosion damage on structural materials, and 3. Computer program packages for predicting wall thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion. General features of evaluation methods and their computer packages, technical innovations required for their development, and application plans for the developed approaches for plant operation are introduced in this paper. (author)

  10. Rapid and sensitive determination of major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and UHPLC with hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Atul S; Sathiyanarayanan, L; Deshpande, Shreekant; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods. An Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis in multiple-reaction monitoring mode in negative electrospray ionization. The chromatographic separation was accomplished using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column with gradient elution of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. The developed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r 2 > 0.999), precision (RSD ≤ 2.22%) and recovery (RSD ≤ 2.35%). The results indicated that matrix solid-phase dispersion produced comparable extraction efficiency compared with other methods nevertheless was more convenient and time-saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent volumes. The proposed method is rapid and sensitive in providing a promising alternative for extraction and comprehensive determination of active components for quality control of Euphoria longana products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  12. Flexible removable partial dentures: a basic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Edward E; Rubel, Barry; Smith, John B

    2014-01-01

    For many years, flexible resin materials have been available for fabricating removable partial denture (RPD) prostheses. Using a nonrigid material for the major connector or other components of an RPD may be a consideration for certain patients. Except for the promotional literature that has been written for flexible resin dentures, there is very little information available in the dental literature concerning nonrigid RPDs. As a result, the decision to use this treatment option depends on the judgment and experience of the dentist and fabricating laboratory. This article summarizes clinically pertinent information about flexible, nonrigid partial dentures.

  13. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  14. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  15. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  16. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  17. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (Pdistribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Removing Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    11 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Removing Bureaucracy Katharina G. McFarland McFarland is Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. I once...involvement from all of the Service warfighting areas came together to scrub the program requirements due to concern over the “ bureaucracy ” and... Bureaucracy ” that focuses on reducing cycle time, staffing time and all forms of inefficiencies. This includes review of those burdens that Congress

  19. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Potential for utilization of algae in engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances its potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  20. Process to remove turbidity-causing components from a fluid by micro-filtration - passes the fluid across an asymmetric membrane with inlet pores larger than those of nominal size, and cleans the membrane by backwashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    turbidity-causing components from beer, wine, fruit juice, milk and blood, and from bacterial and enzyme suspensions. ADVANTAGE-The process greatly reduces the lost production time associated with earlier filtration methods, and beneficial components can pass through the membrane, thereby improving...

  1. Water reuse systems: A review of the principal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Principal components of water reuse systems include ammonia removal, disease control, temperature control, aeration, and particulate filtration. Effective ammonia removal techniques include air stripping, ion exchange, and biofiltration. Selection of a particular technique largely depends on site-specific requirements (e.g., space, existing water quality, and fish densities). Disease control, although often overlooked, is a major problem in reuse systems. Pathogens can be controlled most effectively with ultraviolet radiation, ozone, or chlorine. Simple and inexpensive methods are available to increase oxygen concentration and eliminate gas supersaturation, these include commercial aerators, air injectors, and packed columns. Temperature control is a major advantage of reuse systems, but the equipment required can be expensive, particularly if water temperature must be rigidly controlled and ambient air temperature fluctuates. Filtration can be readily accomplished with a hydrocyclone or sand filter that increases overall system efficiency. Based on criteria of adaptability, efficiency, and reasonable cost, we recommend components for a small water reuse system.

  2. Method removing radioactivity from kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A method of reducing the radioactivity found in naturally occurring kaolins to about 40% below its native value, and the leachable radiogenic components to less than 20% is described. This reduction is achieved by removing from the kaolin particles of a size less than 0.5 microns. This removal may be carried out by gravitational settling, flocculation of non-colloidal particles, or acid leaching

  3. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  4. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Rhizoma Zingiberis on the Level of Aconitine in Rat Gut Sacs and Qualitative Analysis of the Major Influencing Components of Rhizoma Zingiberis on Aconitine Using UPLC/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xin

    Full Text Available This study attempted to clarify the material basis for the detoxification of Rhizoma Zingiberis (RZ on aconitine, an analgesic drug, by quantitatively assessing the influence of RZ on the in vitro intestinal concentration of aconitine using an everted gut sac model and by qualitatively identifying the components in the RZ extract. To quantify aconitine in rat everted gut sacs, both an accurate processing method and a sensitive detection method were required. We developed a three-step sample processing method to protect the components from decomposition and applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/TQMS to quantify aconitine, glucose and digoxin. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/ITMS was applied to detect the potential antidotal components in the RZ extract. Finally, the RZ extract reduced the level of aconitine in everted gut sacs, and eleven gingerols were successfully identified, which could be considered potential antidotal components for aconitine. This study demonstrated the application of two UPLC/MS methods for analyzing the material basis for the reciprocity between Chinese medicine components in everted gut sacs.

  6. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Seven Major Bio-Active Components in Normal and Blood Stasis Rats after Oral Administration of Herb Pair Danggui-Honghua by UPLC-TQ/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility between Danggui (Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Honghua (Carthami Flos is a known herb pair, which could activate blood circulation and dissipate blood stasis effects. In this paper, we quantified seven main bio-active components (hydroxysafflor yellow A, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ferulic acid, 3-n-butylphthalide, and ligustilide in plasma samples in vivo by UPLC-TQ/MS method and investigatedwhether the pharmacokinetic (PK behaviors of the seven components could be altered in blood stasis rats after oral administration of the Gui-Hong extracts. It was found that the Cmax and AUC0-t of these components in blood stasis rats had increasing tendency compared with normal rats. Most components in model and normal rats had significant difference in some pharmacokinetic parameters, which indicated that the metabolism enzymes and transporters involved in the metabolism and disposition of these bio-active componentsmay bealtered in blood stasis rats. This study was the first report about the pharmacokinetic investigation between normal and blood stasis rats after oral administrationof Gui-Hong extracts, and these results are important and valuable for better clinical applications of Gui-Hong herb pair and relatedTCM formulae.

  7. One piece reactor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Wei-Min; Wang, Song-Feng

    1993-01-01

    The strategy of Taiwan Research Reactor Renewal plan is to remove the old reactor block with One Piece Reactor Removal (OPRR) method for installing a new research reactor in original building. In this paper, the engineering design of each transportation works including the work method, the major equipments, the design policy and design criteria is described and discussed. In addition, to ensure the reactor block is safety transported for storage and to guarantee the integrity of reactor base mat is maintained for new reactor, operation safety is drawn special attention, particularly under seismic condition, to warrant safe operation of OPRR. ALARA principle and Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) practice were also incorporated in the planning to minimize the collective dose and the total amount of radioactive wastes. All these activities are introduced in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  8. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-01-01

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD and R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P and CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD and R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment

  9. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  10. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  11. Influence of the 3D-conformation, glycan component and microheterogeneity on the epitope structure of Ole e 1, the major olive allergen - Use of recombinant isoforms and specific monoclonal antibodies as immunological tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González, Eva M.; Villalba, Mayte; Lombardero, Manuel; Aalbers, Marja; van Ree, Ronald; Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2002-01-01

    Ole e 1 is the main allergen of olive pollen, which is a major cause of pollinosis in countries of the Mediterranean area. Nine Ole e 1-specific murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as well as two Ole e 1-isoforms and two Ole e 1-like allergens from lilac and privet, all of them obtained in Pichia

  12. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  13. [TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN DURING GEOMETRICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE IN CONJUNCTION WITH CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING AND USING OF HIGH THORACIC EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA AS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF GENERAL ANAESTHESIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevahina, M V; Farzutdinov, A F; Rahimov, A A; Makrushin, I M; Kvachantiradze, G Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the perioperative dynamics of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators: delivery (DO2), consumption (VO2), the coefficient of oxygen uptake (CUO2) and their composition, as well as the dynamics of blood lactate indicators in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) who underwent surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass with high thoracic epidural anaesthesia (HTEA) as the main component of anesthesia. Research was conducted in 30 patients with a critical degree of operational risk, during the correction of post-infarction heart aneurysmn using the V. Dor method in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting. The strategic blood oxygen transport indicators (delivery, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient) showed a statistically significant decrease compared to the physiological norm and to the initial data at two points of the research: the intubation of the trachea and during cardiopulmonary bypass. The system components of oxygen were influenced at problematic stages by the dynamics of SvO2 (increase), AVD (decrease), hemodilution withe fall of the HIb- in the process of JR in the persence of superficial hypothermia. The maintenance of optimal CA in the context of HTEA, combined with a balanced volemic load and a minimized cardiotonic support ensured the stabilisation of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators aithe postperfusion stage and during the immediate postoperative period The article is dedicated to the study of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators and their components during the operation of geometric reconstruc-tion of the left ventricle combined with coronary artery-bypass using cardiopulmonary bypass and with high thoracic epidural anesthesia as the main component of general anaesthesia. The analysis has covered the stagewise delivery dynamics, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient at II stages of the operation and of the immediate postoperative period. The study has ident (fled

  14. Gymnaster koraiensis and its major components, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and gymnasterkoreayne B, reduce oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or acetaminophen in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Jho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of Gymnaster koraiensisagainst oxidative stress-induced hepatic cell damage. We usedtwo different cytotoxicity models, i.e., the administration oftert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP and acetaminophen, in HepG2cells to evaluate the protective effects of G. koraiensis. The ethylacetate (EA fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound,3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DCQA, exerted protective effectsin the t-BHP-induced liver cytotoxicity model. The EA fractionand DCQA ameliorated t-BHP-induced reductions in GSHlevels and exhibited free radical scavenging activity. The EAfraction and DCQA also significantly reduced t-BHP-inducedDNA damage in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the hexane fractionof G. koraiensis and its major compound, gymnasterkoreayne B(GKB, exerted strong hepatoprotection in the acetaminopheninducedcytotoxicity model. CYP 3A4 enzyme activity wasstrongly inhibited by the extract, hexane fraction, and GKB. Thehexane fraction and GKB ameliorated acetaminophen-inducedreductions in GSH levels and protected against cell death. [BMBReports 2013; 46(10: 513-518

  15. Investigating the removal of body piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Roberts, Alden E; Koch, Jerome R; Saunders, Jana C; Owen, Donna C

    2007-05-01

    Although body piercing procurement continues to increase, 13% to 18% of them are removed. Reasons for piercing removal in college students were examined with three groups: (a) those who kept all their piercings, (b) those who removed some, or (c) those who removed all of their body piercings. Of the sample, 41% were still pierced; 50% in their lifetime. Their major purpose for the body piercing was "helped them feel unique." Females obtained more (in high school) and then removed more, usually as upperclassmen. Males and females reported themselves as risk takers at procedure time and currently; however, only 10% cited deviancy as a reason for the body piercing(s). Only removal elements of "I just got tired of it" and "I just decided to remove it" were present, especially with the Some Removed Group. Further examination of body piercing building personal distinctiveness and self-identity to promote their need of uniqueness is suggested.

  16. Thermodynamic Modeling of Sr/TRU Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmy, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the development and application of a thermodynamic modeling capability designed to treat the Envelope C wastes containing organic complexants. A complete description of the model development is presented. In addition, the model was utilized to help gain insight into the chemical processes responsible for the observed levels of Sr, TRU, Fe, and Cr removal from the diluted feed from tank 241-AN-107 which had been treated with Sr and permanganate. Modeling results are presented for Sr, Nd(III)/Eu(III), Fe, Cr, Mn, and the major electrolyte components of the waste (i.e. NO 3 , NO 2 , F,...). On an overall basis the added Sr is predicted to precipitate as SrCO 3 (c) and the MnO 4 - reduced by the NO 2 - and precipitated as a Mn oxide. These effects result in only minor changes to the bulk electrolyte chemistry, specifically, decreases in NO 2 - and CO 3 2- , and increases in NO 3 - and OH - . All of these predictions are in agreement with the experimental observations. The modeling also indicates that the majority of the Sr, TRU's (or Nd(III)/Eu(III)) analogs, and Fe are tied up with the organic complexants. The Sr and permanganate additions are not predicted to effect these chelate complexes significantly owing to the precipitation of insoluble Mn oxides or SrCO 3 . These insoluble phases maintain low dissolved concentrations of Mn and Sr which do not affect any of the other components tied up with the complexants. It appears that the removal of the Fe and TRU'S during the treatment process is most likely as a result of adsorption or occlusion on/into the Mn oxides or SrCO 3 , not as direct displacement from the complexants into precipitates. Recommendations are made for further studies that are needed to help resolve these issues

  17. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  18. A major problem associated with removing metals sulfides as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... A mixed culture of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) with molasses as carbon source was ... permanganate, chlorine, ozone, hydrogen peroxide or manganese ..... kg/m enhanced the reaction rate from 0.007-0.17 kg/m3/h.

  19. Protection by extra virgin olive oil against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Chemical and biological studies on the health benefits due to a major component of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Miriam; Kwok, Lorraine; Lee, Grace; Caruso, Alessio; Gionfra, Fabio; Candelotti, Elena; Belli, Stuart L.; Molasky, Nora; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M.; Leone, Stefano; Filipský, Tomáš; Tofani, Daniela; Pedersen, Jens; Incerpi, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide. Thus, a linear correlation (y = -0.0838x +19.73, regression factor = 0.99348) was observed for superoxide presence (y) in the voltaic cell as a function of aliquot (x) additions of EVOO, 10 μL each. The originally generated supoeroxide was approximately halved after 10 aliquots (100 μL total). The superoxide scavenging ability was analyzed, theoretically, using Density Functional Theory for tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two components of EVOO and was also confirmed experimentally for the galvinoxyl radical, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl signal disappeared after adding 1 μL of EVOO to the EPR cell in 10 minutes. In addition, EVOO significantly decreased the proliferation of human leukemic THP-1 cells, while it kept the proliferation at about normal levels in rat L6 myoblasts, a non-tumoral skeletal muscle cell line. The protection due to EVOO was also assessed in L6 cells and THP-1 exposed to the radical generator cumene hydroperoxide, in which cell viability was reduced. Also in this case the oxidative stress was ameliorated by EVOO, in line with results obtained with tetrazolium dye reduction assays, cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species measurements. We ascribe these beneficial effects to EVOO antioxidant properties and our results are in agreement with a clear health benefit of EVOO use

  20. Protection by extra virgin olive oil against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Chemical and biological studies on the health benefits due to a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rossi

