WorldWideScience

Sample records for major chemical accidents

  1. Chemical Accident Prevention Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include chemical safety alerts, emergency preparedness and prevention advisories, and topical backgrounders. Excess flow valves, protecting workers in ethylene oxide sterilization facilities, reactivity hazards, and delayed coker units are covered.

  2. Major accidents involving dangerous chemicals and Standard Basic Self-Protection; Accidentes graves en los que intervangan sustancias quimica peligrosas y Norma Basica de Autoproteccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Fernandez, L.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear and radioactive facilities and other centers, institutions and agencies engaged in activities that may lead to emergency situations, are subject to specific regulations directed to take measures to prevent and control risks at source and to act initially in emergency situations and limit the consequences, in order to protect people, property and the environment. With these premise, place the following article, which summarizes the basic guidelines in the field of major accident and self-protection, summarizing the implications of current legislation in this field. (Author)

  3. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    of prevention or safety methodologies and procedures established for major accidents are applicable to simple accidents. The article goes back to basics about accidents causes, to review the nature of successful prevention techniques and to analyze what have been constraints to getting this knowledge used more...... occupational accidents a year were notified leading to 4500 fatalities and 90,000 permanent disabilities each year. The article looks at the concept ‘‘accident’’ to find similarities and distinctions between major and simple accident characteristics. The purpose is to find to what extent the same kinds......The concept ‘‘simple accidents’’ is understood as traumatic events with one victim. In the last 10 years many European countries have seen a decline in the number of fatalities, but there still remain many severe accidents at work. In the years 2009–2010 in European countries 2.0–2.4 million...

  4. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  5. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  6. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  7. Major accident prevention through applying safety knowledge management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program. The Protégé software was used to formalize and represent the stored safety knowledge. The domain knowledge retrieved as well as data and information. This optimized approach improved safety and health knowledge management (KM) process and resolved some typical problems in the KM process. Upgrading the traditional resources of safety databases into the KBs can improve the interaction between the users and knowledge repository.

  8. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  9. Review of Maritime Accidents Involving Chemicals – Special Focus on the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Häkkinen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport and handling of hazardous chemicals and chemical products around the world’s waters and ports have considerably increased over the last 20 years. Thus, the risk of major pollution accidents has also increased. Past incidents/accidents are, when reported in detail, first hand sources of information on what may happen again. This paper provides an overview of the past tanker accidents in the Baltic Sea and chemical related accidents in seas worldwide. The aim is to find out what can be learned from past accidents, especially from the environmental point of view. The study is carried out as a literature review and as a statistical review. The study revealed that the risk of a chemical accident is highest in seas where the highest tonnes of chemicals are transported, the density of maritime traffic is highest and, of course, in the ship-shore interface where unloading/loading takes place. Incidents involving chemical spills are statistically much less likely to occur than oil spills. However, chemical cargoes can be more dangerous to humans and property because chemicals can be more combustible, poisonous, irritating and reactive. The most important difference between a chemical and an oil spill may be related to response actions. In case of a chemical accident, the air quality or the risk of explosion should be more carefully evaluated before any response actions are taken. In case of chemical spills, the response is more limited in comparison to oil. Actually, very little is known about the actual marine pollution effect of most of highly transported substances. From the environmental point of view, the previous studies have highlighted accidents in which pesticides were released to water, but also substances considered as non-pollutants (vegetable oils seem to have a negative effect on biota in the water environment.

  10. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  11. Informational uncertainties of risk assessment about accidents of chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis system of informational uncertainties for accidental risk assessment of chemicals is introduced. Statistical test methods and fuzzy sets method can do the quantitative analysis of the input parameters. The uncertainties of the model can be used by quantitative compared method for the leakage accidents of chemicals. The estimation of the leaking time is important for discussing accidental source term. The uncertain analyses of the release accident for pipeline gas (CO) liquid chlorine and liquid propane gas (LPG) have been discussed.

  12. Work pressure is major cause of accidents at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.

    2004-01-01

    The work-related accident rate in the Netherlands is 6.4%. The highest rates were found in the construction and agricultural sectors and in the police force. Workers subject to heavy work and work pressure are shown to have an accident rate up to five times greater than for workers who seldom or nev

  13. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  14. Workers’ health surveillance: a study of major accidents at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karini da Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Work accidents are the biggest health problem of Brazilian workers, thus, the objective of the study is to characterize sociodemographic and occupational data affected by serious accidents workers work in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul/RS. Method: this is a field study, documental, retrospective, with data collection in epidemiological report forms of the Municipal Unit Worker Health Reference (UMREST in the period of 2008 to 2010. Results: We conducted data collection in 1263 patient notification forms of the UMREST, and found 986 cases of serious work accident, and 78.59% of cases with male workers aged 20 to 29 years. In 2008 there were more cases reported in the information systems of Occupational Health. The occupations with the highest occurrence were the production line feeders (13,48%, tobacco processing assistant (8.0%, workers in the maintenance and conservation of buildings and public parks (7.0%. Among the types of accidents, 66.63% were typical accidents and 31.23% of commuting accidents. It identified the central area of the city as the most frequent cases with 47.2%, followed by the Industrial District neighborhood with 27.1% of cases. Final Thoughts: it was found that the accidents occurred more often on male workers, young, from labor institutions located in the central area of the city. Thus, we emphasize the need for prevention and care actions that meet the profile of the workers studied. KEYWORDS: Accidents at work. Occupational health surveillance. Occupational health

  15. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (I: Major inducement events of the accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen drilling in poor tight gas sandstone should be safe because of very low gas production. But a serious accident of fire blowout occurred during nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1. This is the first nitrogen drilling accident in China, which was beyond people's knowledge about the safety of nitrogen drilling and brought negative effects on the development of gas drilling technology still in start-up phase and resulted in dramatic reduction in application of gas drilling. In order to form a correct understanding, the accident was systematically analyzed, the major events resulting in this accident were inferred. It is discovered for the first time that violent ejection of rock clasts and natural gas occurred due to the sudden burst of downhole rock when the fractured tight gas zone was penetrated during nitrogen drilling, which has been named as “rock burst and blowout by gas bomb”, short for “rock burst”. Then all the induced events related to the rock burst are as following: upthrust force on drilling string from rock burst, bridging-off formed and destructed repeatedly at bit and centralizer, and so on. However, the most direct important event of the accident turns out to be the blockage in the blooie pipe from rock burst clasts and the resulted high pressure at the wellhead. The high pressure at the wellhead causes the blooie pipe to crack and trigged blowout and deflagration of natural gas, which is the direct presentation of the accident.

  16. Chemical Safety Alert: Chemical Accidents from Electric Power Outages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incident data from the National Response Center (NRC) shows that during 2000 there were about 240 chemical releases reported due to an electric power interruption, as well as resumption/restart; only a few were related to planned rolling blackouts.

  17. Emergency nurse practitioner services in major accident and emergency departments: a United Kingdom postal survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Tye, C C; Ross, F.; Kerry, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the current and predicted distribution of formal emergency nurse practitioner services in major accident and emergency departments in the United Kingdom; to determine organisational variations in service provision, with specific reference to funding, role configuration, training, and scope of clinical activity. METHODS: Postal survey of senior nurses of all major accident and emergency departments in the United Kingdom (n = 293) in May/June 1996. RESULTS: There were 27...

  18. Dependence of maximum concentration from chemical accidents on release duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chemical accidents often involve releases of a total mass, Q, of stored material in a tank over a time duration, td, of less than a few minutes. The value of td is usually uncertain because of lack of knowledge of key information, such as the size and location of the hole and the pressure and temperature of the chemical. In addition, it is rare that eyewitnesses or video cameras are present at the time of the accident. For inhalation hazards, serious health effects (such as damage to the respiratory system) are determined by short term averages (pressurized liquefied chlorine releases from tanks are given, focusing on scenarios from the Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field experiment. The analytical calculations and the predictions of the SLAB dense gas dispersion model agree that the ratio of maximum C for two different td's is greatest (as much as a factor of ten) near the source. At large distances (beyond a few km for the JR I scenarios), where tt exceeds both td's, the ratio of maximum C approaches unity.

  19. Chemical Analysis of Tire Traces in Traffic Accidents Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gueissaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the forensic investigation of traffic accidents is to help establish the nature and/or the circumstances of the event. This might be done with the purpose of determining the legal responsibilities of each person involved or to provide families, with a reconstruction of the events, to help understand why their relatives were injured or killed. A methodology for the comparison of chemical profiles of tire traces and tire tread samples obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been developed. Chemical profiles are represented by relative abundances of 86 compounds. The variability of the tread within and between 12 tires was assessed. Considering the level of the source as "brand and model" the intra-variability was found to be smaller than the inter-variability, leading to the complete discrimination of the 12 tires of the sample set. Braking tests were carried out on a racetrack in order to produce tire traces which origin was known. The results obtained with a supervised classification method showed that more than 94% of the replicates of the traces were correctly assigned to the class membership (i.e., brand and model of the tire at their origin. These results support that the chemical profile of one trace does not differ from the chemical profile of the tire at its origin but differs generally from the other chemical profiles of the sample set.

  20. The situation of hazardous chemical accidents in China between 2000 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; Chen, Guohua; Ye, Qing; Chen, Qingguang

    2011-02-28

    From the aspects of the total quantity of accidents, regional inequality, enterprises scale and environmental pollution accidents, this study makes an analysis of hazardous chemical accidents in China for the period spanning from 2000 to 2006. The following results are obtained: firstly, there were lots of accidents and fatalities in hazardous chemical business, i.e., the number of casualty accidents fluctuated between 200 and 600/year, the number of fatality fluctuated between 220 and 1100/year. Secondly, the accident rate in developed southeast coastal areas, e.g., Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangsu, was far higher than that in the northwest regions, e.g., Xizang, Xinjiang, and Qinghai. Thirdly, nearly 80% of dangerous chemical accidents had occurred in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Finally, various sudden environmental pollution accidents resulted from hazardous chemicals were frequent in recent years, causing a huge damage to human and property. Then, based on the readjustment of economic structure in the last decades, the development status of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in SMEs and other factors, the paper explores the main causes, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce hazardous chemical accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

    2014-04-01

    According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired.

  2. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen...

  3. Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Kaminska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (0035 and 0025) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002...... to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means...... of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function...

  4. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-05-15

    A combination of technical complexity, tight coupling, speed, and human fallibility contribute to the unexpected failure of large-scale energy technologies. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the social and economic costs of major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It documents 279 incidents that have been responsible for $41 billion in property damage and 182,156 deaths. Such disasters highlight an often-ignored negative externality to energy production and use, and emphasize the need for further research. (author)

  5. Possibility of the development of a Serbian protection system against chemical accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a draft of a system model for responding in case of chemical accidents in accordance with the current legislation regarding the environment protection, the structure and elements of the existing response system in case of chemical accidents, other works dealing with the issue as well as the prospects planned by those responsible for the environmental protection. The paper discuss the possibilities of different institutions and agencies of the Republic of Serbia to engage in specialized methods of cooperation and protection against chemical hazards in accordance with Article X of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

  6. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  7. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.-P., E-mail: jean-pierre.van-dorsselaere@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland); Beraha, D. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Chatelard, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas MedioAmbientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Journeau, C. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Paris (France); Klein-Hessling, W. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Kljenak, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miassoedov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Paci, S. [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Zeyen, R. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy (JRC/IET), Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented.

  8. Injury Patterns Compared to Injury Costs in Car to Car Accidents of Belted Occupants with Major Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Wolfram; Langwieder, Klaus; Sporner, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the injury patterns of belted occupants as a function of different collision scenarios in a major accident sample. 1,100 car to car accidents involving major bodily injuries (AIS 2+) have been analyzed for the research on the injury pattern and injury costs of belted car occupants in isolated frontal, side and rear-end collisions. 41 accidents with airbag-equipped cars fulfilling the selection criteria were analyzed for purposes of comparison.

  9. Population evacuations in industrial accidents: a review of the literature about four major events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Yechiel; Schwartz, Dagan; Goldberg, Avishay; Henenfeld, Maxim; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the literature describing four chemical and nuclear accidents and the lessons learned from each regarding the evacuation of civilian populations. Evacuation may save lives however, if poorly orchestrated, it may cause serious problems. For example, an inaccurate assessment of danger may lead to the evacuation of the same population twice, as the area requiring evacuation becomes larger than originally expected. Evacuation programs should focus on the vulnerable components of the populations, such as the elderly, children, and the disabled, and also should include plans for the care of pets and other animals. Training programs for civilians living near industrial centers and other high-risk areas should be considered. Finally, pre-event planning and preparation can improve the evacuation process and prevent panic behavior, and thus result in fewer casualties.

  10. Major Differences in Rates of Occupational Accidents between Different nationalities of Seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik L.; Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Frydberg, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    sources on occurrence of accidents were used and to identify specific causes of excess accident rates among certain nationalities. METHODS: Occupational accidents aboard Danish merchant ships during one year were identified from four different sources. These included accidents reported to the maritime....... Differences in approach to safety and risk taking between South East Asian and European seafarers should be identified and positives attitudes included in accident preventing programmes. Main messages Seafarers from South East Asia, mainly the Philippines, seem to have a genuine lower risk of occupational...

  11. ATV Accidents continue to be a major public health issue in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William D; Helmpkamp, James C

    2005-01-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding continues to be a major public health problem in West Virginia because the state leads the nation in the rate of deaths from ATV incidents and has significantly higher death rates than all five of the bordering states. Annually, there are 24 deaths a year in West Virginia due to ATV accidents and thousands of nonfatal injuries. Sporting events using ATVs such as motocross racing have added to the burden of caring for patients who are injured in recreational activities. We report a case study of 10 patients treated over an 18-hour period in a state trauma center for injuries received while riding ATVs casually and in competition. The addition of these 10 patients to the other 108 patients seen in the ED during this period totally disrupted patient flow, caused significant delays in care of the non-trauma patients, and tied up the Radiology Department and operating rooms for an extended period.

  12. Major Differences in Rates of Occupational Accidents between Different nationalities of Seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik L.; Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Frydberg, Morten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Earlier studies and statistics have shown that merchant seafarers from the South East Asia had considerable lower accident rates when compared with seafarers from Western Europe. The purposes of the study were to investigate whether the earlier observations were sustained if further...... sources on occurrence of accidents were used and to identify specific causes of excess accident rates among certain nationalities. METHODS: Occupational accidents aboard Danish merchant ships during one year were identified from four different sources. These included accidents reported to the maritime...... authorities, accidents reported to a mutual insurance company, files on medical costs reimbursed by the government and finally, accidents in which there has been contact to the radio medical service. Time at risk aboard was obtained from a register on all employment periods aboard merchant ships. RESULTS...

  13. Major accident analysis and prevention of coal mines in China from the year of 1949 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lirong; Jiang Zhongan; Cheng Weimin; Zuo Xiuwei; Lv Dawei; Yao Yujing

    2011-01-01

    From the year of 1949 to the present,the China national coal output has been increasing quickly and became first in the world in 2009.But at the same time,major coal mining accidents still exist nowadays.In order to review the overall situation and provide information on major accidents of coal mines in China,we investigated 26 major coal mining accidents in China between the years of 1949 and 2009 through statistical methods,each of which led to more than 1 00 fatalities.Statistical characteristics about accident-related factors such as time,death toll,accident reasons,characters and nature of enterprise were analyzed.And some special conclusions have been achieved.For example,although we have made great progress,the safety situation in China coal mining industry is still serious,and the reasons for the mining accidents are all human errors which are not inevitable.Such results may be helpful to prevent major accidents in coal mines.Moreso,based on both the knowledge of other countries which have good safety situation nowadays and the safety management situation of China,we made suggestion on safety management of China coal mining.In conclusion,countermeasures were proposed in accordance with the results of statistical studies and the analyses of problems existed in coal mines,including the perfection of safety supervision organization,the establishment of cooperating agency among government,coal mines and workers,the perfection of safety rules and regulations,the improvement of safety investment,the enhancement of safety training,the development of safety technique,and the development of emergency rescue technique and equipment.

  14. Accident Management & Risk-Based Compliance With 40 CFR 68 for Chemical Process Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Taylor, R.P. Jr.; Ashbaugh, S.G. [Innovative Technology Solutions, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-23

    A risk-based logic model is suggested as an appropriate basis for better predicting accident progression and ensuing source terms to the environment from process upset conditions in complex chemical process facilities. Under emergency conditions, decision-makers may use the Accident Progression Event Tree approach to identify the best countermeasure for minimizing deleterious consequences to receptor groups before the atmospheric release has initiated. It is concluded that the chemical process industry may use this methodology as a supplemental information provider to better comply with the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed 40 CFR 68 Risk Management Program rule. An illustration using a benzene-nitric acid potential interaction demonstrates the value of the logic process. The identification of worst-case releases and planning for emergency response are improved through these methods, at minimum. It also provides a systematic basis for prioritizing facility modifications to correct vulnerabilities.

  15. Neck sprain--a major cause of disability following car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, G T; Magalliard, J N; Kerr, M; Rutherford, W H

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-seven patients attending hospital following road traffic accidents were contracted regarding pain in the neck between 1 and 2 years later. Eighty-five (62 per cent) stated that they had suffered pain in the neck at some time following their accident compared with 42 (30.6 per cent) who were noted to have pain in the neck when examined soon after the accident. Thirty-one patients (22.6 per cent) still felt occasional pain 1 year after the accident and 5 had continuous pain at 1 year. Pain in the neck occurred irrespective of the direction of impact but was disproportionately common in rear impact accidents. Patients wearing seat belts experienced pain more frequently than unbelted patients.

  16. Technical Report on Nuclear Accidents and other Major Accidents in Europe: an integrated economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts J; Slaper H; Pearce DW; Howarth A; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  17. Application of land-use planning criteria for the control of major accident hazards: A case-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzani, V.; Bandini, R.; Basta, C.; Christou, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Land-use planning (LUP) with respect to major accident hazards is one of the more important requirements of Directive 96/82/EC (the so-called Seveso II Directive). Different approaches were developed by the Member States of the European Union in order to implement this aspect of the Directive. This

  18. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shenggang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Chemistry, Baotou Teachers’ College, Baotou 014030 (China); Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Liqiu, E-mail: zhangliqiu@163.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012.

  19. An approach for estimating the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident over long distance transboundary scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrakos, D., E-mail: dimitris.mitrakos@eeae.gr; Potiriadis, C.; Housiadas, C.

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Actions may be warranted after a major nuclear accident even at long distances. • Distance may not be the decisive parameter for longer term radiological impact. • Remote impact may vary orders of magnitude depending on the meteorological conditions. • The potential impact can be assessed using computationally inexpensive calculations. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident important initiatives were taken in European level to enhance the nuclear safety level of the existing and planned nuclear reactors, such as the so-called nuclear “stress-tests” and the amendment of the Nuclear Safety Directive. A recent work of HERCA and WENRA focused on the need for a more consistent and harmonized response in a transboundary context in case of a hypothetical major nuclear accident in Europe. Such an accident, although very improbable, cannot be totally excluded and so, should be considered in emergency preparedness arrangements among the various European countries. In case of a hypothetical severe Fukushima-like accident in Europe, the role of the neighboring countries may be important, since the authorities should be able to provide information and advice to the government and the public, but also can contribute to the overall assessment of the situation be their own means. In this work we assess the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident for distances longer than 300 km that are not typically covered by the internationally accepted emergency planning zones. The approach is simple and computationally inexpensive, since it is based on the calculation of only a few release scenarios at dates selected within a whole year on the basis of bounding the deposition levels at long distances in relation to the occurrence of precipitation. From the calculated results it is evident that distance is not the only decisive parameter in estimating the potential radiological significance of a severe nuclear accident. The hypothetical

  20. The impact of major transformations of a production process on age-related accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, V L; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    the non-specific and the specific cases. However, two accident patterns (specific risks) also show relatively high ARRs among workers in their 40s (and even 30s), results that might be explained by particular exposures and/or age-related performance problems. The findings suggest that technological...

  1. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  2. Use of detailed thermochemical databases to model chemical interactions in the Severe Accident codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachin, M. [IPSN/DRS, CEA Cadarache (France)

    2001-07-01

    For the prevention, mitigation and management of severe accidents, many problems related to core melt have to be solved: fuel degradation, melting and relocation, convection in the core melt(s), coolability of the core melt(s), fission product release, hydrogen production, behavior of the materials of the protective layers, ex-vessel spreading of the core melt(s).. To solve these problems such properties like thermal conductivity, heat capacity, density, viscosity, evaporation or sublimation of melts, the solidification behavior (solid/liquid fraction), the tendency to trap or to release the fission products, the stratification of melts notably metallic and oxide, must be known. However most of these properties are delicate to measure directly at high temperature and/or in the radio-active environment produced by the fission products. Therefore some of them must be derived by calculations from the physical-chemical description of the melt: number of phases, phase compositions, proportions of solids and liquids and their respective oxidation state, miscibility of the liquids, solubility of one phase in another, etc. This information is given by the phase diagrams of the materials in presence. Since more than ten years, IPSN has developed in collaboration with THERMODATA (Grenoble, France) a very detailed thermochemical database for the complex system U-O-Zr-Fe-Ni-La-Ba-Ru-Sr-Si-Mg-Ca-Al-(H-Ar). The direct coupling between the severe accident (SA) Codes and a thermochemical code with its database is not actually possible because of the computer time consuming and the size of the database. For this reason, most of the Severe Accident codes usually have a very simplified description for the phase diagrams which are not in agreement with the status of the art. In this presentation, alternative methodologies are detailed with their respective difficulties, the goal being to build an interface between a thermochemical database and a SA Code and to get a fast, accurate and

  3. Coordination of Emergency Medical Services for a Major Road Traffic Accident on a Swiss Suburban Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, Fabrice; Fuchs, Vincent; Péclard, Etienne; Potin, Mathieu; Vallotton, Laurent; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2009-06-01

    On 9th April 2008 at 2:14 p.m., on the highway between Lausanne and Vevey in western Switzerland, there was a 72-car pileup including five trucks that caused one death and injured 26 others. The relatively light toll was attributed to reduced vehicular speeds on account of foggy weather, together with the quick actions and effectiveness of the first responders and the excellent collaboration between the various rescue groups (medical rescue services, fire and police departments). For the first time, we used an innovative on-site medical command and control system, based on a binomial team. Two hours after the accident, the last of the injured had been evacuated and first aid on the site had ended. This article describes how the Emergency Medical Services from the State of Vaud, Switzerland, handled the situation and how the binomial team is structured.

  4. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012.

  5. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-10

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  6. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  7. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  8. Description of interview data regarding Pittsburgh and confluence toxic chemical accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1990-11-01

    Evacuation is the protective action most often recommended in response to chemical releases in the United States. The appropriateness of a decision to evacuate depends on whether the affected areas can be cleared of residents before it is contaminated by the chemical release. In determining whether an evacuation can be completed in time, emergency officials must consider both technical and behavioral aspects. The technical components can be readily conceived and quantified. In contrast, the behavioral components are much more abstract and more difficult to estimate. This report summarizes the univariate analysis of responses to surveys conducted in two communities where evacuation was recommended following train derailments involving hazardous chemicals. The surveys were designed to identify the actions taken by residents upon receiving the emergency warning; determine when people received the warning, decided to take action, and implemented the action; and ascertain factors that might explain the nature and timing of their actions. The surveys were conducted in the Bloomfield section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in the town of Confluence, Pennsylvania. The study confirms that compliance with an emergency warning to evacuate varies and that potentially dangerous delays can be expected. Significant differences were noted, however, in the rate and speed of compliance in the two communities. The surveys provide information on several factors that may be useful in determining the reasons for differences in the responses from the two communities as well as differences among individual respondents. Such factors include the time of day when the accident occurred, where the respondent was at the time, whether the family was together, previous disaster experience, pet ownership, the content of the warning message, and demographic characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  10. CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON PWR SUMP STRAINER BLOCKAGE AFTER A LOSS-OF-COOLANT ACCIDENT: REVIEW ON U.S. RESEARCH EFFORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHI BUM BAHN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Industry- or regulatory-sponsored research activities on the resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI-191 were reviewed, especially on the chemical effects. Potential chemical effects on the head loss across the debris-loaded sump strainer under a post-accident condition were experimentally evidenced by small-scale bench tests, integrated chemical effects test (ICET, and vertical loop head loss tests. Three main chemical precipitates were identified by WCAP-16530-NP: calcium phosphate, aluminum oxyhydroxide, and sodium aluminum silicate. The former two precipitates were also identified as major chemical precipitates by the ICETs. The assumption that all released calcium would form precipitates is reasonable. CalSil insulation needs to be minimized especially in a plant using trisodium phosphate buffer. The assumption that all released aluminum would form precipitates appears highly conservative because ICETs and other studies suggest substantial solubility of aluminum at high temperature and inhibition of aluminum corrosion by silicate or phosphate. The industry-proposed chemical surrogates are quite effective in increasing the head loss across the debris-loaded bed and more effective than the prototypical aluminum hydroxide precipitates generated by in-situ aluminum corrosion. There appears to be some unresolved potential issues related to GSI-191 chemical effects as identified in NUREG/CR-6988. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, however, concluded that the implications of these issues are either not generically significant or are appropriately addressed, although several issues associated with downstream in-vessel effects remain.

  11. Acidentes químicos ampliados: um desafio para a saúde pública The increase in chemical accidents: a challenge for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. de Freitas

    1995-12-01

    that these events present a worsening, in terms of immediate deaths and injuries, in developing countries. The statistics of chemical accidents which occurred during the last ten years (1984 to 1993 in the State of Rio de Janeiro are used taken as a frame reference for the purpose of bringing to light the great number of occurrences made with no registration of basic information regarding assessment or surveillance. The complexity of causes and consequences, together with the structural problems of developing countries, present public health professionals and institutions, with some important tasks especially those os health risk assessment and the formulation of strategies to prevent and control future major chemical accidents.

  12. Chemical PM2.5 Speciation in Major Cities Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark; Liu, Yang; Martins, Vanderlei; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall

    2016-04-01

    We examined the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) across 13 globally dispersed urban locations (including Atlanta, Buenos Aires, Beijing, Manila, and Dhaka), as part of the Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN). At each site sampling was conducted over 4 to 24 months for the years 2013 to 2015. Analysis of filter samples revealed that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammonium sulfate ranged from 2 μg m-3 (Ilorin) to 17 μg m-3 (Kanpur). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 μg m-3 (Atlanta) to 6.7 μg m-3 (Kanpur). Effective black carbon ranged from 0.4 μg m-3 (Atlanta) to 5 μg m-3 (Dhaka and Kanpur). The all-site mean values of major PM2.5 constituents were ammonium sulfate (20 ± 10 %), crustal material (12 ± 6.5%), effective black carbon (10 ± 7.4 %), ammonium nitrate (3.7 ± 2.5%), sea salt (2.2 ± 1.5%), trace element oxides (0.9 ± 0.7 %), water (7.2 ± 3.0%) and residue materials (44 ± 24%). Based on the evaluation with collocated studies we treated residue material as mostly organic. Major ions generally agreed well with previous studies at the same urban locations (e.g. sulfate fractions agreed within 4% for eight out of 11 collocation comparisons). Enhanced crustal material (CM) concentrations with high Zn:Al ratios at large cities (e.g. Hanoi, Dhaka, Manila) imply significant anthropogenic CM contributions that deserve more attention. Detailed chemical speciation also aided our characterization of site-specific PM2.5 water retention. The expected water contribution to aerosols was calculated via the hygroscopicity parameter for each filter. Hourly PM2.5 at specified relative humidity (35%) was inferred from nephelometer measurements of light scatter at ambient relative humidity and 9-day filter measurements of PM2.5 mass. Our PM2.5 estimates compared favorably with a beta attenuation monitor (BAM) at the nearby US embassy in Beijing, with a coefficient of variation

  13. Activation of soil and chemical reagents exposed to the neutrons released by the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Y; Muroyama, T; Kawabata, Y; Yamamoto, M; Komura, K

    2001-09-01

    Specific activities (Bq/g-element) of residual neutron-induced radionuclides by the JCO criticality accident were measured for soil, concrete block and chemical reagent samples collected in the JCO campus. Induced radionuclides such as 24Na, 46Sc, 54Mn, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 82Br, 122Sb, 134Cs and 140La were detected in the samples, depending on the ground distance from the accident point and the sampling date. Apparent thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluences, which reached the sample at each point, were roughly estimated from the specific activities and cross sections of the target nuclides taken from a literature. The present data are believed to be important as validation data for a three-dimensional neutron transport model calculation.

  14. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  15. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102, 4 years (N = 51, and 20 years (N = 40 after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69% and avoidance (59% being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60% and feelings of guilt (50% were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps p = .003, but not decreased general mental health (p = .14, than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.