    Full Text Available We report the results of in vivo studies in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes in which addition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO to their diet significantly increased their life span with respect to the control group. Furthermore, when nematodes were exposed to the pesticide paraquat, they started to die after two days, but after the addition of EVOO to their diet, both survival percentage and lifespans of paraquat-exposed nematodes increased. Since paraquat is associated with superoxide radical production, a test for scavenging this radical was performed using cyclovoltammetry and the EVOO efficiently scavenged the superoxide. Thus, a linear correlation (y = -0.0838x +19.73, regression factor = 0.99348 was observed for superoxide presence (y in the voltaic cell as a function of aliquot (x additions of EVOO, 10 μL each. The originally generated supoeroxide was approximately halved after 10 aliquots (100 μL total. The superoxide scavenging ability was analyzed, theoretically, using Density Functional Theory for tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, two components of EVOO and was also confirmed experimentally for the galvinoxyl radical, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl signal disappeared after adding 1 μL of EVOO to the EPR cell in 10 minutes. In addition, EVOO significantly decreased the proliferation of human leukemic THP-1 cells, while it kept the proliferation at about normal levels in rat L6 myoblasts, a non-tumoral skeletal muscle cell line. The protection due to EVOO was also assessed in L6 cells and THP-1 exposed to the radical generator cumene hydroperoxide, in which cell viability was reduced. Also in this case the oxidative stress was ameliorated by EVOO, in line with results obtained with tetrazolium dye reduction assays, cell cycle analysis and reactive oxygen species measurements. We ascribe these beneficial effects to EVOO antioxidant properties and our results are in agreement with a clear health

  1. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  2. Comparisons of pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profile of four major bioactive components after oral administration of Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction effective fraction in normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Li, Wei; Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Da-wei; Guo, Jian-ming; Shang, Er-xin; Su, Shu-lan; Tang, Yu-ping; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-07-03

    Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD) has been widely used to treat primary dysmenorrhea in clinical practice for hundreds of years and shown great efficacy. One fraction of XFSWD, which was an elution product by macroporous adsorption resin from aqueous extract solution with 60% ethanol (XFSWE), showed great analgesic effect. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive constituents (berberine, protopine, tetrahydrocoptisine and tetrahydropalmatine) after oral administration of XFSWE in dysmenorrheal symptom rats, and to compare the difference between normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats. Estradiol benzoate and oxytocin were used to produce dysmenorrheal symptom rat model. The experimental period was seven days. At the final day of experimental period, both normal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats were orally administrated with XFSWE, and then the blood and tissues samples were collected at different time points. Berberine, protopine, tetrahydrocoptisine and tetrahydropalmatine in blood and tissue samples were determined by LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the plasma concentration-time data using non-compartmental methods. The differences of pharmacokinetic parameters among groups were tested by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were statistically significant differences (Pnormal and dysmenorrheal symptom rats that orally administered with same dosage of XFSWE. In tissue distribution study, the results showed that the overall trend was C(Spleen)>C(Liver)>C(Kidney)>C(Uterus)>C(Heart)>C(Lung)>C(Ovary)>C(Brain)>C(Thymus), C(M-60 min)>C(M-120 min)>C(M-30 min)>C(C-60 min)>C(C-120 min)>C(C-30 min). The contents of protopine in liver, spleen and uterus were more than that in other tissues of dysmenorrheal symptom rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in dysmenorrheal symptom rats׳ tissues at different time points had significant

  3. Tritium retention in next step devices and the requirements for mitigation and removal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G; Coad, P; Grisola, C; Hopf, C

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the retention of fuel species in tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components are presented, together with estimates for the corresponding retention of tritium in ITER. The consequential requirement for new and improved schemes to reduce the tritium inventory is highlighted and the results of ongoing studies into a range of techniques are presented, together with estimates of the tritium removal rate in ITER in each case. Finally, an approach involving the integration of many tritium removal techniques into the ITER operational schedule is proposed as a means to extend the period of operations before major intervention is required

  4. Biotic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uresk, D.W.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.; Rickard, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Representative plant communities are described. The major community is dominated by sagebrush/cheatgrass-sandberg blue grass. Mammal, bird and insect species inhabiting the 200 Area plateau are representative of surrounding regions. Prairie falcons are the only species present possibly threatened with extinction. They do not nest on the plateau but probably forage over the area

  5. Fuel component of electricity generation cost for the BN-800 reactor with MOX fuel and uranium oxide fuel with increasing of fuel burnup and removing of radial breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskach, A.

    2001-01-01

    BN-800 at the Beloyarsk site were started in 1984. For now readiness of thermal equipment and industrial base is from 40 to 80%. By evaluations of various experts, a volume of construction and installation works performed for the first unit of the South Ural Nuclear Power Plant is from 10 to 13%. In connection with economical difficulties in Russia, the construction of all these objects have been discontinued and an issue to fund this project is as yet uncertain. Furthermore, the interrelation of the reactors and Complex-300 makes invoking of investments to complete construction of at least one BN-800 reactor much more difficult. Thus, along with MOX fuel loading of BN-800, it might be reasonable to consider a possibility to use uranium fuel until Complex-300 is put into operation and picks up sufficient output. And making a decision to load BN-800 with uranium oxide fuel in the initial stage of its operating should be based on analyses of fuel components in parallel with other decisive parameters. General technical characteristics on some versions of the BN-800 core with MOX and uranium fuel are shown in Table. (author)

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

  7. Innovative Approaches to Large Component Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, A.; Hooper, M.; Posivak, E.; Sullivan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal often times requires creative approaches in packaging design, especially for large components. Innovative design techniques are required to meet the needs for handling, transporting, and disposing of these large packages. Large components (i.e., Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) heads and even RPVs themselves) require special packaging for shielding and contamination control, as well as for transport and disposal. WMG Inc designed and used standard packaging for RPV heads without control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) attached for five RPV heads and has also more recently met an even bigger challenge and developed the innovative Intact Vessel Head Transport System (IVHTS) for RPV heads with CRDMs intact. This packaging system has been given a manufacturer's exemption by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) for packaging RPV heads. The IVHTS packaging has now been successfully used at two commercial nuclear power plants. Another example of innovative packaging is the large component packaging that WMG designed, fabricated, and utilized at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In 2002, West Valley's high-level waste vitrification process was shut down in preparation for D and D of the West Valley Vitrification Facility. Three of the major components of concern within the Vitrification Facility were the Melter, the Concentrate Feed Makeup Tank (CFMT), and the Melter Feed Holdup Tank (MFHT). The removal, packaging, and disposition of these three components presented significant radiological and handling challenges for the project. WMG designed, fabricated, and installed special packaging for the transport and disposal of each of these three components, which eliminated an otherwise time intensive and costly segmentation process that WVDP was considering. Finally, WMG has also designed and fabricated special packaging for both the Connecticut Yankee (CY) and San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) RPVs. This paper

  8. Removal of trimethylamine (fishy odor) by C₃ and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-08-01

    From screening 23 plant species, it was found that Pterocarpus indicus (C3) and Sansevieria trifasciata (crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)) were the most effective in polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) uptake, reaching up to 90% uptake of initial TMA (100 ppm) within 8 h, and could remove TMA at cycles 1-4 without affecting photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. Up to 55 and 45% of TMA was taken up by S. trifasciata stomata and leaf epicuticular wax, respectively. During cycles 1-4, interestingly, S. trifasciata changed its stomata apertures, which was directly induced by gaseous TMA and light treatments. In contrast, for P. indicus the leaf epicuticular wax and stem were the major pathways of TMA removal, followed by stomata; these pathways accounted for 46, 46, and 8%, respectively, of TMA removal percentages. Fatty acids, particularly tetradecanoic (C14) acid and octadecanoic (C18) acid, were found to be the main cuticular wax components in both plants, and were associated with TMA removal ability. Moreover, the plants could degrade TMA via multiple metabolic pathways associated with carbon/nitrogen interactions. In CAM plants, one of the crucial pathways enabled 78% of TMA to be transformed directly to dimethylamine (DMA) and methylamine (MA), which differed from C3 plant pathways. Various metabolites were also produced for further detoxification and mineralization so that TMA was completely degraded by plants.

  9. Iron removal using an aerated granular filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, B.Y. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Republic of Korea). College of Engineering

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory scale experiments concerning iron removal from artificial raw water by an artificial filter using anthracite as filter media were conducted. The major findings were that iron oxidation and removal by an aerated filter is mainly a catalytic chemical reaction rather than a biological reaction. Further, iron removal does not perform effectively without aeration. Iron removal was very effective when the pH was weakly acidity. Iron oxide attached to the surface of the media is identified as ferrihydrite, which catalyzes the oxidation of iron as shown by Moessbauer spectra analysis.

  10. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  11. Supported Lipid Bilayers with Phosphatidylethanolamine as the Major Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendecki, Anne M; Poyton, Matthew F; Baxter, Alexis J; Yang, Tinglu; Cremer, Paul S

    2017-11-21

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is notoriously difficult to incorporate into model membrane systems, such as fluid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), at high concentrations because of its intrinsic negative curvature. Using fluorescence-based techniques, we demonstrate that having fewer sites of unsaturation in the lipid tails leads to high-quality SLBs because these lipids help to minimize the curvature. Moreover, shorter saturated chains can help maintain the membranes in the fluid phase. Using these two guidelines, we find that up to 70 mol % PE can be incorporated into SLBs at room temperature and up to 90 mol % PE can be incorporated at 37 °C. Curiously, conditions under which three-dimensional tubules project outward from the planar surface as well as conditions under which domain formation occurs can be found. We have employed these model membrane systems to explore the ability of Ni 2+ to bind to PE. It was found that this transition metal ion binds 1000-fold tighter to PE than to phosphatidylcholine lipids. In the future, this platform could be exploited to monitor the binding of other transition metal ions or the binding of antimicrobial peptides. It could also be employed to explore the physical properties of PE-containing membranes, such as phase domain behavior and intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  12. ATLAS rewards two Japanese suppliers of major detector components.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS supplier award in recognition of excellence has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, who produced the liquid-argon barrel cryostat. Kawasaki received its award in Hall 189 on the Meyrin site, where the cryostat is currently located. Toshiba Corporation's award for the superconducting central solenoid was presented two months ago at the Toshiba headquarters in Japan. Photo 01: P. Pailler, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon cryostats, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 04: H. Oberlack, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon system, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 11: P. Jenni (left), ATLAS Collaboration spokesperson, presenting the ATLAS supplier award for the barrel cryostat for the liquid-argon calorimeter to Mr. S. Nose, General Manager of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. Photo 18: J. Sondericker (left), liquid-argon barrel cryostat project engineer (BNL), presenting Mr. Nose (Kawasaki) an award from Brookhaven for the barrel cryostat for the ATLAS liquid-argo...

  13. Regulation of major cultural components for designing a cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... the protease synthesis by Bt strains (Liu and Hsieh, 1969). The pH of the medium was adjusted ... by an oxygen sensor but the pH was not controlled. Estimation of spore count ..... Molecular cloning, 2nd. Edition. Cold Spring ...

  14. Regulation of major cultural components for designing a cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this regard, locally available cheap molasses as carbon source, soybean extract as nitrogen source, sea water as trace elements source, cystine as sporulation/growth factor were ... While, substituting basal salts with sea water, Btk HD-73 yielded satisfactory and comparable endotoxin (74.3% of yield with basal salts).

  15. Biodegradability Of The Major Components Of Bonny Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the known 92 potential hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria and fungi isolated from crude oil polluted soil and water samples, only one soil bacterial isolate (SB17), identified as Bacillus subtilis, was found to efficiently degrade 72.23% of the Bonny light crude oil sample after 25 days of incubation, and thus was used for further ...

  16. Lessons learned from fatique failures in major FWR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates the field fatigue failure experience and describes the lessons learned that can be employed in managing fatigue damage at the sites of these failures and at other susceptible sites. Fatigue damage has resulted in cracks on the inside surfaces of vessels and piping, and in some cases, through-wall cracks resulting in coolant leakage. All of the fatigue failures resulted from conditions or stressors that were not accounted for in the original design analyses. In some cases, it has proven difficult to discover fatigue cracks using conventional inservice inspection methods; several cracks were detected because of leakage. Supplementary monitoring and inspection techniques such as fatigue monitoring, acoustic emission monitoring, and time-of-flight-diffraction ultrasonic testing can be used to assist in identifying susceptible sites, estimating crack growth, and sizing existing fatigue cracks. It is important to identify the root cause of failures because once the stressors and degradation mechanisms are known, changes in operating procedures and designs can be implemented to mitigate future fatigue damage

  17. Regulation of major cultural components for designing a cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... protein) synthesis by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kurstaki HD-73 and indigenous Bt JSc1 harboring potential ... The cost of raw materials is one of the principal costs involved .... t- test analysis, the final formulation of the medium was 10% ..... ratio interacts with initial concentration of total solids on insecticidal.

  18. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  19. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  20. Adsorptive Iron Removal from Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron is commonly present in groundwater worldwide. The presence of iron in the water supply is not harmful to human health, however it is undesirable. Bad taste, discoloration, staining, deposition in the distribution system leading to aftergrowth, and incidences of high turbidity are some of the aesthetic and operational problems associated with iron in water supplies. Iron removal from groundwater is, therefore, a major concern for water supply companies using groundwater sources....

  1. Spider Vein Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Removal Campaign Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The overall operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project will include fuel removal, sludge removal, debris removal, and deactivation transition activities. Figure 1-1 provides an overview of the current baseline operating schedule for project sub-systems, indicating that a majority of fuel removal activities are performed over an approximately three-and-one-half year time period. The purpose of this document is to describe the strategy for operating the fuel removal process systems. The campaign plan scope includes: (1) identifying a fuel selection sequence during fuel removal activities, (2) identifying MCOs that are subjected to extra testing (process validation) and monitoring, and (3) discussion of initial MCO loading and monitoring in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The campaign plan is intended to integrate fuel selection requirements for handling special groups of fuel within the basin (e.g., single pass reactor fuel), process validation activities identified for process systems, and monitoring activities during storage

  3. PLANNING YOUR REMOVALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service déménagement; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    To give you better service and avoid lengthy delays, the Removals Service advises you to refrain from programming moves between 26 July and 3 September, as large-scale removals are already planned during this summer period.Thanking you in advance for your co-operation and understanding.Removals Service STTel. 74185 / Mobile 164017

  4. PROGRAMMING OFFICE REMOVALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-HM

    2000-01-01

    The Removals Service recommends you to plan your removals well in advance, taking into account the fact that the Transport and Handling Group’s main priority remains the dismantling of LEP and the installation of the LHC. The requests can be made by: http://st.web.cern.ch/st/hm/removal/DEMEE.HTM Thank you for your cooperation.

  5. Arsenic removal by electrocoagulation process: Recent trends and removal mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, P V; Singh, T S Anantha

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a major issue in the present world. Arsenicosis is the disease caused by the regular consumption of arsenic contaminated water, even at a lesser contaminated level. The number of arsenicosis patients is increasing day-by-day. Decontamination of arsenic from the water medium is the only one way to regulate this and the arsenic removal can be fulfilled by water treatment methods based on separation techniques. Electrocoagulation (EC) process is a promising technology for the effective removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. The present review article analyzes the performance of the EC process for arsenic removal. Electrocoagulation using various sacrificial metal anodes such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, etc. is found to be very effective for arsenic decontamination. The performances of each anode are described in detail. A special focus has been made on the mechanism behind the arsenite and arsenate removal by EC process. Main trends in the disposal methods of sludge containing arsenic are also included. Comparison of arsenic decontamination efficiencies of chemical coagulation and EC is also reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical discharge machining for vessel sample removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litka, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Due to aging-related problems or essential metallurgy information (plant-life extension or decommissioning) of nuclear plants, sample removal from vessels may be required as part of an examination. Vessel or cladding samples with cracks may be removed to determine the cause of cracking. Vessel weld samples may be removed to determine the weld metallurgy. In all cases, an engineering analysis must be done prior to sample removal to determine the vessel's integrity upon sample removal. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is being used for in-vessel nuclear power plant vessel sampling. Machining operations in reactor coolant system (RCS) components must be accomplished while collecting machining chips that could cause damage if they become part of the flow stream. The debris from EDM is a fine talclike particulate (no chips), which can be collected by flushing and filtration

  7. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  8. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  9. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  10. [Applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Thrombotic diseases in different forms become a great threat to human health. Such anti-platelet aggregation drugs as aspirin and clopidogrel are common drugs in clinic. However, along with the appearance of resistance and side effects of western anti-platelet aggregation drugs, anti-platelet aggregation traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have gradually become an important study orientation. Platelet is one of major participant in thrombosis, and plays an important role as a bioactive material in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, mainly involving two aspects--the evaluation for the anti-platelet aggregation activity of traditional Chinese medicines and the screening of their active components. This paper summarized the applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, so as to provide basis for further studies.

  11. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M. M.; Bellmore, J. R.; O'Connor, J. E.; Duda, J. J.; East, A. E.; Grant, G. E.; Anderson, C. W.; Bountry, J. A.; Collins, M. J.; Connolly, P. J.; Craig, L. S.; Evans, J. E.; Greene, S. L.; Magilligan, F. J.; Magirl, C. S.; Major, J. J.; Pess, G. R.; Randle, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Torgersen, C. E.; Tullos, D.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  12. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  13. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  14. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  15. Section of CMS Beam Pipe Removed

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Seven components of the beam pipe located at the heart of the CMS detector were removed in recent weeks. The delicate operations were performed in several stages as the detector was opened. Video of the extraction of one section: http://youtu.be/arGuFgWM7u0

  16. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  17. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations

  18. Device for removing fur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Minoru; Nakagawa, Takao; Sakuma, Toyoo; Yonemura, Eizo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove fur adhered to fuel rods and to increase working efficiency without use of a lengthy hose. Constitution: In the fur removing device of the present invention, brushes rotated by gears are provided within a casing so that fur adhered to the fuel rods are removed by the brushes and water is rotatably moved by blades housed therein to outwardly blow fur floating in water by means of a centrifugal force. Then, the fur is filtered by a filter outwardly provided. In this way, the fur may be collected within the device to avoid contamination to others. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Sodium removal from CSRDM lower part by water vapour - CO2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar Raj, S.I.; Sreedhar, B.K.; Gurumoorthy, K.; Rajan, K.K.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2006-01-01

    Sodium is the primary and secondary coolant in fast reactors. Primary and secondary circuits components like Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (CSRDM), pumps, heat exchangers etc. handle liquid sodium. Sodium has good affinity to oxygen and reacts vigorously with water. Hence sodium cleaning is the first and important activity in the maintenance of the components. In reactor components this cleaning process also helps in removing a major part of radioactive contaminants after which they are subjected to chemical decontamination. There are several methods available for removing sodium from components. Out of these, the water vapour-CO 2 process is selected for large components such as pumps, heat exchangers etc. while steam cleaning is used for the core sub assemblies. The cleaning processes are to be closely monitored to ensure safety because the release of hydrogen is to be kept below 4 % during the process. This paper discusses the in house facility and the experience in the successful use of the process in the cleaning of CSRDM. (author)

  20. Bridge removal plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This report provides resources that detail specifications and guidelines related to bridge removal plans across the : United States. We have organized the information into three sections: : ! National Guidance : Includes language from AASHTO specific...

  1. Reactor for removing ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weifang [Livermore, CA; Stewart, Kenneth D [Valley Springs, CA

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  2. Optical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  3. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  4. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  5. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  6. Components selection for ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingiuc, C.; Vidican, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a synthesis of methods and activities realized for the selection of critical components to assure plant safety and availability (as electricity supplier). There are presented main criteria for selection, screening process. For the resulted categories of components shall be applied different category of maintenance (condition oriented, scheduled or corrective), function of the importance and financial effort necessary to fulfil the task. 1. Systems and components screening for plant safety assurance For the systems selection, from Safety point of view, was necessary first, to define systems which are dangerous in case of failure (mainly by rupture/ release of radioactivity) and the safety systems which have to mitigate the effects. This is realized based on accident analysis (from Safety Report). Also where taken in to account the 4 basic Safety Principles: 'Reactor shut down; Residual heat removal; Radioactivity products confinement; NPP status monitoring in normal and accident conditions'. Following step is to establish safety support systems, which have to action to assure main safety systems operation. This could be realized based on engineering judgement, or on PSA Level I analysis. Finally shall be realized chains of the support systems, which have to work, till primary systems. For the critical components selection, was realized a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), considering the components effects of failures, on system safety function. 2. Systems and components screening for plant availability assurance The work was realized in two steps: Systems screening; Components screening The systems screening, included: General, analyze of the plant systems list and the definition of those which clearly have to run continue to assure the nominal power; Realization of a complex diagram to define interdependence between the systems (e.g. PHT and auxiliaries, moderator and auxiliaries, plant electrical diagram); Fill of special

  7. Structural analysis of the equipment removal system for tank 241SY101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    The calculations documented in this report show that the ERS major components are structurally qualified to complete the objective, i.e., to install the removed equipment into a shipping container and transport and store the container at the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The analysis for the structural members of the ERS components considers live load with an impact factor of 125 % added to dead load. An allowable stress of one-third yield is used for all structural components carrying the load based on DOE-RL-92-36. Adherence to DOE-RL-92-36 is not a code requirement. However, the loads considered make this factor of safety appropriate. The calculations meet the strength requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (ASIC 1989) for all non-critical structural elements

  8. Structural analysis of the equipment removal system for tanks 241C106 and 241AY102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.

    1994-10-01

    The calculations documented in this report show that the ERS major components are structurally qualified to complete the objective: install the removed equipment into a shipping container, transport and store the container at the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The analysis for the structural members of the ERS components considers live load with an impact factor of 125% and dead load. An allowable stress of 1/3 yield is used for all structural components carrying the load based on DOE-RL-92-36. Adherence to DOE-RL-92-36 is not a code requirement. However, due to the loads considered, this factor of safety is appropriate. The calculations meet the strength requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989) for all non-critical structural elements

  9. Operability test procedure [Tank] 241-SY-101 equipment removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The 241-SY-101 equipment removal system (ERS) consists of components, equipment, instrumentation and procedures that will provide the means to disconnect, retrieve, contain, load and transport the Mitigation Pump Assembly (MPA) from waste Tank 241-SY-101 to the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The Operability Test Procedure (OTP) will test the interfaces between ERS components and will rehearse the procedure for MPA removal and transportation to the extent they can be mocked-up at the CTF (Cold Test Facility). At the conclusion of the OTP, the ERS components and equipment will be removed from the CTF, entered into the Component Based Recall System (CBRS), and stored until needed for actual MPA removal and transportation

  10. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its' related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed

  11. Removal of radioactivity and mineral values from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.; Dreesen, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    One possible approach to remedial action on uranium mill tailings involves the removal of the components that are responsible for the environmental concern (notably radon releases) posed by these materials. Removing mineral values at the same time can defray much of the cost. This paper presents laboratory results on sulfuric acid leachings and their effectiveness in accomplishing these aims. 9 figures, 4 tables

  12. Biotechnology based processes for arsenic removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Olde Weghuis, M.; Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulations for arsenic control have become strict. Therefore, better technologies to remove arsenic from bleeds and effluents are desired. In addition, no single solution is suitable for all cases. The properties of the process streams and the storage facilities are major factors determining

  13. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1998. Hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (development of major components such as turbine blades and rotors); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present research and development is intended to establish the fundamental technologies required to develop a pilot plant, by investigating development of such major component devices as turbine blades and rotors in a hydrogen combustion turbine. In the turbine moving and stator blade cooling technology, it is intended to achieve the power plant efficiency of 60% (based on HHV) as established in the interim evaluation performed in fiscal 1996. Therefore, the necessary element tests, detailed blade design, and partial fabrication were moved forward on the three kinds of the selected blade cooling systems as the cooling systems that can deal with the steam temperature condition as high as 1,700 degrees C. Fiscal 1998 will execute the design and fabrication of test blades and testing devices for blade cooling evaluation tests to be performed at Tashiro Township in Akita Prefecture. At the same time, evaluation and selection will be made on the three kinds of the cooling blades. In the rotor cooling technology, for the purpose of analyzing the rolling-in phenomenon of steam in the main turbine flow, a method will be developed to analyze rotor disk cavity temperatures based on CFD, the basic sealing conditions based thereon will be discussed, and generalization will be made on the rotor cooling technology. (NEDO)

  14. Net-Shape HIP Powder Metallurgy Components for Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampton, Cliff; Goodin, Wes; VanDaam, Tom; Creeger, Gordon; James, Steve

    2005-01-01

    True net shape consolidation of powder metal (PM) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) provides opportunities for many cost, performance and life benefits over conventional fabrication processes for large rocket engine structures. Various forms of selectively net-shape PM have been around for thirty years or so. However, it is only recently that major applications have been pursued for rocket engine hardware fabricated in the United States. The method employs sacrificial metallic tooling (HIP capsule and shaped inserts), which is removed from the part after HIP consolidation of the powder, by selective acid dissolution. Full exploitation of net-shape PM requires innovative approaches in both component design and materials and processing details. The benefits include: uniform and homogeneous microstructure with no porosity, irrespective of component shape and size; elimination of welds and the associated quality and life limitations; removal of traditional producibility constraints on design freedom, such as forgeability and machinability, and scale-up to very large, monolithic parts, limited only by the size of existing HIP furnaces. Net-shape PM HIP also enables fabrication of complex configurations providing additional, unique functionalities. The progress made in these areas will be described. Then critical aspects of the technology that still require significant further development and maturation will be discussed from the perspective of an engine systems builder and end-user of the technology.

  15. Seismic Design of ITER Component Cooling Water System-1 Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya P.; Jadhav, Mahesh; Sharma, Lalit K.; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Patel, Nirav; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gohil, Guman; Patel, Hiren; Dangi, Jinendra; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, A. G. A.

    2017-04-01

    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3, This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event.

  16. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  17. Tube plug removal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear steam generator wherein some faulty tubes have been isolated by mechanical plugging, to remove a selected plug without damaging the associated tube, a plug removal machine is used. The machine drills into a plug portion with a tap drill bit having a drill portion a tap portion and a threaded portion, engaging that plug portion with the threaded portion after the drilled hole has been threaded by the tap portion thereof, and removing a portion of the plug in the tube with a counterbore drill bit mounted concentrically about the tap drill bit. A trip pin and trip spline disengage the tap drill bit from the motor. The counterbore drill bit is thereafter self-centered with respect to the tube and plug about the now stationary tap drill bit. After a portion of the plug has been removed by the counterbore drill bit, pulling on the top drill bit by grippers on slots will remove the remaining plug portion from the tube. (author)

  18. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... absorbers, bracing, cowling, fairings, and balance weights. (ix) Hydraulic and electrical actuating system of components. (x) Rotor blades. (xi) Changes to the empty weight or empty balance which result in an... operations: (1) Removal, installation, and repair of landing gear tires. (2) Replacing elastic shock absorber...

  19. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  20. Passive heat removal in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU has a tradition of incorporating passive systems and passive components whenever they are shown to offer performance that is equal to or better than that of active systems, and to be economic. Examples include the two independent shutdown systems that employ gravity and stored energy respectively, the dousing subsystem of the CANDU 6 containment system, and the ability of the moderator to cool the fuel in the event that all coolant is lost from the fuel channels. CANDU 9 continues this tradition, incorporating a reserve water system (RWS) that increases the inventory of water in the reactor building and profiles a passive source of makeup water and/or heat sinks to various key process systems. The key component of the CANDU 9 reserve water system is a large (2500 cubic metres) water tank located at a high elevation in the reactor building. The reserve water system, while incorporating the recovery system functions, and the non-dousing functions of the dousing tank in CANDU 6, embraces other key systems to significantly extend the passive makeup/heat sink capability. The capabilities of the reserve water system include makeup to the steam generators secondary side if all other sources of water are lost; makeup to the heat transport system in the event of a leak in excess of the D 2 O makeup system capability; makeup to the moderator in the event of a moderator leak when the moderator heat sink is required; makeup to the emergency core cooling (ECC) system to assure NPSH to the ECC pumps during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), and provision of a passive heat sink for the shield cooling system. Other passive designs are now being developed by AECL. These will be incorporated in future CANDU plants when their performance has been fully proven. This paper reviews the passive heat removal systems and features of current CANDU plants and the CANDU 9, and briefly reviews some of the passive heat removal concepts now being developed. (author)

  1. Optimising laser tattoo removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sardana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal.

  2. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  3. Optimising Laser Tattoo Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal. PMID:25949018

  4. Laparoscopic Removal of Gossypiboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Özsoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gossypiboma is defined as a mass caused by foreign body reaction developed around the retained surgical item in the operative area. When diagnosed, it should be removed in symptomatic patients. Minimal invasive surgery should be planned for the removal of the retained item. The number of cases treated by laparoscopic approach is rare in the literature. We present a case of forty-year-old woman referred to emergency room with acute abdomen diagnosed as gossypiboma and treated successfully with laparoscopic surgery.

  5. Identification of fermentation inhibitors in wood hydrolyzates and removal of inhibitors by ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Caidian

    1998-12-01

    Common methods employed in the ethanol production from biomass consist of chemical or enzymatic degradation of biomass into sugars and then fermentation of sugars into ethanol or other chemicals. However, some degradation products severely inhibit the fermentation processes and substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. How to remove inhibitors from the reaction product mixture and increase the production efficiency are critical in the commercialization of any processes of energy from biomass. The present study has investigated anion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction as potential methods for inhibitor removal. An analytical method has been developed to identify the fermentation inhibitors in a hydrolyzate. The majority of inhibitors present in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate have positively been identified. Ion exchange with weak basic Dowex-MWA-1 resin has been proved to be an effective mean to remove fermentation inhibitors from hybrid poplar hydrolyzate and significantly increase the fermentation productivity. Extraction with n-butanol might be a preferred way to remove inhibitors from wood hydrolyzates and improve the fermentability of sugars in the hydrolyzates. n-Butanol also removes some glucose, mannose and xylose from the hydrolyzate. Inhibitor identification reveals that lignin and sugar degradation compounds including both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids formed in hydrolysis, plus fatty acids and other components from wood extractives are major fermentation inhibitors in Sacchromyces cerevisiae fermentation. There are 35 components identified as fermentation inhibitors. Among them, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, syringic acid, syringaldehyde, and ferulic acid are among the most abundant aromatic inhibitors in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate. The conversion of aldehyde groups into carboxylic acid groups in the nitric acid catalyzed hydrolysis reduces the toxicity of the hydrolyzate. A wide spectrum of

  6. Controlled biomass removal - the key parameter to achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal in biofilm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, E.