  16. The Fukushima major accident. Seismic, nuclear and medical considerations; L'accident majeur de Fukushima. Considerations sismiques, nucleaires et medicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, Alain; Friedel, Jacques; Brezin, Edouard; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Courtillot, Vincent; Dercourt, Jean; Jaupart, Claude; Le Pichon, Xavier; Poirier, Jean-Paul; Salencon, Jean; Tapponnier, Paul; Dautray, Robert; Taquet, Philippe; Blanchet, Rene; Le Mouel, Jean-Louis; Chapron, Jean-Yves; Fanon, Joelle [Academie des sciences, 23, quai de Conti, 75006 Paris (France); BARD, Pierre-Yves [Observatoire des sciences de l' Univers de l' universite de Grenoble (France); Bernard, Pascal; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Armijo, Rolando; Shapiro, Nikolai; Tait, Steve [Institut de physique du globe de Paris (France); Cara, Michel [ecole et Observatoire des sciences de la Terre de l' universite de Strasbourg (France); Madariaga, Raul [ecole normale superieure, 45, rue d' Ulm / 29, rue d' Ulm, F-75230 Paris cedex 05 (France); Pecker, Alain [Academie des technologies, Grand Palais des Champs Elysees - Porte C - Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt - 75008 Paris (France); Schindele, Francois [CEA-DAM, Arpajon (France); Douglas, John [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin - BP 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this voluminous report addresses mega-earthquakes and mega-tsunamis: scientific data, case of France (West Indies and metropolitan France), and socioeconomic aspects (governance, regulation, para-seismic protection). The second part deals with the nuclear accident at Fukushima: event sequence, situation of the nuclear industry in France after Fukushima, fuel cycle and future opportunities. The third part addresses health and environmental consequences. Each part is completed by a large number of documents in which some specific aspects are more precisely reported, commented and discussed

  17. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  18. Utilisation of a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for equestrian accidents in a regional major trauma network in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl; Crombie, Nick; Cormack, Stef; George, Arun; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-05-01

    The utilisation of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) in response to equestrian accidents has been an integral part of operations for many years throughout the UK. The recent establishment of major trauma networks in the UK has placed great emphasis on the appropriate tasking of HEMS units to cases where added benefit can be provided and the incidence of time critical injury in cases of equestrian accidents has been shown to be low. This study assesses the impact made on the utilisation of the different HEMS resources for cases of equestrian accidents within the West Midlands following the launch of the regional trauma network. We present a retrospective analysis of all equestrian accidents attended by Midlands Air Ambulance (MAA) between 1 April 2012 and 1 April 2013. Data were abstracted from the MAA operational database relating to mission activations/scene attendances; team configuration (physician led and Critical Care Paramedic (CCP) led); on-scene interventions; mission timings and patient conveyance by helicopter. A total of 114 activations involved equestrian accidents (6% of overall workload). The contribution of equestrian accidents to overall workload was similar for physician led and CCP-led (69/1069) platforms (5% vs. 6%, p=0.50). Only three patients (3%) required pre-hospital RSI during the period analysed and there were no recorded cases of ketamine administration for analgesia/conscious sedation. In approximately half of all scene attendances patients did not require any medication to be administered by the HEMS team. The vast majority of incidents occurred in rural locations with over 80% of patients conveyed to hospital by helicopter. The average mission time for scene attendances resulting in conveyance by helicopter was in excess of 90 min on both types of platform. There is a clear requirement for the design and implementation of informed and intelligent tasking models to respond to the need for assistance in equestrian accidents

  19. 78 FR 73756 - Process Safety Management and Prevention of Major Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... site, changing from 5- day operation to 7-day operation, or rotation of plant managers.'' Guidelines... to CCPS, ``Third party auditors (typically, consulting companies who can provide experienced auditors...-auditing requirements as follows: Consistent audits performed by well trained and experienced auditors are...

  20. Journal Coverage by the Major Chemical Title and Abstract Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehlmann, Eberhard

    1972-01-01

    The journal coverage provided by Chemical Titles,'' Current Contents,'' Science Citation Index,'' Chemischer Informationsdienst,'' and Index Chemicus'' is discussed and compared with the CASSI list of the thousand primary journals most frequently cited by Chemical Abstracts.'' (10 references) (Author/NH)

  1. Systematic approach for assessment of accident risks in chemical and nuclear processing; Abordagem sistematica para avaliacao de riscos de acidentes em instalacoes de processamento quimico e nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senne Junior, Murillo

    2003-07-15

    The industrial accidents which occurred in the last years, particularly in the 80's, contributed a significant way to draw the attention of the government, industry and the society as a whole to the mechanisms for preventing events that could affect people's safety and the environment quality. Techniques and methods extensively used the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries so far were adapted to performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. The risk analysis in industrial facilities is carried out through the evaluation of the probability or frequency of the accidents and their consequences. However, no systematized methodology that could supply the tools for identifying possible accidents likely to take place in an installation is available in the literature. Neither existing are methodologies for the identification of the models for evaluation of the accidents' consequences nor for the selection of the available techniques for qualitative or quantitative analysis of the possibility of occurrence of the accident being focused. The objective of this work is to develop and implement a methodology for identification of the risks of accidents in chemical and nuclear processing facilities as well as for the evaluation of their consequences on persons. For the development of the methodology, the main possible accidents that could occur in such installations were identified and the qualitative and quantitative techniques available for the identification of the risks and for the evaluation of the consequences of each identified accidents were selected. The use of the methodology was illustrated by applying it in two case examples adapted from the literature, involving accidents with inflammable, explosives, and radioactive materials. The computer code MRA - Methodology for Risk Assessment was developed using DELPHI, version 5.0, with the purpose of

  2. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  3. Major element chemical compositions of chondrules in unequilibrated chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical compositions (except for metals and sulfides in chondrules) of more than 500 chondrules from unequilibrated E, H, L, LL, and C chondrites were measured using a broad beam of an electron-probe microanalyzer. The compositions of chondrules can be represented by various mixtures of normative compositions of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, and high-Ca pyroxene with minor amounts of spinel, feldspathoid, SiO2-minerals, etc., indicating that the chondrule precursor materials consisted of aggregates of these minerals. The Al, Na, and K contents of most chondrules reflect the compositions of the ternary feldspar (An-Ab-Kf) of the chondrule precursor materials, and chemical types of chondrules (KF, SP, IP, and CP) are defined on the basis of the atomic proportion of Al, Na, and K.

  4. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  5. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina M Drozd

    Full Text Available One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  6. Research and application on FTA model of chemical accident fuzzy system%化工事故模糊系统FTA模型的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王陈玉书; 张园园; 张巨伟; 尚思思; 刘俊亨

    2013-01-01

    针对化工事故模糊系统,基于三角模糊数和事故树建立事故定量分析模型.运用该模型进行案例分析,确定储油罐体发生火灾爆炸事故的概率分布,指出概率的波动范围、平均事故概率,得出基本事件的模糊重要度,进行模糊重要度排序,明确该化工系统危险源分布的状态,指出导致事故发生的最危险路径,给出该危险路径发生的模糊概率,以上为企业管理人员制定安全措施提供重要的参考依据.该模型对于企业进行事故预测、事故原因分析、制定安全对策、风险投资分析具有重要的意义.%Accident quantitative analysis model for chemical accident fuzzy system based on triangular fuzzy number and fault tree was established. This model was applied to analyzing a case, determining the fire and explosion accident probability distribution of oil tank, pointing out that the fluctuation range of probability and the average accident probability, getting the fuzzy important degree of basic events, sorting fuzzy degree of importance, clearing the state of dangerous source distribution about the chemical system, and pointing out the most dangerous path that causes the accident. All of above provide important reference for corporate executives to develop safety measures. The model is important for accident prediction, analyzing the cause of the accident, developing safety countermeasures and analyzing risk investment.

  7. Major chemical characteristics of Mesozoic Coast Range ophiolite in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, E.H.; Blake, Jr., M.C.

    1974-01-01

    Sixty-four major element analyses of rocks representative of the Coast Range ophiolite in California were compared with analyses of other onland ophiolite sequences and those of rocks from oceanic ridges. The rocks can be classed in five groups harzburgite-dunite, clinopyroxenite-wehrlite, gabbro, basalt-spilite, and keratophyre-quartz keratophyre which on various diagrams occupy nonoverlapping fields. The harzburgite-dunite from onland ophiolite and ocean ridges are comparable and very low in alkalies. Possible differentiation trends defined on AFM diagrams by other rocks from onland ophiolites and ocean ridges suggest two lines of descent: (1) A trend much like the calc-alkalic trend, though shifted somewhat toward higher iron, and (2) an iron-enrichment trend defined chiefly by the more iron-rich gabbros and amphibolite. MgO-variation diagrams for rocks from the Coast Range ophiolite further distinguish the iron-rich gabbros and amphibolite from the other rock groups and indicate that the iron enrichment, unlike that of the Skaergaard trend, is related to the formation of amphibole. Ophiolite sequences that include the most silicic rock types, such as quartz keratophyre, also exhibit the most pronounced dual lines of descent, suggesting that the silicic rocks and the amphibole-rich gabbros are somehow related. Although the major element chemistry of the Coast Range ophiolite is clearly like that of rocks dredged from oceanic ridges, it is not sufficiently diagnostic to discriminate among the choices of a spreading ridge, an interarc basin, or perhaps even the root zone of an island arc as the site of ophiolite formation.

  8. O local e o global na estrutura da política ambiental internacional: a construção social do acidente químico ampliado de Bhopal e da Convenção 174 da OIT The local and the global in the international environmental politics structure: the social construction of the Bhopal major chemical accident and the ILO Convention 174

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletheia de Almeida Machado

    2006-06-01

    Relations (IR to analyze the international normative impact of the Bhopal chemical accident, focusing on the constitutive role of the human action on the International Environmental Politics (IEP. It adopts an articulation of constructivist concepts, useful to visualize the structure in which the local event is embedded, as well as the social construction process of either the event and the international norm launched. The assumption is that a co-constitution relation between structure and agents, who are responsible for the social construction of the event, is preponderant and that, consequently, it is impossible to exclude these elements or their connecting links from the analysis. The article aims at understanding, on the one hand, the way in which the event is socially constructed, referring to the ideational and normative structure of environmental protection and sustainable development; and, on the other, how the local event produces political, social and normative impact at international level. As a result, the global features of local events become evident, specially considering the ideational and normative fulfillment of an environment consciousness, whose political milestones are the Stockholm 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro. Therefore, the article emphasizes the cultural and institutional environmental context as whole, pointing out the local/global relationship. It also focuses on the role of the International Labour Organization (ILO as a leader agency in the chemical safety field, in an attempt to indicate why the normative construction process has taken place on the forum of that International Organization (IO.

  9. Improving the Practical Education of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering Majors in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-qing; Yu, Yi-feng; Ren, Shao-feng; Liu, Shao-jie; Rong, Xin-yu

    2014-01-01

    Practical education in chemical engineering has drawn increasing attention in recent years. This paper discusses two approaches to teaching and learning about experiments among upper-level chemical and pharmaceutical engineering majors in China. On the basis of years of experience in teaching chemical and pharmaceutical engineering, we propose the…

  10. Improving the Practical Education of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering Majors in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-qing; Yu, Yi-feng; Ren, Shao-feng; Liu, Shao-jie; Rong, Xin-yu

    2014-01-01

    Practical education in chemical engineering has drawn increasing attention in recent years. This paper discusses two approaches to teaching and learning about experiments among upper-level chemical and pharmaceutical engineering majors in China. On the basis of years of experience in teaching chemical and pharmaceutical engineering, we propose the…

  11. Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon, E-mail: parkjw@dongguk.ac.k [Dongguk University, 707 Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Gi [Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam, 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. 25-1, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKON{sup TM} and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

  12. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 1 – Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Kerry J., E-mail: howe@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Mitchell, Lana, E-mail: lmitchell@alionscience.com [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kim, Seung-Jun, E-mail: skim@lanl.gov [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kee, Ernest J., E-mail: erniekee@gmail.com [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company, P.O. Box 270, Wadsworth, TX 77483 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Trisodium phosphate (TSP) causes aluminum corrosion to cease after 24 h of exposure. • Chloride, iron, and copper have a minimal effect on the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Zinc can reduce the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Aluminum occasionally precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated solubility for Al(OH){sub 3}. • Corrosion and solubility equations can be used to calculate the solids generated during a LOCA. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum from metallic aluminum surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that TSP is capable of passivating the aluminum surface and preventing continued corrosion after about 24 h at the conditions tested. A correlation that describes the rate of corrosion including the passivation effect was developed from the bench experiments and validated with a separate set of experiments from a different test system. The saturation concentration of aluminum was shown to be well described by the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for the majority of cases, but instances have been observed when aluminum precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated aluminum hydroxide solubility. Based on the experimental data and previous literature, an equation was developed to calculate the saturation concentration of aluminum as a function of pH and temperature under conditions representative of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a TSP-buffered pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The corrosion equation and precipitation equation can be used in concert with each other to calculate the quantity of solids that would form as a function of time during a LOCA if the temperature and pH profiles were known.

  13. Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

  14. 重大工艺爆炸事故严重度评价%SEVERITY EVALUATION OF MAJOR PROCESS EXPLOSION ACCIDENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王三明; 蒋军成

    2001-01-01

    Severity evaluation and models of major explosion process accident have been put forward on the basis of study on many typical hazards evaluation models. With the models the software called DANGER for severity evaluation of major process explosion accident has been developed. The design of function modules of the software has been introduced. Two evaluation cases of vapor cloud explosion and boiling liquid expanding vapor cloud explosion have been provided.%在研究分析了许多典型国内外事故危险性评价模型的基础上,总结并提出了重大工艺爆炸事故危险性分级、严重度评价方法及模型。并利用此模型开发了重大工艺爆炸事故严重度评价软件,介绍了评价软件的功能模块设计。并列举了评价软件对重大蒸气云爆炸、液化气和过热液体扩展蒸气爆炸事故的评价实例。

  15. 化工安全事故的发生与预防措施∗%Discussion on Chemical Safety Accidents and Preventive Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑾; 孙宾宾

    2016-01-01

    结合近年来化工安全事故发生的现状,对引发化工安全事故的常见原因进行了分析,譬如化工生产过程的不规范操作,化工产品储运中的不当操作,部分化学化工实验室安全意识淡漠,通过快递公司邮寄化学试剂存在很大安全隐患,个别不良商家的投机取利行为等,并针对性地提出了一些预防事故发生的措施,譬如促进化工企业从人口聚集区向外迁移,加强石化企业人员安全教育,加强化学化工实验室安全教育,规范邮寄快递化学试剂商业行为,加大化工企业生产过程检查力度等。%Based on the present situation of chemical safety accidents in recent years, the common reasons which led to chemical accidents were analyzed, such as the non-standard operations in chemical production process, the improper operation in storage and transportation of chemical products, the indifference of safety consciousness in some chemical laboratory, the hidden safe trouble by express mail chemical reagent, the excessive speculation of undesirable businessman et al. Some targeted measures were put forward to prevent the accidents, such as promoting chemical enterprise outward from the population accumulation area, strengthening safety education in the petrochemical enterprise and chemical laboratory, regulating the behavior of mail delivery chemicals business, increasing the check of chemical enterprise, and so on.

  16. PETROS - Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PETROS is a worldwide data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes by Dr. Felix Mutschler and Staff at...

  17. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward, E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  18. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  19. Mental Rolodexing: Senior Chemistry Majors' Understanding of Chemical and Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFever, Ryan S.; Bruce, Heather; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Using a constructivist framework, eight senior chemistry majors were interviewed twice to determine: (i) structural inferences they are able to make from chemical and physical properties; and (ii) their ability to apply their inferences and understandings of these chemical and physical properties to solve tasks on the reactivity of organic…

  20. SARNET european excellence network on nuclear reactor major accidents. Display and realizations after a year of operating; Sarnet reseau d'excellence europeen sur les accidents graves de reacteur nucleaire. Son deploiement et ses realisations apres une annee de fonctionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    The Sarnet (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence) is devoted to the research on major accidents of water cooled reactors. The developed knowledge will be integrated in a simulation tool ASTEC co-developed with the IRSN and the GRS. This evaluation report presents the context, the objectives and the program of the Sarnet network. It discusses the network operating and the ASTEC simulation code. Some examples of experimental programs are provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Research and application on risk assessment method of major accidents in coal mine%煤矿重大事故风险评价方法的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庆贵; 王以功

    2012-01-01

    本文研究提出了煤矿重大事故——瓦斯煤尘爆炸事故、矿井火灾事故和矿井水灾事故——风险评价方法,采用指数法进行煤矿重大事故风险评价,设计了“煤矿水灾事故危险性评价表”和“瓦斯煤尘爆炸与火灾事故危险性评价表”,提出了煤矿重大事故风险评价的方法步骤,研制了B/S模式的配套应用软件系统,在煤矿企业局域网上开展重大事故风险评价,以及风险预警、安全对策优选等工作.研究成果在协庄煤矿应用,取得了良好的社会效益.%This paper put forward the risk assessment method of major accidents in coal mine,such as gas and coal dust explosion accidents,fire accidents and flood accidents,conducted risk assessment on major accidents in coal mine by using the method of index evaluation,designed "the risk assessment table of flood accidents in coal mine" and "the risk assessment table of gas and coal dust explosion accidents and fire accidents in coal mine", presented the methods and steps of the risk assessment on major accidents in coal mine,and developed the matching software system based on B/S model in order to conduct the work such as risk assessment on major accidents in coal mine, early warning of risk and optimization of safety countermeasures on the LAN of coal mining enterprises. The research results have been applied in Xiezhuang Coal Mine successfully,and have achieved good social benefits.

  2. Report by the 'Fukushima Dai-Ichi major accident' nuclear subgroup; Rapport du sous-groupe Nucleaire 'L'accident majeur de Fukushima Dai-Ichi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezin, Edouard; Balibar, Sebastien; Candel, Sebastien; Cesarsky, Catherine; Dautray, Robert; Gratias, Denis; Guillaumont, Robert; Laval, Guy; Quere, Yves; Tissot, Bernard; Zaoui, Andre; Brechet, Yves; Carpentier, Alain; Duplessy, Jean-Claude; Jerome, Denis [Academie des sciences, 23, quai de Conti, 75006 Paris (France); Bamberger, Yves [Electricite de France - EDF (France); Academie des technologies, Grand Palais des Champs Elysees - Porte C - Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt - 75008 Paris (France); Barre, Bertrand [Areva, 33, rue Lafayette, 75442 Paris cedex 09 (France); Comets, Marie-Pierre; Jamet, Philippe [Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN, 6, place du Colonel Bourgoin, 75572 Paris Cedex 12 (France); Schwarz, Michel; Baumont, David; Guilhem, Gilbert; Repussard, Jacques [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Billot, Philippe; Boullis, Bernard; Gauche, Francois; Zaetta, Alan [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France); Pouget-Abadie, Xavier [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

    2011-06-15

    This report comprises a description of the succession of events in the Fukushima-Dai-Ichi power plant, a discussion of the situation of the nuclear industry and energy in France after this accident (French nuclear stock, security organisation), and a discussion on the fuel cycle and on future opportunities (comparison with EPR - Gen II safety measures, perspectives beyond the EPR). Numerous appendices are proposed, made of documents from different bodies involved in nuclear industry, energy and safety. They deal with the Fukushima accident, with light water and pressurized water reactors, with severe accidents in PWRs, and so on

  3. Analysis and Disposal of Organic Pollutants in Waste Soil Chemical Pollution Accident Risk%化工污染事故危险废土中有机污染物的分析与处置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 王晓毅; 时治富

    2012-01-01

    以(某)化工公司污染事故为例,针对危险固废中主要污染物进行了测试分析和危险特性鉴别,通过对污染土壤焚烧实验研究,着重分析讨论了各种处置方法的优缺点,结果表明,利用民生砖厂隧道窑配制烧砖处置方案较好,通过实际应用,取得了良好效果。%Take a chemical company's pollution accident for example, after the accident of pollution, the test analysis and identification of hazardous properties is made for the major pollutants in the contaminated waste soil. The selection of incineration parameters of contaminated soil is studied and analyzed. Further exploration and study of environmental emergency disposal solution of pollution soil is made, so to provide a soild waste disposal methods for dealing with hazardous waste soil in chemical company pollution acci- dent.

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  5. Extraction of information from major element chemical analyses of lunar basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Major element chemical analyses often form the framework within which similarities and differences of analyzed specimens are noted and used to propose or devise models. When percentages are formed the ratios of pairs of components are preserved whereas many familiar statistical and geometrical descriptors are likely to exhibit major changes. This ratio preserving aspect forms the basis for a proposed framework. An analysis of compositional variability within the data set of 42 major element analyses of lunar reference samples was selected to investigate this proposal.

  6. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  7. Studies of the UO 2-zircaloy chemical interaction and fuel rod relocation modes in a severe fuel damage accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, S.; Ichikawa, M.; Fujishiro, T.

    1988-06-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) at JAERI since 1975 in order to study fuel rod failure behavior under reactivity-initiated accident conditions. Recently the experiments have been focussed on fuel behavior under simulated severe fuel damage (SFD) accident conditions. UO 2-Zircaloy reaction kinetics during very rapid transients at elevated temperatures was studied from a metallurgical point of view. Equilibrium was found to be established even in very rapid transients. The reaction rate equations developed in isothermal studies can be applied to interpret the experimental results. A fuel rod relocation criterion in connection with peak temperatures, environment conditions and initial fuel rod conditions was developed. According to the test results, fuel rod melt down due to liquefaction seems unlikely below the melting temperature of β-Zircaloy.

  8. 危险化学品泄漏事故的混沌动力学特性分析%The Chaotic Dynamics Analysis of the Hazardous Chemical Leakage Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2013-01-01

    To study how to prevent and control hazardous chemical leakage accidents successfully and effectively, by using chaos theory and methods, the data of hazardous chemical leakage accidents of a chemical plant in Jiaozuo were analyzed. The results of time series analysis and R/S analysis in the data indicated that hazardous chemical leakage accidents have chaotic characteristics. Analyzed and discussed such chaotic characteristics of hazardous chemical leakage accidents. And, possible subsequent accidents in a short-term were forecasted.%为探讨如何有效地预防和控制危险化学品泄漏事故,运用混沌理论方法对焦作市某化工厂泄漏事故统计数据进行了时间序列分析和R/S 分析,指出危险化学品泄漏事故具有明显的混沌特性。分析和讨论了危险化学品泄漏事故的混沌特性,并对后续短期内可能发生的事故进行了预测。

  9. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  10. Improvement of radiological consequence estimation methodologies for NPP accidents in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems through consideration of contaminant physico-chemical forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roos, P. [Technical University of Denmark - DTU (Denmark); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD - NMBU (Norway); Bujan, A.; Duranova, T. [VUJE, Inc. (Slovakia); Ikonomopoulos, A.; Andronopoulos, S. [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece)

    2014-07-01

    The European standard computerized decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS, which are integrated in the operational nuclear emergency preparedness in practically all European countries, as well as in a range of non-European countries, are highly valuable tools for radiological consequence estimation, e.g., in connection with planning and exercising as well as in justification and optimization of intervention strategies. Differences between the Chernobyl and Fukushima accident atmospheric release source terms have demonstrated that differences in release conditions and processes may lead to very different degrees of volatilization of some radionuclides. Also the physico-chemical properties of radionuclides released can depend strongly on the release process. An example from the Chernobyl accident of the significance of this is that strontium particles released in the fire were oxidized and thus generally physico-chemically different from those released during the preceding explosion. This is reflected in the very different environmental mobility of the two groups of particles. The initial elemental matrix characteristics of the contaminants, as well as environmental parameters like pH, determine for instance the particle dissolution time functions, and thus the environmental mobility and potential for uptake in living organisms. As ICRP recommends optimization of intervention according to residual dose, it is crucial to estimate long term dose contributions adequately. In the EURATOM FP7 project PREPARE, an effort is made to integrate physico-chemical forms of contaminants in scenario-specific source term determination, thereby enabling consideration of influences on atmospheric dispersion/deposition, post-deposition migration, and effectiveness of countermeasure implementation. The first step in this context was to investigate, based on available experience, the important physico-chemical properties of radio-contaminants that might potentially be released to the

  11. 汽油储罐化学爆炸事故后果模拟分析%Simulation Analysis of the Consequence of Chemical Gasoline Tank Explosion Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张啸

    2014-01-01

    一直以来,汽油储罐化学爆炸事故模型被用来评审加油站的安全评价报告,所以本文通过实际模拟计算来分析汽油储罐化学爆炸事故模型,以方便加油站进行安全管理。%Chemical gasoline tank explosion accident model has been used to review the safety assessment report of the gas station for a long time. So this article analyzes the chemical gasoline tank explosion model through the actual simulation to facilitate the gas station for safety management.

  12. Effectiveness of an Applied Microbiology Course Specifically Designed for Chemical Engineering Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B. Hecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today’s chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of “Biological Systems and Applications,” a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the “project-base” learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course.

  13. Effectiveness of an applied microbiology course specifically designed for chemical engineering majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Gregory B; Mosto, Patricia; Slater, C Stewart

    2003-05-01

    In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today's chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of "Biological Systems and Applications," a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the "project-base" learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course.

  14. Chemical tagging of the Ursa Major moving group. A northern selection of FGK stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, H. M.; Montes, D.; González Hernández, J. I.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Stellar kinematic groups are kinematically coherent groups of stars that might have a common origin. These groups spread through the Galaxy over time owing to tidal effects caused by Galactic rotation and disk heating. However, the chemical information survives these processes. Aims: The information provided by analysis of chemical elements can reveal the origin of these kinematic groups. Here we investigate the origin of the stars that belong to the Ursa Major (UMa) moving group (MG). Methods: We present high-resolution spectroscopic observations obtained from three different spectrographs of kinematically selected FGK stars of the Ursa Major moving group. Stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, ξ, and [Fe/H]) were determined using our own automatic code (StePar), which makes use of the sensitivity of iron equivalent widths (EWs) measured in the spectra. We critically compared the StePar results with other methods (Teff values derived using the infrared flux method (IRFM) and log g values based on Hipparcos parallaxes). We derived the chemical abundances of 20 elements and their [X/Fe] ratios for all stars in the sample. We performed a differential abundance analysis with respect to a reference star of the UMa MG (HD 115043). We also carried out a systematic comparison of the abundance pattern of the Ursa Major MG and the Hyades SC with the thin disk stellar abundances. Results: Our chemical tagging analysis indicates that the Ursa Major MG is less affected by field star contamination than other moving groups (such as the Hyades SC). We find a roughly solar iron composition [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.07 dex for the finally selected stars, whereas the [X/Fe] ratios are roughly subsolar except for super-solar Barium abundance. Conclusions: We conclude that 29 out of 44 (i.e., 66%) candidate stars have similar chemical compositions. In addition, we find that the abundance pattern of the Ursa Major MG might be marginally different from that of the Hyades SC

  15. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-D-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  16. Progress and Prospect of Chemical Accident Databases at Home and Abroad%国内外化学事故数据库的发展现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付靖春; 袁纪武; 翟良云

    2011-01-01

    为完善我国化学事故数据库,充分发挥其在预防事故中的作用,通过研究美国、欧洲和日本等国家化学事故数据库的发展现状及其特点,分析我国化学事故数据库目前存在的问题.研究表明:国外化学事故数据库发展较完善,其数据结构设计较合理,且事故信息全面、准确,事故数量多;而我国化学事故数据库建设还比较落后,存在数据结构设计简单、标准不统一、数据可靠性差,很多事故信息也未能共享等问题.因此,在发展我国化学事故数据库时,应确保事故数据的数量、质量和多样性,重视未遂事故信息的收集,设计合理的数据结构,并实现数据共享,使其为事故原因分析、事故研究、安全评价和安全培训提供数据支持.%To improve China's chemical accident database and play its full role in prevention of accidents , the development and features of chemical accident databases in America, Europe and Japan were researched, and the problems of Chinas databases were analyzed. The study shows that the development of foreign chemical accidents is perfect, design of data structure is reasonable, accident information is comprehensive and reliable, and accident numbers are numerous. The problems in Chinas databases are simple design of data structure, standard discrepancy, data fallibility, and lack of data sharing. Therefore, when developing Chinas chemical accident database, the quantity, quality and diversity of accident data should be ensured, near miss should be paid attention to, reasonable data structure should be designed and data should be shared, so as to provide data for accident cause analysis, accident research, safety evaluation and safety training.

  17. Monitoring the Evolution of Major Chemical Compound in Dairy Products During Shelf-Life by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Păucean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy is considered to be a comprehensive and sensitive method to characterize the chemical composition and for detection of molecular changes in different samples. In this study, FTIRspectroscopy  was employed as an rapid and low-cost technique in order to characterize the FTIR spectra and identify appropriate spectral regions for dairy product fermented by a lactic culture consisting by species of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. A second objective was to monitore the key chemical compounds (lactose, lactic acid, flavors during fermentation and refrigerated storage (1-21 days, at 4-6°C. By FT-IR fingerprint during fermentation we identified changes of the spectra pattern with specific increasing or decreasing peaks for lactose, lactic acid, esters, aromatic compounds, aminoacids, fatty acids. Also the technique was able to identify chemical compounds involved in the microbial activity such as phosphates and phosphorylated carbohydrates during fermentation and dairy product shelf-life. All the major chemical compounds recorded significant increaments during fermentation and refrigerated storage comparing with the raw milk.