    1999-01-01

    the influence of the following processes on EBPR in biofilms was evaluated: (1) mass transfer limitation for oxygen (2) mass transfer limitation for organic substrate, (3) lack of controlled removal of biomass from the system. It was shown that mass transfer of soluble components (oxygen and organic substrate...

  7. Smart Capsules for Lead Removal from Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Jastrząb, Renata

    2017-04-10

    Ground and especially drinking water could be contaminated by heavy metal ions such as lead and chromium, or the metalloid arsenic, discarded from industrial wastewater. These heavy metal ions are regarded as highly toxic pollutants which could cause a wide range of health problems in case of a long-term accumulation in the body. Thus, there have been many efforts to reduce the concentration of lead ions in effluent wastewater. They have included the establishment of stringent permissible discharge levels and management policies, the application of various pollution-control technologies, and the development of adsorbent materials for lead reduction. According to Science [1] encapsulation, developed approximately 65 years ago, has been defined as a major interdisciplinary research technology. Encapsulation has been used to deliver almost everything from advanced drugs to unique consumer sensory experiences. In this chapter we review the art of encapsulation technology as a potential breakthrough solution for a recyclable removal system for lead ions. Moreover, in order to provide the readers with a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of recent developments and innovative applications in this field, we highlight some remarkable advantages of encapsulation for heavy metal remove, such as simplicity of preparation, applicability for a wide range of selective extractants, large special interfacial area, ability for concentration of metal ions from dilute solutions, and less leakage of harmful components to the environment.

  8. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  9. Removable pipeline plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalotti, M.; Anastasi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior

  10. Kidney removal - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100069.htm Kidney removal (nephrectomy) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The kidneys are paired organs that lie posterior to the ...

  11. Recovery of reactor electrical assemblies using differential de-encapsulation to remove dielectric insulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubrig, J.G.; Hammerstone, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    State-of-the-art de-encapsulation technologies associated with the conventional dielectric insulation systems employed in the construction of electrical coils and power distribution systems do not allow for accurate fatigue/failure analysis or reliable recovery of costly assembly components. Differential de-encapsulation allows for the selective removal of contemporary thermoset resin based insulation systems to allow non-destructive penetration of insulation wall thicknesses to both examine critical areas and recover high performance metallic and non-metallic inserts for remanufacture; significantly reducing replacement costs and reactor downtime. The authors' analysis describes how the availability of engineering data from the selective and non-destructive removal of insulation materials will aid in the evaluation of original manufacture, materials and procedures; enabling redesign to enhance subsequent on line performance. They also discuss why the ability to recover coil and core assemblies for remanufacture will have a major economic impact on reactor management costs

  12. Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.

    1986-01-01

    By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Passive heat removal characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Kwang; Kang, Hyung Seok; Yoon, Joo Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Cho, Bong Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A new advanced integral reactor of 330 MWt thermal capacity named SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is currently under development in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for multi-purpose applications. Modular once-through steam generator (SG) and self-pressurizing pressurizer equipped with wet thermal insulator and cooler are essential components of the SMART. The SMART provides safety systems such as Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). In this study, a computer code for performance analysis of the PRHRS is developed by modeling relevant components and systems of the SMART. Using this computer code, a performance analysis of the PRHRS is performed in order to check whether the passive cooling concept using the PRHRS is feasible. The results of the analysis show that PRHRS of the SMART has excellent passive heat removal characteristics. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  14. The Prototypical Majority Effect Under Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv-Mashinsky, Shiri; Undorf, Monika; Schwarz, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Majority views are reported with greater confidence and fluency than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. This Prototypical Majority Effect (PME) was attributed generally to conformity pressure, but Koriat et al. showed that it can arise from the processes underlying decision and confidence independent of social influence. Here we examined the PME under conditions that differ in social influence. In Experiment 1, a robust PME emerged in the absence of information about the majority views, but the provision sof that information increased the choice of the majority view and magnified the PME. In Experiment 2, a PME emerged in a minority-biased condition that misled participants to believe that the majority view was the minority view, but the PME was stronger in a majority-biased condition. The results were discussed in terms of a dual-process view: The PME observed under social influence may contain externally driven and internally driven components.

  15. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  16. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  17. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  18. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  19. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, W.S.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO 2 to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures

  20. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  1. Magnetic removal of Entamoeba cysts from water using chitosan oligosaccharide-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudeep Shukla,1 Vikas Arora,2 Alka Jadaun,3 Jitender Kumar,1 Nishant Singh,1 Vinod Kumar Jain1 1School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 2Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, Delhi, India; 3School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi, India Abstract: Amebiasis, a major health problem in developing countries, is the second most common cause of death due to parasitic infection. Amebiasis is usually transmitted by the ingestion of Entamoeba histolytica cysts through oral–fecal route. Herein, we report on the use of chitosan oligosaccharide-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for efficient capture and removal of pathogenic protozoan cysts under the influence of an external magnetic field. These nanoparticles were synthesized through a chemical synthesis process. The synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential analysis. The particles were found to be well dispersed and uniform in size. The capture and removal of pathogenic cysts were demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Three-dimensional modeling of various biochemical components of cyst walls, and thereafter, flexible docking studies demonstrate the probable interaction mechanism of nanoparticles with various components of E. histolytica cyst walls. Results of the present study suggest that E. histolytica cysts can be efficiently captured and removed from contaminated aqueous systems through the application of synthesized nanoparticles. Keywords: amebiasis, water treatment, nanotechnology

  2. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs

  3. Investigations in gallium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Beard, C.A. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  4. Measures for removing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baukal, W.; Koehling, A.; Langer, G.; Poeschel, E.

    1984-01-01

    Basis for the investigation is a 1300-MW-PWR. The evolution of hydrogen was studied in design-basis and three hypothetical accident scenarios, the loss-of-coolant accident, the failure of emergency cooling system and core meltdown. It was shown that in the case of release rates of 4m 3 H 2 /h, the known post-accident hydrogen removal systems can be used and at medium rates up to 80 m 3 H 2 /h recombines of nuclear and non-nuclear industries are suitable under certain conditions. In the case of larger release rates it appears useful to apply a small recombiner of the type of the post-accident hydrogen removal system combined with an other hydrogen countermeasures. Recommendations are being made for the installation of an accident-proof hydrogen measuring system. (DG) [de

  5. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  6. Investigations in gallium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated

  7. Removing water from gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, E.S.; Winter, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Water is removed from a gel material by contacting the gel material with an organic liquid and contacting the organic liquid with a gas such that water is taken up by the gas. The invention, in one embodiment, may be used to dry gel materials whilst maintaining an open porous network therein. In one example, the invention is applied to gel precipitated spheres containing uranium and plutonium. (author)

  8. Sodium removal of fuel elements by vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, E.; Haubold, W.; Jansing, W.; Kirchner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Cleaning of sodium-wetted core components can be performed by using either lead, moist nitrogen, or alcohol. The advantages of these methods for cleaning fuel elements without causing damage are well known. The disadvantage is that large amounts of radioactive liquids are formed during handling in the latter two cases. In this paper a new method to clean components is described. The main idea is to remove all liquid metal from the core components within a comparatively short period of time. Fuel elements removed from the reactor must be cooled because of high decay heat release. To date, vacuum distillation of fuel elements has not yet been applied

  9. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  10. Corrosion of aluminum components and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.; Khalique, A.; Malik, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum has versatile physical properties, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and is used in special applications like aerospace, automobiles and other strategic industries. The outdoor exposed structural components of aluminum have very good corrosion resistance due to the thick oxide layer (0.2 -0.4 micro). This study involves the corrosion of aluminum based components, though aluminum is protected by an oxide layer but due to extreme weather and environmental conditions the oxide layer was damaged. The corroded product was removed, pits or cavities formed due to the material removal were filled with epoxy resins and acrylic-based compounds containing fibreglass as reinforcement. Optimum results were obtained with epoxy resins incorporated with 5% glass fibers. The inner surface of the components was provided further protection with a cellulose nitrate compound. (author)

  11. Factors Leading to Self-Removal from the Bariatric Surgery Program After Attending the Orientation Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Binghao; Kastanias, Patti; Wang, Wei; Okraniec, Allan; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Bariatric surgery orientation sessions are often the first point of contact and a recommended component of pre-bariatric surgery assessment. Self-removal rates after bariatric program orientation are as high as 25 % despite the proven efficacy of this procedure. The objective of this study was to identify factors contributing to patient self-removal after orientation using a mixed method approach. Patients who attended the Toronto Western Hospital Bariatric Surgery Program orientation between 2012 and 2013 and then self-removed from the program (N = 216) were included in the study. Subjects were interviewed via telephone using a semi-structured interview guide, generating both quantitative and qualitative data. Factors leading to discontinuation were rated on a five-point Likert scale. Qualitative data was analyzed using constant comparative methodology. The response rate was 59 % with a 40.7 % completion rate (N = 88). Concerns about potential surgical risks and complications and the ability to adapt to changes in eating and drinking post-operatively were identified as the top two factors for patients' self-removal from the program. Thematic analysis uncovered 11 major themes related to patient self-removal. Unexpected themes include perceived personal suitability for the surgery, family impact of surgery, miscommunication with the family physician, and fears related to the orientation information. This is one of the first studies examining barriers to bariatric surgery in the pre-operative setting and offers new insights into the reasons patients self-remove from bariatric surgery programs. This study may inform bariatric orientation program changes resulting in improved access to this effective surgical intervention.

  12. Independent component analysis based filtering for penumbral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yenwei; Han Xianhua; Nozaki, Shinya

    2004-01-01

    We propose a filtering based on independent component analysis (ICA) for Poisson noise reduction. In the proposed filtering, the image is first transformed to ICA domain and then the noise components are removed by a soft thresholding (shrinkage). The proposed filter, which is used as a preprocessing of the reconstruction, has been successfully applied to penumbral imaging. Both simulation results and experimental results show that the reconstructed image is dramatically improved in comparison to that without the noise-removing filters

  13. Specialists meeting on sodium removal and decontamination. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-08-01

    This report covers experiences on sodium removal techniques developed or gained in a number of countries running sodium cooled reactors. This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Cleaning of sodium wetted components or fuel assemblies was achieved by applying different techniques including vacuum distillation, using different alcohols or evaporation processes.

  14. Specialists meeting on sodium removal and decontamination. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This report covers experiences on sodium removal techniques developed or gained in a number of countries running sodium cooled reactors. This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Cleaning of sodium wetted components or fuel assemblies was achieved by applying different techniques including vacuum distillation, using different alcohols or evaporation processes

  15. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  16. Removal of radium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The traditional, proven process for radium removal are sodium ion exchange softening, lime softening, and reverse osmosis. The newer, radium-specific column processes include adsorption onto the Dow RSC and BaSO 4 -impregnated alumina. The most promising new radium-specific treatment process for large-scale use is adsorption onto preformed manganese dioxide followed by multimedia or diatomaceous earth filtration The disposal of radium-contaminated wastewaters and sludges from processes under consideration will be a major factor in process selection. The processes of choice for municipal water supply treatment to remove radium are sodium ion exchange softening, lime softening, manganese dioxide adsorption-filtration, and selective adsorption onto the Dow RSC or BaSO 4 -impregnated alumina. Where the water is brackish, reverse osmosis hyperfiltration should also be considered. The radium removal process of choice for whole-house or point-of-entry treatment is sodium ion exchange softening. For point-of-use radium removal, a standard reverse osmosis system including cartridge filtration, activated carbon adsorption, and reverse osmosis hyperfiltration is recommended. Although no cost estimates have been made, the relative costs from most expensive to least expansive, for radium removal in small community water supplies are reverse osmosis, sodium ion exchange softening, lime soda softening, manganese dioxide adsorption-filtration, and the radium-selective adsorbents. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  18. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  19. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  20. Major planning enquiries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  1. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  2. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  3. Strategies to enhance the removal of Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, Catarina L.; Maia, Alexandra S.; Moreira, Irina S.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Tiritan, Maria E.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are broad-spectrum antibiotics that play an important role in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. Currently, several FQs are available but ciprofloxacin (CPF), ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) are amongst the most worldwide prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotics can reach wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) from different routes. Thus removal of these contaminants during the biotreatment process is of major importance in order to avoid their release to other...

  4. Removable molar power arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of force elements from the gingival hook of maxillary molar tubes during the retraction of the anterior teeth is very common in orthodontic practice. As the line of force passes below the center of resistance (CR of molar, it results its mesial tipping and also anchorage loss. To overcome this problem, the line of force should pass along the CR of molar. This article highlights a method to overcome this problem by attaching a removable power arm to the headgear tube of molar tube during the retraction of the anterior teeth.

  5. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  6. Endoscopic removal of malfunctioning biliary self-expandable metallic stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Pietro; Bulajic, Milutin; Mutignani, Massimiliano; Lee, Linda S; Spera, Gianluca; Spada, Cristiano; Tringali, Andrea; Costamagna, Guido

    2005-12-01

    Endoscopic removal of malfunctioning self-expandable metallic biliary stents (SEMS) is difficult and not well described. The aim of this study is to review the indications, the techniques, and the results of SEMS removal in a cohort of patients with malfunctioning stents. All patients who underwent an attempt at endoscopic removal of biliary SEMS over a 5-year period were retrospectively identified. The main indications for SEMS removal were the following: distal migration of the stent or impaction to the duodenum, impaction into the bile-duct wall, tissue ingrowth, and inappropriate length of the stent causing occlusion of intrahepatic ducts. SEMS were removed by using foreign-body forceps or polypectomy snares. Endoscopic removal of 39 SEMS (13 uncovered and 26 covered) was attempted in 29 patients (17 men; mean age, 66 years). SEMS extraction was attempted after a mean of 7.5 months (8.75 months standard deviation) post-SEMS insertion. Removal was successful in 20 patients (68.9%) and in 29 SEMS (74.3%). Covered SEMS were effectively removed more frequently than uncovered ones: 24 of 26 (92.3%) and 5 of 13 (38.4%), respectively (p < 0.05). No major complications were recorded. Multivariate analysis showed that the time interval between insertion and removal, SEMS length, stent-mesh design (zigzag vs. interlaced), and indication for removal were not predictive of success at stent removal. Endoscopic removal of biliary SEMS is feasible and safe in more than 70% of cases. Because only 38% of uncovered SEMS were removable, the presence of a stent covering is the only factor predictive of successful stent extraction. The presence of diffuse and severe ingrowth was the main feature limiting SEMS removal.

  7. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  8. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  9. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  10. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  11. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  12. Safety analysis of increase in heat removal from reactor coolant system with inadvertent operation of passive residual heat removal at no load conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Ge; Cao, Xuewu [School of Mechanical and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    The advanced passive pressurized water reactor (PWR) is being constructed in China and the passive residual heat removal (PRHR) system was designed to remove the decay heat. During accident scenarios with increase of heat removal from the primary coolant system, the actuation of the PRHR will enhance the cooldown of the primary coolant system. There is a risk of power excursion during the cooldown of the primary coolant system. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the thermal hydraulic behavior of the reactor coolant system (RCS) at this condition. The advanced passive PWR model, including major components in the RCS, is built by SCDAP/RELAP5 code. The thermal hydraulic behavior of the core is studied for two typical accident sequences with PRHR actuation to investigate the core cooling capability with conservative assumptions, a main steam line break (MSLB) event and inadvertent opening of a steam generator (SG) safety valve event. The results show that the core is ultimately shut down by the boric acid solution delivered by Core Makeup Tank (CMT) injections. The effects of CMT boric acid concentration and the activation delay time on accident consequences are analyzed for MSLB, which shows that there is no consequential damage to the fuel or reactor coolant system in the selected conditions.

  13. Design evolution and integration of the ITER in-vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Calcagno, B.; Chappuis, Ph.; Daly, E.; Dellopoulos, G.; Furmanek, A.; Gicquel, S.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Jiming, Chen; Kalish, M.; Kim, D.-H.; Khomiakov, S.; Labusov, A.; Loarte, A.; Loughlin, M.; Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Polunovski, E.; Raffray, R.; Sadakov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ITER in-vessel components have experienced a major redesign since the ITER Design Review of 2007. ► A set of in-vessel vertical stabilization (VS) coils and a set of in-vessel Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control coils have been implemented. ► The blanket system has been redesigned to include first wall (FW) shaping, to upgrade the FW heat removal capability and to allow for an “in situ” replacement. ► The blanket manifold system has been redesigned to improve leak detection and localisation. ► The introduction of a new set of in-vessel coils and the design evolution of the blanket system while the ITER project was entering the procurement phase have proven to be a major engineering challenge. -- Abstract: The ITER in-vessel components have experienced a major redesign since the ITER Design Review of 2007. A set of in-vessel vertical stabilization (VS) coils and a set of in-vessel Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control coils have been implemented. The blanket system has been redesigned to include first wall (FW) shaping, to upgrade the FW heat removal capability and to allow for an “in situ” replacement. The blanket manifold system has been redesigned to improve leak detection and localisation. The introduction of a new set of in-vessel coils and the design evolution of the blanket system while the ITER project was entering the procurement phase have proven to be a major engineering challenge. This paper describes the status of the redesign of the in-vessel components and the associated integration issues

  14. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  15. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Task summary: Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Travis, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclides represent only a small fraction of the components in millions of gallons of storage tank supernatant at various sites, including Oak Ridge, Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho. Most of the radioactivity is contributed by cesium, strontium, and technetium along with high concentrations of sodium and potassium salts. The purpose of this task is to test and select sorbents and commercial removal technologies supplied by ESP for removing and concentrating the radionuclides, thereby reducing the volume of waste to be stored or disposed

  17. Disassembly and removal of sodium instrumentation test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Okinobu; Onojima, Takamitu; Nagai, Keiichi

    2000-07-01

    In 1999, the Sodium Instrumentation Test Loop was disassembled and removed. This report describes the tasks and experiences obtained in removing sodium from a storage tank, disassembling, and cleansing components and related activities. Overall the disassembly, handling and cleansing tasks proceeded as planned and the activities were carried out efficiently and safely. Documentation of the process is meant to establish not only a procedure, but also a guideline for future similar tasks. (author)

  18. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  19. Radioactive waste removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To cleanup primary coolants for LMFBR type reactors by magnetically generating a high speed rotational flow in the flow of liquid metal, and adsorbing radioactive corrosion products and fission products onto capturing material of a complicated shape. Constitution: Three-phase AC coils for generating a rotational magnetic field are provided to the outside of a container through which liquid sodium is passed to thereby generate a high speed rotational stream in the liquid sodium flowing into the container. A radioactive substance capturing material made of a metal plate such as of nickel and stainless steel in the corrugated shape with shape edges is secured within a flow channel. Magnetic field at a great slope is generated in the flow channel by the capturing material to adsorb radioactive corrosion products and fission products present in the liquid sodium onto the capturing material and removing therefrom. This enables to capture the ferri-magnetic impurities by adsorption. (Moriyama, K.)

  20. Hearing and spatial behavior in Gryllotalpa major Saussure (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Daniel R; Mason, Andrew C; Hill, Peggy S M

    2008-11-01

    The prairie mole cricket (Gryllotalpa major Saussure) is a rare orthopteran insect of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem of the south central USA. Populations are known to currently occupy fragmented prairie sites in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas and Missouri, including The Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in north central Oklahoma. Prairie mole cricket populations were surveyed at this site and at another site in Craig County, OK during the spring of 2005 and 2006, using the male cricket's acoustic call to locate advertising aggregations of males. Five males from one large aggregation were removed in a study to describe (1) the hearing thresholds across the call's range of frequencies, (2) the distances over which the higher harmonic components of the male's calls are potentially detectable, (3) the species' sensitivity to ultrasound and (4) the spatio-auditory dynamics of the prairie mole cricket lek. Results indicate that G. major has a bimodal pattern of frequency tuning, with hearing sensitivities greatest at the 2 kHz carrier frequency (41 dB SPL) and declining through the call's frequency range (84 dB at 10 kHz). A second sensitivity peak is evident in the ultrasound range at 25 kHz (62 dB SPL). Spatial analysis of G. major lek sites indicates that approximately 73% of males within the lek are spaced in such a way as to allow acoustic interaction at the species' carrier frequency, while any information in higher harmonic overtones in the call appears to be available only to nearest neighbors.

  1. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by birnessite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Ya-Siang; Tsai, Yolin; Jean, Jiin-Shuh [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Krukowski, Keith [Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin removal by birnessite was accompanied by interlayer cation exchange. ► Layer expansion and FTIR data suggested ciprofloxacin intercalation into birnessite. ► Adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin into birnessite was limited by surface area. ► Birnessite in soil systems may provide host for ciprofloxacin accumulation. -- Abstract: With more pharmaceuticals and personal care products detected in the surface and waste waters, studies on interactions between these contaminants and soils or sediments have attracted great attention. In this study, the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, in aqueous solution was investigated by batch studies supplemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Stoichiometric release of exchangeable cations accompanying CIP removal from water confirmed cation exchange as the major mechanism for CIP uptake by birnessite. Interlayer expansion after CIP adsorption on birnessite as revealed by XRD analyses indicated that intercalation contributed significantly to CIP uptake in addition to external surface adsorption. Correlation of CIP adsorption to specific surface area and cation exchange capacity suggested that the former was the limiting factor for CIP uptake. At the adsorption maximum, CIP molecules formed a monolayer on the birnessite surfaces. The adsorbed CIP could be partially removed using a cationic surfactant at a low initial concentration and mostly removed by AlCl{sub 3} at a higher initial concentration, which further supported the cation exchange mechanism for CIP removal by birnessite. The results indicated that the presence of layered Mn-oxide in the soil and waste water treatment systems may provide host for CIP accumulation.

  2. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by birnessite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Teh; Chang, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Ya-Siang; Tsai, Yolin; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Li, Zhaohui; Krukowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ciprofloxacin removal by birnessite was accompanied by interlayer cation exchange. ► Layer expansion and FTIR data suggested ciprofloxacin intercalation into birnessite. ► Adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin into birnessite was limited by surface area. ► Birnessite in soil systems may provide host for ciprofloxacin accumulation. -- Abstract: With more pharmaceuticals and personal care products detected in the surface and waste waters, studies on interactions between these contaminants and soils or sediments have attracted great attention. In this study, the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, in aqueous solution was investigated by batch studies supplemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Stoichiometric release of exchangeable cations accompanying CIP removal from water confirmed cation exchange as the major mechanism for CIP uptake by birnessite. Interlayer expansion after CIP adsorption on birnessite as revealed by XRD analyses indicated that intercalation contributed significantly to CIP uptake in addition to external surface adsorption. Correlation of CIP adsorption to specific surface area and cation exchange capacity suggested that the former was the limiting factor for CIP uptake. At the adsorption maximum, CIP molecules formed a monolayer on the birnessite surfaces. The adsorbed CIP could be partially removed using a cationic surfactant at a low initial concentration and mostly removed by AlCl 3 at a higher initial concentration, which further supported the cation exchange mechanism for CIP removal by birnessite. The results indicated that the presence of layered Mn-oxide in the soil and waste water treatment systems may provide host for CIP accumulation

  3. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  5. Modified cleaning method for biomineralized components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hideto; Jordan, Richard W.

    2018-02-01

    The extraction and concentration of biomineralized components from sediment or living materials is time consuming and laborious and often involves steps that remove either the calcareous or siliceous part, in addition to organic matter. However, a relatively quick and easy method using a commercial cleaning fluid for kitchen drains, sometimes combined with a kerosene soaking step, can produce remarkable results. In this study, the method is applied to sediments and living materials bearing calcareous (e.g., coccoliths, foraminiferal tests, holothurian ossicles, ichthyoliths, and fish otoliths) and siliceous (e.g., diatom valves, silicoflagellate skeletons, and sponge spicules) components. The method preserves both components in the same sample, without etching or partial dissolution, but is not applicable to unmineralized components such as dinoflagellate thecae, tintinnid loricae, pollen, or plant fragments.

  6. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Operating experience with decommissioning of underground components, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the USA there has over the years been widespread use of underground piping and tank storage systems, as well as use of other storage vaults and miscellaneous underground storage systems. In most instances these systems are associated with other operating facilities such as large nuclear facilities. There has been considerable experience over the last 60 years in the design, installation, operation and decommissioning of these radioactive waste handling and storage structures and systems. Legislation was enacted in the 1980s that required extensive upgrades to existing systems, with newly installed systems being required to meet stringent installation, operation and removal requirements. This has had an impact on the use of some of these underground systems. One major problem with many of these systems is to gauge the integrity of the systems after they have been in operation for many years and to accurately determine whether they have leaked or not. Depending on the results of these investigations, the next question is whether these systems even need to be excavated or if they can be dispositioned in place rather than expending a large amount of effort to excavate them and remove the materials in question to a disposal site for final dispositioning. In some areas this is possible while in others excavation is required. Over the years that nuclear facilities have been operational in the USA, advantage has been taken of the fact that the earth serves as a good location for emplacement of otherwise obtrusive (or even less aesthetically pleasing) structures. These structures are also still clearly able to support the useful mission they were always intended to fulfil. This arrangement also serves as a structural feature favourable to minimizing radiation exposure levels emanating from systems and components containing radioactive materials. In some cases, embedding of various components such as tanks, pits, vaults, pipes and ducting was an easy way to avoid these

  8. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  9. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  10. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  11. Investigations on Chlorophytum comosum ability to remove toluene from air in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteau, G.; Lakel, A.

    Plants play a major role in bioregenerative systems for air and water supplies. They may also contribute to the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the air in a closed environment, based on the ability to absorb toxic compounds and to detoxify them. The aim of our work was to study the capabilities of Chlorophytum comosum for toluene removal and to identify the main parts of the plants which are responsible for the elimination. A 1-m3 sealed chamber was designed and built in 8-mm window glass assembled with UV-polymerized glue. It was equipped with one internal fan for air mixing. The other materials (low-emitting and low-adsorptive) were aluminium and PTFE. A cooling system was also used to regulate humidity content which was monitored continuously as well as temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. Experiments were carried out in this chamber with Chlorophytum comosum plants exposed to an initial concentration of 11.5x103 μg toluene m-3. Pollutant concentration was measured every five minutes during several days. Toluene removal was studied in various configurations (potting media, hydroponic conditions{ldots}) in order to document the level of contribution of each component (leaves, roots, microorganisms and soil) of the potted plants. Results show that 54 % of toluene was removed in 72 h with the whole potted plant. A large participation of the soil in the purification process was noticed whereas foliage seemed to have little effect at the light intensity used in the experiments. Moreover, the tests realized with both natural and sterilized soils suggest that soil bacteria (in potting media) play a significant role in the removal process showing that soil and its microorganisms may have complementary roles in the elimination phenomena. Detoxifying function of potted plants could find current applications in improving air quality, in particular indoor air from domestic buildings.

  12. Component design for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillnow, R.H.; France, L.L.; Zerinvary, M.C.; Fox, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Just as FFTF has prototype components to confirm their design, FFTF is serving as a prototype for the design of the commercial LMFBR's. Design and manufacture of critical components for the FFTF system have been accomplished primarily using vendors with little or no previous experience in supplying components for high temperature sodium systems. The exposure of these suppliers, and through them a multitude of subcontractors, to the requirements of this program has been a necessary and significant step in preparing American industry for the task of supplying the large mechanical components required for commercial LMFBR's

  13. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  14. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; Pmakeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  16. Tritium in fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.; Talbot, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    When tritium is used in a fusion energy experiment or reactor, several implications affect and usually restrict the design and operation of the system and involve questions of containment, inventory, and radiation damage. Containment is expected to be particularly important both for high-temperature components and for those components that are prone to require frequent maintenance. Inventory is currently of major significance in cases where safety and environmental considerations limit the experiments to very low levels of tritium. Fewer inventory restrictions are expected as fusion experiments are placed in more-remote locations and as the fusion community gains experience with the use of tritium. However, the advent of power-producing experiments with high-duty cycle will again lead to serious difficulties based principally on tritium availability; cyclic operations with significant regeneration times are the principal problems

  17. Possibilities of hydrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.; Koehling, A.; Nikodem, H.

    1982-12-01

    In the event of hypothetical severe accidents in light-water reactors, considerable amounts of hydrogen may be produced and released into the containment. Combustion of the hydrogen may jeopardize the integrity of the containment. The study reported here aimed to identify methods to mitigate the hydrogen problem. These methods should either prevent hydrogen combustion, or limit its effects. The following methods have been investigated: pre-inerting; chemical oxygen absorption; removal of oxygen by combustion; post-inerting with N 2 , CO 2 , or halon; aqueous foam; water fog; deliberate ignition; containment purging; and containment venting. The present state of the art in both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities, has been identified. The assessment of the methods was based on accident scenarios assuming significant release of hydrogen and the spectrum of requirements derived from these scenarios was used to determine the advantages and drawbacks of the various methods, assuming their application in a pressurized-water reactor of German design. (orig.) [de

  18. Removal of unwanted fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subudhi, Sudhakar; Sreenivas, K. R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the removal of unwanted fluid through the source-sink pair. The source consists of fluid issuing out of a nozzle in the form of a jet and the sink is a pipe that is kept some distance from the source pipe. Of concern is the percentage of source fluid sucked through the sink. The experiments have been carried in a large glass water tank. The source nozzle diameter is 6 mm and the sink pipe diameter is either 10 or 20 mm. The horizontal and vertical separations and angles between these source and sink pipes are adjustable. The flow was visualized using KMnO4 dye, planer laser induced fluorescence and particle streak photographs. To obtain the effectiveness (that is percentage of source fluid entering the sink pipe), titration method is used. The velocity profiles with and without the sink were obtained using particle image velocimetry. The sink flow rate to obtain a certain effectiveness increase dramatically with lateral separation. The sink diameter and the angle between source and the sink axes don't influence effectiveness as much as the lateral separation.