  18. 化工机械设备故障与事故管理的建议%Suggestion on Chemical Machinery Equipment Failure and Accident Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海元

    2014-01-01

    Because chemical industry is an important industry in national economy, and the chemical machinery and equipment is also an indispensable important part of modern machinery manufacturing industry. Because of long time operation and other factors, different degree of fault caused in the chemical machinery equipment, and the larger potential safety hazard are caused. In this paper, it will discuss chemical machinery equipment failure and accident management from three aspects of the type, causes and management measures, hoping to provide reference for everyone.%化工行业作为国民经济中的重要行业,化工机械设备也是现代机械制造业不可或缺的重要部分,化工机械设备由于长时间的运作等影响因素发生了不同程度的故障,带来了较大的安全隐患。文章将从发生故障的类型、原因与管理措施三方面来探讨化工机械设备故障与事故管理,希望能为大家提供借鉴。

  19. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium.

  20. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  1. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  2. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escobar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  3. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  4. Lack of chemical fractionation in major and minor elements during agglutinate formation. [in lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.-N.; Taylor, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Rhodes et al. (1975, 1976) and Adams et al. (1975) have reported that the agglutinate fraction of the soils on the lunar surface displays a marked enrichment in Fe, Mg, Ti, K, and La, and a depletion in Ca, Na, Al, and Eu, relative to the bulk soils. The reported investigation is concerned with a testing of the theory of chemical fractionation involving magnetic separation which was developed in connection with these findings. Soils 64421 and 71501 were sieved and the magnetic fractions separated according to the method developed by Adams and McCord (1973). Analyses of agglutinitic glass did not indicate any appreciable chemical fractionation for the major and minor elements accompanying the agglutination process. It was found that most, if not all fractionations reported can be accounted for completely by the magnetic nonagglutinate impurities in the agglutinate fraction. It is, therefore, concluded that there appears to be no reason to make use of any chemical fractionation theory, whose validity remains to be demonstrated.

  5. The investigation and analysis of an atypical chemical fire accident%一起非典型化工火灾事故的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐少波

    2012-01-01

    结合一起化工火灾事故介绍火灾事故调查的程序.上海化工园区某公司低温罐区乙烯管道发生泄漏,引发爆炸燃烧,未造成人员伤亡.通过多方人证询问,首先排除人为破坏因素.录像分析表明首先发生了可燃物的泄漏,而后瞬间爆炸产生了亮光,发生火灾.由破坏痕迹轻重、可燃气体探测仪DCS分析、平台南侧管廊管道裂口朝向、平台区域管道裂口朝向确定泄漏部位;由录像比对分析阀门阀盖缺失情况,结合鉴定分析,确定泄漏点为超临界乙烯操作平台底层东南侧超临界乙烯计量器旁路阀处.引火源有三种可能,事故定性为设备缺陷引发的安全生产事故.应进一步研究分析新技术的安全风险,制定相关技术标准.应加强对化工设备的监管,细化部分电气设施的控制权限.%The fire accident investigation procedure with a chemical fire accident was put forward. A cryogenic tank farm ethyl-ene pipeline leak of a company in the Shanghai Chemical Industry Park caused the explosion burning without casualties. Through multi-party witnesses asked, the human damage factors were ruled out first. Video analysis showed that first the leakage of combustible occurred and then an instant explosion of light before the fire. Through the damage traces, DCS analysis of combustible gas detector, the orientation of pipe gallery and pipeline gap of the south side of the platform and the orientation of pipeline gap of platform, the leak site was determined. Combined with the identification analysis, the leak point was the bypass valve of the supercritical ethylene meter bypass on the southeast of the bottom of the supercritical ethylene platform by video analysis and the valve bonnet loss situation. There are three possibilities of ignition source. The accident was determined to be a production safety accident caused by equipment defects. It should be further studied to analyze the security risks of new

  6. O contributo das ciências sociais para a análise de acidentes maiores: dois modelos em confronto The contribution of social sciences to analysis of major accidents: two models in comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Areosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes maiores são um problema social relevante, dado que podem afetar alguns pilares importantes das sociedades contemporâneas, como as populações, as infraestruturas ou as próprias organizações onde estes eventos ocorrerem. Este tipo de acidentes surge em organizações de alto-risco, onde interagem, entre outros, aspetos de natureza técnica, tecnológica, social e organizacional. Neste artigo confrontamos a perspetiva das organizações de alta fiabilidade e a teoria dos acidentes normais, explorando as principais virtudes e limites de cada um destes modelos. Iremos verificar que o seu modo de compreender os acidentes, bem como as formas de prevenção propostas são parcialmente antagónicos.Major accidents are a relevant social problem, because they can affect certain important pillars of contemporary societies such as population, infrastructures, and the very organizations in which the events occurred. Major accidents arise in high-risk organizations, where technical, technological, social, and organizational factors interact. In this paper we confront the theory of High Reliability Organizations (HRO and the Normal Accidents Theory (NAT, exploring the virtues and limitations of each model.

  7. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 2 – Zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, David; LaBrier, Daniel; Ali, Amir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Zinc release is limited to less than 1 mg/L in TSP-buffered solution under a variety of conditions (pH, temperature, zinc source). • Zinc release in high-temperature non-TSP-buffered environment is approximately 25 mg/L. • Long-term zinc release is controlled by passivation (without TSP) and zinc solubility (with TSP). • Precipitation and solubility of zinc phosphate limit the release of zinc. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of zinc from metallic zinc-bearing surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that in non-buffered (acidic) environments, measurable quantities of zinc are released from zinc-bearing surfaces. Precipitation and solubility of phosphate-based corrosion products, such as zinc phosphate, limit the release of zinc from zinc-bearing surfaces. These experiments have found that under a variety of conditions, including variations of temperature, pH, and across different zinc-bearing surfaces, the release of zinc into solution is limited to <1 mg/L when phosphate is present. When phosphate is not present, zinc release is instead bounded by a markedly higher saturation limit which is a strong function of the solution temperature.

  8. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  9. Mobilization of major and trace constituents of highway runoff in groundwater potentially caused by deicing chemical migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Church, Peter E.; Stone, Victoria J.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of water in unsaturated zones and groundwater is affected by the major ions in deicing chemicals applied to roads and highways. The assessment of the environmental effects of highway runoff requires investigations to determine whether other major and trace constituents are mobilized during deicing chemical migration through the unsaturated zone and groundwater. In this regard, groundwater samples were analyzed in February and August 1991, and March, August, and November 1993 at a test site along Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Analyses indicated that concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents of highway runoff in groundwater are substantially higher downgradient than upgradient from the highway.

  10. Chemical, biological, morphoanatomical and antimicrobial study of Ocotea puchury-major Mart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Pintore, Giorgio; Foddai, Marzia; Chessa, Mario; Piana, Andrea; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Masia, Maria Dolores; Mangano, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Ocotea puchury-major Mart. is a tree native to the Brazilian rain forest, where it is popularly known as puxurì. In local folk medicine the leaves are used for their sedative, gastroenteric and antireumatic properties. The morphoanatomical study determined those features useful in distinguishing this species from other closely related taxa. Chemical analysis was focused on the study of the volatile oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated safrol as the main compound of the volatile oil (39%). The results confirm and authenticate the use of its leaves in folk medicine. Furthermore, safrol is economically important as the starting material for hemisynthesis of several products. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was studied which showed promising activity against environmental microorganisms as well as anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Risk Analysis of Security Accident Management in Chemical Enterprises%化工企业的安全事故管理隐患的探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康钦利

    2014-01-01

    本文从化工企业目前存在的安全管理隐患入手,阐述了其企业自身可能引发安全责任事故发生的人为隐患、物的隐患与管理上的隐患等,并给出了化工企业潜在安全管理隐患的定性与定量判识方法;并针对化工企业的行业特殊性,提出了排查、治理安全管理环节所存在的各种隐患的解决措施和相应的安全对策。%Some risks which may lead security responsibility accident including anthropogenic risks , physical risks and management risks , etc.were described , and some qualitative and quantitative diagnostic methods about potential security risk management were listed , according to the existing security management in chemical enterprises.Many solutions and appropriate measures were proposed for a variety of risks existed in the investigation , control work , etc.and for the chemical industry enterprises particularity.

  12. The Flash Environmental Assessment Tool: worldwide first aid for chemical accidents response, pro action, prevention and preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, Leo; Wahlstrom, Emilia; Nijenhuis, René; Dijkens, Chris; de Zwart, Dick; van de Meent, Dik; Hollander, Anne; Brand, Ellen; den Hollander, Henri A; van Middelaar, Johan; van Dijk, Sander; Hall, E F; Hoffer, Sally

    2014-11-01

    The United Nations response mechanism to environmental emergencies requested a tool to support disaster assessment and coordination actions by United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) teams. The tool should support on-site decision making when substantial chemical emissions affect human health directly or via the environment and should be suitable for prioritizing impact reduction management options under challenging conditions worldwide. To answer this need, the Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) was developed and the scientific and practical underpinning and application of this tool are described in this paper. FEAT consists of a printed decision framework and lookup tables, generated by combining the scientific data on chemicals, exposure pathways and vulnerabilities with the pragmatic needs of emergency field teams. Application of the tool yields information that can help prioritize impact reduction measures. The first years of use illustrated the usefulness of the tool as well as suggesting additional uses and improvements. An additional use is application of the back-office tool (Hazard Identification Tool, HIT), the results of which aid decision-making by the authorities of affected countries and the preparation of field teams for on-site deployment. Another extra use is in disaster pro action and prevention. In this case, the application of the tool supports safe land-use planning and improved technical design of chemical facilities. UNDAC teams are trained to use the tool after large-scale sudden onset natural disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  14. Chemical compatibility between UO2 fuel and SiC cladding for LWRs. Application to ATF (Accident-Tolerant Fuels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, James; Guéneau, Christine; Alpettaz, Thierry; Sauder, Cédric; Brackx, Emmanuelle; Domenger, Renaud; Gossé, Stéphane; Balbaud-Célérier, Fanny

    2017-04-01

    Silicon carbide-silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are considered to replace the current zirconium-based cladding materials thanks to their good behavior under irradiation and their resistance under oxidative environments at high temperature. In the present work, a thermodynamic analysis of the UO2±x/SiC system is performed. Moreover, using two different experimental methods, the chemical compatibility of SiC towards uranium dioxide, with various oxygen contents (UO2±x) is investigated in the 1500-1970 K temperature range. The reaction leads to the formation of mainly uranium silicides and carbides phases along with CO and SiO gas release. Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry is used to measure the gas release occurring during the reaction between UO2+x and SiC powders as function of time and temperature. These experimental conditions are representative of an open system. Diffusion couple experiments with pellets are also performed to study the reaction kinetics in closed system conditions. In both cases, a limited chemical reaction is observed below 1700 K, whereas the reaction is enhanced at higher temperature due to the decomposition of SiC leading to Si vaporization. The temperature of formation of the liquid phase is found to lie between 1850 < T < 1950 K.

  15. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  16. Review and Comparison of the Search Effectiveness and User Interface of Three Major Online Chemical Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Neelam; Leonard, Michelle; Singh, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Online chemical databases are the largest source of chemical information and, therefore, the main resource for retrieving results from published journals, books, patents, conference abstracts, and other relevant sources. Various commercial, as well as free, chemical databases are available. SciFinder, Reaxys, and Web of Science are three major…

  17. Review and Comparison of the Search Effectiveness and User Interface of Three Major Online Chemical Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Neelam; Leonard, Michelle; Singh, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Online chemical databases are the largest source of chemical information and, therefore, the main resource for retrieving results from published journals, books, patents, conference abstracts, and other relevant sources. Various commercial, as well as free, chemical databases are available. SciFinder, Reaxys, and Web of Science are three major…

  18. Organization and Efficient Manual Searching of the Major Chemical Title and Abstract Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehlmann, Eberhard

    1973-01-01

    Science Citation Index'' and several new Chemical Abstracts''' indexes are discussed as effective tools for retrospective literature work and a comparison is made of the features of Chemischer Informationsdienst,'' Index Chemicus,'' Chemical Titles,'' and Current Contents'' as the main sources of current chemical information. (9 references)…

  19. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the {sup 137}Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}), and the amount of {sup 137}Cs in the initial fallout itself ({sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) was determined ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) at 66 sites. In addition, the {sup 137}Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ({sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N}) was determined at 82 sites ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}/{sup 137} Cs{sub 2011N}). Most of the sites with lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accidentN}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} and higher {sup 137}Cs{sub malecone}/{sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N} were found to be associated with higher proportions of {sup 137}Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. - Highlights: • Study of spatial variation of ionic and stable {sup 137}Cs in the initial

  20. RENEB accident simulation exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  1. Study on emergency mechanism for major process safety accidents in petroleum and petrochemical industry%石油石化重大工艺安全事故应急机制浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 储胜利; 程宗华

    2014-01-01

    Three features of major process safety accidents in petroleum and petrochemical industry , such as strong-ly professional,high accident harm and liability to secondary disaster were summarized in the paper .Combining with the accidents characteristics and practical situation , five key emergency tactics for these accidents were presen -ted, including adequate risk identification , professional emergency organization, plentiful supply of emergency ma-terials, efficient joint-action mechanism of government & enterprise and right -hand guidance of public opinions .Fi-nally 5 work points of constructing perfect risk identification mechanism , training professional emergency team , es-tablishing complete emergency conservation system , building efficient joint-action mechanism and practical emer-gency tactics for social crisis were analyzed in detail .%石油石化生产关键工艺设备或流程蕴藏的风险能量巨大,一旦发生事故,后果往往极其严重。分析了石油石化重大工艺安全事故专业性强、事故规模大、易形成连锁反应和诱发环境污染事件等3个典型特征。通过事故应急经验分析,研究提出了石油石化重大工艺安全事故应急工作需要遵循的风险辨识充分到位、专业应急保障有力、应急资源保障充足、企地联动迅速高效、社会舆论引导得力等5方面的重点应急策略。设计了工艺安全事故风险辨识与评估、专业应急队伍建设与能力提升、应急资源联合储备、区域应急联动和公共危机公关等5项石油石化企业重大工艺安全事故应急重点工作机制内容和建设要点。石油石化企业需要不断建立和完善5项应急工作机制,才能为重大工艺安全事故应急工作提供可靠保障。

  2. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  3. Effect of Human Error Factors on the Major Accidents of Tungsten Mining Heading Face%某钨矿掘进工作面人因失误评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史德强; 靳波; 陆刚; 戚星; 曾旭; 陈振伟

    2016-01-01

    Human errors in arbitrated mining and tunneling partially contributed to the major mining accidents. For a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of human error factors on the accidents on tungsten mine heading face, this paper established a human error evaluation system by analyzing the relationship among man, machine and environment. By applying G1 improved fuzzy algorithm method and surveyed data, a model of human error factors is founded to identify important affecting factors. The results show that the highest impact in the human error factors model is environment, followed by human elements and equipments. The evaluation model provides theoretical and practical supports for the prevention of major accidents in tungsten mining heading face caused by human errors.%钨矿掘进工作面人因失误是导致重大事故发生的重要因素之一.为综合评价钨矿掘进工作面的人因失误问题,以人、机和环境三个影响因素为出发点,分析掘进工作面人-机-环境系统的关系,识别人因失误的影响因子,建立人-机-环境系统的人因失误评价体系.引入G1法改进模糊算法构建了人因失误评价模型,并结合调查统计数据,识别重要的影响因素.应用实例分析表明,人因失误致因模型中影响程度最高的是环境因素,其次是人的因素和设备因素等,该评价模型有助于对钨矿掘进工作面人因失误的预防提供理论与实践支持.

  4. Continental igneous rock composition: A major control of past global chemical weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Clément P; Willis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    The composition of igneous rocks in the continental crust has changed throughout Earth's history. However, the impact of these compositional variations on chemical weathering, and by extension on seawater and atmosphere evolution, is largely unknown. We use the strontium isotope ratio in seawater [((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater] as a proxy for chemical weathering, and we test the sensitivity of ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations to the strontium isotopic composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in igneous rocks generated through time. We demonstrate that the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio in igneous rocks is correlated to the epsilon hafnium (εHf) of their hosted zircon grains, and we use the detrital zircon record to reconstruct the evolution of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio in zircon-bearing igneous rocks. The reconstructed (87)Sr/(86)Sr variations in igneous rocks are strongly correlated with the ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations over the last 1000 million years, suggesting a direct control of the isotopic composition of silicic magmatism on ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations. The correlation decreases during several time periods, likely reflecting changes in the chemical weathering rate associated with paleogeographic, climatic, or tectonic events. We argue that for most of the last 1000 million years, the ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations are responding to changes in the isotopic composition of silicic magmatism rather than to changes in the global chemical weathering rate. We conclude that the ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations are of limited utility to reconstruct changes in the global chemical weathering rate in deep times.

  5. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects of cultured Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major against cancerous cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenler, Ramazan; Pabuccu, Koksal; Yaglioglu, Ayse Sahin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Gul, Fatih

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major on Vero cells (African green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) was investigated in vitro. The antiproliferative effect of the methanol extract of M. nummuloides and S. major compared with 5-fluorourasil (5-FU) and cisplatin was tested at various concentrations using the BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA. Both M. nummuloides and S. major extracts significantly inhibited the proliferation of Vero, HeLa and C6 cancer cell lines with IC50 and IC75 values. The M. nummuloides extract exhibited higher activity than 5-FU and cisplatin on Vero and C6 cells at high concentrations. The S. major extract revealed better antifproliferative activity than standards against Vero cells at 500 μg/mL. The compounds of methanol extracts were determined by GC-MS after the silylation process. Trehalose, monostearin and 1-monopalmitin were detected as major products in the M. nummuloides extract where as in the S. major extract; monostearin, 1-monopalmitin and hexyl alcohol were the main constituents.

  6. 2012年国内外石油化工行业事故统计分析%Statistical analysis on petroleum and chemical accidents at home and abroad during the period of 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红岩; 王延平; 卢均臣

    2013-01-01

    Based on the petroleum and chemical accidents at home and abroad during the period between 2011 and 2012,the accidents were analyzed in terms of accident levels,accident types,occurrence time,chemicals involved,operation types and countries.The result showed that catastrophic and serious accidents were on the rise and had the character of "low frequency,serious consequence",the chemicals involved was very intensive,the accident pyramid of China had the character of "small bottom,abrupt slope" ; the ratio of death toll to accident number correlated with the level of economy ; the death toll and number of explosions ranked first,the number of fires rose sightly,but the death toll rose considerably.To prevent or reduce accidents,some suggestions were put forward from the following aspects:promoting near miss management,introducing OSHA mechanism and strengthening safety supervision of production and transportation,etc.%按照事故级别、所属板块、事故类型、事故时间、涉及的化学品、发生国家,对2011年和2012年国内外石油化工行业发生的死亡1人以上的事故进行了统计分析,研究了事故动态和趋势.结果表明:重特大事故呈上升态势,具有“小概率、大后果”的特点;事故涉及的化学品种类很集中;我国伤亡事故金字塔呈现出“底部小、形状陡”的特点;死亡人数/起数比值与经济发展水平有关;爆炸事故的起数和死亡人数最高,事故起数增幅较大,火灾事故起数增幅不大,但死亡人数有大幅度增加,泄漏事故和其他事故的起数、死亡人数均有所降低.根据统计分析的结果,从加强未遂事件管理、引进OSHA绩效考核机制、加强危险品运输和化工企业安全监管、加大安全投入和提升安全技术装备水平等方面提出了建议措施.对研究国内外石化行业的事故动向,从整体上防范事故发生,具有重要的指导意义.

  7. STUDY REGARDING THE CORELATION BETWEEN SOMATIC CELLS COUNT AND MAJOR CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS IN RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ACATINCĂI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study approaches the dynamic of somatic cells number and chemical composition of milk during 13 months of control. The study also investigates the correlations between the number of somatic cells and some chemical parameters in milk. Studies were carried out on Romanian Black and White cows between March 2005 and March 2006 at the Didactical farm of the Banat University of Agricultural Sciences Timisoara. As quality indicator, the number of somatic cells has different values among the controls. Average values for the 13 months of control, with the exception of three controls, were below maximum limit admitted from 1th of January 2007 (600000 SCC/ml milk. There weren’t any significant differences for SCC between the two seasons. Chemical parameters in milk varied in close limits and the differences were not significant, with one exception for fat percent. Fat percent is higher (p<0.05 in the cold season 3.87% compared with 3.55% during the warm season. Somatic cells number is weak correlated with lactose and strong correlated with proteins.

  8. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  9. Science and the Nonscience Major: Addressing the Fear Factor in the Chemical Arena Using Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Dominick A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an approach to minimizing the "fear factor" in a chemistry course for the nonscience major, and also addresses relevant applications to other science courses, including biology, geology, and physics. The approach emphasizes forensic science and affords students the opportunity to hone their analytical skills in an…

  10. Science and the Nonscience Major: Addressing the Fear Factor in the Chemical Arena Using Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Dominick A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an approach to minimizing the "fear factor" in a chemistry course for the nonscience major, and also addresses relevant applications to other science courses, including biology, geology, and physics. The approach emphasizes forensic science and affords students the opportunity to hone their analytical skills in an…

  11. Spinel from Apollo 12 Olivine Mare Basalts: Chemical Systematics of Selected Major, Minor, and Trace Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papike, J. J.; Karner, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.; Spilde, M. N.

    2002-01-01

    Spinels from Apollo 12 Olivine basalts have been studied by Electron and Ion microprobe techniques. The zoning trends of major, minor and trace elements provide new insights into the conditions under which planetary basalts form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, A B

    2000-07-01

    Plantago major L. leaves have been used as a wound healing remedy for centuries in almost all parts of the world and in the treatment of a number of diseases apart from wound healing. These include diseases related to the skin, respiratory organs, digestive organs, reproduction, the circulation, against cancer, for pain relief and against infections. P. major contains biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides, lipids, caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and terpenoids. Alkaloids and some organic acids have also been detected. A range of biological activities has been found from plant extracts including wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, weak antibiotic, immuno modulating and antiulcerogenic activity. Some of these effects may attribute to the use of this plant in folk medicine.

  13. Accident Page

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Explosion in Nanjing Dingshan On February 4th, 2007 an isobutylene tank containing 14 tons of isobutylene exploded and caught fire at Nanjing Dingshan Fine Chemical Plant (Nanjing Dingshan) located in Qixia District, Nanjing, Jiangsu province. The explosion had effect on the nearby Nanjing Hongyan Plastic Plant and resulted in one death and six injuries.

  14. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  15. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  16. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments.

  17. 重大责任事故背后渎职犯罪难以成案原因及对策%Difficulties in Forming Cases of Duty Dereliction in Major Accidents & Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧亮; 张祚勋

    2012-01-01

    There is a problem of duty dereliction by staff of state organs behind nearly every major procluctlon safety accident in the whole Country. However, according to the statistics, no staff of state organs has been investi- gated and hence punished because of the deeds of dereliction of duty although major production safety accident often appears in Minhang District. This situation not only makes the efforts of fighting such crimes incompetence, but al- so harms the image of the procuratorial organs. We ought to strengthen research and implement measures to change this situation. We should also get a breakthrough in the aspect of investigating and punishing the crime of derelic- tion of duty in order to fulfill the function of legal supervision of the procuratorial organ. Only in this way can we better the serve to the regional economic development.%从全国范围看,几乎每一起重大生产安全责任事故背后,都存在国家机关工作人员的渎职犯罪问题。但是,根据统计,闵行区近几年重大生产安全责任事故频发,却未查处过一起国家机关工作人员的渎职犯罪,这一状况不仅使得打击渎职犯罪的工作力度得不到体现,同时还在一定程度上损害了检察机关形象。应当加强研究,落实措施,尽快扭转这种局面,在查处事故背后的渎职犯罪上有所突破,切实履行好检察机关法律监督职能,更好地服务于区域经济发展。

  18. Facial trauma among victims of terrestrial transport accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio d'Avila; Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega Barbosa; Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino; Lorena Marques da Nóbrega; Patrícia Meira Bento; Efigênia Ferreira e Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In developing countries, terrestrial transport accidents - TTA, especially those involving automobiles and motorcycles - are a major cause of facial trauma, surpassing urban violence. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional census study attempted to determine facial trauma occurrence with terrestrial transport accidents etiology, involving cars, motorcycles, or accidents with pedestrians in the northeastern region of Brazil, and examine victims' socio-demographic characteri...

  19. Variations in chemical fingerprints and major flavonoid contents from the leaves of thirty‐one accessions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Ferchaud, Vanessa; Jiang, Hao; Tang, Feng; Chin, Kit L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have been used as traditional folk medicines for treating high blood pressure and fever. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa L. throughout the world. To assess the chemical variations of 31 different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., fingerprinting analysis and quantitation of major flavonoids were performed by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. A quadrupole‐time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (Q‐TOF‐MS) was applied for the characterization of major compounds. A total of 9 compounds were identified, including 6 flavonoids and 3 phenolic acids. In the fingerprint analysis, similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to differentiate the 31 accessions of H. sabdariffa L. Based on the results of PCA and SA, the samples No. 15 and 19 appeared much different from the main group. The total content of five flavonoids varied greatly among different accessions, ranging from 3.35 to 23.30 mg/g. Rutin was found to be the dominant compound and the content of rutin could contribute to chemical variations among different accessions. This study was helpful to understand the chemical variations between different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., which could be used for quality control. © 2015 The Authors Biomedical Chromatography Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26394363

  20. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 3—Calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Sterling; Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward D, E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Calcium leaching from NUKON fiberglass in borated TSP-buffered solution is independent of the level of fiberglass destruction. • The initial calcium release rate and the maximum calcium concentration increases with increased fiber concentration. • The calcium release in solution has a repeatable pattern of four distinct regions (prompt release, metastable, autocatalytic drop, and stable region) for all experiments. • Magnesium plays a significant role in initiating calcium precipitation in TSP-buffered environment. • Head loss through multi-constituents debris beds was found to increase progressively in all calcium concentration regions. - Abstract: Calcium that leaches from damaged or destroyed NUKON fiberglass in containment post a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) could lead to the formation of chemical precipitates. These precipitates could be filtered through the accumulated fibrous debris on the sump screen and compromising the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) sump pump performance. Reduced-scale leaching experiments were conducted on three solution inventory scales—bench (0.5 L), vertical column (31.5 L), and tank (1136 L) using three different flow conditions, and fiberglass concentrations (1.18–8 g/L) to investigate calcium release from NUKON fiber. All experiments were conducted in simulated post-LOCA water chemistry. (∼220 mM boric acid with ∼5.8 mM trisodium phosphate (TSP) buffer). Prior to the leaching tests, a preliminary experiment was carried out on the bench scale to determine the effect of the fiber preparation (unaltered and blended) method on calcium leaching. Results indicate that the extent of fiberglass destruction does not affect the amount of calcium released from fiberglass. Long-term calcium leach testing at constant temperature (80 °C) in borated TSP-buffered solution had repeatable behavior on all solution scales for different fiberglass concentrations. The calcium-leaching pattern can be divided into

  1. Model review and evaluation for application in DOE safety basis documentation of chemical accidents - modeling guidance for atmospheric dispersion and consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Woodarad, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanna, S. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hesse, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Huang, J. -C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lewis, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mazzola, C. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Defense Programs (DP), Office of Engineering and Operations Suppon, established the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (AP AC) Methodology Evaluation Program to identify and evaluate methodologies and computer codes to support accident phenomenological and consequence calculations for both radiological and nonradiological materials at DOE facilities and to identify development needs. The program is also intended to define and recommend "best or good engineering/safety analysis practices" to be followed in preparing ''design or beyond design basis" assessments to be included in DOE nuclear and nonnuclear facility safety documents. The AP AC effort is intended to provide scientifically sound and more consistent analytical approaches, by identifying model selection procedures and application methodologies, in order to enhance safety analysis activities throughout the DOE complex.

  2. Identification and characterization of the major DNA adduct formed chemically and in vitro from the environmental genotoxin 3-nitrofluoranthene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, A M; Guenat, C R; Tomer, K B; Ball, L M

    1988-11-01

    The genotoxic environmental pollutant 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NFA) was reduced chemically and allowed to react with calf thymus DNA, yielding one major adduct which was determined to be N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-amino-fluoranthene based on Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry (FAB-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet-visible wavelength light spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and fluorescence data. Extensive characterization of the isolated adduct by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was necessary to demonstrate definitively that the adduct isolated was the dG:C8 adduct, and not the isomeric dG:N2 adduct. The extent of modification of the initial calf thymus DNA by chemically reduced 3-NFA was 0.12% (1.2 adducts/10(3) nucleosides), which was sufficient to allow several hundred micrograms of the adduct to be isolated and purified. The chemically synthesized adduct was utilized as a reference standard for comparison to the major adduct isolated from xanthine-oxidase-catalyzed reduction of 3-NFA in vitro. The yield from the in vitro biological system was 2.4 adducts/10(5) nucleosides; the adduct isolated possessed the same mass spectrometric, UV-VIS, and fluorescence characteristics as the purified standard, and co-eluted with the standard on HPLC. No evidence for other adducts was found, either in vitro or in the chemical synthesis, based on FAB-MS examination of whole extracts of the reaction mixture for the presence of ions related to other possible adducts. Therefore, if minor adducts were present they were formed in substantially lesser amounts than N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminofluoranthene.

  3. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  4. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms.

  5. Evidence of chemical exchange in recombinant Major Urinary Protein and quenching thereof upon pheromone binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perazzolo, Chiara, E-mail: Chiara.Perazzolo@epfl.ch; Verde, Mariachiara [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (Switzerland); Homans, Steve W. [University of Leeds, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology (United Kingdom); Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (Switzerland)

    2007-05-15

    The internal dynamics of recombinant Major Urinary Protein (rMUP) have been investigated by monitoring transverse nitrogen-15 relaxation using multiple-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiments. While the ligand-free protein (APO-rMUP) features extensive evidence of motions on the milliseconds time scale, the complex with 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (HOLO-rMUP) appears to be much less mobile on this time scale. At 308 K, exchange rates k{sub ex} = 500-2000 s{sup -1} were typically observed in APO-rMUP for residues located adjacent to a {beta}-turn comprising residues 83-87. These residues occlude an entry to the binding pocket and have been proposed to be a portal for ligand entry in other members of the lipocalin family, such as the retinol binding protein and the human fatty-acid binding protein. Exchange rates and populations are largely uncorrelated, suggesting local 'breathing' motions rather than a concerted global conformational change.

  6. Chemical speciation of respirable suspended particulate matter during a major firework festival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sayantan; Khillare, Pandit S; Jyethi, Darpa S; Hasan, Amreen; Parween, Musarrat

    2010-12-15

    Ambient respirable particles (PM ≤ 10 μm, denoted by PM(10)) were characterized with respect to 20 elements, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC) during a major firework event-the "Diwali" festival in Delhi, India. The event recorded extremely high 24-h PM(10) levels (317.2-616.8 μg m(-3), 6-12 times the WHO standard) and massive loadings of Ba (16.8 μg m(-3), mean value), K (46.8 μg m(-3)), Mg (21.3 μg m(-3)), Al (38.4 μg m(-3)) and EC (40.5 μg m(-3)). Elemental concentrations as high as these have not been reported previously for any firework episode. Concentrations of Ba, K, Sr, Mg, Na, S, Al, Cl, Mn, Ca and EC were higher by factors of 264, 18, 15, 5.8, 5, 4, 3.2, 3, 2.7, 1.6 and 4.3, respectively, on Diwali as compared to background values. It was estimated that firework aerosol contributed 23-33% to ambient PM(10) on Diwali. OC levels peaked in the post-Diwali samples, perhaps owing to secondary transformation processes. Atmospheric PAHs were not sourced from fireworks; instead, they correlated well with changes in traffic patterns indicating their primary source in vehicular emissions. Overall, the pollutant cocktail generated by the Diwali fireworks could be best represented with Ba, K and Sr as tracers. It was also found that chronic exposure to Diwali pollution is likely to cause at least a 2% increase in non-carcinogenic hazard index (HI) associated with Al, Mn and Ba in the exposed population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Work Accidents and Professional Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Hauptmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The major accident is defined as “any event occurred, like an emission of dangerous materials or agents, which emerges from uncontrolled evolutions along the exploitation of any objective that leads to the immediate or delayed occurrence of serious dangers with impact over human health or over the environment, inside or outside the objective in which are involved one or more than one dangerous materials”.The dangerous phenomenon is a potential source of harms. In the ambit of industrial risks of accidental origins, this expression more frequently refers to physical phenomena like conflagrations, explosions, toxic gases dispersion, etc.Any accident scenario relates itself to the potential effects at the level of environmental “targets”. In the case of major accidents, we can distinguish the following categories of “targets”: human (employees of the objective, working or resident people in the nearby of the emplacement; the installation or equipments that may stay at the origin of the accidents (dangerous equipments; certain all-important equipments to ensure the safety level of the installation (critical security equipments: control rooms, civil fire brigade headquarters, etc; goods and structures situated in the installation’ environment (ground water, rivers, soil, flora, fauna.

  8. Public dose calculations in case of accident: major differences between American and German standards and influence on the results; Calculos de dosis al publico en caso de accidente: principales diferencias entre normativas americanas y alemanas e influencia sobre los resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cervantes, A.

    2010-07-01

    Estimates of the radiological consequences of accidents are part of the safety studies of a nuclear power plant. The criterion used today is the effective dose received by the public as a result of an accident. The country standards set a limit on that dose, and that value can vary significantly from one country to another, as seen in the second chapter of this paper.

  9. 化工园区初始火灾爆炸引发连锁事故概率研究%Probability of the chain-fire accidents originated from the explosion in chemical industry parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪德; 崔铁军

    2011-01-01

    The paper is inclined to present a simulated model for predicting the probability of chain-fire accidents caused by the explosion in chemical industry parks based on the analysis of the fire and explosion liability of the oil tanks over there. Careful study of the Domino Effect of the accidents helps us to confirm that the main physical effects of the chain accidents taking place in such parks are the explosion of incontrollable vapor clouds and the pool fires. To make the problem clearer, we have drawn the curves of the shock-waves in relation with the accident distance and the heat radiation with the distance by using MATLAB technology. At the same time, we have also worked out the probability curve of the overpressure with the damage, and that of the heat radiation with the damage. The fitting of the two groups of curves has enabled us to establish the connection between the objective hazardous sources affected and the original hazardous sources themselves, which may in turn promote the building-up of the connection between the hazardous material sources with the original hazardous sources, that is, the probability matrixes, on the basis of which we have worked out the accident probabilities of the hazardous oil tanks in a given affected field of the fire and the explosion. In so doing, it is possible for us to deduce the likely chain effects and the probability of the accidents in advance, which enabled us to prepare essential preventive methods. The example analysis shows that the probability of the chain accidents can be affected by the physical and chemical properties of the hazardous material sources in the field, the geographical location and the solidness of the container of the material. Corresponding relationship of the accident probabilities has been established with the MATLAB. Differences of the correspondent relationship or the accident order may in turn lead to the difference of the probabilities of the chain accidents. The above considerations may

  10. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  11. Fatal traffic accidents and forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a traffic accident fatality, the death is reported as an “unusual death,” an inquest is conducted, and, if necessary, a forensic autopsy is performed to prove any causal relationship between the accident and the death, identify the vehicle at fault, and determine the cause of the accident. A forensic autopsy of a traffic accident fatality needs to both determine the cause of death and identify the mechanism of injury, an analytical task that requires observation of three major traffic accident factors: the body, the vehicles involved, and the scene of the accident. Also crucial to determining the cause of death is the process of looking into whether the people involved in the accident had any diseases that might affect their driving performance or were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In order to reduce the number of people killed in traffic accidents, it will be important to promote joint research uniting forensic medicine, clinical medicine, automotive engineering, and road engineering, take measures to limit the impact of inebriated pedestrians and pedestrians suffering from dementia, and ensure proper screening of alcohol and illegal drug consumption in drivers.

  12. Improvement of severe accident analysis method for KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Song Won; Cho, Youn Soo [Korea Radiation Technology Institute Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The objective of this study is preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck for KSNP and simulation of some major severe accidents. The contents of this project are preparation of MELCOR 1.8.5 base input deck for KSNP to understand severe accident phenomena and to assess severe accident strategy, preparation of 20 cell containment input deck to simulate the distribution of hydrogen and fission products in containment, simulation of some major severe accident scenarios such as TLOFW, SBO, SBLOCA, MBLOCA, and LBLOCA. The method for MELCOR 1.8.5 input deck preparation can be used to prepare the input deck for domestic PWRs and to simulate severe accident experiments such as ISP-46. Information gained from analyses of severe accidents may be helpful to set up the severe accident management strategy and to develop regulatory guidance.

  13. Radiological impact to the population of the three major accidents happened in the civil nuclear industry; Impacto radiologico a la poblacion de los tres mayores accidentes ocurridos en la industria nuclear civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz M, J. R., E-mail: Acamb33@hotmail.com [Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The greatest fear of the population before a nuclear accident, is the radiological impact to the health of people, due to the exposure to the liberated radioactive material during the accident, this fear is generally exaggerated or not well managed by the media. The best estimate in the received doses and their possible effects is carried out based on the information obtained during a certain time after the accident event. This work contains a summary of the information in the topic that at the present time has presented institutions as: the World Health Organization (Who), the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the World Nuclear Association, among others. The considered accidents are: first, the Unit-2 of the nuclear power plant of the Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, USA occurred 28 March of 1979, in the Reactor TMI-2, type PWR of 900 M We; the second accident was 26 April of 1986, in the Unit-4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, in Ukraine, the involved reactor was type BRMK, of 1000 M We moderated by graphite and cooled with light water, the power plant is located to 100 Km to the northwest of Kiev; 25 years later occurred the third accident in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Dai-ichi, in Japan, affecting at four of the six reactors of the power plant. A brief description of the accident is presented in each case, including the magnitude of the provoked liberations of radioactive material, the estimate doses of the population and the affected workers are presented, as well as the possible consequences of these doses on the health. The objective of this diffusion work is to give knowledge to the nuclear and radiological community of the available information on the topic, in order to be located in the appropriate professional context. (author)

  14. [Incidence and risk factors of venous thromboembolism in major spinal surgery with no chemical or mechanical prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Tomba, F; Gormaz-Talavera, I; Menéndez-Quintanilla, I E; Moriel-Durán, J; García de Quevedo-Puerta, D; Villanueva-Pareja, F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism in spine surgery with no chemical and mechanical prophylaxis, and to determine the specific risk factors for this complication. A historical cohort was analysed. All patients subjected to major spinal surgery, between January 2010 and September 2014, were included. No chemical or mechanical prophylaxis was administered in any patient. Active mobilisation of lower limbs was indicated immediately after surgery, and early ambulation started in the first 24-48 hours after surgery. Clinically symptomatic cases were confirmed by Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs or chest CT angiography. A sample of 1092 cases was studied. Thromboembolic events were observed in 6 cases (.54%); 3 cases (.27%) with deep venous thrombosis and 3 cases (.27%) with pulmonary thromboembolism. A lethal case was identified (.09%). There were no cases of major bleeding or epidural haematoma. The following risk factors were identified: a multilevel fusion at more than 4 levels, surgeries longer than 130 minutes, patients older than 70 years of age, hypertension, and degenerative scoliosis. There is little scientific evidence on the prevention of thromboembolic events in spinal surgery. In addition to the disparity of prophylactic methods indicated by different specialists, it is important to weigh the risk-benefit of intra- and post-operative bleeding, and even the appearance of an epidural haematoma. Prophylaxis should be assessed in elderly patients over 70 years old, who are subjected to surgeries longer than 130 minutes, when 4 or more levels are involved. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical analysis of the influence of major tributaries to the eco-chemical status of the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilijević, Konstantin; Obradović, Marko; Jevremović, Vesna; Gržetić, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    We have assembled and assessed the statistical procedure which is capable to objectively explore influence of the Danube's major tributaries (the Rivers Tisa, Sava, and Velika Morava) to its eco-chemical status. Procedure contains several tests for measurement of central tendencies: one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures ANOVA, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Various nuisance factors, (outliers, departures from normality, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity) which are present in large data bases, affect the objectivity of central tendency tests; therefore, it was important not only to estimate their robustness, but also to apply proper procedures for detection of the nuisance factors (Grubbs', generalized ESD-extreme Studentized deviate, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, turning point, Wald-Wolfowitz runs, Kendall rank, and Levene's tests) and to mitigate their influence (outlier exclusion, Box-Cox, and logarithmic transformations). The analysis of selected eco-chemical parameters: biological oxygen demand-5, chemical oxygen demand, UV extinction at 254 nm, dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, suspended matter, total phosphorus, phosphates, nitrates, ammonia, pH, total alkalinity, m-2p alkalinity, CO2, and temperature, was performed for 15 years period. The Tisa was the most polluted tributary, but its pollution load was not substantial enough to exceed the Danube self-purification potential. The City of Belgrade was also identified as serious pollution source. Assessment of assembled statistical procedure, which was based on the real environmental data, indicates that proposed tests are sufficiently robust to the observed level of nuisance factors with the exception of pronounced seasonality.

  16. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  17. [Initial medical management in radiological accidents and nuclear disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    Major radiological emergencies include criticality in nuclear power plants or terrorist attacks using dirty bombs or nuclear device detonation. Because irradiation itself does not cause any immediate death of the victims, and there is a minimum risk of secondary irradiation to medical personnel during decontamination procedures, lifesaving treatments should be prioritized. When a major radiological accident occurs, information is scarce and/or becomes intricate. We might face with significant difficulties in determining the exact culprits of the event, i.e., radiological or chemical or others. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for the national and local governments, related organizations and hospitals to develop comprehensive systems to cope with all hazards(chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear, and explosion) under the common incident command system.

  18. Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kenton, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Westmont, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations.

  19. Analysis of credible accidents for Argonaut reactors. Report for October 1980-April 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, S.C.; Kathren, R.L.; Robkin, M.A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: insertion of excess reactivity, catastrophic rearrangement of the core, explosive chemical reaction, graphite fire, and a fuel-handling accident.

  20. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Lawrence, Zachary D.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015/16 Northern Hemisphere winter stratosphere appeared to have the greatest potential yet seen for record Arctic ozone loss. Temperatures in the Arctic lower stratosphere were at record lows from December 2015 through early February 2016, with an unprecedented period of temperatures below ice polar stratospheric cloud thresholds. Trace gas measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) show that exceptional denitrification and dehydration, as well as extensive chlorine activation, occurred throughout the polar vortex. Ozone decreases in 2015/16 began earlier and proceeded more rapidly than those in 2010/11, a winter that saw unprecedented Arctic ozone loss. However, on 5-6 March 2016 a major final sudden stratospheric warming ("major final warming", MFW) began. By mid-March, the mid-stratospheric vortex split after being displaced far off the pole. The resulting offspring vortices decayed rapidly preceding the full breakdown of the vortex by early April. In the lower stratosphere, the period of temperatures low enough for chlorine activation ended nearly a month earlier than that in 2011 because of the MFW. Ozone loss rates were thus kept in check because there was less sunlight during the cold period. Although the winter mean volume of air in which chemical ozone loss could occur was as large as that in 2010/11, observed ozone values did not drop to the persistently low values reached in 2011.We use MLS trace gas measurements, as well as mixing and polar vortex diagnostics based on meteorological fields, to show how the timing and intensity of the MFW and its impact on transport and mixing halted chemical ozone loss. Our detailed characterization of the polar vortex breakdown includes investigations of individual offspring vortices and the origins and fate of air within them. Comparisons of mixing diagnostics with lower-stratospheric N2O and middle-stratospheric CO from MLS (long-lived tracers) show rapid vortex erosion and extensive mixing during

  2. Research advances on toxicological screening techniques for chemical food poisoning accidents%化学性食物中毒因子检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵兵; 张晶; 高馥蝶; 郭娟

    2013-01-01

      Toxicological screening for chemical food poisoning accident is always a big challenge in the field of analytical chemistry, due to not only the unknown non-target poisoning substance but also the complex sample matrix. This article summarized the main research advance on target toxin detection (nitrites, pesticides, rodenticides, narcotics and psychotropic drugs, biological toxins and other drugs) and non-target toxin screen-ing techniques (sample pretreatment technologies and instrument analytical methodologies) for chemical food poisoning accident. Principles, applications, limitations as well as possible tendency have been discussed. It will provide useful information for the response of poisoning incident and relevant study in future.%  化学性食物中毒因子的确证因其毒物的不确定性和基质的复杂性一直是卫生检验领域的一个难题。本文从目标毒物分析(亚硝酸盐、农药、杀鼠剂、麻醉品及精神药品、生物毒素以及其它药物等)和非目标毒物筛查(样本前处理技术和仪器筛查技术)两个方面综述了当前化学性毒物检测技术的的主要研究进展,介绍了相关方法的原理、应用、不足及发展方向,以期为化学性食物中毒事件处置及未来研究提供借鉴。

  3. On Countermeasures of Liquid Chemical Leakage Accident%浅谈液体化学品泄漏事故的应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兴华

    2015-01-01

    本文从散装化学品海上装运、液体化学品泄漏污染以及国际液体化学品贸易三大方面对散装化学品海洋安全装运进行了论述,归纳了船载散装液体化学品主要货种,分析了液体化学品泄漏可能带来的水域污染危害,以及国际液体化学品的特性,以期为从事化学品运输人员提供借鉴作用。%T his essay discusses safe marine shipping of bulk chemicals from three aspects :marine shipping of bulk chemicals ,liquid chemical leakage pollution ,and international liquid chemical trade .In this essay ,the classification of ship‐borne liquid chemicals is summarized , the possible water pollution caused by liquid chemical leakage and the features of liquid chemicals are analyzed for the reference of liquid chemicals shipping .

  4. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  7. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  8. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  9. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  10. Analysis of Accidents in Nine Iranian Gas Refineries: 2007–2011

    OpenAIRE

    AR Shakibmanesh; Bolouri, A.; R Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Occupational accidents are one of the major health hazards in industries and associated with high mortality, morbidity, spiritual damage and economic losses in the world.Objective: To determine the incidence of occupational accidents in 9 Iranian gas refineries between March 2007 and February 2011.Methods: Data on all occupational accidents occurred between March 2007 and February 2011, as well as other possible associated variables including time of accident, whether the accident...

  11. Geochemistry of the Dissolved Load of the Changjiang Basin Rivers: Anthropogenic Impacts and Chemical Weathering, Evidences from Major Elements, Sr and B Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Chetelat; LIU Cong-qiang

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Rivers provide a unique opportunity to have average information about chemical and physical erosion, about the major geochemical fractionations created by these major geological processes but also about the impact and disturbances of human activities on the Earth Engine.

  12. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  13. Chemical composition of three Parmelia lichens and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some their major metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlović, Nedeljko; Ranković, Branislav; Kosanić, Marijana; Vasiljević, Perica; Stanojković, Tatjana

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Parmelia caperata, P. saxatilis and P. sulcata and antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities of some their major metabolites. The phytochemical analysis of acetone extracts of three Parmelia lichens were determined by HPLC-UV method. The predominant phenolic compounds in these extracts were protocetraric and usnic acids (P. caperata) and depsidone salazinic acid (other two species). Besides these compounds, atranorin and chloroatranorin, were also detected in some of these extracts. Antioxidant activity of their isolated metabolites was evaluated by free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power. As a result of the study salazinic acid had stronger antioxidant activity than protocetraric acid. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. Both compounds were highly active with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.015 to 1mg/ml. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma) and LS174 (human colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT method. Salazinic acid and protocetraric acid were found to be strong anticancer activity toward both cell lines with IC(50) values ranging from 35.67 to 60.18μg/ml. The present study shows that tested lichen compounds demonstrated a strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. That suggest that these lichens can be used as new sources of the natural antimicrobial agents, antioxidants and anticancer compounds.

  14. Genomic mechanisms of stress tolerance for the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against major chemical classes of inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous toxic chemical compounds liberated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit subsequent microbial fermentation that pose a significant challenge to a sustainable and renewable bio-based fermentation industry. Toxin removal procedures by physical or chemical means are essentially imp...

  15. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the conc

  16. Accidents - personal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev, S.L.; Tsygankov, A.V.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates influence of selected personal factors on accident rate in underground coal mines in the USSR. Investigations show that so-called organizational factors cause from 80 to 85% of all accidents. About 70% of the organizational factors is associated with social, personal and economic features of personnel. Selected results of the investigations carried out in Donbass mines are discussed. Causes of miner dissatisfaction are reviewed: 14% is caused by unsatisfactory working conditions, 21% by repeated machine failures, 16% by forced labor during days off, 14% by unsatisfactory material supply, 16% by hard physical labor, 19% by other reasons. About 25% of miners injured during work accidents are characterized as highly professionally qualified with automatic reactions, and about 41% by medium qualifications. About 60% of accidents is caused by miners with less than a 3 year period of service. About 15% of accidents occurs during the first month after a miner has returned from a leave. More than 30% of accidents occurs on the first work day after a day or days off. Distribution of accidents is also presented: 19% of accidents occurs during the first 2 hours of a shift, 36% from the second to the fourth hour, and 45% occurs after the fourth hour and before the shift ends.

  17. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. 有毒气体扩散模型在事故救援中的应用%Application of poisonous gas diffusion models to rescue of chemical accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁

    2009-01-01

    According to the rising tendency of chemical accidents, the paper reviews the domestic and international study on poisonous gas diffusion models, and puts die emphasis on the discussion about the characteristics of each model, then puts forward a novel algorithm based on Gaussian model. According to this algorithm and by use of GIS, the spatial concentration distribution of poisonous gas spread can be computed, and simulation is realized by programming to show the dynamic diffusion process of the poisonous gas. Though application example, the concentration distribution of poisonous gas after dangerous chemical leakage for certain meteorological situation, landform character and time sequence was analyzed. The diffusion trend and pattern was described visually and exactly in GIS, which can greatly help the fire commanders to determine warning area and implement the rescue efficiently in chemical accidents.%针对近年来日益增多的危险化学品泄漏事故,对国内外常见的有毒气体扩散模型进行了简要论述,在分析其各自特点的基础上,从事故救援需求的角度,提出了一种基于高斯模型的有毒气体泄漏扩散算法;基于GIS实现了有毒气体扩散的动态仿真,可较好地预测扩散造成的危害范围.实例分析了一定气象条件、地形特征和时间序列下,危险化学品泄漏后有毒气体浓度的分布情况,为辅助救援人员合理划定警戒区域、及时采取有效措施组织抢险救援行动,提供了一种行之有效的方法.

  19. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  20. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  1. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  2. Accidents on vessels transporting liquid gases and responder's concerns : the Galerne Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabioc' h, F. [Centre de Documentation, de Recherche et d' Experimentations, Brest (France); De Castelet, D. [Veritas, Paris (France); Penelon, T.; Pagnon, S. [Ineris, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Peuch, A.; Bonnardot, F. [Meteo France, Toulouse (France); Duhart, J. [GdF-Suez, Paris (France); Drevet, D. [French Ministry of Transport, Paris (France). Sea Accident Investigation Bureau; Cerutti, C. [French Navy, Brest (France); Estiez, C. [French Civil Security, Paris (France); Dernat, M. [Total Gaz and New Energy, Paris (France); Hermand, J.C. [Total PetroChemicals, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the French Ministry of Research financed the Galerne project to provide responders at sea with relevant information on the hazards posed by liquid gas chemicals on vessels disabled at sea. Thirty-one chemicals are transported as liquids in order to facilitate handling and lower transport costs. Temperature and pressure parameters are manipulated in order to generate the liquefaction of the gases. Members of the Galerne project are producers and handlers of liquefied gases and are experts in atmospheric modelling, ship structure, risk assessment, hazards assessment and operations. Several simulations and experiments were performed in an effort to produce operational information for responders and headquarters. For practical and financial reasons, it was not possible to consider all 31 chemicals described in the IGC code. Only 4 liquid gases were chosen for the Galerne project, notably methane liquefied natural gas (LNG); propane LNG; ammonia; and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). They were chosen on the basis of their transport characteristics and behaviour. This paper outlined the physical characteristics of the transported products verses their volume in standard conditions; the type of ship dedicated to transporting gases in liquid forms; and various response phases. It also included a brief review of several ship incidents and accidents. It was concluded that as far as the LNG carriers are concerns, a few accidents at sea have occurred in more than 28 years, but no major accidents involving the cargo have been reported. Handling LNG at terminals can lead to serious accidents. Accidents have occurred at sea, but without any accidental spillage of cargo. It was concluded that response teams on-board disabled liquefied gas carriers need to know the main characteristics of the cargo and the potential hazards. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  4. Physico-chemical properties of radionuclides emitted as particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work done to improve the representation in European decision support tools of physico-chemical forms of radiocontaminants released to the atmosphere from a major nuclear power plant accident. The task is to accommodate those types of scenarios where fuel particles are at play...

  5. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  6. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  7. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  8. The Fukushima accident; Accident nucleaire a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, D.

    2012-02-15

    The Fukushima accident is characterized by a sequence of natural disasters: earthquake and tsunamis that deprived simultaneously 3 reactors from cooling and electrical power for quite a long time. A series of hydrogen explosion has added to the mess. Experts agree to say that certainly nuclear fuel has melt to form corium in all 3 reactors. The accident has contaminated tens of thousand acres of land around the plant and has jeopardized local coastal fishery. The human toll is unexpectedly low: no direct casualty in the population but several suicides among the people that was forced to leave their home. 5 people from the plant staff died certainly from the consequences of the tsunami. (A.C.)

  9. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  11. An Ice Core Melter System for Continuous Major and Trace Chemical Analyses of a New Mt. Logan Summit Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Fisher, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The ice core melter system at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute has been recently modified and updated to allow high-resolution (Mt. Logan summit ice core (187 m to bedrock), for analyses of 34 trace elements (Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, REE suite) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 8 major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, MSA) by ion chromatography (IC), stable water isotopes (δ 18O, δ D, d) and volcanic tephra. The UMaine continuous melter (UMCoM) system is housed in a dedicated clean room with HEPA filtered air. Standard clean room procedures are employed during melting. A Wagenbach-style continuous melter system has been modified to include a pure Nickel melthead that can be easily dismantled for thorough cleaning. The system allows melting of both ice and firn without wicking of the meltwater into unmelted core. Contrary to ice core melter systems in which the meltwater is directly channeled to online instruments for continuous flow analyses, the UMCoM system collects discrete samples for each chemical analysis under ultraclean conditions. Meltwater from the pristine innermost section of the ice core is split between one fraction collector that accumulates ICP-MS samples in acid pre-cleaned polypropylene vials under a class-100 HEPA clean bench, and a second fraction collector that accumulates IC samples. A third fraction collector accumulates isotope and tephra samples from the potentially contaminated outer portion of the core. This method is advantageous because an archive of each sample remains for subsequent analyses (including trace element isotope ratios), and ICP-MS analytes are scanned for longer intervals and in replicate. Method detection limits, calculated from de-ionized water blanks passed through the entire UMCoM system, are below 10% of average Mt. Logan values. A strong correlation (R2>0.9) between Ca and S concentrations measured on different

  12. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    , attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders...

  13. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  14. Occupational accidents involving biological material among public health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive research aimed to recognize the occurrence of work accidents (WA) involving exposure to biological material among health workers at Public Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A quantitative approach was adopted. In 2004, 155 accidents were notified by means of the Work Accident Communication (WAC). Sixty-two accidents (40%) involved exposure to biological material that could cause infections like Hepatitis and Aids. The highest number of victims (42 accidents) came from the category of nursing aids and technicians. Needles were responsible for 80.6% of accidents and blood was the biological material involved in a majority of occupational exposure cases. This subject needs greater attention, so that prevention measures can be implemented, which consider the peculiarities of the activities carried out by the different professional categories.

  15. Genomic mechanisms of stress tolerance for the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the major chemical classes of inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists at ARS developed tolerant industrial yeast that is able to reduce major chemical classes of inhibitors into less toxic or none toxic compounds while producing ethanol. Using genomic studies, we defined mechanisms of in situ detoxification involved in novel gene functions, vital cofactor r...

  16. Workshop on Key Issues in Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The workshop on key analysis method and largescale facilities application in the project of Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" was held in the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Anhui on January 5th, 2008.

  17. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  18. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  19. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  20. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

    A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

  1. The cyanide accident in Barskoon (Kyrgyzstan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleven RFMJ; Bruggen M van; LAC

    2000-01-01

    On May 20, 1998, a truck with 20 tons of sodium cyanide crashed and fell into the Barskoon River (Kyrgyzstan). This small stream, used by the local population for irrigation and drinking water purposes, flows into Lake Issyk-Kul, a major tourist resort. As a result of the accident, some 1700 - 1800

  2. CHEMICALS

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  3. Development of severe accident management and training support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub; Kim, Ko Ryo; Jung, Won Dae; Ha, Jae Joo

    2001-04-01

    Recently, the overall severe accident management strategy is under development according to the logical flow of severe accident management guidelines in some foreign countries. In Korea, the basis of severe accident management strategy is established due to the development of Korean severe accident guideline. In the straining system, the professional information as well as the general information for severe accident should be provided to the related personnel and the function of prior simulation for plant behavior according to strategy execution should be required. Korean severe accident management guideline is chosen as the basis logic for development of support system for decision-support and training related with execution of severe accident strategy. The training simulator is developed for prior expectation of plant behavior and the severe accident computer code, MELCOR, is utilized as the engine, and it is possible to operate equipments necessary for execution of severe accident management guidelines. And also, the graphical interface is developed to provide the plant status and provide status change of major equipments dynamically.

  4. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  5. Road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, N J; Ansari, M; al-Kalai, D

    1994-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health hazard in Saudi Arabia, particularly during Ramadan. The ensuing trauma has increased in direct proportion to the increase in the number of road vehicles. An audit of RTAs over a one-year period revealed that, out of 361 victims, 16% were under 10 years and 47% between 11 and 30 years. None of those involved in accidents was wearing a seat belt. Half of the children injured were pedestrians. There was a male to female ratio of 4:1 reflecting the driving laws in Saudi Arabia. Burst tyres due to intense heat were identified as a common cause (39%) of accidents. The introduction of seat belt legislation and stricter law enforcement should lead to a rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality on the roads in Saudi Arabia.