  19. Iodine removing means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Masaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To employ exhaust gas from an incinerator to effect regeneration of an adsorbent such as active carbon which has adsorbed a radioactive gas such as iodine contained in the ventilating system exhaust gas of a boiling water reactor power plant. Structure: Radioactive exhaust gas such as iodine, xenon and krypton is led to an active carbon adsorbing means for removal through adsorption. When the adsorbing function of the active carbon adsorption means is reduced, the exhaust gas discharged from the incinerator is cooled down to 300 0 C and then caused to flow into the active carbon layer, and after depriving it of sulfur dioxide gas, oxides of nitrogen, daughter nuclides resulting from attenuation of radioactive gas and so forth, these being adsorbed by the carbon active layer, it is led again to the incinerator, whereby the radioactivity accompanying the regenerated gas is sealed as ash within the incinerator. Further, similarly accompanying fine active carbon particles and the like are utilized as a heat source for the incinerator. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Design of plasma facing components for the SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, S.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Choudhury, P.; Khirwadkar, S.; Pragash, R.; Santra, P.; Saxena, Y.C.; Sinha, P.

    2000-01-01

    Steady state Superconducting Tokamak, SST-1, is a medium sized tokamak with major and minor radii of 1.10 m and 0.20 m respectively. Elongated plasma operation with double null poloidal divertor is planned with a maximum input power of 1 MW. The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) like Divertors and Baffles, Poloidal limiters and Passive stabilizers form the first material boundary around the plasma and hence receive high heat and particle fluxes. The PFC design should ensure efficient heat and particle removal during steady state tokamak operation. A closed divertor geometry is adopted to ensure high neutral pressure in the divertor region (and hence high recycling) and less impurity influx into the core plasma. A set of poloidal limiters are provided to assist break down, current ramp-up and current ramp down phases and for the protection of the in-vessel components. Two pairs of Passive stabilizers, one on the inboard and the other on the outboard side of the plasma, are provided to slow down the vertical instability growth rates of the shaped plasma column. All PFCs are actively cooled to keep the plasma facing surface temperature within the design limits. The PFCs have been shaped/profiled so that maximum steady state heat flux on the surface is less than 1 MW/m 2 . (author)

  1. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  2. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  3. Identification and Selection of Major Carbon Dioxide Stream Compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Schmick, Mary T.

    2011-06-30

    A critical component in the assessment of long-term risk from geologic sequestration of CO2 is the ability to predict mineralogical and geochemical changes within storage reservoirs due to rock-brine-CO2 reactions. Impurities and/or other constituents selected for co-sequestration can affect both the chemical and physical (e.g. density, viscosity, interfacial tension) behavior of CO2 in the deep subsurface. These impurities and concentrations are a function of both the industrial source(s) of the CO2, as well as the carbon capture technology used to extract the CO2 and produce a concentrated stream for geologic sequestration. This report summarizes the relative concentrations of CO2 and other constituents in exhaust gases from major non-energy related industrial sources of CO2. Assuming that carbon-capture technology would remove most of the incondensable gases N2, O2, and Ar, leaving SO2 and NOx as the main impurities, we selected four test fluid compositions for use in geochemical experiments. These included: 1) a pure CO2 stream representative of food grade CO2 used in most enhanced oil recovery projects: 2) a test fluid composition containing low concentrations (0.5 mole %) SO2 and NOx (representative of that generated from cement production), 3) a test fluid composition with higher concentrations (2.5 mole %) of SO2, and 4) and test fluid composition containing 3 mole % H2S.

  4. Removal of mercury by adsorption: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Yue, Bao-Yu; Wu, Xiong-Wei; Liu, Qi; Jiao, Fei-Peng; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Due to natural and production activities, mercury contamination has become one of the major environmental problems over the world. Mercury contamination is a serious threat to human health. Among the existing technologies available for mercury pollution control, the adsorption process can get excellent separation effects and has been further studied. This review is attempted to cover a wide range of adsorbents that were developed for the removal of mercury from the year 2011. Various adsorbents, including the latest adsorbents, are presented along with highlighting and discussing the key advancements on their preparation, modification technologies, and strategies. By comparing their adsorption capacities, it is evident from the literature survey that some adsorbents have shown excellent potential for the removal of mercury. However, there is still a need to develop novel, efficient adsorbents with low cost, high stability, and easy production and manufacture for practical utility.

  5. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  6. A Fully Customized Baseline Removal Framework for Spectroscopic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Stephen; Boucher, Thomas; Carey, C J; Mahadevan, Sridhar; Dyar, M Darby

    2017-07-01

    The task of proper baseline or continuum removal is common to nearly all types of spectroscopy. Its goal is to remove any portion of a signal that is irrelevant to features of interest while preserving any predictive information. Despite the importance of baseline removal, median or guessed default parameters are commonly employed, often using commercially available software supplied with instruments. Several published baseline removal algorithms have been shown to be useful for particular spectroscopic applications but their generalizability is ambiguous. The new Custom Baseline Removal (Custom BLR) method presented here generalizes the problem of baseline removal by combining operations from previously proposed methods to synthesize new correction algorithms. It creates novel methods for each technique, application, and training set, discovering new algorithms that maximize the predictive accuracy of the resulting spectroscopic models. In most cases, these learned methods either match or improve on the performance of the best alternative. Examples of these advantages are shown for three different scenarios: quantification of components in near-infrared spectra of corn and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data of rocks, and classification/matching of minerals using Raman spectroscopy. Software to implement this optimization is available from the authors. By removing subjectivity from this commonly encountered task, Custom BLR is a significant step toward completely automatic and general baseline removal in spectroscopic and other applications.

  7. Removal of Crotamiton from Reverse Osmosis Concentrate by a TiO2/Zeolite Composite Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Xiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis (RO concentrate from wastewater reuse facilities contains concentrated emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals. In this research, a paper-like composite sheet consisting of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and zeolite was synthesized, and removal of the antipruritic agent crotamiton from RO concentrate was studied using the TiO2/zeolite composite sheet. The RO concentrate was obtained from a pilot-scale municipal secondary effluent reclamation plant. Effective immobilization of the two powders in the sheet made it easy to handle and to separate the photocatalyst and adsorbent from purified water. The TiO2/zeolite composite sheet showed excellent performance for crotamiton adsorption without obvious inhibition by other components in the RO concentrate. With ultraviolet irradiation, crotamiton was simultaneously removed through adsorption and photocatalysis. The photocatalytic decomposition of crotamiton in the RO concentrate was significantly inhibited by the water matrix at high initial crotamiton concentrations, whereas rapid decomposition was achieved at low initial crotamiton concentrations. The major degradation intermediates were also adsorbed by the composite sheet. This result provides a promising method of mitigating secondary pollution caused by the harmful intermediates produced during advanced oxidation processes. The cyclic use of the HSZ-385/P25 composite sheet indicated the feasibility of continuously removing crotamiton from RO concentrate.

  8. Analysis of a convection loop for GFR post-LOCA decay heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.C.; Hejzlar, P.; Saha, P.

    2004-01-01

    A computer code (LOCA-COLA) has been developed at MIT for steady state analysis of convective heat transfer loops. In this work, it is used to investigate an external convection loop for decay heat removal of a post-LOCA gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR). The major finding is that natural circulation cooling of the GFR is feasible under certain circumstances. Both helium and CO 2 cooled system components are found to operate in the mixed convection regime, the effects of which are noticeable as heat transfer enhancement or degradation. It is found that CO 2 outdoes helium under identical natural circulation conditions. Decay heat removal is found to have a quadratic dependence on pressure in the laminar flow regime and linear dependence in the turbulent flow regime. Other parametric studies have been performed as well. In conclusion, convection cooling loops are a credible means for GFR decay heat removal and LOCA-COLA is an effective tool for steady state analysis of cooling loops. (authors)

  9. Behavior and removal of organic species in the Savannah River Plant effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.; Georgeton, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effluent treatment facility (ETF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is a new facility designed to treat and decontaminate low-level radioactive wastewater prior to release to the environment. The wastewater is primarily composed of evaporator overheads from the chemical separations and waste handling facilities at SRP. Primarily a 2000 mg/L NaNO 3 solution, the wastewater also contains microcurie-per-liter quantities of radionuclides and milligram-per-liter concentrations of heavy metals and organic components. This paper shows a block diagram of the major process steps. The pH adjustment, filtration, mercury removal, reverse osmosis, and cation-exchange polishing steps give a significant reduction of inorganic species and radionuclide (except trittium) concentrations. The activated carbon removal step was recently added to remove organic species to ensure that the effluent discharge permit limits for oil and grease and biochemical oxygen demand are met. The concentrates and regenerates from each of the treatment steps are further concentrated by evaporation to reduce the volume sufficiently for incorporation into and disposal as a grout

  10. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  11. Residual heat removal system diagnostic advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) Diagnostic Advisor which is an expert system designed to alert the operators to abnormal conditions that exits in the RHRS and offer advice about the cause of the abnormal conditions. The Advisor uses a combination of rule-based and model-based diagnostic techniques to perform its functions. This diagnostic approach leads to a deeper understanding of the RHRS by the Advisor and consequently makes it more robust to unexpected conditions. The main window of the interactive graphic display is a schematic diagram of the RHRS piping system. When a conclusion about a failed component can be reached, the operator can bring up windows that describe the failure mode of the component and a brief explanation about how the Advisor arrived at its conclusion

  12. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  13. Mechanism of lead removal by waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, S.; Saleemi, A.R.; Ahmed, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal ions are priority pollutants, due to their toxicity and mobility in natural water ecosystems. The discharge of heavy metals into aquatic ecosystems has become a matter of concern in Pakistan over the last few decades. These contaminants are introduced into the aquatic systems significantly as a result of various industrial operations. The metals of concern include lead, chromium, zinc, copper, nickel and uranium. Lead is one of the most hazardous and toxic metals. It is used as industrial raw material in the manufacture of storage batteries, pigments, leaded glass, fuels, photographic materials, matches and explosives. Conventional methods for treatment of dissolved lead include precipitation, adsorption, coagulation/notation, sedimentation, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. Each process has its merits and limitations in applications. Adsorption by activated carbon and ion exchange using commercial ion exchange resins are very expensive processes, especially for a developing country like Pakistan. The present research was conducted to identify some waste materials, which can be utilized to remove lead from industrial wastewater. Natural wastes in the form of leaves and ash have considerable amounts of CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/O, SiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ which can be utilized for precipitation and adsorption. Utilization of waste materials to remove lead from industrial wastewater is the basic theme of this research. The waste materials used in this research were maple leaves, pongamia pinata leaves, coal ash and maple ago leave ash. Parameters studied were reaction time, precipitant dose, pH and temperature. It was found that maple leaves ash has maximum lead removal capacity 19.24 mg g/sup -1/ followed by coal ash 13.2 mg g/sup -1/. The optimal pH was 5 for maple leaves and pongamia Pinata leaves; and 4 for coal ash and maple leaves ash. Removal capacity decreased with increase in temperature. The major removal mechanisms were adsorption and

  14. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa G. Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used to identify and remove calculus deposits present on the root surface. The purpose of this review was to compile the various methods and their advantages for the detection and removal of calculus.

  15. GCS component development cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  16. 2-component heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  17. Tilecal meets two major milestones

    CERN Multimedia

    Cavalli-Sforza, M.

    Over the last two months the Tile Calorimeter passed not one but two major milestones. In early May, the last of the 64 modules that make up one of the two Extended Barrels arrived at CERN from IFAE-Barcelona, equipped with optical components and tested. And during the Overview Week in Clermont-Ferrand, the last of the 64 Barrel modules, mechanically assembled, arrived from JINR-Dubna. Just a brief reminder: the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is composed of 3 cylinders ("barrels") of steel, scintillating tiles and optical fibers, altogether about 12 m long, with an outer diameter of 8.4 m, and weighing about 2700 tons. The central cavity will contain the Liquid Argon cryostats, and the whole calorimetry system will measure the direction and energy of jets produced at the LHC, as well as the missing transverse energy, which as everyone knows is one of the telltale signals of new and exciting physics. Each of the three cylinders is divided azimuthally into 64 modules - much like the slices of an orange. The modules ar...

  18. Wholesale debris removal from LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eugene; Pearson, Jerome; Carroll, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Recent advances in electrodynamic propulsion make it possible to seriously consider wholesale removal of large debris from LEO for the first time since the beginning of the space era. Cumulative ranking of large groups of the LEO debris population and general limitations of passive drag devices and rocket-based removal systems are analyzed. A candidate electrodynamic debris removal system is discussed that can affordably remove all debris objects over 2 kg from LEO in 7 years. That means removing more than 99% of the collision-generated debris potential in LEO. Removal is performed by a dozen 100-kg propellantless vehicles that react against the Earth's magnetic field. The debris objects are dragged down and released into short-lived orbits below ISS. As an alternative to deorbit, some of them can be collected for storage and possible in-orbit recycling. The estimated cost per kilogram of debris removed is a small fraction of typical launch costs per kilogram. These rates are low enough to open commercial opportunities and create a governing framework for wholesale removal of large debris objects from LEO.

  19. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  20. Complications of syndesmotic screw removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); M.R. de Vries (Mark); M. van der Elst (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Currently, the metallic syndesmotic screw is the gold standard in the treatment of syndesmotic disruption. Whether or not this screw needs to be removed remains debatable. The aim of the current study was to determine the complications which occur following routine removal of

  1. Complications of syndesmotic screw removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; de Vries, Mark R.; van der Elst, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the metallic syndesmotic screw is the gold standard in the treatment of syndesmotic disruption. Whether or not this screw needs to be removed remains debatable. The aim of the current study was to determine the complications which occur following routine removal of the syndesmotic screw

  2. Krypton-85 removal and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Fernandez, J.

    1978-01-01

    A literature survey was made in order to predict the atmospheric Kr-85 concentration in the future and it s effect on the population. As a consequence the need for its treatment and removal as a previous step to gaseous waste disposal is justified. A literature review of possible methods of Kr-85 removal and storage is also included. (Author) 43 refs

  3. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  4. Detection and removal of spatial bias in multiwell assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Alexander; Giorgi, Federico M; Alvarez, Mariano J; Califano, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Multiplex readout assays are now increasingly being performed using microfluidic automation in multiwell format. For instance, the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) has produced gene expression measurements for tens of thousands of distinct cell perturbations using a 384-well plate format. This dataset is by far the largest 384-well gene expression measurement assay ever performed. We investigated the gene expression profiles of a million samples from the LINCS dataset and found that the vast majority (96%) of the tested plates were affected by a significant 2D spatial bias. Using a novel algorithm combining spatial autocorrelation detection and principal component analysis, we could remove most of the spatial bias from the LINCS dataset and show in parallel a dramatic improvement of similarity between biological replicates assayed in different plates. The proposed methodology is fully general and can be applied to any highly multiplexed assay performed in multiwell format. ac2248@columbia.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Clinical evaluation of failures in removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Janaina H; Quishida, Cristiane C C; Vergani, Carlos E; Machado, Ana L; Pavarina, Ana C; Giampaolo, Eunice T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effects of removable partial dentures on the support tissues and changes occurring in lower tooth-supported and bilateral distal-extension dentures, 5 years after placement. The study involved analysis of a total of 53 patients who received prosthetic treatment for removable partial dentures. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1, the patients had a completely edentulous maxilla and an edentulous area with natural teeth remaining in both the anterior and posterior regions. In group 2, the patients had a completely edentulous maxilla and partially edentulous mandible with preserved anterior teeth. Tooth mobility, prevalence of caries, fracture of the abutment teeth, fracture and/or deformation of the removable partial denture components and stability of the denture base were evaluated. The use of a removable partial denture increased tooth mobility, reduced the prevalence of caries, and did not cause loss or fracture of the abutments or damage to their components, when compared with the baseline. It was concluded that there was no difference between the groups as evaluated in terms of tooth mobility, prevalence of caries, loss and fracture of the abutments or damage to the components of the removable partial denture.