  6. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David

    2010-09-01

    Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  8. Occupational accidents with mowing machines in Austrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of recognized accidents during agricultural work is still very high in Austria. In the years 2008 to 2009, there occurred 84 approved work accidents with mowing machines. The main causes of accidents were the loss of control of machines, transportations or conveyances, hand tools, objects or animals. In the literature, numerous studies of general agricultural and forestry accident situations are available. Detailed studies on specific types of agricultural machines, which describe concrete circumstances and causes of accidents, are in limited numbers. The accident database from the General Accident Insurance Institution and the Austrian Social Insurance Institution of Farmers, with personal and accidental data information about mowing machine accidents, were analyzed. The results showed that most accidents occurred on mixed agricultural farms (68%. The majority of the injured persons were male (86%, over 40-years-old (86% with an agricultural or forestry education (91%. The most common accidents occurred in the summer months (69% and on afternoons during the working week (79%. The majority of accidents were caused by contact with the machine (55% and the loss of control (73% during their operation (60% and harvesting work (63%. The most frequently injuries were wounds, fractures and superficial injuries (81% to the upper and lower extremities (66%. The results of the chi-square test showed significant correlations between the specific task with the form of contact, the working process, the day and season. Results of the odds ratio determination showed an increased risk of suffering serious injury for men in the first half of the year and half of the day due to loss of control over the machine during agricultural harvesting work.

  9. ALICE Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE (point 2) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for ALICE are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the ALICE vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  10. LHCb Injected Beam Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb (point 8) interaction region is sensitive to beam orbit errors arising from magnet setting errors on injection. In this report, beam accident scenarios under injection for LHCb are described, focusing on ultra- fast error injection scenarios for the interaction straight correctors and dipoles. Beam 1 and beam 2 accident scenarios are considered, where the errors can lead to beam orbits striking the LHCb vacuum chamber or elements of the machine. The required thresholds for magnet current interlocks are calculated to avoid machine and detector risk.

  11. 重大环境事件与当代国际社会的重塑——福岛核泄漏事件的环境社会学反思%On Major Environmental Pollution Accidents and Remodeling of Contemporary International Society:The Sociological Reflection on Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书明; 徐文涛

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima nuclear accident, various social activists re-constructed themselves in response to the nuclear risks, which triggered interaction among them. The risk interaction caused by Fukushima nuclear acci- dent has become a great driving force to remodel the international society. Fukushima nuclear accident stimulated strong safety needs in well-off society and reflective modernization. It shows that the risk event can not only be the enemy to human security, but also be an important mechanism for safety re-construction. Reflection and gov- ernance on risk events will bring us closer towards a future with greater security.%在福岛核泄漏事件中,各种各样的社会行动者纷纷建构自身以应对核风险,这些建构自身的活动产生了行动主体间的交互影响。福岛核泄漏事件产生的风险互动成为重塑国际社会的重要力量,激发了富裕社会以及自反性现代化对安全的强烈需求。福岛核泄漏事件表明,风险事件既是人类安全需求的对立物,也是安全建构的重要机遇,风险事件的反思和治理会使未来社会更加安全。

  12. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  13. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Comparison on Atmospheric Pollution Chemical Accident Hazard Predicting(CDM)%大气污染化学事故危害预测数值模拟(CDM)与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄顺祥; 陈海平; 刘峰; 刘树华; 朱凤荣

    2011-01-01

    The concentration and dose model on chemical agents diffusion or the toxic clouds diffusion model over complex terrain(CDM) is established, which can be used to assess and predict atmospheric pollution chemical accident hazard, and provides fast, intuitionistic and qnaniticational decision information for emergency. Contaminated field, contaminated rate, contaminated area, and contaminated depth may be computed in a few minutes. The comparison of field experiment results with numerical simulation results shows that contaminated field, contaminated rate, and contaminated depth are consistent on the whole, and the relative error of dose at different distance is less than one time. The mean relative error is 20.6%, and the relative error of contaminated depth are -26.3% and 10.2% respectively at 0.66 g.s/m3 and 0.24 g's/m3 dose. The comparison of CDM simulating results with water tank experiment results shows that they are similar highly in neutral atmosphere or stable atmosphere.%建立了对复杂地形上大气污染化学事故进行危害评估与预测的数值模式(CDM),该模式可以快速预测大气污染化学事故的危害范围、危害等级、危害面积和危害纵深等,为事故应急处置提供快速、直观和定量的决策依据。分别应用外场扩散和水槽模拟实验对CDM进行了验证。数值模拟与外场扩散实验的验证结果表明,二者在危害范围、危害纵深和危害等级等方面均具有很好的一致性,不同距离上剂量相对误差在1倍以内,平均相对误差为20.6%,剂量阈值为O.66和0.24g·s/m0的危害纵深相对误差分别为-26.3%和10.2%。数值模拟与水槽

  14. Nuclear energy. Danger only in case of accidents?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina; Kusmierz, Ralf [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. of Computational Biology

    2014-07-01

    The environmental impacts of nuclear energy are highly underestimated. Nuclear weapons, atomic bomb tests, and nuclear accidents are considered a danger for the environment and a human cancer risk. However, childhood leukemia is consistently elevated near nuclear power plants and the Chernobyl accident entailed elevated human birth sex ratios across Europe. We studied the annual sex ratio near nuclear facilities in Germany, France, and Switzerland at the municipality level. We will demonstrate that low doses of ionizing radiation cause effects in human beings. This is shown by strongly consistent spatial-temporal shifts in the human sex ratio trends in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. In the chosen countries complete official data on over 70 million gender specific annual births at the municipality level are available. By Lambert-93 coordinates (France) and GK3 coordinates (Germany, Switzerland) we determined the minimum distances of municipalities from major nuclear facilities. Spatial-temporal trend analyses of the annual sex ratio depending on municipalities' minimum distances from nuclear facilities were carried out. Applying ordinary linear logistic regression (jump or broken-stick functions) and non-linear logistic regression (Rayleigh functions) we demonstrate that the sex ratio at birth shows the influence of mutagenic ionizing radiation on human health. As important environmental chemical contaminants are also mutagenic, the usefulness of the sex ratio at birth as a genetic health indicator can be inferred by analogy.

  15. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  16. Authority structure and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational characteristics on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. The general hypothesis is that the authority structure is a main cause of accident-proneness

  17. Major impact of volcanic gases on the chemical composition of precipitation in Iceland during the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Stefánsson, Gerdur; Keller, Nicole S.; Barsotti, Sara; Sigurdsson, Árni; Thorláksdóttir, Svava Björk; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Eiríksdóttir, Eydís. S.; Jónasdóttir, Elín. Björk; Löwis, Sibylle; Gíslason, Sigurdur R.

    2017-02-01

    The Holuhraun eruption in 2014-2015 was the largest in Iceland for more than 200 years. It resulted in emissions of large quantities of volcanic gases into the atmosphere (11 megaton (Mt) SO2, 0.1 Mt HCl, and 0.05 Mt HF). During the eruption the volcanic gases had major effects on F, SO4 and to a lesser extent Cl concentrations in precipitaxtion throughout Iceland, effects not observed in recent decades. The concentrations of F, Cl, and SO4 (n = 705) reached values of 444 µm 12,270 µm, and 17,324 µm during the eruption and were on average 20 times higher for F and SO4 and much lower for Cl compared to preeruption times. The concentrations of major cations (Si, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Fe) (n = 151) in the precipitation were taken as having originated from seawater spray and dissolution of rock dust and aerosol. Based on the mixing model developed here, it is demonstrated that the source of the enrichment of F and SO4 was indeed the volcanic gas emissions with >60-100 mol % of SO4 and F in the precipitation originated from volcanic gas, whereas the Cl originated mostly from seawater spray, making the volcanic gas input of Cl relatively less important than for F and SO4. The results showed that large volcanic eruptions can have major effects on atmospheric chemistry and impact the composition of precipitation.

  18. Post Accident Procedures for Chemicals and Propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    monomethylamine nitrate crystals in DOT specification 103ALW and 103W tank cars (179.200) and MC306, MC307 and MC31Z cargo tanks. However, following the...D- 20 SOIU HYDRMoOXIDE SH 13.17 SRTURATED LIDUID DENSITY 13.18 LIOUID HEAT CAPACITY aQt VDITINOE? IOT PIr1l’OEY 13.19 LIOUIO THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY...lungt oieene ItO Odw tvhwld SlA pos"i D- 22 STYREE ST 13.17 SATURATED LIDUID DENSITY 13.IJ LIOUID HEAT CAPACITY * ~- 0.4 6.0 0.4 -- - U 0 al a0 a0 1 3

  19. Post Accident Procedures for Chemicals and Propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Limit LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas NtH Monomethylhydrazine MTB - U.S. Materials Transportation Bureau NIOSH - National Institute of Occupational Saftey ...919) 829-2178 Food & Chemistry S-rvices Division of Public Health Services North Dakota Department of H’alth & Welfare Hazen Drive Assistant Director...e) Carriers. 14. Red Cross and Salvation Army offer (a) medical assistance, (b) shelter and Wc food and clothing. U H.82Z Hazards Mitigation

  20. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  1. Behavior of road accidents: Structural time series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-12-01

    Road accidents become a major issue in contributing to the increasing number of deaths. Few researchers suggest that road accidents occur due to road structure and road condition. The road structure and condition may differ according to the area and volume of traffic of the location. Therefore, this paper attempts to look up the behavior of the road accidents in four main regions in Peninsular Malaysia by employing a structural time series (STS) approach. STS offers the possibility of modelling the unobserved component such as trends and seasonal component and it is allowed to vary over time. The results found that the number of road accidents is described by a different model. Perhaps, the results imply that the government, especially a policy maker should consider to implement a different approach in ways to overcome the increasing number of road accidents.

  2. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 3: Appendixes C-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the Appendices for the Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment and Storage Facilities for Waste Generated by the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. The main report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  3. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  4. Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

  5. Dioxin body burden in women with long term residency near and away from major chemical industries in Teesside, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless-Mulloli, T.; Howel, D. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Edwards, R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Paepke, O. [ergo Forschungs Gesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany); Hermann, T.

    2004-09-15

    Retrospective exposure assessment poses a major challenge for environmental epidemiology studies. Body burden measures may act as markers for long-term exposure if biomarkers can be found with sufficiently long half lives in the human body. Some studies of human exposures have reported data from exposures over several years and before and after sources started production, however none have investigated the usefulness of such approach when exposure is estimated over more than a decade. Whilst for the general population food intake forms the major source of long term dioxin exposures other occupational and environmental sources can contribute to elevated body burdens. The UK has rich data sets for dioxin levels in food, but no body burden data are yet available for a general population sample. We tested the hypothesis that women with long term residence close to an industrial complex have a higher body burden and a distinct pattern of dioxins, furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We estimated exposure by recording residential history and food intakes and compared this information with body burden measurements as proxy for all forms of exposure.

  6. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamrane, Y; Wybo, J-L; Armand, P

    2013-12-01

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues.

  7. [Drowning accidents in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krandick, G; Mantel, K

    1990-09-30

    This is a report on five boys aged between 1 and 5 years who, after prolonged submersion in cold water, were treated at our department. On being taken out of the water, all the patients were clinically dead. After 1- to 3-hour successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a rectal temperature of about 27 degrees C, they were rewarmed at a rate of 1 degree/hour. Two patients died within a few hours after the accident. One patient survived with an apallic syndrome, 2 children survived with no sequelae. In the event of a water-related accident associated with hypothermia, we consider suitable resuscitation to have preference over rewarming measures. The most important treatment guidelines and prognostic factors are discussed.

  8. Study on Values Taking of Ignition Probabilities in Hazardous Chemical Leakage Accidents%危险化学品泄漏事故点火概率取值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雄军; 朱常龙; 葛秀坤; 任常兴; 王凯全

    2011-01-01

    为计算危险化学品泄漏后发生火灾、爆炸等事故的概率,提高风险评估的量化水平,对点火概率的取值进行研究.从模型计算和直接取参考值2个方面探讨点火概率的取值问题,提出不同情形下的取值建议,并结合案例应用对点火概率2种取值方法进行对比分析研究.研究结果表明:点火概率模型计算不确定性较大且适用性有限,而直接取值的参考值均由一系列事件统计而得出,具有一定的科学性,实际取值更倾向于根据经验数据或已有的数据进行取值,但取值时需要充分考虑实际情况(如安全条件等)进行适当的修正,以便取值更科学.%In order to calculate accident probabilities of fire and explosion after dangerous chemicals leaking and improve the quantification level of risk assessment, the value taking for ignition probabilities was researched based on the domestic and foreign literatures. Firstly, the value taking for ignition probabilities was discussed from calculation models and direct reference value, and some advice for taking value under different situation was proposed. Then through an example, a verification and comparative analysis was made between the application of calculation models for ignition probabilities and the application of direct reference value. The results show that the calculation models for ignition probabilities have bigger computational uncertainty and limited applicability while direct reference value from a series of statistical events is scientific. Actual value taking more depends on empirical data or existing data, and considers the actual situation (such as safety conditions, etc. ) so as to make the value more scientific.

  9. 张家港市突发危险化学品事故应急指挥与决策系统技术研究%Technology research on emergency command and decision-making system for sudden dangerous chemicals accidents in Zhangjiagang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 邹玉华; 杨叶中; 孙震; 李娜; 蒋晓霞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the construction and operation situation of comprehensive emergency command and decision-making system for sudden dangerous chemicals accidents in Zhangjiagang City. [Methods]The data exchange platform, information databases and decision-making support database were established. The comprehensive emergency command and decision-making system for dangerous chemicals accidents were implemented by geographic information system (CIS) display. [ Results ] This software platform had achieved the functions of collection of basic data of the accident, the initial disposition of the accident, developments, on-site detection and early warning by CIS technique. On the basis of software platform, combined with appropriate hardware equipments, a complete set of emergency command and decision-making system was established. [Conclusion] The emergency command and decision-making system for treating the sudden dangerous chemicals accidents is established in Zhangjiagang city, which includes command and decision, prediction and warning, medical treatment, material reserves and other functions.%目的 探讨张家港市突发危险化学品事故综合应急指挥决策系统的建设及其运行情况.方法 建立数据交换平台、信息数据库和决策支持数据库,将多种综合信息集成,通过地理信息系统(GIS)展示实现危险化学品事故综合应急指挥、决策信息系统.结果 该软件平台利用GIS技术实现了事故的基本情况、事故初始处置、事态发展、现场检测预警等功能,在软件平台基础上搭配相应的硬件设备组成一套完整的应急指挥与决策系统.结论 张家港基本形成了融指挥决策、预测预警、医疗救治、物资储备等功能为一体的应对突发危险化学品事故应急救援指挥与决策系统.

  10. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  11. Facial trauma among victims of terrestrial transport accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila, Sérgio; Barbosa, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega; Bernardino, Ítalo de Macedo; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Bento, Patrícia Meira; E Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, terrestrial transport accidents - TTA, especially those involving automobiles and motorcycles - are a major cause of facial trauma, surpassing urban violence. This cross-sectional census study attempted to determine facial trauma occurrence with terrestrial transport accidents etiology, involving cars, motorcycles, or accidents with pedestrians in the northeastern region of Brazil, and examine victims' socio-demographic characteristics. Morbidity data from forensic service reports of victims who sought care from January to December 2012 were analyzed. Altogether, 2379 reports were evaluated, of which 673 were related to terrestrial transport accidents and 103 involved facial trauma. Three previously trained and calibrated researchers collected data using a specific form. Facial trauma occurrence rate was 15.3% (n=103). The most affected age group was 20-29 years (48.3%), and more men than women were affected (2.81:1). Motorcycles were involved in the majority of accidents resulting in facial trauma (66.3%). The occurrence of facial trauma in terrestrial transport accident victims tends to affect a greater proportion of young and male subjects, and the most prevalent accidents involve motorcycles. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Traffic accident analysis using GIS: a case study of Kyrenia City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Can; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2015-06-01

    Traffic accidents are causing major deaths in urban environments, so analyzing locations of the traffic accidents and their reasons is crucial. In this manner, patterns of accidents and hotspot distribution are analyzed by using geographic information technology. Locations of the traffic accidents in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 are combined to generate the kernel distribution map of Kyrenia City. This analysis aims to find high dense intersections and segments within the city. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation methods Local Morans I and Getis-Ord Gi are employed . The results are discussed in detail for further analysis. Finally, required changes for numerous intersections are suggested to decrease potential risks of high dense accident locations.

  13. A Brief Introduction to a Major Project--The Physical-Chemical Processes in the Lower Atmosphere and Their Interaction with the Ecological System over the Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yunfeng; Zhou Xiaogang

    2005-01-01

    With rapid industrialization and agricultural modernization in the past two decades, the Yangtze Delta Region in China has been one of the regions in the world most influenced by human activity. How has the economic development impacted on ecosystem, environment, agriculture and regional climate in this region ? What are the mechanisms of the interactive processes and feedbacks? What will be the future changes under different development scenarios? These are questions of critical importance to sustain the rate of social and economic development. A Major Project, The Physical-Chemical Processes in the Lower Atmosphere and Their Interaction with the Ecological System over Yangtze Delta,as one of the Ninth Five-Year Major Programs (1996-2000) funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC, just focused on those questions. Under the leadership of Prof. Zhou Xiuji, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences this project has made significant achievements and great progress in answering the above questions.

  14. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  15. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. © 2013.

  16. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and Odds of a Fatal Accident in Cirrus Aircraft Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaziz, Mustafa; Stolfi, Adrienne; Olson, Dean M

    2017-06-01

    General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016. Accident metrics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses regarding odds of a fatal accident and use of the parachute system. Included in the study were 268 accidents. For CAPS nondeployed accidents, 82 of 211 (38.9%) were fatal as compared to 8 of 57 (14.0%) for CAPS deployed accidents. After controlling for all other factors, the adjusted odds ratio for a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed was 13.1. The substantial increased odds of a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed demonstrated the effectiveness of CAPS at providing protection of occupants during an accident. Injuries were shifted from fatal to serious or minor with the use of CAPS and postcrash fires were significantly reduced. These results suggest that BPRS could play a significant role in the next major advance in improving GA accident survival.Alaziz M, Stolfi A, Olson DM. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):556-564.

  17. Isoform-specific modulation of the chemical sensitivity of conserved TRPA1 channel in the major honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Tropilaelaps mercedesae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaofeng; Kashio, Makiko; Peng, Guangda; Wang, Xinyue; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We identified and characterized the TRPA1 channel of Tropilaelaps mercedesae (TmTRPA1), one of two major species of honeybee ectoparasitic mite. Three TmTRPA1 isoforms with unique N-terminal sequences were activated by heat, and the isoform highly expressed in the mite's front legs, TmTRPA1b, was also activated by 27 plant-derived compounds including electrophiles. This suggests that the heat- and electrophile-dependent gating mechanisms as nocisensitive TRPA1 channel are well conserved between arthropod species. Intriguingly, one TmTRPA1 isoform, TmTRPA1a, was activated by only six compounds compared with two other isoforms, demonstrating that the N-terminal sequences are critical determinants for the chemical sensitivity. This is the first example of isoform-specific modulation of chemical sensitivity of TRPA1 channel in one species. α-terpineol showed repellent activity towards T. mercedesae in a laboratory assay and repressed T. mercedesae entry for reproduction into the brood cells with fifth instar larvae in hives. Thus, α-terpineol could be used as the potential compound to control two major honeybee ectoparasitic mites, T. mercedesae and Varroa destructor, in the apiculture industry. PMID:27307515

  18. Impact of melt migration on the evolution of major and trace element composition in a crystalline mush: Implications for chemical differentiation in the continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Solano, J.; Sparks, R. S.; Blundy, J.

    2013-12-01

    Migration of melt through a crystalline mush is common within the continental crust, occurring in magma chambers and lava flows. Mush formation and associated migration of the buoyant melt along grain boundaries is inevitable during melting of initially solid rock, or cooling and crystallisation of magma. Because there is efficient exchange of heat and mass between melt and solid phases, they remain in local thermal and chemical equilibrium. The composition of the melt therefore evolves as it migrates through the mush and, to properly capture this, models are required that include chemical reaction. However, although reactive transport models have been developed for the mantle, none have yet been presented that are applicable to the continental crust. Models developed for the mantle are not directly applicable to the crust, because the initial and boundary conditions are different. We present the first quantitative model of heat, mass and both major and trace element transport in a mush undergoing compaction which accounts for component transport and chemical reaction during melt migration and which is applicable to crustal systems. The model describes the phase behaviour of binary systems (both eutectic and solid solution), with melt and solid composition determined from phase diagrams using the local temperature and bulk composition. Trace element concentration is also determined. The results demonstrate that component transport and chemical reaction generates compositional variation in both major and trace elements that is not captured by existing geochemical models. Even for the simplest case of a homogenous, insulated column that is instantaneously melted then allowed to compact, we find that component transport and reaction leads to spatial variations in major element composition, and produces melt that is more enriched in incompatible elements than predicted by batch melting. In deep crustal hot zones (DCHZ), created by the repeated intrusion of hot, mantle

  19. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result of this study was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments were obtained from reports of tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

  20. The study of core melting phenomena in reactor severe accident of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Park, Seh In; Lim, Jae Hyuck; Park, Seong Yong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Ki Yong [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    After TMI-2 accident, it has been paid much attention to severe accidents beyond the design basis accidents and the research on the progress of severe accidents and mitigation and the closure of severe accidents has been actively performed. In particular, a great deal of uncertainties yet exist in the phase of late core melt progression and thus the research on this phase of severe accident progress has a key role in obtaining confidence in severe accident mitigation and nuclear reactor safety. In the present study, physics of late core melt progression, experimental data and the major phenomenological models of computer codes are reviewed and a direction of reducing the uncertainties in the late core melt progression is proposed.

  1. Emergency Management of Maritime Accidents in the Yangtze River: Problems, Practice and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ping Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maritime accidents have received considerable attentions due to the enormous property damage, casualties and serious environmental pollution. This paper first makes statistical analysis of the different types of maritime accidents in the period of 2012 to 2014 in the Yangtze River. Second, the problems of emergency management of maritime accidents are also proposed from the analysis of the major accident “Eastern Star”.. Afterwards, four practice cases, including decision support for maritime accidents, emergency resource allocation, emergency simulation system and effectiveness of emergency management, are introduced to present the insights gained from these practices. Last, in order to address these problems, this paper proposes that an artificial societies, Computational experiments, and Parallel execution (ACP approach should be introduced to establish an improved management system for maritime accidents in the future, and an ACP based maritime accident emergency management framework is proposed.

  2. The study of core melting phenomena in reactor severe accident of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Park, Seh In; Lim, Jae Hyuck; Park, Seong Yong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Ki Yong [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    After TMI-2 accident, it has been paid much attention to severe accidents beyond the design basis accidents and the research on the progress of severe accidents and mitigation and the closure of severe accidents has been actively performed. In particular, a great deal of uncertainties yet exist in the phase of late core melt progression and thus the research on this phase of severe accident progress has a key role in obtaining confidence in severe accident mitigation and nuclear reactor safety. In the present study, physics of late core melt progression, experimental data and the major phenomenological models of computer codes are reviewed and a direction of reducing the uncertainties in the late core melt progression is proposed.

  3. A study on the late core melt progression in pressurized water reactor severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Jeun Gyoo Dong; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Seh In; Lim, Jae Hyuck; Park, Seong Yong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Back, Hyung Hmm [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    After TMI-2 accidents, it has been paid much attention to severe accidents beyond the design basis accidents and the research on the progress of severe accidents and mitigation and the closure of severe accidents has been actively performed. In particular, a great deal of uncertainties yet exist in the phase of late core melt progression and thus the research on this phase of severe accident progress has a key role in obtaining in severe accident mitigation and nuclear reactor safety. In the present study, physics of late core melt progression, experimental data and the major phenomenological models of computer codes are reviewed and a direction of reducing the uncertainties in the late core melt progression os proposed.

  4. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.

    1987-11-20

    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  5. Analyzing the role of climatic factors on road accidents (Case study: Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil Province, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Sadegheh Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Road accidents and their fatalities are among the currentchallenges human society facing, which in turn resulting in huge social and economiccosts on the countries. Thedeveloping countries are the biggest victims of the road accidents such that inthese countries, road accidents are considered asthe major cause of death. Unfortunately, Iran is amongthe countries in which the rate of road accidents is high. Among thedriving factors that affect road safety and transport isclimate. Ardabil-Parsab...

  6. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkins, J T; Cunningham, M A

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986.

  7. COMPOSITIONAL CHANGES OF MAJOR CHEMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    life, representing a rich heritage both for the exploration of new resources (food, medicines, energy, etc.) ... Protein concentration (expressed %) was determined by the method of. Kjeldahl [19]. .... foods and beverages of plant origin. .... manufacturers tend to increase ALA in their goods to improve the shelf life of the products.

  8. Improvement of Severe Accident Analysis Computer Code and Development of Accident Management Guidance for Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Ko Ryu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, See Darl; Song, Yong Mann; Choi, Young; Jin, Young Ho

    2005-03-15

    The objective of the project is to develop a generic severe accident management guidance(SAMG) applicable to Korean PHWR and the objective of this 3 year continued phase is to construct a base of the generic SAMG. Another objective is to improve a domestic computer code, ISAAC (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU), which still has many deficiencies to be improved in order to apply for the SAMG development. The scope and contents performed in this Phase-2 are as follows: The characteristics of major design and operation for the domestic Wolsong NPP are analyzed from the severe accident aspects. On the basis, preliminary strategies for SAM of PHWR are selected. The information needed for SAM and the methods to get that information are analyzed. Both the individual strategies applicable for accident mitigation under PHWR severe accident conditions and the technical background for those strategies are developed. A new version of ISAAC 2.0 has been developed after analyzing and modifying the existing models of ISAAC 1.0. The general SAMG applicable for PHWRs confirms severe accident management techniques for emergencies, provides the base technique to develop the plant specific SAMG by utility company and finally contributes to the public safety enhancement as a NPP safety assuring step. The ISAAC code will be used inevitably for the PSA, living PSA, severe accident analysis, SAM program development and operator training in PHWR.

  9. Risk Assessment for Natural-Hazard Impact on Hazardous Chemical Installations: Workshop Outcome Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The impact of natural hazards on hazardous installations can cause major chemical accidents. This so-called “Natech” risk is increasing due to industrialisation and climate change. Capacity building in EU Member States, Candidate Countries and EU Neighbourhood Countries on Natech risk required for Natech risk reduction. This report summarises the findings of a training workshop on risk assessment for natural-hazard impact on hazardous chemical installations which the JRC organised in the ...

  10. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC...

  11. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  12. [Practical management of CPB accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoix, J-P; Fenet, L; Provenchere, S

    2012-05-01

    Accident of CPB is a reality. It is important to be prepared for discussion with the family, with the hospital administration, eventually with the justice. But we have also to support perfusionnist and anesthetic team in charge of the patient during accident.

  13. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  14. Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Seyyed Nozadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: All over the world motorcycle accident are one of the major causes of road death and injury. This study aimed to determine the pattern of Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Mashhad-Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 to analyze the epidemiological pattern of the mo­tor­cycle accident in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Three hundred fifty cases of motorcycle accidents were included. Data gath­ering tool was a standard questionnaire. The compiled data were analyzed using SPSS11 and χ 2 test. The significance level was considered 0.05 in all statistical tests.Results: In the time span of the study, 350 cases of motorcycle accident occurred, most of which happened at 8pm to 12pm. In 119 cases, the motorcyclist was the blameful rider. Generally, 84.2% of the motorcycle riders did not have safety hel­mets. About two third of blameful motorcycle riders (63.1% were less than 25 years old. The major cause of the accidents (55.1% was due to neglecting the Yield Right of Way. Motorcycle riders endanger pedestrian, other drivers, passengers and their own life.Conclusion: Paying attention to cultural and instructional issues of correct motorcycle riding and performing appropriate monitor­ing in traffic and transportation system such as honoring our and others safety and setting limitations on using this vehi­cle by the youth is of great importance. .

  15. Chemical composition and major odor-active compounds of essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER (dried rhizome of Pinellia ternata) as crude drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Megumi; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Ono, Toshirou; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER (Japanese name: Hange), the dried rhizome of Pinellia ternata, was investigated by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. The oil obtained from Pinellia tuber was revealed the presence of 114 compounds, representing 90.6% of the total oil identified. This colorless oil had a spicy and woody odor. The main components of the oil were β-cubebene (8.8%), atractylon (7.8%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and δ-cadinene (5.3%). Fifteen major odor-active compounds were identified in the essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER by the GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among these, safrole (spicy) and β-vatirenene (woody) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor (128), followed by paeonol (FD = 64; woody, spicy), α-humulene (FD = 64; woody), and β-phenylnaphthalene (FD = 64; spicy).

  16. The Analysis and Countermeasures on Emergent Response to the Express Highway Transportation Accident of Hazardous Chemicals%高速公路危化品运输事故应急处置现状分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄少扬; 沈剑荧

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on the characteristics of express highway transportation accident of hazardous chemicals,analyzing the current status of fire forces in dealing with such incidents.Aiming at the current deficiencies,this paper puts forward a measure to improve the capacity of fire forces to deal with the highway transportation accident of hazardous chemicals,The measures are for a reference and of great practical significance for the fire forces in dealing with such incidents.%在总结高速公路危险化学品运输事故特点的基础上,对现阶段消防部队处置此类事故的现状进行了分析,并针对目前存在的不足,提出了提高消防部队高速公路危险化学品运输事故处置能力的对策,为消防部队处置此类事故提供一定的借鉴,具有十分重要的现实意义。

  17. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  18. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  19. STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ACCIDENT VICTIMS ADMITTED IN GAUHATI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocket Chandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the present scenario, road traffic accidents have become a major cause of human mortality and morbidity. Accidents are increasing at alarming rates in India. The objective of our study was to assess the socio-demographic profile of road traffic accident victims admitted in a tertiary care setting, and to assess the pattern of injuries. METHODOLOGY The present study is prospective and analytical hospital based study. RESULTS The present studies show that more than 70% of the victims are in the age group of below 45 years (n=3196 and with male preponderance. Out of 14364 accident patients visiting the emergency department of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, 4953 patients were admitted. The majorities of the patients (n=2995 were admitted in surgery department and 1586 in orthopaedic department. CONCLUSIONS Several factors are responsible for causing road accidents such as drunk driving, lack of awareness of traffic rules, nonadherence to safety measures. To reduce morbidity and mortality following road accidents, comprehensive policy has to be adopted by the government

  20. Typologie des Accidents Cyclistes

    OpenAIRE

    Amoros, Emmanuelle; BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Hours, Martine

    2015-01-01

    L'usage du vélo est en hausse en ville ; cette pratique est encouragée dans le cadre du développement durable et de la lutte contre la sédentarité. Pour accompagner cela, il faut réduire les risques d'accident, et pour ce faire, mieux les connaître. Nous utilisons le Registre des victimes de la circulation routière du Rhône, basé sur les services hospitaliers (dont les urgences) ; il est quasi-exhaustif : env. 1100 blessés à vélo/an versus 120 dans les données officielles. L'ensemble des cycl...

  1. [The antioxidant status of the seeds in populations of the great plantain (Plantago major L.) growing in an area exposed to the Balakovo Atomic Electric Power Station and to chemical enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korogodina, V L; Bamblevskiĭ, V P; Grishina, I V; Gustova, M V; Zabaluev, S A; Korogodin, V I; Kuraeva, T V; Lozovskaia, E L; Maslov, O D

    2000-01-01

    The results of the determination of radionuclide and chemical (multielement analysis) soil pollution are presented. The data on antioxidant status of plantain (Plantago major L.) in conjunction with the data on radionuclide and chemical pollution are analyzed. The most significant decrease in antioxidant activity of plant seeds was observed in areas situated along the most frequent wind direction in the region in summer 1998. It is suggested that lower antioxidant status is caused by the chronic radionuclide release on the chemically polluted territories.

  2. The Importance of Safety in Construction Sector: Costs of Occupational Accidents in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yılmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational accidents cause important social and economic problems by loss of life and physical injuries. Construction sector involves high risk due to its production processes and labor intensive characteristic and because of occupational accidents the sector brings up against financial loss in large scale. In developing countries, construction sector is one of the most important sectors that have a great contribution to economic development with its employment capacity and added-value to the economy. On the other hand, due to the lack of preventive measures, occupational accidents occur, frequently in construction in Turkey. Major occupational accidents are defined as the cause of serious injuries and a long-term disability; minor occupational accidents are defined as the cause of insignificant injuries and short-term disability. Minor occupational accidents are not considered sufficiently, they are even not kept as a record. It is known that minor occupational accidents, which are not considered sufficiently and even not registered, cause great financial loss in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cost of workforce loss caused by the accidents in construction sites by using the statistics of three construction sites in Turkey and to compare the financial losses of minor and major occupational accidents. In this study, three construction project are investigated in Turkey in 2009 and it is obtained that the cost of workday loss caused by major occupational accidents is 19431.75 $ and minor occupational accidents cause a loss of 6924.25 $. The cost of workday loss caused by minor occupational accidents are almost 35 % of major workday losses’. These costs presents the importance of preventive measures for workers’ health and safety in construction.

  3. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  4. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  5. Speciation analysis of I-127,129 in the crop field soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident with newly developed chemical separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Maki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takumi; Nagai, Hisao

    2014-05-01

    In previous study, we investigated the depth profile of the accident derived I-129 and downward migration speed in soils of near-field of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, including crop fields and man-made fields. I-129 in soil was measured by AMS and stable iodine (I-127) was measured by ICP-MS at MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator), The University of Tokyo. It was found that I-129 was concentrated near surface but distributed deeper compared with Cs-137. It was also found that I-129 seems to move downward more quickly than Cs-137. To investigate the adsorption mechanism and the elemental process of migration of the accident derived I-129 in soil, it is important to know what kind of component the I-129 combines with. Recent studies on the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), especially near edge structure (XANES), reported that the stable iodine (I-127) in soil existed as an organic component. However, it had not yet been proved that it was also the case with the accident derived I-129 because it had been incorporated in the soil system only recently and the abundance of I-129 in soil was more than 8 orders of magnitude smaller than sub-ppm level stable iodine (I-127). In this study a progressive sequential extraction method including the dialysis and the dynamic headspace method was newly developed to obtain only the iodine sticking to the soil organic component. The stable iodine can be quantified by direct analysis of the fraction and I-129 can be quantified by AMS method of the fraction added with carrier. The fraction of the organic component for I-127 and I-129 can be evaluated respectively by comparing with the other fraction and/or with the total concentration obtained by the bulk analysis (e.g. by the pyrohydrolysis).

  6. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  7. Law no 2002-3 from January 3, 2002 relative to the safety of transportation systems, to the technical inquiries after sea event, accident or incident during terrestrial or aerial transport, and to the underground storage of natural gas, hydrocarbons and chemical products; Loi no 2002-3 du 3 janvier 2002 relative a la securite des infrastructures et systemes de transport, aux enquetes techniques apres evenement de mer, accident ou incident de transport terrestre ou aerien et au stockage souterrain de gaz naturel, d'hydrocarbures et produits chimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This legislative text comprises 3 parts. The first part concerns the general safety of roadway, railway, airport, harbour and of any other infrastructure involved in the terrestrial, aerial, maritime or fluvial transport of goods or people in the French territory. The second part treats of the security of underground storage facilities for natural gas, hydrocarbons and other chemical products (obligations, rights-of-way). The last part deals with the carrying out of technical inquiries after any accident relative to a terrestrial, aerial or maritime transport. (J.S.)

  8. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident. PMID:23012183

  10. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  11. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  12. Curve Estimation of Number of People Killed in Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhan Akalin, Kadir; Karacasu, Murat; Altin, Arzu Yavuz; Ergül, Bariş

    2016-10-01

    One or more than one vehicle in motion on the highway involving death, injury and loss events which have resulted are called accidents. As a result of increasing population and traffic density, traffic accidents continue to increase and this leads to both human losses and harm to the economy. In addition, also leads to social problems. As a result of increasing population and traffic density, traffic accidents continue to increase and this leads to both human losses and harm to the economy. In addition to this, it also leads to social problems. As a result of traffic accidents, millions of people die year by year. A great majority of these accidents occur in developing countries. One of the most important tasks of transportation engineers is to reduce traffic accidents by creating a specific system. For that reason, statistical information about traffic accidents which occur in the past years should be organized by versed people. Factors affecting the traffic accidents are analyzed in various ways. In this study, modelling the number of people killed in traffic accidents in Turkey is determined. The dead people were modelled using curve fitting method with the number of people killed in traffic accidents in Turkey dataset between 1990 and 2014. It was also predicted the number of dead people by using various models for the future. It is decided that linear model is suitable for the estimates.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnoea, motor vehicle accidents, and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows a very high prevalence in the middle-age work force population and, between all diseases and medical conditions, is the major risk factor for motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). OSA can be diagnosed and treated, with resultant reduction in MVAs to those seen in the healthy population. It is increasing evidence that it is a major risk factor for occupational accidents also in fields different from the professional transport and for work disability. It is likely that the treatment of OSA results in the reduction of occupational accidents and work performance improvement with expected benefits in work processes and business in general. It is therefore advisable to develop strategies for screening and treatment of OSA in workers. The risk assessment of OSA in workers may also help to reduce the burden on national health care systems.

  14. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  15. Guidelines for accident prevention and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1993-05-01

    This report reviews recent developments in the guidelines on chemical accident prevention, risk assessment, and management of chemical emergencies, principally in the United States and Europe, and discusses aspects of their application to developing countries. Such guidelines are either in the form of laws or regulations promulgated by governments, or of recommendations from international, professional, or non governmental organizations. In many cases, these guidelines specify lists of materials of concern and methods for evaluating safe usage of these materials and recommend areas of responsibility for different organizations; procedures to be included in planning, evaluation, and response; and appropriate levels of training for different classes of workers. Guidelines frequently address the right of communities to be informed of potential hazards and address ways for them to participate in planning and decision making.

  16. Assessment of the thermal-hydraulic technology of the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident in a LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.A.; Ginsberg, T.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    The technology of thermal hydraulic aspects of the transition phase accident sequence in liquid metal fast breeder reactors has been reviewed. Previous analyses of the transition phase accident sequence have been reviewed and the current understanding of major thermal hydraulic phenomenology has been assessed. As a result of the foregoing, together with a scoping analysis of the transition phase accident sequence, major transition phase issues have been defined and research needs have been identified. The major conclusion of transition phase scoping analysis is that fuel dispersal cannot be relied upon to rule out the possibility of recriticalities during this stage of the accident.

  17. Truck Drivers' Experiences and Perspectives Regarding Factors Influencing Traffic Accidents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Traffic accidents are a major public health problem, leading to death and disability. Although pertinent studies have been conducted, little data are available in Iran. This study explored the experiences of truck drivers and their perspectives regarding factors contributing to traffic accidents. Eighteen truck drivers, purposively sampled, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. A main theme, lack of ability to control stress, emerged as a factor influencing the incidence of traffic accidents. This main theme was found to have three subthemes: poor organization of the job, lack of workplace facilities and proper equipment, and unsupportive environment. Although several factors were found to contribute to traffic accidents, their effects were not independent, and all were considered significant. Identifying factors that contribute to traffic accidents requires a systematic and holistic approach. Findings could be used by the transportation industry and community health centers to prevent traffic accidents. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet

    2010-01-01

    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... and association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear...... importance of input and intermediate neurons, and the relative importance of hundreds of association rules. Further research should investigate whether limiting the analysis to fatal accidents would simplify the task of data mining techniques in recognizing accident patterns without the “noise” probably...

  19. Prediction of hydrogen concentration in containment during severe accidents using fuzzy neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Kim, Ju Hyun; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Recently, severe accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have become a global concern. The aim of this paper is to predict the hydrogen buildup within containment resulting from severe accidents. The prediction was based on NPPs of an optimized power reactor 1,000. The increase in the hydrogen concentration in severe accidents is one of the major factors that threaten the integrity of the containment. A method using a fuzzy neural network (FNN) was applied to predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment. The FNN model was developed and verified based on simulation data acquired by simulating MAAP4 code for optimized power reactor 1,000. The FNN model is expected to assist operators to prevent a hydrogen explosion in severe accident situations and manage the accident properly because they are able to predict the changes in the trend of hydrogen concentration at the beginning of real accidents by using the developed FNN model.

  20. The chemical composition of nearby young associations: s-process element abundances in AB Doradus, Carina-Near, and Ursa Major

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Desidera, Silvano; Covino, Elvira; Andrievsky, Sergei M; Gratton, Raffaele G

    2012-01-01

    Recently, several studies have shown that young, open clusters are characterised by a considerable over-abundance in their barium content. In particular, D'Orazi et al. (2009) reported that in some younger clusters [Ba/Fe] can reach values as high as ~0.6 dex. The work also identified the presence of an anti-correlation between [Ba/Fe] and cluster age. For clusters in the age range ~4.5 Gyr-500 Myr, this is best explained by assuming a higher contribution from low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars to the Galactic chemical enrichment. The purpose of this work is to investigate the ubiquity of the barium over-abundance in young stellar clusters. We analysed high-resolution spectroscopic data, focusing on the s-process elemental abundance for three nearby young associations, i.e. AB Doradus, Carina-Near, and Ursa Major. The clusters have been chosen such that their age spread would complement the D'Orazi et al. (2009) study. We find that while the s-process elements Y, Zr, La, and Ce exhibit solar ratios in all...

  1. Fatigue: a major cause of commercial livestock truck accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Woods

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The author outlines the principles underlying the standards employed by the Australian Marine Safety Authority to regulate live animal carriers, vessels used for sea transport of livestock, that operate from Australia. The standards are contained in regulations adopted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority known as Marine Orders. The Cargo and Cargo Handling — Livestock Marine Order has evolved over time with subsequent ‘issues’ of the order as a consequence of operational experience and specific research. Recent changes have focused on the need to have adequate redundancy in systems and equipment of ships. A history of the development of these regulations is given and is followed by a description of the principles employed to develop the provisions contained in the regulations.

  2. A resilience engineering approach to assess major accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how the principles of Resilience Engineering can be used to make a risk assessment of an Integrated Operations (IO) scenario. It refers to the case study provided in Chapter 12.......This chapter describes how the principles of Resilience Engineering can be used to make a risk assessment of an Integrated Operations (IO) scenario. It refers to the case study provided in Chapter 12....

  3. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Payne, A.C.; Breeding, R.J.; Gorham, E.D.; Brown, T.D.; Rightley, G.S.; Gregory, J.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Murfin, W. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Amos, C.N. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-04-01

    This report records part of the vast amount of information received during the expert judgment elicitation process that took place in support of the NUREG-1150 effort sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The results of the Containment Loads and Molten Core/Containment Interaction Expert Panel Elicitation are presented in this part of Volume 2 of NUREG/CR-4551. The Containment Loads Expert Panel considered seven issues: (1) hydrogen phenomena at Grand Gulf; (2) hydrogen burn at vessel breach at Sequoyah; (3) BWR reactor building failure due to hydrogen; (4) Grand Gulf containment loads at vessel breach; (5) pressure increment in the Sequoyah containment at vessel breach; (6) loads at vessel breach: Surry; and (7) pressure increment in the Zion containment at vessel breach. The report begins with a brief discussion of the methods used to elicit the information from the experts. The information for each issue is then presented in five sections: (1) a brief definition of the issue, (2) a brief summary of the technical rationale supporting the distributions developed by each of the experts, (3) a brief description of the operations that the project staff performed on the raw elicitation results in order to aggregate the distributions, (4) the aggregated distributions, and (5) the individual expert elicitation summaries. The Molten Core/Containment Interaction Panel considered three issues. The results of the following two of these issues are presented in this document: (1) Peach Bottom drywell shell meltthrough; and (2) Grand Gulf pedestal erosion. 89 figs., 154 tabs.

  4. A resilience engineering approach to assess major accident risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how the principles of Resilience Engineering can be used to make a risk assessment of an Integrated Operations (IO) scenario. It refers to the case study provided in Chapter 12....

  5. Analysis on the severe accidents in KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Jae; Cheong, Y. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Cheon, E. J. [PlaGen, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-15

    The establishment of regulatory and approval systems for KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been demanded as the facility is targeted to be completed in the year of 2005. Such establishment can be achieved by performing adequate and in-depth analyses on safety issues covering radiological and chemical hazard materials, radiation protection, high vacuum, very low temperature, etc. The loss of coolant accidents and the loss of vacuum accident in fusion facilities have been introduced with summary of simulation results that were previously reported for ITER and JET. Computer codes that are actively used for accident simulation research are examined and their main features are briefly described. It can be stated that the safety analysis is indispensable to secure the safety of workers and individual members of the public as well as to establish the regulatory and approval systems for KSTAR tokamak.

  6. The red mud accident in Ajka (Hungary): characterization and potential health effects of fugitive dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelencsér, András; Kováts, Nóra; Turóczi, Beatrix; Rostási, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Imre, Kornélia; Nyirő-Kósa, Ilona; Csákberényi-Malasics, Dorottya; Tóth, Ádám; Czitrovszky, Aladár; Nagy, Attila; Nagy, Szabolcs; Ács, András; Kovács, Anikó; Ferincz, Árpád; Hartyáni, Zsuzsanna; Pósfai, Mihály

    2011-02-15

    As a result of a tragic industrial accident, a highly alkaline red mud sludge inundated settlements and agricultural areas near Ajka, Hungary on October 4, 2010. One of the major concerns about the aftermaths of the accident is the potential health effects of vast amounts of fugitive dust from red mud sediment. Thus, we studied the chemical and physical properties of particles of red mud and its respirable fugitive dust, and performed toxicity measurements. Under unfavorable meteorological conditions dry red mud sediment could emit very high amounts of respirable alkaline particles into the air. The number size distribution of fugitive dust peaks above 1 μm aerodynamic diameter; therefore, its inhalation is unlikely to affect the deep regions of the lungs. No significant mineralogical or elemental fractionation was observed between the sediment and dust, with the major minerals being hematite, cancrinite, calcite, and hydrogarnet. Although the high resuspension potential and alkalinity might pose some problems such as the irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes, based on its size distribution and composition red mud dust appears to be less hazardous to human health than urban particulate matter.

  7. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  8. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  9. [Accidents of fulguration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

    1976-01-01

    Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous

  10. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  11. Compilation and response key points of emergency plan for dangerous chemical poisoning accident attention and response points%危险化学品中毒事故应急预案编制与响应关注要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢娟娟

    2011-01-01

    大工业的发展导致各类职业中毒事件的发生日益严重,除人员伤亡等影响外,也会对于社会公众安全带来影响.应急预案编制中强调应急准备的重要性和针对性.职业危害事故识别和分类分级处理以及对于社会公共安全影响的危机处理能力是应急工作中应该关注的重要内容.应急响应中强调第一目击者的处理能力的培养、现场的实时监测、事故报告与事态演变的持续预警、有效应急资源应对危机处理的能力.%The development of great industry lead to the occurrence of all kinds of occupational poisoning event, in addition to the increasingly serious casualties, the social public security will also be affected. Emergency plancom-pilation stressed in the the importance and relevance of emergency preparedness. Occupational hazard accidents I-dentification, classification and grading disposal, and the ability of handling crisis for public safety influence were the important content that should be focused on in emergency work. Emergency response stressed in the training of first witnesses processing ability that should be focused on in emergency work, on-site real-time monitoring, the accident report and the early warning of evolution, and the ability to effectively deal with crisis disposal of emergency resources.

  12. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  13. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  14. Metabolic and endocrine modulation of anabolic and catabolic pathways of glucose and fatty acids. I. Chemical anatomy of the major metabolic pathways of the energogenic general function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloiu, D D; Belloiu, I

    1986-01-01

    This study is an attempt to integrate the intermediary metabolism of energogenic substrates--glucose and fatty acids--within the framework of the energogenic general function (EGF), which is active in two distinct phases: anabolic and catabolic. EGF is a component of the metabolic general function (MGF), which together with the reproductive general function and the adaptation general function may be taken to represent three main "general functions of organisms" common to all beings, whether animal or vegetal. This initial paper presents, descriptively and graphically, the main anabolic functions and pathways of glucose and fatty acids and, separately, the main catabolic ones, in other words, the "chemical anatomy" of EGF. The study begins with the anabolic "digestive" function of the digestive tract, concerning the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and proteins. Conversion of the non-absorbable macromolecules of ingested carbohydrates into absorbable micromolecules of glucose, is shown to enable the latter, after absorption, to carry out the two characteristic anabolic processes: transmembrane "transport" and "condensation". Absorption and vehiculation of hydrophobic lipids is carried out by means of the major function of intestinal cells: synthesis of chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are hydrophilic special lipoprotein particles which are able to transport fats to the adipose tissue and cholesterol to the liver. In the liver the anabolic aspects of EGF are represented by two main functions: glycogeno-genesis, i.e. "non-reductive" condensation of glucose into glycogen stores, and lipoproteino-genesis, i.e. "reductive" condensation of glucose into lipoproteins or VLDL (very low density lipoproteins). VLDL are hydrophilic (vehiculable) spheric particles (containing triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters in their core, and phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B at their surface), which are to be released into the general circulation. The anabolic phase in

  15. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and pa

  16. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents

  17. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents 

  18. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  19. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  20. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry.

  1. Environmental Aftermath of the Radiation Accident at Tomsk-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiriev, Boris N.; Porfiriev, Boris N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident’s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed.

  2. [Psychological support for road accident participants: the program implementation outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuczewska-Wośko, Aleksandra; Biłyj, Dorota; Tomczyk, Jarosław

    2009-01-01

    Road accident belongs to one of the categories of traumatic events, and can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The most common psychological consequences of road traffic accidents are the emotional disorders, cognitive deficits (disorders concentration of attention and memory function), impaired social relationships, troubles with performing work duties and physical symp-toms of stress. The article discusses the program of psychological support given to the participants of road accidents, conducted in Wroclaw, its theoretical assumptions and the mode of its implementation. Basic theoretical assumptions of the program are inter alia based on the theories of H. Selye and R. Lazarus. The authors of this article also refer to the so-called therapeutic process of education designed by Everly and Rosenfeld, who recommend that the process of developing self-responsibility be used for therapeutic purposes. This requires clarifying the exact nature of the problem, and then looking for possible remedies. The program is open to all road accident participants (victims, perpetrators, witnesses) and their families. Classes are designed to combine theory (lectures) and practice (exercises). Anxiety and cognitive processes, as well as relaxation training, interpersonal training (eg, assertiveness) and kinesiology are the major areas of activities. Psychological support provided for road accident participants is of intervention--and preventive nature; intervention, as it relates to the consequences ofa specific stressogenic event, namely a road accident; preventive, as it serves the overriding purpose--the improvement of road safety. This article presents the main findings of the program, the results of the survey evaluation, and proposals to develop psychological operations aimed at the road accidents participants.

  3. Development of MAAP5.0.3 Spent Fuel Pool Model for Severe Accident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    After the Fukushima accident, the severe accident phenomena in the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) have been the great issues in the nuclear industry. Generally, during full power operation status, the decay heat of the spent fuel in the SFP is not high enough to cause the severe accident that is the say, the melting of fuel and fuel rack. In addition to this, the SFP of the PWR is not isolated within the containment like the SFP of the old BWR plant, there are so many possible measures to prevent and mitigate severe accidents in the SFP. On the other hand, in the low power shutdown status (fuel refueling), all the core is transferred into the SFP during the refueling period. At this period, if some accidents happen such as the loss of SFP cooling and the failure of SFP integrity then the accidents may be developed into severe accident because the decay heat is high enough. So, the analysis of severe accidents in the SFP during low power shutdown state is greatly affected to the establishment of the major strategies in the severe accident management guideline (SAMG). However, the status of the domestic technical background for those analyses is very weak. it is known that the decay heat of the spent fuel in the SFP is not high enough to cause the severe accident qualitatively. However, there are some possibilities that can cause the severe accidents in the SFP if the loss of SFP cooling and integrity happens simultaneously. The severe accident phenomena in SFP themselves are not much different from those in the containment. However, since the structure of SFP cannot be isolated during the accidents like the containment, the consequence can be extremely significant. So, in terms of the establishment of the severe accident management strategy, it is necessary that the quantitative analysis for the severe accident progression in the SFP should be performed. In this study, the general behavior which can be appeared during the severe accidents in the SFP was analyzed using the

  4. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  5. Hindsight Bias in Cause Analysis of Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsuo Murata; Yasunari Matsushita

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that hindsight becomes an obstacle to the objective investigation of an accident, and that the proper countermeasures for the prevention of such an accident is impossible if we view the accident with hindsight. Therefore, it is important for organizational managers to prevent hindsight from occurring so that hindsight does not hinder objective and proper measures to be taken and this does not lead to a serious accident. In this study, a basic phenomenon potentially related to accidents, that is, hindsight was taken up, and an attempt was made to explore the phenomenon in order to get basically insights into the prevention of accidents caused by such a cognitive bias.

  6. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  7. Comparison of Management Oversight and Risk Tree and Tripod-Beta in Excavation Accident Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadfam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process. Objectives One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries. Materials and Methods MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one. Results The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis.

  8. An analysis on the severe accident progression with operator recovery actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, T.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, J.H., E-mail: dosa@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.W.; Kim, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Severe accident progression for the station blackout and SBLOCA accident. • Analyses on APR1400 using MELCOR. • Operator recovery actions for decay heat removal and inventory make up. • Determine the time allowed for the operator to prevent reactor vessel failure. • Insight for the operator recovery actions for the severe accident management. - Abstract: Analyses on the severe accident progressions for the station blackout (SBO) accident and small break LOCA (SBLOCA) initiated severe accident were performed for APR1400 by using MELCOR computer code. Operator recovery actions for decay heat removal and inventory make up using a depressurization system and safety injection pump were simulated in parallel with a simulation of the severe accident progression. Sensitivity studies on the operator actions were performed to investigate the changes in the timing of the reactor vessel failure and to determine the time allowed for the operator to prevent reactor vessel failure. Sensitivity analyses on the effect of major modeling parameters were performed additionally to quantify the uncertainties in timing. It is found that the operator has about 2 h for the recovery actions after the indication of core damage by the signal of core exit thermocouple (CET) for the SBLOCA initiated severe accident, while the operator has to take immediate actions after the indication of core damage by CET for the SBO accident.

  9. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents During 1993-2012 Based on Aircraft Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2015-01-01

    Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.

  10. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  11. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  12. Bathtub immersion accidents involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J

    1977-02-12

    A review of 19 consecutive serious bathtub immersion accidents (11 survivals, 8 fatalities) is presented. In all instances, consciousness was lost in the water. Unlike other childhood accidents which usually show a male predominance, the sexes are equally affected. The modal age is 11 months. Six separate causes of bath drownings and near-drownings have been identified, and in 14 of the 19 accidents, two or more causes were operating concurrently. Median estimated immersion time for survivals was four minutes, and five minutes for fatalities. The median depth of water was eight inches. An 'at risk' profile for home bathtub drownings is presented; this includes the youngest or second youngest child of a large family, a family of grade 4 to 7 sociooccupational status (congalton) and a family in which routine is temporarily broken.

  13. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  14. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  15. Porosity effects during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazares R, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Posgrado en Energia y Medio Ambiente, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Espinosa P, G.; Vazquez R, A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this work is to study the behaviour of porosity effects on the temporal evolution of the distributions of hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly where a stream of steam is flowing. The analysis considers the fuel element without mitigation effects. The mass transfer phenomenon considers that the hydrogen generated diffuses in the steam by convection and diffusion. Oxidation of the cladding, rods and other components in the core constructed in zirconium base alloy by steam is a critical issue in LWR accident producing severe core damage. The oxygen consumed by the zirconium is supplied by the up flow of steam from the water pool below the uncovered core, supplemented in the case of PWR by gas recirculation from the cooler outer regions of the core to hotter zones. Fuel rod cladding oxidation is then one of the key phenomena influencing the core behavior under high-temperature accident conditions. The chemical reaction of oxidation is highly exothermic, which determines the hydrogen rate generation and the cladding brittleness and degradation. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model. The Boussinesq approximation was applied in the momentum equations for multicomponent flow analysis that considers natural convection due to buoyancy forces, which is related with thermal and hydrogen concentration effects. The numerical simulation was carried out in an averaging channel that represents a core reactor with the fuel rod with its gap and cladding and cooling steam of a BWR. (Author)

  16. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort...... is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A significantly better designed, maintained, and illuminated road network would most likely help. However......, that is expensive and not possible for most road authorities. Despite this, the challenges with NMRUs in single accidents need more attention, if road safety is to be improved. The situation in Denmark is more than likely the case in many other countries as well; although the documentation is scarce....

  17. Multiscale Multiphysics Developments for Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yu, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, X. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andersson, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patra, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wen, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tome, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baskes, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanek, C. R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miao, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hofman, G. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, A. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, W. [ANATECH Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    U3Si2 and iron-chromium-aluminum (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys are two of many proposed accident-tolerant fuel concepts for the fuel and cladding, respectively. The behavior of these materials under normal operating and accident reactor conditions is not well known. As part of the Department of Energy’s Accident Tolerant Fuel High Impact Problem program significant work has been conducted to investigate the U3Si2 and FeCrAl behavior under reactor conditions. This report presents the multiscale and multiphysics effort completed in fiscal year 2015. The report is split into four major categories including Density Functional Theory Developments, Molecular Dynamics Developments, Mesoscale Developments, and Engineering Scale Developments. The work shown here is a compilation of a collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Anatech Corp.

  18. Analysis of traffic accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlekić Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Violent health damages of different origin (accidents, murders, suicides in children and youth are one of the main causes of death and disabilities in this group of population in most countries. Objective: Objective of our paper was to analyze all related factors of traffic accidents involving children and to propose adequate measures of their prevention. Method: The analysis of fatal traffic accidents of children and youth aged to 18 years on the territory of Belgrade, within the period from 1998 to 2002. Results: In relation to other forms of violent death, the traffic mortality rate in children and youth holds the leading position, accounting for 56.9% with pedestrians as the most frequent category (57.4%. The most frequent age was between 7 and 9 years (46.8% and the boys were more frequently injured than the girls. It was established that the majority of children (51.9% was either running across the street outside the pedestrian/ zebra crossings or they were carelessly running out in the street, especially in April, July, August and September. More than a half of them (55.5%, predominantly school children, were injured by the end of working week, on Thursday and Friday. Conclusion: Results of our research have shown that the traffic education of children in our region is inadequate. Due to the abovementioned, it is primarily necessary to establish long-term and permanent education of this category of population. In addition, some public investments in the City infrastructure will be required in order to reduce the risk of traffic injuries in children.