  6. Summary of sodium removal and decontamination programs in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, O.P.; Brehm, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the United States Department of Energy sodium removal and decontamination programs are: 1) to identify plant requirements and develop safe effective processes for sodium removal, both for experimental facilities and for reactor components; 2) to develop effective decontamination processes for removing deposited radioactivity; 3) to establish and put into use a set of workable criteria for requalification and return to service of components after sodium removal and decontamination; 4) to design, build and operate facilities in which to perform the sodium removal and decontamination operations. This paper gives a summary of progress toward each of these goals; details will be presented in other papers at this meeting. Three basic processes for sodium removal have been investigated extensively: the use of water vapor in an inert carrier gas, the use of an alcohol-type reagent, and evaporation. The process development work on the first two processes has been essentially completed. The evaporative process is still under development, but preliminary parameters have been established

  7. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  8. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  9. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  11. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  12. Catalyst Substrates Remove Contaminants, Produce Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft is the ultimate tight building. We don t want any leaks, and there is very little fresh air coming in, says Jay Perry, an aerospace engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center. As a result, there is a huge potential for a buildup of contaminants from a host of sources. Inside a spacecraft, contaminants can be introduced from the materials that make spacecraft components, electronics boxes, or activities by the crew such as food preparation or cleaning. Humans also generate contaminants by breathing and through the body s natural metabolic processes. As part of the sophisticated Environmental Control and Life Support System on the International Space Station (ISS), a trace contaminant control system removes carbon dioxide and other impurities from the cabin atmosphere. To maintain healthy levels, the system uses adsorbent media to filter chemical contaminant molecules and a high-temperature catalytic oxidizer to change the chemical structure of the contaminants to something more benign, usually carbon dioxide and water. In the 1990s, while researching air quality control technology for extended spaceflight travel, Perry and others at Marshall were looking for a regenerable process for the continuous removal of carbon dioxide and trace chemical contaminants on long-duration manned space flights. At the time, the existing technology used on U.S. spacecraft could only be used once, which meant that a spacecraft had to carry additional spare parts for use in case the first one was depleted, or the spacecraft would have to return to Earth to exchange the components.

  13. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke, E-mail: suchida@iae.or.jp [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Hanamoto, Yukio [KAKEN, Inc., 1044, Hori-machi, Mito 310-0903 (Japan); Osakabe, Masahiro [Tokyo University of Marine Science & Technology, Koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Fujikawa, Masahiro [Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 2-2-1, Jinnan, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8001 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  14. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hanamoto, Yukio; Osakabe, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  15. Research on removal of radioiodine by charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wangchang; Huang Yuying; Wu Yianwei; Jia Ming; Guo Liangtian

    1993-01-01

    The major R and D work carried out in the CIRP laboratory on removal of radioiodine is introduced, which involves the adsorption performances of various kinds of fruit shell base and coal base charcoal impregnated with chemicals, the influence of various parameters, the technique of non-destructive test for commercial scale iodine adsorber, and the iodine samplers for both gross iodine and iodine in different forms. The experimental results have been applied to the design and test of iodine adsorber and the monitoring of airborne radioiodine

  16. Fusion-component lifetime analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1982-09-01

    A one-dimensional computer code has been developed to examine the lifetime of first-wall and impurity-control components. The code incorporates the operating and design parameters, the material characteristics, and the appropriate failure criteria for the individual components. The major emphasis of the modeling effort has been to calculate the temperature-stress-strain-radiation effects history of a component so that the synergystic effects between sputtering erosion, swelling, creep, fatigue, and crack growth can be examined. The general forms of the property equations are the same for all materials in order to provide the greatest flexibility for materials selection in the code. The individual coefficients within the equations are different for each material. The code is capable of determining the behavior of a plate, composed of either a single or dual material structure, that is either totally constrained or constrained from bending but not from expansion. The code has been utilized to analyze the first walls for FED/INTOR and DEMO and to analyze the limiter for FED/INTOR

  17. Iron turbidity removal from the active process water system of the Kaiga Generating Station Unit 1 using an electrochemical filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.; Gokhale, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Iron turbidity is observed in the intermediate cooling circuit of the active process water system (APWS) of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS). Deposition of hydrous/hydrated oxides of iron on the plate type heat exchanger, which is employed to transfer heat from the APWS to the active process cooling water system (APCWS), can in turn result in higher moderator D 2 O temperatures due to reduced heat transfer. Characterization of turbidity showed that the major component is γ-FeOOH. An in-house designed and fabricated electrochemical filter (ECF) containing an alternate array of 33 pairs of cathode and anode graphite felts was successfully tested for the removal of iron turbidity from the APWS of Kaiga Generating Station Unit No. 1 (KGS No. 1). A total volume of 52.5 m 3 water was processed using the filter. At an average inlet turbidity of 5.6 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), the outlet turbidity observed from the ECF was 1.6 NTU. A maximum flow rate (10 L . min -1 ) and applied potential of 18.0-20.0 V was found to yield an average turbidity-removal efficiency of ∝ 75 %. When the experiment was terminated, a throughput of > 2.08 . 10 5 NTU-liters was realized without any reduction in the removal efficiency. Removal of the internals of the filter showed that only the bottom 11 pairs of felts had brownish deposits, while the remaining felts looked clean and unused. (orig.)

  18. Irradiation properties of T0 chopper components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Shinichi, E-mail: shinichi.itoh@kek.jp [Neutron Science Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Ueno, Kenji; Ohkubo, Ryuji [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Sagehashi, Hidenori [Neutron Science Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Funahashi, Yoshisato [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Yokoo, Tetsuya [Neutron Science Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-10-21

    We investigated the irradiation properties of the components of a T0 chopper. The organic materials in the rotor bearing grease, the magnetic fluids in seals, and the rubber in the timing belt, as well as the semiconductor materials in the rotation sensor and motor encoder, were all irradiated with high-energy {gamma}-rays up to 100 kGy. No significant damage that shortens the lifetime of a T0 chopper was observed for the mechanical components. However, the semiconductor components were damaged by the irradiation. For the rotation sensor system detecting the rotor phase, the signal from a marker on the rotor shaft was transmitted outside the shielding by an optical fiber with radiation-proofing and the electrical circuits were removed from the beamline shielding. The lifetime of the motor encoder possibly meets the requirement for the maintenance period of the T0 chopper.

  19. Surveillance test of the JMTR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takashi; Amezawa, Hiroo; Tobita, Kenji

    1986-02-01

    Surveillance test for the core components of Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) was started in 1966, and completed in 1985 without one capsule. Most of capsules in the program, except one beryllium specimens, were removed from the core, and carred out the post-irradiation tests at the JMTR Hot Laboratory. The data is applied to review of JMTR core components management plan. JMTR surveillance test was carried out with several kind of materials of JMTR core components, Berylium as the reflector, Hafnium as the neutron absorber of control rod, 17-4PH stainless steel as a roller spring of the control rod, and 304 stainless steel as the grid plate. Results are described in this report. (author)

  20. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Craniopharyngioma Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerer, Mahmoud; Maduri, Rodolfo; Daniel, Roy Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Objective  Endoscopic transsphenoidal extended endoscopic approach (EEA) represents a valid alternative to microsurgery for craniopharyngiomas removal, especially for retrochiasmatic lesions without large parasellar extension. The present video illustrates the salient surgical steps of the EEA for craniopahryngioma removal. Patient  A 52-year-old man presented with a bitemporal hemianopia and a bilateral decreased visual acuity. MRI showed a Kassam type III cystic craniopharyngioma with a solid component ( Fig. 1 , panels A and B). Surgical Procedure  The head is rotated 10 degrees toward the surgeons. The nasal step is started through the left nostril with a middle turbinectomy. A nasoseptal flap is harvested and positioned in the left choana. The binostril approach allows a large sphenoidotomy to expose the key anatomic landmarks. The craniotomy boundaries are the planum sphenoidale superiorly, the median opticocarotid recesses, the internal carotid artery laterally and the clival recess inferiorly. After dural opening and superior intercavernous sinus coagulation, the tumor is entirely removed ( Fig. 2 , panels A and B). Skull base reconstruction is ensured by fascia lata grafting and nasoseptal flap positioning. Results  Postoperative MRI showed the complete tumor resection ( Fig. 1 , panels C and D). At 3 months postoperatively, the bitemporal hemianopia regressed and the visual acuity improved. A novel left homonymous hemianopia developed secondary to optic tract manipulation. Conclusions  The extended EEA is a valid surgical approach for craniopharyngioma resection. A comprehensive knowledge of the sellar and parasellar anatomy is mandatory for safe tumor removal with decreased morbidity and satisfactory oncologic results. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/NrCPPnVK2qA .

  1. Decontamination of CAGR gas circulator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.N.; Hooper, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the development and full-scale trial of two methods for removal of radioactive contamination on the surfaces of CAGR gas circulator components. The two methods described are a particle impact cleaning (PIC) decontamination technique and an electrochemical technique, 'electro-swabbing', which is based on the principle of decontamination by electro-polishing. In developing these techniques it was necessary to take account of the physical and chemical nature of the surface deposits on the gas circulator components; these were shown to consist of magnetite-type oxide and carbonaceous material. In order to follow the progress of the decontamination it was also necessary to develop a surface sampling technique which was effective and precise under these conditions; an electrochemical technique, employing similar principles to the electro-swabbing process, was developed for this purpose. The full-scale trial of the PIC decontamination technique was carried out on an inlet guide vane (IGV) assembly, this having been identified as the component from the gas circulator which contributes most to the radiation dose accumulated during routine circulator maintenance. The technique was shown to be practically viable and some 99% of the radioactive contamination was readily removed from the treated surfaces with only negligible surface damage being caused. The full-scale trial of the electro-swabbing decontamination technique was carried out on a gas circulator impeller. High decontamination factors were again achieved with ≥ 99% of the radioactive contamination being removed from the treated surfaces. The technique has practical limitations in terms of handling and treatment of waste-arisings. However, the use of specially-designed swabbing electrodes may allow the treatment of constricted geometries inaccessible to techniques such as PIC. The technique is also highly suitable for the treatment of soft-finish materials and of components fabricated from a

  2. Method for removing impurities from an impurity-containing fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2010-04-06

    A method of removing at least one polar component from a fluid stream. The method comprises providing a fluid stream comprising at least one nonpolar component and at least one polar component. The fluid stream is contacted with a supercritical solvent to remove the at least one polar component. The at least one nonpolar component may be a fat or oil and the at least one polar component may be water, dirt, detergents, or mixtures thereof. The supercritical solvent may decrease solubility of the at least one polar component in the fluid stream. The supercritical solvent may function as a solvent or as a gas antisolvent. The supercritical solvent may dissolve the nonpolar components of the fluid stream, such as fats or oils, while the polar components may be substantially insoluble. Alternatively, the supercritical solvent may be used to increase the nonpolarity of the fluid stream.

  3. CRBRP decay heat removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottel, R.E.; Louison, R.; Boardman, C.E.; Kiley, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Decay Heat Removal Systems for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are designed to adequately remove sensible and decay heat from the reactor following normal shutdown, operational occurrences, and postulated accidents on both a short term and a long term basis. The Decay Heat Removal Systems are composed of the Main Heat Transport System, the Main Condenser and Feedwater System, the Steam Generator Auxiliary Heat Removal System (SGAHRS), and the Direct Heat Removal Service (DHRS). The overall design of the CRBRP Decay Heat Removal Systems and the operation under normal and off-normal conditions is examined. The redundancies of the system design, such as the four decay heat removal paths, the emergency diesel power supplies, and the auxiliary feedwater pumps, and the diversities of the design such as forced circulation/natural circulation and AC Power/DC Power are presented. In addition to overall design and system capabilities, the detailed designs for the Protected Air Cooled Condensers (PACC) and the Air Blast Heat Exchangers (ABHX) are presented

  4. The Impact of Central Bank FX Interventions on Currency Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beine, M.; Bos, C.S.; Laurent, S.

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of official FOREX interventions of the three major central banks in terms of the dynamics of the currency components of the major exchange rates over the period 1989-2003. We identify the currency components of the mean and volatility processes of exchange rates

  5. Residual heat removal pump retrofit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudiak, J.G.; McKenna, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Residual Heat Removal (RHR) pumps installed in pressurized water reactor power plants are used to provide the removal of decay heat from the reactor and to provide low head safety injection in the event of loss of coolant in the reactor coolant system. These pumps are subjected to rather severe temperature and pressure transients, therefore, the majority of pumps installed in the RHR service are vertical pumps with a single stage impeller. RHR pumps have traditionally been a significant maintenance item for many utilities. The close-coupled pump design requires disassembly of the casing cover from the lower pump casing while performing these routine maintenance tasks. The casing separation requires the loosening of numerous highly torqued studs. Once the casing is separated, the impeller is dropped from the motor shaft to allow removal of the mechanical seal and casing cover from the motor shaft. Galling of the impeller to the motor shaft is not uncommon. The RHR pump internals are radioactive and the separation of the pump casing to perform routine maintenance exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. The handling of the impeller also exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. This paper introduces a design modification developed to convert the close-coupled RHR pumps to a coupled configuration

  6. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  7. Decay heat removal for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemanick, P.P.; Brown, N.W.

    1975-01-01

    The functional and reliability requirements of the decay heat removal systems are described. The reliability requirement and its rationale as adequate assurance that public health and safety are safeguarded are presented. The means by which the reliability of the decay heat removal systems are established to meet their requirement are identified. The heat removal systems and their operating characteristics are described. The discussion includes the overflow heat removal service and its role in decay heat removal if needed. The details of the systems are described to demonstrate the elements of redundancy and diversity in the systems design. The quantitative reliability assessment is presented, including the reliability model, the most important assumptions on which the analysis is based, sources of failure data, and the preliminary numerical results. Finally, the qualitative analyses and administrative controls will be discussed which ensure reliability attainment in design, fabrication, and operation, including minimization of common mode failures. A component test program is planned to provide reliability data on selected critical heat removal system equipment. This test plan is described including a definition of the test parameters of greatest interest and the motivation for the test article selection. A long range plan is also in place to collect plant operational data and the broad outlines of this plan are described. A statement of the high reliability of the Clinch River Breeder reactor Plant decay heat removal systems and a summary of the supporting arguments is presented. (U.S.)