  19. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterov A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

  1. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  2. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  3. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  4. Organic chemistry and radiochemistry: study of chemical interactions between iodine and paint of French nuclear reactor in a severe accident situation; Chimie organique et radiochimie. Etude des interactions chimiques iode-peinture dans un reacteur nucleaire (de type R.E.P.) en situation d'accident grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aujollet, Y. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-01-01

    In Phebus (French in pile facility; PWR scale 1/5000) experiments, performed by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, few quantities of organic iodides were registered after interaction between iodine and reactor containment paint. This study concerns all mechanisms of chemical reactions between iodine and the polymer of the paint in order to estimate the organic iodides released from the paint. At first, all the paint components had been identified. Several models of chemical sites of the polymer were synthesized and tested with iodine in different conditions of temperature and radiation. These experiments showed interactions between iodine and secondary or tertiary amines by charge transfer. In few cases, the complex of tertiary amines creates oxidation reactions. (author)

  5. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  6. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...

  8. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  9. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  10. Detection and analysis of accident black spots with even small accident figures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1982-01-01

    Accident black spots are usually defined as road locations with high accident potentials. In order to detect such hazardous locations we have to know the probability of an accident for a traffic situation of some kind, or the mean number of accidents for some unit of time. In almost all procedures

  11. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  12. Reconsidering Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, Yehoshua

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to major human suffering caused by the evacuation and other counter-measures. However, the direct health consequences of the accident-related radiation exposures, besides the acute effects and small number of thyroid cancers, have not been observed. This absence is challenged by some influential groups affecting public policies who claim that the true extent of radiogenic health consequences is covered up. We consider such claims. The most conservative (in this case - overestimating) linear no-threshold hypothesis was used to calculate excess cancer expectations for cleanup workers, the population of the contaminated areas and the global population. Statistical estimations were performed to verify whether such expected excess was detectable. The calculated cancer excess for each group is much less than uncertainties in number of cancer cases in epidemiological studies. Therefore the absence of detected radiation carcinogenesis is in full correspondence with the most conservative a priori expectations. Regarding the cover-up claims, rational choice analysis was performed. Such analysis shows that these claims are ill-founded. The present overcautious attitude to radiological hazards should be corrected in order to mitigate the present suffering and to avoid such suffering in the future.

  13. Assessment of two BWR accident management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, S.A.; Petek, M.

    1991-01-01

    Candidate mitigative strategies for management of in-vessel events during the late phase (after core degradation has occurred) of postulated BWR severe accidents were considered at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during 1990. The identification of new strategies was subject to the constraint that they should, to the maximum extent possible, make use of the existing equipment and water resources of the BWR facilities and not require major equipment modifications or additions. As a result of this effort, two of these candidate strategies were recommended for additional assessment. The first is a strategy for containment flooding to maintain the core and structural debris within the reactor vessel in the event that vessel injection cannot be restored to terminate a severe accident sequence. The second strategy pertains to the opposite case, for which vessel injection would be restored after control blade melting had begun; its purpose is to provide an injection source of borated water at the concentration necessary to preclude criticality upon recovering a damaged BWR core. Assessments of these two strategies have been performed during 1991 under the auspices of the Detailed Assessment of BWR In-Vessel Strategies Program. This paper provides a discussion of the motivation for and purpose of these strategies and the potential for their success. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Penetrating eye injuries in road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B C; Morgan, L H

    1988-03-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated by the Manchester Eye Hospital over four years (1 February 1982-31 January 1986) was undertaken. One hundred and ninety-six penetrating eye injuries were seen, of which 16 (8.2%) were due to road traffic accidents. Eight patients (nine eyes) were seen in the 12 months prior to the introduction of the seat-belt legislation on 1 February 1983. None of these patients was wearing a seat-belt whereas two of the eight patients (10 eyes) seen after the seat-belt legislation were. Both these patients suffered severe visual loss due to intraocular glass from shattered windscreens. Three patients had bilateral penetrating eye injuries, one before and two after the seat-belt legislation. Two of the nine eyes involved prior to the legislation and three of the 10 eyes after the legislation had an eventual visual acuity of 6/12 or better. In the majority of patients, failure to wear seat-belts or defective use is to blame. Flying glass from shattered toughened windscreens is a preventable danger. Nine of the 16 patients were first seen in the general accident and emergency department and, of these, seven did not have visual acuities recorded prior to referral to an ophthalmologist. The importance of measurement of the visual acuity and detection of an afferent pupillary defect is stressed based on these findings.

  15. Severe Accidents in the Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Spiekerman, G.; Dones, R

    1998-11-01

    A comprehensive database on severe accidents, with main emphasis on the ones associated with the energy sector, has been established by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Fossil energy carriers, nuclear power and hydro power are covered in ENSAD (Energy related Severe Accident Database), and the scope of work includes all stages of the analysed energy chains, i.e. exploration, extraction, transports, processing, storage and waste disposal. The database has been developed using a wide variety of sources. As opposed to the previous studies the ambition of the present work has been, whenever feasible, to cover a relatively broad spectrum of damage categories of interest. This includes apart from fatalities also serious injuries, evacuations, land or water contamination, and economic losses. Currently, ENSAD covers 13,914 accidents, of which 4290 are energy related, and 1943 are considered as severe accidents. Significant effort has been directed towards the examination of the relevance of the worldwide accident records to the Swiss specific conditions, particularly in the context of nuclear and hydro power. For example, a detailed investigation of large dam failures and their consequences was carried out. Generally, while Swiss specific aspects are emphasised, the major part of the collected and analysed data, as well as the insights gained, are considered to be of general interest. In particular, three sets of the aggregated results are provided based on world wide occurrence, on OECD countries, and on non OECD countries, respectively. Significant differences exist between the aggregated, normalised damage rates assessed for the various energy carriers: On the world wide basis, the broader picture obtained by coverage of full energy chains leads to aggregated immediate fatality rates being much higher for the fossil fuels than what one would expect if power plants only were considered. The highest rates apply to LPG, followed by hydro, oil, coal, natural gas and

  16. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  17. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  18. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  19. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  20. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  1. Analysing truck position data to study roundabout accident risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kamla, Jwan Jameel Shekh Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall in most contexts, this approach has become problematic as accident ‘black spots’ have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened, but was avoided), whi...

  2. Evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among more than twenty food additives and GRAS (generally regarded as safe) compounds that were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of California peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogen...

  3. Predictive model for motorcycle accidents at three-legged priority junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnen, S; Umar, R S Radin; Wong, S V; Wan Hashim, W I

    2003-12-01

    In conjunction with a nationwide motorcycle safety program, the provision of exclusive motorcycle lanes has been implemented to overcome link-motorcycle accidents along trunk roads in Malaysia. However, not much work has been done to address accidents at junctions involving motorcycles. This article presents the development of predictive model for motorcycle accidents at three-legged major-minor priority junctions of urban roads in Malaysia. The generalized linear modeling technique was used to develop the model. The final model reveals that motorcycle accidents are proportional to the power of traffic flow. An increase in nonmotorcycle and motorcycle flows entering the junctions is associated with an increase in motorcycle accidents. Nonmotorcycle flow on major roads had the highest effect on the probability of motorcycle accidents. Approach speed, lane width, number of lanes, shoulder width, and land use were found to be significant in explaining motorcycle accidents at the three-legged major-minor priority junctions. These findings should enable traffic engineers to specifically design appropriate junction treatment criteria for nonexclusive motorcycle lane facilities.

  4. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply.

  5. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet

    2010-01-01

    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... and association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear......-cut definition of the clusters and the triviality of the description of the main accident characteristics. Results also show that prediction techniques present problems with respect to the large number of rules produced by decision trees, the interpretation of neural network results in terms of relative...

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Starch from Major Legume Species in Gansu%甘肃主要杂豆淀粉理化特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭神旺; 王充; 单玉琳; 罗勤贵; 张国权

    2012-01-01

    In this work,physical and chemical properties of starches extracted by wet-grinding method from four major species of legume in Gansu province including pea(Pisum sativum L.),colored pea(Pisum sativum L.),white bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.),Lathyrum hirsativa(Lathyrus sativus L.) were analyzed and compared with those of corn,potato and mung bean starches.Starch granules from these legume species under investigation were kidney-shaped with obvious birefringence in X-shape and cross-shape.Meanwhile,some starch granules revealed obvious umbilical points.The average size of starch particles was 21 — 29 μ m,and Lathyrum hirsativa starch particles revealed the largest size,but colored pea revealed the smallest size.The crystal type of legume starch granules was type C,so was mung bean starch.Compared with corn starch and potato starch,the contents of amylose in starches from the four legume species showed a considerable increase,and were ranked in descending order as follows: colored pea starch,white bean starch,pea starch and Lathyrum hirsativa starch.These legume starches displayed increases in swelling capacity and solubility with increasing temperature,which belonged to restricted type expansion starch.Their starting pasting temperature varied in the range of 72.6 — 78.8 ℃.Moreover,good hot paste and cold paste stability and high paste transparency were observed,while the retrogradation rate was fast and the freeze-thaw stability was poor.In conclusion,the properties of these legume starches were similar to those of mung bean starch.The legume starches tested in this study could tolerate heat treatment,but was not suitable for the production of frozen foods.%以甘肃产三角豌豆、白豌豆、小白芸豆、麻豌豆为材料,采用湿磨法提取淀粉,以玉米、马铃薯及绿豆淀粉为对照,对杂豆淀粉的理化特性进行分析。结果表明:参试杂豆淀粉颗粒多呈卵圆形,偏光十字较明显,多呈"X"形和斜十字形,部分

  7. Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danon Clemes Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for

  8. Review of global menace of road accidents with special reference to malaysia- a social perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, Abdul

    2003-07-01

    Road accident is 'a global tragedy' with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23-34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families.

  9. [Hanggliding accidents. Distribution of injuries and accident analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, F T; Jakob, R P

    1989-12-01

    Paragliding--a relatively new sport to Switzerland--brought 23 patients with 48 injuries (38% lower limb and 29% spinal) within a period of 8 months to the Inselspital University hospital in Berne. The aim of the study in characterizing these injuries is to formulate some guidelines towards prevention. With over 90% of accidents occurring at either take off or landing, emphasis on better training for the beginner is proposed with strict guidelines for the more experienced pilot flying in unfavourable conditions.

  10. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  11. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brügmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system.

    Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %. Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6, Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84 along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 % across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ towards the outer rim, whereas Cl

  12. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 1: Major and minor element variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project provides a comprehensive data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from Hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lacustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects - in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations - are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; the secondary enrichment of these components in fossil dentin and cement is even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ∼1%). Linear regression analysis reveals tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40% to 300%) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite trend. Fossil enamel from Hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2

  13. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  14. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  15. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    . Nevertheless, the fact is that the simpler accidents normally caused by what might be regarded as banalities occur at a much higher frequencies and with many more fatalities and invalidities than any of what are usually regarded as the most dangerous kinds of accidents. In depth analysis of national statistics...... on accidents could reveal the kind of accidents we are talking about, where they happen, to whom, how, and what can be done about them. This would require a special registration system of the events leading up to the accident. The main results for the four most frequent types of accident will be described...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  16. Concentrations of Inorganic and Organic Chemicals in Fish and Sediments from Major Tributaries of the Missouri River in North Dakota, 1989-91

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish and sediments from the Missouri River and its major tributaries in North Dakota were collected in 1989 and 1991 and analyzed for organochlorines petroleum...

  17. Learning Safety Assessment from Accidents in a University Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes how a chemical engineering department started learning from accidents during experimental work and ended up implementing an industrially inspired system for risk assessment of new and existing experimental setups as well as a system for assessing potential risk from...... the chemicals used in the experimental work. These experiences have led to recent developments which focus increasingly on the a theoretical basis for modeling and reasoning on safety as well as operational aspects within a common framework. Presently this framework is being extended with barrier concepts both...

  18. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  19. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety.

  20. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  1. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  2. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  3. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  4. Investigation of powered 2-wheeler accident involvement in urban arterials by considering real-time traffic and weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2017-04-03

    Understanding the various factors that affect accident risk is of particular concern to decision makers and researchers. The incorporation of real-time traffic and weather data constitutes a fruitful approach when analyzing accident risk. However, the vast majority of relevant research has no specific focus on vulnerable road users such as powered 2-wheelers (PTWs). Moreover, studies using data from urban roads and arterials are scarce. This study aims to add to the current knowledge by considering real-time traffic and weather data from 2 major urban arterials in the city of Athens, Greece, in order to estimate the effect of traffic, weather, and other characteristics on PTW accident involvement. Because of the high number of candidate variables, a random forest model was applied to reveal the most important variables. Then, the potentially significant variables were used as input to a Bayesian logistic regression model in order to reveal the magnitude of their effect on PTW accident involvement. The results of the analysis suggest that PTWs are more likely to be involved in multivehicle accidents than in single-vehicle accidents. It was also indicated that increased traffic flow and variations in speed have a significant influence on PTW accident involvement. On the other hand, weather characteristics were found to have no effect. The findings of this study can contribute to the understanding of accident mechanisms of PTWs and reduce PTW accident risk in urban arterials.

  5. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  6. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  7. TEMPORAL STATISTIC OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Erdogan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  8. Spinal injury resulting from car accident: Focus to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharian, Esmaeil; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Saberi, Hamid Reza; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Rejali, Mohsen; Akbari, Hossein; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat; Mohammadzadeh, Javad

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare the patterns of spinal injury in car occupants. Retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling all patients with spinal fracture after car accidents, who were admitted to hospital more than 24 h during 2004-2009. The lumbosacral spine was the most commonly involved region (64.8). Six patients had spinal cord injury (6.6%). The majority of the victims were drivers of the vehicle (86.8%) and remaining were passengers. There was a significant difference in lumbar anatomic region (P = 0.05) and place of accident (P = 0.05) in car occupants' position (P = 0.05). Car rollover was the most common mechanism of spinal fractures. There was a significant difference in lumbar anatomic region (P = 0.05), and two or more associated organ injuries (P ≤ 0.05) in car accident mechanism (P = 0.05). The chance of sustaining serious spine and associated multiple injuries in car accidents is quite high in our today's society. This may be due to the low level of standards for car manufacturing, absence or inadequacy of appropriate safety measures in cars, and poorly designed roads and problems in quality of driving to mention some reasons. Therefore, these victims are prone to significant morbidity and even mortality and need more specific prehospital supportive interventions.

  9. Accident Emergency Response And Routing Software (AERARS using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Ramachandran,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AERARS is a response and routing software for accident emergency requirement. A method has been proposed in this project for using a genetic algorithm to find the shortest route between a source and adestination. It make use of genetic algorithms ability to search the opt solution from the population helping to solve spatially addressed problem. The numbers of accident spots are plotted in ArcGISenvironment and ten major accident spots are identified. The software package is designed with closest facility estimation and shortest route generation along with other basic software facilities in Visual Basic environment. Genetic algorithm provided a great optimality to the solutions. The closest facility tool helps to estimate the nearest hospital, ambulance, police station and fire station. The shortest route estimation tool generates shortest path between a locations to the hospital or ambulance spot. The various risk zonesare assessed and more safety measures can be taken to reduce the frequency of accident. The software efficiency can be further increased by incorporating GPS and satellite technology.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ACCIDENTS RELATED TO BLASTING OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Kricak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blasting process remains a potential source of numerous environmental and safety accidents. The majority of these accidents were contributed to the flyrock and lack of blast area security. A field-scale investigation related to flyrock accident was conducted in an andesite quarry where rocks up to 50 cm in diameter were propelled almost 300 m from the center of blasting field causing extensive damages to the surrounding objects. The study revealed that accident occurred due to the existence of andesite alteration in one section of the blast field. The existence of this alteration caused a sliding of rock masses along the subsistent joint planes and thereby reduced burden for the second row of blastholes. Alterations involved small area of andesite masses that were not detected by previous geological exploration or visually observed prior to initiation of blastholes. The result of this filed investigation should have a positive impact on hazard awareness, prevention and safe blasting practices in mining and construction industries."

  11. Preliminary Assessment of the Loss of Flow Accident for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andong; Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moohoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    TRACE code have being considered as a candidate tool for SFR audit calculation for licensing review since 2012. On the basis of modeling and precalculation experience for the Demonstration Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (DSFR-600), TRACE code model for PGSFR was developed this year. In this paper, one of representing Design Base Event (DBE), Loss of Flow (LOF) accident was pre-calculated and Locked Rotor (LR) case was compared with LOF case since it could be a possible limiting case for LOF representing DBE. Sensitivity calculation for the LR case was implemented for identifying major parameters for the scenario. For the preparation of the review of licensing application for PGSFR, TRACE model for the PGSFR was developed and the loss of flow accident was precalculated. The locked pump rotor case was also calculated as a possible bounding case for the loss of flow scenario. Pre-calculation showed that the locked rotor case was similar or worst case to the loss of flow accident. Therefore, the locked rotor case should take into account in design base accident assessment of PGSFR. Sensitivity calculations for the rocked rotor case also studied for identification of unfixed design parameters influencing to estimation of inner surface temperature. Sensitivity result showed that the first temperature peak was largely influenced by reactor trip delay and second peak mostly influenced by pump coast down characteristic.

  12. Robot dispatching Scenario for Accident Condition Monitoring of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In March of 2011, unanticipated big size of tsunami attacks Fukushima NPP, this accident results in explosion of containment building. Tokyo electric power of Japan couldn't dispatch a robot for monitoring of containment inside. USA Packbot robot used for desert war in Iraq was supplied to Fukushima NPP for monitoring of high radiation area. Packbot also couldn't reach deep inside of Fukushima NPP due to short length of power cable. Japanese robot 'Queens' also failed to complete a mission due to communication problem between robot and operator. I think major reason of these robot failures is absence of robot dispatching scenario. If there was a scenario and a rehearsal for monitoring during or after accident, these unanticipated obstacles could be overcome. Robot dispatching scenario studied for accident of nuclear power plant was described herein. Study on scenario of robot dispatching is performed. Flying robot is regarded as good choice for accident monitoring. Walking robot with arm equipped is good for emergency valve close. Short time work and shift work by several robots can be a solution for high radiation area. Thin and soft cable with rolling reel can be a good solution for long time work and good communication.

  13. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  14. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  15. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  16. Accidents and undetermined deaths: re-evaluation of nationwide samples from the Scandinavian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøllefsen, Ingvild Maria; Thiblin, Ingemar; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Hem, Erlend; Kastrup, Marianne; Nyberg, Ullakarin; Rogde, Sidsel; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Østevold, Gunvor; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2016-05-27

    National mortality statistics should be comparable between countries that use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases. Distinguishing between manners of death, especially suicides and accidents, is a challenge. Knowledge about accidents is important in prevention of both accidents and suicides. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of classifying deaths as accidents and undetermined manner of deaths in the three Scandinavian countries and to compare cross-national differences. The cause of death registers in Norway, Sweden and Denmark provided data from 2008 for samples of 600 deaths from each country, of which 200 were registered as suicides, 200 as accidents or undetermined manner of deaths and 200 as natural deaths. The information given to the eight experts was identical to the information used by the Cause of Death Register. This included death certificates, and if available external post-mortem examinations, forensic autopsy reports and police reports. In total, 69 % (Sweden and Norway) and 78 % (Denmark) of deaths registered in the official mortality statistics as accidents were confirmed by the experts. In the majority of the cases where disagreement was seen, the experts reclassified accidents to undetermined manner of death, in 26, 25 and 19 % of cases, respectively. Few cases were reclassified as suicides or natural deaths. Among the extracted accidents, the experts agreed least with the official mortality statistics concerning drowning and poisoning accidents. They also reported most uncertainty in these categories of accidents. In a second re-evaluation, where more information was made available, the Norwegian psychiatrist and forensic pathologist increased their agreement with the official mortality statistics from 76 to 87 %, and from 85 to 88 %, respectively, regarding the Norwegian and Swedish datasets. Among the extracted undetermined deaths in the Swedish dataset, the two experts

  17. Delayed Recognition of Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Compression Fractures in Minor Accident Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hatgis, Jesse; Granville, Michelle; Jacobson, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) in the elderly are commonly diagnosed after a minor fall or trauma; however, the majority of these patients have either been previously evaluated for osteoporosis or are already under some form of medical treatment for osteoporosis at the time of the fall.?Although accidents are a known cause of VCFs, these fractures are too often undiagnosed. In reviewing a group of patients seen after minor falls or automobile accidents?who were?complainin...

  18. SARNET: Severe accident research network of excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, T.; Van Dorsselaere, J. P. [IRSN, DPAM, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Chaumont, B. [IRSN, DSR, SAGR, F-92262 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Haste, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst, NES, LTH, OVGA 312, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Journeau, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, DEN, STRI, LMA, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Meyer, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sehgal, Bal Raj [KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Schwinges, Bernd [Gesell Anlagen and Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, D-50667 Cologne (Germany); Beraha, D. [GRS mbH, Forschungsgelande, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Annunziato, A. [Commiss European Communities, JRC, IPSC, I-21020 Ispra, VA (Italy); Zeyen, R. [Commiss European Communities, JRC IE, IRSN DPAM DIR, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    Fifty-one organisations network in SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network of Excellence) their research capacities in order to resolve the most important pending issues for enhancing, with regard to Severe Accidents (SA), the safety of existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). This project. co-funded by the European Commission (EC) under the 6. Framework Programme, has been defined in order to optimise the use of the available means and to constitute sustainable research groups in the European Union. SARNET tackles the fragmentation that may exist between the different national R and D programmes, in defining common research programmes and developing common computer tools and methodologies for safety assessment. SARNET comprises most of the organisations involved in SA research in Europe, plus Canada. To reach these objectives, all the organisations networked in SARNET contributed to a joint Programme of Activities, which consisted of: Implementation of an advanced communication tool for accessing all project information, fostering exchange of information, and managing documents; Harmonization and re-orientation of the research programmes, and definition of new ones; Analysis of the experimental results provided by research programmes in order to elaborate a common understanding of relevant phenomena; Development of the ASTEC code (integral computer code used to predict the NPP behaviour during a postulated SA), which capitalizes in terms of physical models the knowledge produced within SARNET; Development of Scientific Databases in which all the results of research programmes are stored in a common format (DATANET); Development of a common methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment of NPPs; Development of short courses and writing a textbook on Severe Accidents for students and researchers; Promotion of personnel mobility amongst various European organisations. This paper presents the major achievements after four and a half years of operation of the

  19. Quantifying the risk of extreme aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kumer Pial; Dey, Asim Kumer

    2016-12-01

    Air travel is considered a safe means of transportation. But when aviation accidents do occur they often result in fatalities. Fortunately, the most extreme accidents occur rarely. However, 2014 was the deadliest year in the past decade causing 111 plane crashes, and among them worst four crashes cause 298, 239, 162 and 116 deaths. In this study, we want to assess the risk of the catastrophic aviation accidents by studying historical aviation accidents. Applying a generalized Pareto model we predict the maximum fatalities from an aviation accident in future. The fitted model is compared with some of its competitive models. The uncertainty in the inferences are quantified using simulated aviation accident series, generated by bootstrap resampling and Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Comparative study on composition and abundance of major planktons and physico-chemical characteristics among two ponds and Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondie Zelalem Amanu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the difference in physico-chemical characteristics, composition and abundance of plankton communities owing to the supplementary feed added in fish ponds as compared to Lake Tana. Methods:Physico-chemical and biological data of plankton were collected from 3 studied sites from November 2008 to October 2009. Data were compared using One-wayANOVA to see the difference among sites. Diversity indices such as Margalef's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and evenness index were employed to describe the distribution of plankton community among the studied sites. Results:ThepH value was remarkably higher in ponds water. However, conductivity and total dissolved solids were the highest in lake water. Nitrate concentration was relatively high in ponds. Zooplankton species richness was higher in lake water than ponds. The lake also had the highest mean value of both Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index in phytoplankton. Conclusions:The results revealed that the supplementary feed added to each pond had influence on nutrient content which enhanced algal biomass and productivity of the ponds. However, the pond water has to be regularly refreshed to control eutrophication.

  1. Comparative study on composition and abundance of major planktons and physico-chemical characteristics among two ponds and Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondie Zelalem Amanu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the difference in physico-chemical characteristics, composition and abundance of plankton communities owing to the supplementary feed added in fish ponds as compared to Lake Tana. Methods: Physico-chemical and biological data of plankton were collected from 3 studied sites from November 2008 to October 2009. Data were compared using One-way ANOVA to see the difference among sites. Diversity indices such as Margalef's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and evenness index were employed to describe the distribution of plankton community among the studied sites. Results: The pH value was remarkably higher in ponds water. However, conductivity and total dissolved solids were the highest in lake water. Nitrate concentration was relatively high in ponds. Zooplankton species richness was higher in lake water than ponds. The lake also had the highest mean value of both Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index in phytoplankton. Conclusions: The results revealed that the supplementary feed added to each pond had influence on nutrient content which enhanced algal biomass and productivity of the ponds. However, the pond water has to be regularly refreshed to control eutrophication.

  2. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W H; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most c...

  3. Why Airplanes Crash: Causes of Accidents Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Oster, Clinton V.; John S. Strong; Zorn, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a detailed examination of the causes of 700 fatal aviation accidents that occurred worldwide between 1990 and 2006 in commercial passenger service. We look at both scheduled and nonscheduled and both domestic and international service. We also categorize the accident aircraft as large jets, regional and medium jets, small jets, turboprops, and piston powered aircraft. We find that the mix of causes of those accidents vary substantially across regions of...

  4. Speciation of Radiocesium and Radioiodine in Aerosols from Tsukuba after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Zhang, Luyuan; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol samples were collected from Tsukuba, Japan, soon after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident and analyzed for speciation of radiocesium and radioiodine to explore their chemical behavior and isotopic ratios after the release. Most Cs-134 and Cs-137 were bound in organic matter (53-91%) and ......Aerosol samples were collected from Tsukuba, Japan, soon after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident and analyzed for speciation of radiocesium and radioiodine to explore their chemical behavior and isotopic ratios after the release. Most Cs-134 and Cs-137 were bound in organic matter (53...

  5. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  6. Preparing for major incidents in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wachira, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, there have been 2518 major incidents in 56 countries in Africa; 113 have been in Kenya. Kenya’s major incidents profile is dominated by droughts, floods, fires, terrorism, poisoning, collapsed buildings, accidents in the transport sector and disease/epidemics. With no integrated emergency services and a lack of resources, many incidents in Kenya escalate to such an extent that they become major incidents. Lack of specific training of emergency services personnel to respond to m...

  7. Relationship between childhood hyperactivity and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, W F; Bailey, C; Wagner, A; Hardesty, V A

    1986-10-01

    Previous research suggested that hyperactive children are especially susceptible to accidents. Two questions remain: is the relationship peculiar to hyperactivity in childhood or for behaviorally disturbed children in general and does the relationship hold for females as well as for males? To answer these questions 189 patients at a child psychiatric clinic were rated on a scale which included measures of hyperactivity and accident proneness. The hyperactive patients were more likely to be described as accident prone than nonhyperactive patients. The relationship between childhood hyperactivity and accident proneness is confirmed and is specific. The relationship holds for both boys and girls.

  8. Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

    1999-09-19

    The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

  9. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  10. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  11. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  12. Accident Management in VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Auria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

  13. HTGR severe accident sequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.M.; Ball, S.J.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic, fission product transport, and atmospheric dispersion calculations are presented for hypothetical severe accident release paths at the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Off-site radiation exposures are calculated for assumed release of 100% of the 24 hour post-shutdown core xenon and krypton inventory and 5.5% of the iodine inventory. The results show conditions under which dose avoidance measures would be desirable and demonstrate the importance of specific release characteristics such as effective release height. 7 tables.

  14. [Medical peculiarities and social effects of accidents with motorcycles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, K; Fichtner, K; Schauwecker, F

    1987-12-01

    During the period 1976 until 1982, 133 accident patients with two-cycle motor vehicles were treated at the traumatological Department of the Dr. Horst Schmidt Hospital. 80% of those patients were below or 21 years of age, 58.5% were undergoing training for professional work. 23.3% had suffered severe injuries (according to the Gögler scheme), 6.8% died as a result. Six out of nine dead patients were caused by severe head injuries, five of whom did not wear protective helmets. 37.7% cover all head injuries 5% more than injuries of the lower extremities (thigh and shins). The result of these accidents causes an enormous impact on those concerned as well as on the society. 32.3% interruptions and extensions of training periods and change of training for the youth became necessary. Treatment after admissions as in-patient (for minor injuries costs ca. DM 1000, for major injuries DM 20,000) costs about DM719,368,000 excluding costs for rents and auxiliary requirements which have not been taken into consideration. The invaluation of treatment of 133 accident cases with motorcycles has resulted in the following consideration: 1. Yearly publication of motor cycle accidents and its death tolls including cost sustained or prospective costs involved. 2. Strict rules concerning covering clothing. 3. Rigorous accident theching during driving lesions. 4. Security measures and its execution enforced by law to control the construction of motorized two cycle in consideration of optical and technical performance criteria. 5. Severe criticism of advertisers in usage of words like speed, performance and freedom which influence the youth without indicating the risks of the two-cycle vehicles.

  15. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use.