  8. Decay Heat Removal for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemanick, P. P.; Brown, N. W.

    1975-10-15

    The functional and reliability requirements of the decay heat removal systems are described. The reliability requirement and its rationale as adequate assurance that public health and safety are safeguarded are presented. The means by which the reliability of the decay heat removal systems are established to meet their requirement are identified. The heat removal systems and their operating characteristics are described. The discussion includes the overflow heat removal service and its role in decay heat removal if needed. The details of the systems are described to demonstrate the elements of redundancy and diversity in the systems design. The quantitative reliability assessment is presented, including the reliability model, the most important assumptions on which the analysis is based, sources of failure data, and the preliminary numerical results. Finally, the qualitative analyses and administrative controls will be discussed which ensure reliability attainment in design, fabrication, and operation, including minimization of common mode failures. A component test program is planned to provide reliability data on selected critical heat removal system equipment. This test plan is described including a definition of the test parameters of greatest interest and the motivation for the test article selection. A long range plan is also in place to collect plant operational data and the broad outlines of this plan are described. The paper closes with a statement of the high reliability of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant decay heat removal systems and a summary of the supporting arguments. (author)

  9. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  10. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing nuclear liabilities: 'hospital pass' or major opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper sets out to start changing the perception that liabilities management is an unattractive part of the UK Nuclear Industry. The paper describes BNFL's successes and long term challenges in this area and concludes that liabilities management presents a major opportunity to:-Remove an Achilles heel of the industry; Create value for the companies concerned by successfully driving down costs; Sustain and exploit internationally a major UK competitive edge. (Author)

  12. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  13. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  14. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  15. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  16. Low dose gamma irradiation enhances defined signaling components of intercellular reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G

    2011-01-01

    Transformed cells are selectively removed by intercellular ROS-mediated induction of apoptosis. Signaling is based on the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite pathway (major pathways) and the nitryl chloride and the metal-catalyzed Haber-Weiss pathway (minor pathways). During tumor progression, resistance against intercellular induction of apoptosis is acquired through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Low dose radiation of nontransformed cells has been shown to enhance intercellular induction of apoptosis. The present study was performed to define the signaling components which are modulated by low dose gamma irradiation. Low dose radiation induced the release of peroxidase from nontransformed, transformed and tumor cells. Extracellular superoxide anion generation was strongly enhanced in the case of transformed cells and tumor cells, but not in nontransformed cells. Enhancement of peroxidase release and superoxide anion generation either increased intercellular induction of apoptosis of transformed cells, or caused a partial protection under specific signaling conditions. In tumor cells, low dose radiation enhanced the production of major signaling components, but this had no effect on apoptosis induction, due to the strong resistance mechanism of tumor cells. Our data specify the nature of low dose radiation-induced effects on specific signaling components of intercellular induction of apoptosis at defined stages of multistep carcinogenesis.

  17. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  18. Teaching Principal Components Using Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Peter H; Arias, Andrea L; Fulton, Lawrence V

    2017-01-01

    Introducing principal components (PCs) to students is difficult. First, the matrix algebra and mathematical maximization lemmas are daunting, especially for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Second, the standard motivation involving variance maximization subject to unit length constraint does not directly connect to the "variance explained" interpretation. Third, the unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints of the standard motivation do not allow re-scaling or oblique rotations, which are common in practice. Instead, we propose to motivate the subject in terms of optimizing (weighted) average proportions of variance explained in the original variables; this approach may be more intuitive, and hence easier to understand because it links directly to the familiar "R-squared" statistic. It also removes the need for unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints, provides a direct interpretation of "variance explained," and provides a direct answer to the question of whether to use covariance-based or correlation-based PCs. Furthermore, the presentation can be made without matrix algebra or optimization proofs. Modern tools from data science, including heat maps and text mining, provide further help in the interpretation and application of PCs; examples are given. Together, these techniques may be used to revise currently used methods for teaching and learning PCs in the behavioral sciences.

  19. Experimental study on Hg{sup 0} removal from flue gas over columnar MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2}/activated coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yine [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Zhang, Wei; Tao, Shasha [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency over columnar MnCe6/activated coke up to 94%. • MnO{sub x} and CeO{sub 2} exhibited a significant synergistic role in Hg{sup 0} removal over MnCe/AC. • Lattice oxygen, chemisorbed oxygen and OH groups on the surface of MnCe/AC contributed to Hg{sup 0} oxidation. • Hg{sup 0} removal mechanisms over MnCe/AC were identified firstly. - Abstract: Mn-Ce mixed oxides supported on commercial columnar activated coke (MnCe/AC) were employed to remove elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at low temperatures (100–250 °C) without the assistance of HCl in flue gas. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Effects of some factors, including Mn-Ce loading values, active component, reaction temperatures and flue gas components (O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO, H{sub 2}O), on Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency were investigated. Results indicated that the optimal Mn-Ce loading value and reaction temperature were 6% and 190 °C, respectively. Considerable high Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency (>90%) can be obtained over MnCe6/AC under both N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere and simulated flue gas atmosphere at 190 °C. Besides, it was observed that O{sub 2} and NO exerted a promotional effect on Hg{sup 0} removal, H{sub 2}O exhibited a suppressive effect, and SO{sub 2} hindered Hg{sup 0} removal seriously when in the absence of O{sub 2}. Furthermore, the XPS spectra of Hg 4f and Hg-TPD results showed that the captured mercury were existed as Hg{sup 0} and HgO on the MnCe6/AC, and HgO was the major species, which illustrated that adsorption and catalytic oxidation process were included for Hg{sup 0} removal over MnCe6/AC, and catalytic oxidation played the critical role. What's more, both lattice oxygen and chemisorbed oxygen or OH groups on MnCe6/AC contributed to Hg{sup 0} oxidation. MnCe6/AC, which exhibited

  20. Tattoo removal with ingenol mebutate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Sarah-Jane; Le, Thuy T; Ogbourne, Steven M; James, Cini; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of people are getting tattoos; however, many regret the decision and seek their removal. Lasers are currently the most commonly used method for tattoo removal; however, treatment can be lengthy, costly, and sometimes ineffective, especially for certain colors. Ingenol mebutate is a licensed topical treatment for actinic keratoses. Here, we demonstrate that two applications of 0.1% ingenol mebutate can efficiently and consistently remove 2-week-old tattoos from SKH/hr hairless mice. Treatment was associated with relocation of tattoo microspheres from the dermis into the posttreatment eschar. The skin lesion resolved about 20 days after treatment initiation, with some cicatrix formation evident. The implications for using ingenol mebutate for tattoo removal in humans are discussed.

  1. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  2. Tattoo removal with ingenol mebutate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Sarah-Jane; Le, Thuy T; Ogbourne, Steven M; James, Cini; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of people are getting tattoos; however, many regret the decision and seek their removal. Lasers are currently the most commonly used method for tattoo removal; however, treatment can be lengthy, costly, and sometimes ineffective, especially for certain colors. Ingenol mebutate is a licensed topical treatment for actinic keratoses. Here, we demonstrate that two applications of 0.1% ingenol mebutate can efficiently and consistently remove 2-week-old tattoos from SKH/hr hairless mice. Treatment was associated with relocation of tattoo microspheres from the dermis into the posttreatment eschar. The skin lesion resolved about 20 days after treatment initiation, with some cicatrix formation evident. The implications for using ingenol mebutate for tattoo removal in humans are discussed. PMID:28579816

  3. Graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for NOx removal: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2018-02-01

    NOx liberated into atmosphere from automobile exhausts and fossil fuel combustion, comprise the major air pollutants. They are responsible for serious environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone accumulation, haze and photochemical smog. Besides they contribute to the deterioration of human health by causing decrease of the lung function and respiratory problems. The application of photocatalytic methods in order to mitigate the presence of NOx in the atmosphere is preferable as they are environmentally friendly, mild and low cost. Therefore, in this review, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 and graphene based composites towards NOx removal was discussed. NOx oxidation to non volatile nitrates on the surface of graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts has attracted much interest during the last years due to their structures with unique features such as large specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability and enhanced visible light utilization. The formation of 2D-2D intimate heterojunctions between graphene or g-C3N4 and other components ensures the enhanced charge transfer, lifetime of electron/hole pairs and thus photocatalytic activity. The increased visible light harvesting also contributes to their usefulness as effective photocatalytic materials. In the present work, the advantages of these novel photocatalysts and the differences/similarities between them were exhaustively highlighted. The role of graphene as catalyst promoter, electron reservoir, support and photosensitizer in its photocatalytic composites was emphasized. The effect of g-C3N4 doping and copolymerization with metals/semiconductors on its photocatalytic activity towards NOx oxidation was thoroughly discussed. Besides, the preparation methods, photocatalytic efficiencies, type of irradiation, utilization of appropriate cocatalysts, and reaction mechanisms during the photocatalytic NOx removal by graphene and g-C3N4 composies, were summarized. It was demonstrated that in the vast

  4. Tritium removal and retention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.F.; Durigon, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    A device is provided for removing and retaining tritium from a gaseous medium, and also a method of manufacturing the device. The device, consists of an inner core of zirconium alloy, preferably Zircaloy-4, and an outer adherent layer of nickel which acts as a selective and protective window for passage of tritium. The tritium then reacts with or is absorbed by the zirconium alloy, and is retained until such time as it is desirable to remove it during reprocessing. (auth)

  5. Removal of inclusions from silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Arjan; Engh, Thorvald Abel; Tangstad, Merete; Kvithyld, Anne; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes

    2009-11-01

    The removal of inclusions from molten silicon is necessary to satisfy the purity requirements for solar grade silicon. This paper summarizes two methods that are investigated: (i) settling of the inclusions followed by subsequent directional solidification and (infiltration by ceramic foam filters. Settling of inclusions followed by directional solidification is of industrial importance for production of low-cost solar grade silicon. Filtration is reported as the most efficient method for removal of inclusions from the top-cut silicon scrap.

  6. Reforming an Undergraduate Environmental Science Course for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazempour, Mahsa; Amirshokoohi, Aidin

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the key components of a reform-based introductory undergraduate environmental science course for nonscience majors and elementary teacher candidates as well as the impact of such components on the participants. The main goals for the course were to actively engage the students in their learning and, in doing so, to enhance…

  7. Application of Pre-coated Microfiltration Ceramic Membrane with Powdered Activated Carbon for Natural Organic Matter Removal from Secondary Wastewater Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Kurniasari, Novita

    2012-12-01

    Ceramic membranes offer more advantageous performances than conventional polymeric membranes. However, membrane fouling caused by Natural Organic Matters (NOM) contained in the feed water is still become a major problem for operational efficiency. A new method of ceramic membrane pre-coating with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC), which allows extremely contact time for adsorbing aquatic contaminants, has been studied as a pre-treatment prior to ceramic microfiltration membrane. This bench scale study evaluated five different types of PAC (SA Super, G 60, KCU 6, KCU 8 and KCU 12,). The results showed that KCU 6 with larger pore size was performed better compared to other PAC when pre-coated on membrane surface. PAC pre-coating on the ceramic membrane with KCU 6 was significantly enhance NOM removal, reduced membrane fouling and improved membrane performance. Increase of total membrane resistance was suppressed to 96%. The removal of NOM components up to 92%, 58% and 56% for biopolymers, humic substances and building blocks, respectively was achieved at pre-coating dose of 30 mg/l. Adsorption was found to be the major removal mechanism of NOM. Results obtained showed that biopolymers removal are potentially correlated with enhanced membrane performance.

  8. Tank 5 Model for Sludge Removal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEE, SI

    2004-01-01

    we st corner of the tank. Further results showed that the capabilities of sludge removal were affected by the presence of twelve concrete support columns, the indexed pump orientation, the number of operating pumps, and the pump flowrate. The major impact of the results for the presence of the 2-ft support columns is that the sludge cleaning distance is reduced by about 1.5 ft, compared to the model with no support columns. However, the impact of the cleaning distance for the presence of 2-in cooling coil pipe clusters near the pump nozzle is found to be negligible. Sensitivity results showed that for a given tank level and pump location, a higher pump flowrate would result in better performance in suspending and removing the sludge. The results also showed that the presence of flow obstructions such as concrete support columns were advantageous for certain pump orientations in terms of guidance of the flow direction

  9. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  10. Guidelines for removing permanent makeup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Bettina Rümmelein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Permanent makeup (PMU is a frequently implemented cosmetic procedure performed by beauticians. From a technical point, PMU is considered a facial tattoo. Failed procedures or a change of mind can lead to the desire for removal. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of patients who came to the clinic with the desire to remove PMU between 2011 and 2015 was to explore the problems, side effects, and results in order to define treatment guidelines for other doctors. We evaluated 87 individual cases in total. In treatable cases, i.e. 52 out of the 87 cases, laser treatments were performed using a nanosecond Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG laser. It takes between 1-12 treatments to remove the PMU. In three cases, the colour of the PMU could not be removed by laser and remained after the treatment. In two cases, laser treatment had to be terminated due to colour changes towards the green-blue spectrum. Before PMU removal, laser test shots are urgently recommended as unforeseeable colour changes can cause severe aesthetically unpleasant results. Covered up PMU (skin colour is particularly susceptible to changes in colour. Heat-induced shrinking of the eye area can cause an ectropium. Surgical solutions also have to be taken into consideration. The use of proper eye protection with intraocular eye shields is mandatory. This article is an attempt to set up some guidelines for the treatment of PMU removal.

  11. After-heat removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashige, Kengo; Otsuka, Masaya; Yokoyama, Iwao; Yamakawa, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an after-heat removing device for first reactors. A heat accumulation portion provided in a cooling channel of an after-heat removing device is disposed before a coil-like heat conduction pipe for cooling of the after-heat removing device. During normal reactor operation, the temperature in the heat accumulation portion is near the temperature of the high temperature plenum due to heat conduction and heat transfer from the high temperature plenum. When the reactor is shutdown and the after-heat removing device is started, coolants cooled in the air cooler start circulation. The coolants arriving at the heat accumulation portion deprive heat from the heat accumulation portion and, ion turn, increase their temperature and then reach the cooling coil. Subsequently, the heat calorie possessed in the heat accumulation portion is reduced and the after-heat removing device is started for the operation at a full power. This can reduce the thermal shocks applied to the cooling coil or structures in a reactor vessel upon starting the after-heat removing device. (I.N.)

  12. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  13. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  14. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  15. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  17. The market for components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Stoelzl, D.

    1986-01-01

    The offers of the German nuclear components industry are shown at the examples of some masterpieces of engineering and their delivery capacities. Then, the success achieved with exports up to now are referred to. The forecast includes the demand, the side conditions of the technical competition, and the pricing and financing situation. (UA) [de

  18. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  19. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  20. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.