  16. In vitro activity of essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Lippia gracilis and their major chemical components against Thielaviopsis paradoxa, causal agent of stem bleeding in coconut palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Rodrigues da Costa e Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Lippia sidoides, Lippia gracilis and their main chemical components were investigated for in vitro control of Thielaviopsis paradoxa. Mycelial growth and a number of pathogen conidia were inhibited by the essential oil of L. sidoides at all concentrations tested (0.2; 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 µL mL-1. L. sidoides oil contained 42.33% thymol and 4.56% carvacrol, while L. gracilis oil contained 10% thymol and 41.7% carvacrol. Mycelial growth and conidial production of T. paradoxa were completely inhibited by thymol at a 0.3 µL m-1 concentration. The results suggest that thymol could potentially be used for controlling coconut stem bleeding.

  17. Accident Prediction Models for Akure – Ondo Carriageway, Ondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Accident data on the 52km Akure-Ondo Carriageway and Spot Speed data were collected ... fatal accident and 62% non-fatal accident, However, the regression analysis ... corresponding vehicle kilometre of travel, commerce, and transportation ... of accident can provide insight into the causes that contributed to accident.

  18. Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografakis-Sfakianakis M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly

  19. An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S M; Jindal, A K; Verma, A K; Mahen, A

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. In India, more than a million are injured annually and about a lakh are killed in road traffic accidents.(1) It causes the country to lose around 55,000 crores annually which is 2-3% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP).(2) This cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the role of various factors involved in road traffic accidents. Road traffic accident cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 01 Oct 2009 and 28 Feb 2011 were included in the study. A total of 182 patients were studied. Information was collected through questionnaire, hospital records and on-site visit. OPD cases, comatose patients and deaths were excluded. Two-wheelers were the commonest vehicle involved in vehicular accidents. Most accidents happened at a speed of 40-60 km/h (37.9%). Most of the patients were aged between 20 and 30 years. Majority had a driving experience of less than 5 years. Monsoons witnessed 46.7% cases. Most cases occurred between 6 and 10 pm. Among severe injuries, the commonest was lower limb fractures (19.8%). There are multiple factors associated with road traffic accidents which due to the lack of road safety measures in the country are playing their role. It is the need of the hour to address this issue and formulate comprehensive, scientific and practical rules and regulations as well as evaluate its enforcement.

  20. Early diagenesis in a reducing fjord, Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. I. Chemical and isotopic changes in major components of interstitial water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Presley, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    Water and interstitial water from the reducing fjord of Saanich Inlet, British Columbia were analyzed for their major element composition, ammonia, phosphate and silica contents, and for stable isotope composition of sulfur and carbon species. Ca was the only major element to show a significant change with depth (a 75 per cent decrease in some cases). Ammonia and phosphate are highly enriched in the interstitial water (IW), concentrations reaching 250 ppM and 39 ppM, respectively. Total dissolved CO/sub 2/ in IW increases strongly with depth (20 to 30 times that in overlying sea-water) and it becomes enriched in C/sup 13/ (deltaC/sub PDB//sup 13/ approx. = 17.8%). Both sulfate and dissolved sulfide decreased with depth to a complete disappearance of all sulfur species from the interstitial water. The dissolved sulfide is highly enriched in S/sup 34/ (deltaS/sup 34/ approx. = + 18%). All these changes are attributed to strong biological activity in the sediments.

  1. Chemical and ultrastructural evidence that waxes associated with the suberin polymer constitute the major diffusion barrier to water vapor in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliday, C L; Kolattukudy, P E; Davis, R W

    1979-10-01

    Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that C21, C23, and C25 n-alkanes accumulated in the suberized layers during wound healing of cores of potato tuber tissue. Treatment (10 min) of freshly-cut tissue with trichloroacetate (TCA), an inhibitor of fatty-acid chain elongation, severely inhibited accumulation of hydrocarbons and fatty alcohols associated with the suberized layer in the wound healing tissue (maximum inhibition at 4 mM) but had very little effect on the deposition of the major aliphatic components of the suberin polymer. This preferential inhibition of wax synthesis resulted in severe inhibition of the development of diffusion resistance of the tissue to water vapor. These results strongly indicate that the waxes associated with the suberin polymer, rather than the polymer itself, consitute the major diffusion barrier formed during wound healing. Electron-microscopic examination showed that inhibition of wax synthesis by TCA disrupted the formation of the lamellar structure of suberin specifically by preventing the formation of the light bands. This evidence strongly suggests that the light bands in the suberin complex are composed of waxes.

  2. [Multiple injuries in mass accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondrák, E

    1984-01-01

    The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons.

  3. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  4. Risk assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in human tissues related to major food items based on chemical analyses and micro-EROD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, H L; Wu, S C; Wong, C K C; Leung, C K M; Tao, S; Wong, M H

    2009-10-01

    Nine groups of food items (freshwater fish, marine fish, pork, chicken, chicken eggs, leafy, non-leafy vegetables, rice and flour) and three types of human samples (human milk, maternal serum and cord serum) were collected for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. Results of chemical analysis revealed PCDD/Fs concentrations (pg g(-1) fat) in the following ascending order: pork (0.289 pg g(-1) fat), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (freshwater fish) (0.407), golden thread (Nemipterus virgatus) (marine fish) (0.511), chicken (0.529), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri) (marine fish) (0.535), chicken egg (0.552), and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) (marine fish) (1.219). The results of micro-EROD assay showed relatively higher PCDD/Fs levels in fish (2.65 pg g(-1) fat) when compared with pork (0.47), eggs (0.33), chicken (0.13), flour (0.07), vegetables (0.05 pg g(-1) wet wt) and rice (0.05). The estimated average daily intake of PCDD/Fs of 3.51 pg EROD-TEQ/kg bw/day was within the range of WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) and was higher than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTL) (70 pg for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) [Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Summary and conclusions of the fifty-seventh meeting, JECFA, 2001.]. Nevertheless, the current findings were significantly lower than the TDI (14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/bw/day) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food of the Europe Commission [European Scientific Committee on Food (EU SCF), Opinions on the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food, 2000.]. However, it should be noted that micro-EROD assay overestimates the PCDD/Fs levels by 2 to 7 folds which may also amplify the PCDD/Fs levels accordingly. Although the levels of PCDD/Fs obtained from micro-EROD assay were much higher than those obtained by chemical analysis by 2 to 7 folds, it provides a cost-effective and

  5. Incorporating real-time traffic and weather data to explore road accident likelihood and severity in urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios

    2017-06-01

    The effective treatment of road accidents and thus the enhancement of road safety is a major concern to societies due to the losses in human lives and the economic and social costs. The investigation of road accident likelihood and severity by utilizing real-time traffic and weather data has recently received significant attention by researchers. However, collected data mainly stem from freeways and expressways. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to add to the current knowledge by investigating accident likelihood and severity by exploiting real-time traffic and weather data collected from urban arterials in Athens, Greece. Random Forests (RF) are firstly applied for preliminary analysis purposes. More specifically, it is aimed to rank candidate variables according to their relevant importance and provide a first insight on the potential significant variables. Then, Bayesian logistic regression as well finite mixture and mixed effects logit models are applied to further explore factors associated with accident likelihood and severity respectively. Regarding accident likelihood, the Bayesian logistic regression showed that variations in traffic significantly influence accident occurrence. On the other hand, accident severity analysis revealed a generally mixed influence of traffic variations on accident severity, although international literature states that traffic variations increase severity. Lastly, weather parameters did not find to have a direct influence on accident likelihood or severity. The study added to the current knowledge by incorporating real-time traffic and weather data from urban arterials to investigate accident occurrence and accident severity mechanisms. The identification of risk factors can lead to the development of effective traffic management strategies to reduce accident occurrence and severity of injuries in urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of atrazine and its major degradation products in soil pore water by solid-phase extraction, chemical derivatization, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a method for the determination of atrazine, desethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine from soil pore waters by use of solid-phase extractionfollowed by chemical derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The analytes are isolated from the pore-water matrix byextraction onto a graphitized carbon-black cartridge. The cartridge is dried under vacuum, and adsorbed analytes are removed by elution with ethyl acetate followed by dichloromethane/methanol (7:3, volume/volume). Water is removed from the ethyl acetate fraction on an anhydrous sodium sulfate column. The combined fractions are solvent exchanged into acetonitrile, evaporated by use of a nitrogen stream, and derivatized by use of N- methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)- trifluoroacetamide. The derivatized extracts are analyzed by capillary-column gaschromatography/electron-impact mass spectrometry in the scan mode. Estimated method detection limits range from 0.03 to 0.07 micrograms per liter. The mean recoveries of all analytes and surrogates determined at 0.74 to 0.82 micrograms per liter in reagent water in soil pore water were 94 percent and 98 percent, respectively. The mean recoveries of all analytes and surrogates determined at 7.4 to 8.2 micrograms per liter in reagent water and in soil pore water were 96 percent and 97 percent,respectively. Recoveries were 90 percent or higher, regardless of analyte concentration or matrix composition, for all compounds excepthydroxyatrazine, whose recoveries were slightly lower (77 percent) at the low concentration.

  7. Analysis of swimming pool accidents resulting in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B A; Gabrielsen, M A; Hall, W J; O'Heir, J

    1980-04-01

    This paper is a summary of a study of 72 cases of swimming-pool accidents resulting in serious injuries with the potential of permanent disability. Sixty-four of the 72 cases resulted in spinal cord injuries, 57 of which involved quadriplegic lesions. The authors observed that the majority of these injuries resulted from a lack of good judgement and common sense rather than from intoxication or pool structural deficiencies. Also of note was the lack of appropriate first-aid and extrication rendered, as well as the absence of uniform treatment and care received by the majority of the patients.

  8. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  9. Upgrading the safety toolkit: Initiatives of the accident analysis subgroup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Chung, D.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Since its inception, the Accident Analysis Subgroup (AAS) of the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) has been a leading organization promoting development and application of appropriate methodologies for safety analysis of US Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The AAS, one of seven chartered by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group, has performed an oversight function and provided direction to several technical groups. These efforts have been instrumental toward formal evaluation of computer models, improving the pedigree on high-use computer models, and development of the user-friendly Accident Analysis Guidebook (AAG). All of these improvements have improved the analytical toolkit for best complying with DOE orders and standards shaping safety analysis reports (SARs) and related documentation. Major support for these objectives has been through DOE/DP-45.

  10. Radiological accidents balance in medicine; Bilan des accidents radiologiques en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs.

  11. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  12. Haz-Mat Refresher: Chemical Precautions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    It is important that first responders remain aware of the possible hazards resulting from chemical accidents or the intentional use of chemicals in destructive devices. Chemical components can be utilized in the manufacturing of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), can enhance the effect of a more conventional device, or can pose hazards based on…

  13. A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an…

  14. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  15. Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.I. Pokorny (Mirko); D.H.J. Blom (Dick)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIn the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept;

  16. Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caples, Linda Griffin

    1992-01-01

    Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

  17. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  18. Chapter 6: Accidents; Capitulo 6: Acidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons.

  19. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration representatives. If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will...

  20. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman

    2015-01-01

    A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  1. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, J

    1999-09-01

    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  2. Mean-field theory for car accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-Wei; Tseng, Wei-Chung

    2001-11-01

    We study analytically the occurrence of car accidents in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. We obtain exact results for the occurrence of car accidents Pac as a function of the car density ρ and the degree of stochastic braking p1 in the case of speed limit vmax=1. Various quantities are calculated analytically. The nontrivial limit p1-->0 is discussed.

  3. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  4. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  5. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision.CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision.COMMENTS: Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up.

  6. Improved worst-case and liely accident definition in complex facilities for 40 CFR 68 compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R., Taylor, Robert P., Jr; Hang, P.

    1997-04-01

    Many DOE facilities potentially subject to compliance with offsite consequence criteria under the 40 CFR 68 Risk Management Program house significant inventories of toxic and flammable chemicals. The accident progression event tree methodology is suggested as a useful technical basis to define Worst-Case and Alternative Release Scenarios in facilities performing operations beyond simple storage and/or having several barriers between the chemical hazard and the environment. For multiple chemical release scenarios, a chemical mixture methodology should be applied to conservatively define concentration isopleths. In some instances, the region requiring emergency response planning is larger under this approach than if chemicals are treated individually.

  7. MARINE ACCIDENTS RESEARCHED THROUGH HUMAN FACTOR PRISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  8. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito

    2008-11-30

    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  9. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  10. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  11. Uncertainty in the uptake coefficient for HONO formation on soot and its impacts on concentrations of major chemical components in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.; An, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    The soot redox reaction with an uptake coefficient (γ) of 10-4 at night and the soot heterogeneous photochemistry with the γ formula of JNO2/10 in the daytime, where JNO2 denotes the NO2 photolysis frequency, were inserted into the WRF-Chem model to evaluate the effects of γ changes of several orders of magnitude on the concentrations of HONO, HOx, O3, NO3-, and NH4+ in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. Results demonstrated that the simulations in the BTH region support the redox mechanism at night and the heterogeneous photochemistry mechanism in the daytime for HONO formation, and suggested that the order of magnitude of γ is likely to be 10-4. Minor increases in HONO, HOx, O3, NO3-, and NH4+ were produced when γ was decreased to ≤ 10-5, whereas the concentrations of HONO and NO3- were substantially overestimated in most cases when γ was increased to 10-3. The soot surface area per unit volume of air showed a sharp decrease from 3×103 μm2 cm-3 near the ground to 6×102 μm2 cm-3 at ~200 m at night. The surface area fractions of soot, nitrate, and sulfate showed minor variations between day and night, although the surface areas of the major aerosol components at night were ~ three times those in the daytime.

  12. Isolation and Identification of the Major Chemical Components Found in the Upper Parts of Teucrium Polium Plants Grown in Khuzestan Province of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ASHNAGAR,Alamdar; GHARIB NASERI,Nahid; FOROOZANFAR,Shahla

    2007-01-01

    Teucrium polium is a dwarf sub-shrub usually 30-60 cm high with many branches, which is fairly distributed throughout Iran, with its flowering being season mainly from April to July. The plant was collected during its flowering season in Baghmalek region in the North-East of Khuzestan province, Iran. After the identification of the genus, species and variety of the plant, the dried whole plant (flowers, fruits and the leaves) was steam distilled with different methods. The isolated essential oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored at 4-6 ℃.Analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS technique. At least 10 major components were identified (3-carene/α-pinene, β-phellandrene, limonene, germacrene, β-bourbonene, β-caryophylene, γ-muurolene, γ-elemene,spathulenol, β-eudesmol) (totally 97.02%). Also, successive TLC and column chromatography of the essential oil resulted in the separation of four fractions. Based upon 1H NMR, IR and mass spectra, the fractions with Rf=0.12 and 0.93 were determined as guaiol and a mixture of α-pinene, β-phellandrene and limonene, respectively.

  13. An assessment of chemical and physical parameters, several contaminants including metals, and toxicity in the seven major wastewater treatment plants in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Felix; Avelar-Gonzalez, Francisco Javier; Rico-Martinez, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Forty-eight hours acute toxicity tests were employed with Daphnia magna and Lecane quadridentata to assess the influents and effluents of the seven most important wastewater treatment plants (WTP) in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico, during the 2006 dry and rainy seasons. The WTP of the City of Aguascalientes treated 1948 Ls(-1). The remaining six plants treated wastewater in the range from 28 to 93 Ls(-1). Plants efficiently removed toxicity when Daphnia magna was used as a model organism, but performed poorly when the freshwater rotifer Lecane quadridentata was employed. It was observed that biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, phenol, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), temperature, and total suspended solids (TSS) were within the maximum allowed levels (MAL) in the effluents during the rainy season. Whereas the BOD(5), total nitrogen, total dissolved solids (TDS) and TSS showed levels greater than the MAL in effluents during the dry season. The levels of BOD, MBAS, and total nitrogen were greater than the MAL in influents. In contrast, the values of TDS and TSS in influents were above the MAL during the rainy season. In the dry season the levels of aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in influents and Fe, Mn and Pb in effluents were above the MAL. During the rainy season the levels of Mn, Cr and Hg in influents and those of Mn in effluents were above the MAL. When D. magna was used as model organism, acute toxicity units (aTU) for influents ranged from 0.2 to 4.4 and from 0.1 to 0.2 for effluents. These values for effluents are acceptable according to international guidelines. However, when L. quadridentata was the model organism, ranges were from 2.0 to 8.3 aTU in influents and from 1.6 to 2.6 aTU in effluents. The treated water that discharges into the San Pedro River would be considered toxic. The results of the toxicity

  14. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  15. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  16. Problems of the security of facility viewed from accident information; Jiko joho kara mita setsubi hozen no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, K. [The High Pressure Gas Safety Inst. of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    In petroleum complexes and chemical complexes in which the control of operation of the plants is being automated, most of the accidents recently occurring are accidents occurring during, especially, works which are difficult to automate, such as non-steady work and maintenance work rather than accidents ascribed to erroneous operation. The number of aged facilities has increased, and the facility maintenance work tends to be subcontracted increasingly. The facility engineering will become a still more important problem in the future. The High Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan has issued a compendium on the safety of high pressure gas every year since 1987, and they issued a collection of examples of accidents in complexes in 1991. This paper introduces main examples of the accidents concerning the facility maintenance, extracted from the accident information recorded in the compendium and the collection of examples of accidents. Finally, lessons learned from the accident information are enumerated, and future problems are posed which include subcontraction of the facility maintenance work, the facility management cost and the facility safety. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antialgic actions of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and a molecular docking study of its major chemical constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Raphaelle Sousa; Lima, Emerson Silva; Keita, Hady; Ferreira, Irlon Maciel; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Cruz, Rodrigo Alves Soares; Duarte, Jonatas Lobato; Velázquez-Moyado, Josué; Ortiz, Brenda Lorena Sánchez; Castro, Andrés Navarrete; Ferreira, Jaderson Vieira; da Silva Hage-Melim, Lorane Izabel; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2017-07-13

    We evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antialgic potency of a nanoemulsion (NEORO) containing the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (EORO), which is composed primarily of limonene, camphor and 1,8-cineole. The EORO and NEORO were administered orally 30 min prior to starting the experiments. In a test of rat paw oedema induced by carrageenan, NEORO was effective in doses of 498 µg/kg, and it inhibited 46% of the maximum peak of the oedema; in a dose of 300 mg/kg, EORO inhibited 50% of the maximum peak of the oedema. In an acetic acid-induced writhing test, NEORO yielded a dose-dependent effect, and a dose of 830 µg/kg inhibited 84% of the algesic process; a dose of 100 mg/kg of EORO inhibited 55%. In an assay for H2S production in rat stomachs, a dose of 498 µg/kg of NEORO inhibited H2S production in all of the measurement phases, and a dose of 100 mg/kg EORO inhibited 60% and influenced the effect of the ethanol significantly, reducing the production of H2S. We suggest that NEORO potentiated the effect of EORO, demonstrating effectiveness in doses 600 times lower than those applied with EORO. Among the major compounds of EORO, the camphor molecule exhibited the largest number of interactions with the therapeutic targets related to the inflammatory process, suggesting that it is responsible for EORO's anti-inflammatory and antialgic effects. This work paves the way for future investigations related to the therapeutic role of NEORO in the inflammation process.

  18. Chemical composition, In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the flowering aerial parts of two Ocimum species viz., Ocimum gratissimum and O. sanctum were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The principal constituent of O. gratissimum and O. sanctum was eugenol (75.1% and methyl eugenol (92.4%, comprising 99.3 and 98.9% of the total oils, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major compounds eugenol and methyl eugenol were screened by using tube dilution methods. O. gratissimum oil was found highly active against S. marcescens while O. sanctum oil showed significant activity against A. niger and S. faecalis. Methyl eugenol exhibited significant activity against P. aeruginosa while eugenol was effective only against S. aureus. Antioxidant activity of oils, eugenol, and methyl eugenol was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. Essential oil of O. gratissimum showed comparative antioxidant activity with IC 50 values 23.66±0.55 and 23.91±0.49 μg/ml in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid models, respectively. Eugenol showed slightly weaker antioxidant activity compared to oil of O. gratissimum, while O. sanctum oil demonstrated very feeble antioxidant activity and methyl eugenol did not show any activity. Eugenol and methyl eugenol would be elite source from O. gratissimum and O. sanctum, respectively, of this region could be consider as a source of natural food antioxidant, preservatives, and as an antiseptic.

  19. Insights into the chemical partitioning of trace metals in roadside and off-road agricultural soils along two major highways in Attica's region, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsou, Fotini; Sungur, Ali; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    We report in this study the magnetic properties and partitioning patterns of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) in roadside and off-road (>200m distance from the road edge) agricultural soils collected along two major highways in Greece. Sequential extractions revealed that the examined trace metals for the entire data set were predominantly found in the residual fraction, averaging 37% for Cd up to 80% for Cu. Due to the strong influence of lithogenic factors, trace metal pseudototal contents of the roadside soils did not differ significantly to those of the off-road soils. Magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility determinations showed a magnetic enhancement of soils; however, it was primarily related to geogenic factors and not to traffic-derived magnetic particles. These results highlight that in areas characterized by strong geogenic backgrounds, neither pseudototal trace metal contents nor magnetic properties determinations effectively capture traffic-related contamination of topsoils. The vehicular emission signal was traced by the increased acid-soluble and reducible trace metal contents of the roadside soils compared to their off-road counterparts. In the case of Cu and Zn, changes in the partitioning patterns were also observed between the roadside and off-road soils. Environmental risks associated with agricultural lands extending at the margins of the studied highways may arise from the elevated Ni contents (both pseudototal and potentially mobile), and future studies should investigate Ni levels in the edible parts of plants grown on these agricultural soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leukemia following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Geoffrey R

    2007-11-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine in 1986 led to a substantial increase of thyroid cancer among those exposed as children. The other cancer that is the most sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation is leukemia, and this paper evaluates the evidence relating exposure to Chernobyl radioactivity and leukemia risk. Two types of objectives are identified, namely, scientific evidence and public health, and two approaches to addressing such objectives are discussed. Empirical studies in affected populations are summarized, and it is concluded that, possibly apart from Russian cleanup workers, no meaningful evidence of any statistical association between exposure and leukemia risk as yet exists. However, it is important to carry on with such studies to satisfy various public health objectives.

  1. Accident source terms for light-water nuclear power plants using high-burnup or MOX fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, Michael (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.); Gauntt, Randall O.; Lee, Richard Y. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.); Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Representative accident source terms patterned after the NUREG-1465 Source Term have been developed for high burnup fuel in BWRs and PWRs and for MOX fuel in a PWR with an ice-condenser containment. These source terms have been derived using nonparametric order statistics to develop distributions for the timing of radionuclide release during four accident phases and for release fractions of nine chemical classes of radionuclides as calculated with the MELCOR 1.8.5 accident analysis computer code. The accident phases are those defined in the NUREG-1465 Source Term - gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release. Important differences among the accident source terms derived here and the NUREG-1465 Source Term are not attributable to either fuel burnup or use of MOX fuel. Rather, differences among the source terms are due predominantly to improved understanding of the physics of core meltdown accidents. Heat losses from the degrading reactor core prolong the process of in-vessel release of radionuclides. Improved understanding of the chemistries of tellurium and cesium under reactor accidents changes the predicted behavior characteristics of these radioactive elements relative to what was assumed in the derivation of the NUREG-1465 Source Term. An additional radionuclide chemical class has been defined to account for release of cesium as cesium molybdate which enhances molybdenum release relative to other metallic fission products.

  2. Outline of the Desktop Severe Accident Graphic Simulator Module for OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This paper introduce the desktop severe accident graphic simulator module (VMAAP) which is a window-based severe accident simulator using MAAP as its engine. The VMAAP is one of the submodules in SAMEX system (Severe Accident Management Support Expert System) which is a decision support system for use in a severe accident management following an incident at a nuclear power plant. The SAMEX system consists of four major modules as sub-systems: (a) Severe accident risk data base module (SARDB): stores the data of integrated severe accident analysis code results like MAAP and MELCOR for hundreds of high frequency scenarios for the reference plant; (b) Risk-informed severe accident risk data base management module (RI-SARD): provides a platform to identify the initiating event, determine plant status and equipment availability, diagnoses the status of the reactor core, reactor vessel and containment building, and predicts the plant behaviors; (c) Severe accident management simulator module (VMAAP): runs the MAAP4 code with user friendly graphic interface for input deck and output display; (d) On-line severe accident management guidance module (On-line SAMG); provides available accident management strategies with an electronic format. The role of VMAAP in SAMEX can be described as followings. SARDB contains the most of high frequency scenarios based on a level 2 probabilistic safety analysis. Therefore, there is good chance that a real accident sequence is similar to one of the data base cases. In such a case, RI-SARD can predict an accident progression by a scenario-base or symptom-base search depends on the available plant parameter information. Nevertheless, there still may be deviations or variations between the actual scenario and the data base scenario. The deviations can be decreased by using a real-time graphic accident simulator, VMAAP.. VMAAP is a MAAP4-based severe accident simulation model for OPR-1000 plant. It can simulate spectrum of physical processes

  3. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  4. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  5. New insights into PM2.5 chemical composition and sources in two major cities in China during extreme haze events using aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Miriam; Huang, Ru-Jin; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Wang, Qiyuan; Canonaco, Francesco; Li, Guohui; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Renjian; Li, Zhengqiang; Cao, Junji; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-03-01

    During winter 2013-2014 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements were conducted for the first time with a novel PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) lens in two major cities of China: Xi'an and Beijing. We denote the periods with visibility below 2 km as extreme haze and refer to the rest as reference periods. During the measurements in Xi'an an extreme haze covered the city for about a week and the total non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 mass fraction reached peak concentrations of over 1000 µg m-3. During the measurements in Beijing two extreme haze events occurred, but the temporal extent and the total concentrations reached during these events were lower than in Xi'an. Average PM2.5 concentrations of 537 ± 146 and 243 ± 47 µg m-3 (including NR species and equivalent black carbon, eBC) were recorded during the extreme haze events in Xi'an and Beijing, respectively. During the reference periods the measured average concentrations were 140 ± 99 µg m-3 in Xi'an and 75 ± 61 µg m-3 in Beijing. The relative composition of the NR-PM2.5 evolved substantially during the extreme haze periods, with increased contributions of the inorganic components (mostly sulfate and nitrate). Our results suggest that the high relative humidity present during the extreme haze events had a strong effect on the increase of sulfate mass (via aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide). Another relevant characteristic of the extreme haze is the size of the measured particles. During the extreme haze events, the AMS showed much larger particles, with a volume weighted mode at about 800 to 1000 nm, in contrast to about 400 nm during reference periods. These large particle sizes made the use of the PM2.5 inlet crucial, especially during the severe haze events, where 39 ± 5 % of the mass would have been lost in the conventional PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 µm) inlet. A novel positive matrix factorization procedure was developed to

  6. New insights into PM2.5 chemical composition and sources in two major cities in China during extreme haze events using aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During winter 2013–2014 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements were conducted for the first time with a novel PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm lens in two major cities of China: Xi'an and Beijing. We denote the periods with visibility below 2 km as extreme haze and refer to the rest as reference periods. During the measurements in Xi'an an extreme haze covered the city for about a week and the total non-refractory (NR-PM2.5 mass fraction reached peak concentrations of over 1000 μg m-3. During the measurements in Beijing two extreme haze events occurred, but the temporal extent and the total concentrations reached during these events were lower than in Xi'an. Average PM2.5 concentrations of 537 ± 146 μg m-3 and 243 ± 47 μg m-3 (including NR species and equivalent black carbon, eBC were recorded during the extreme haze events in Xi'an and Beijing, respectively. During the reference periods the measured average concentrations were 140 ± 99 μg m-3 in Xi'an and 75 ± 61 μg m-3 in Beijing. The relative composition of the NR-PM2.5 evolved substantially during the extreme haze periods, with increased contributions of the inorganic components (mostly sulfate and nitrate. Our results suggest that the high relative humidity present during the extreme haze events had a strong effect on the increase of sulfate mass (via aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide. Another relevant characteristic of the extreme haze is the size of the measured particles. During the extreme haze events, the AMS showed much larger particles, with a volume weighted mode at about 800 to 1000 nm, in contrast to about 400 nm during reference periods. These large particle sizes made the use of the PM2.5 inlet crucial, especially during the severe haze events, where 39 ± 5 % of the mass would have been lost in the conventional PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm inlet. A novel positive matrix factorization procedure

  7. Assessment of accident rate at lithuanian railways level crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas Liudvinavichius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The most pressing problem facing the rail traffic safety experts is an accident rate at the railway level crossings. The purpose is to investigate the circumstances, which affect traffic safety at the level crossings, and to offer effective tools for experts to improve the safety the problems of these dangerous spaces of railway infrastructure. Methodology. This paper observes the logistic regression as a method to estimate the accident rate at level crossings in Lithuania. The authors have studied and evaluated the key factors affecting the safety of railway crossings. These factors are the intensity of trains and road transport means through the railway level crossing, the visibility of the approaching train from both sides of the traffic, the maximum permissible speed of the trains, the number of tracks (single track, double track, and multi-track, the level of installed alarm and automatic equipment, a density of population in this area, etc. Finally, only the factors, which might be described by mathematical expressions (numbers, were identified. Findings. By using logistic regression method, it was found that the most determinant factors at level crossings are the maximum speed of trains, poor visibility crossing (less than 1,000 m, intensity of the road traffic at crossings, and inappropriate implementation of roads crossing the rails. Based on the study results, the conclusions and recommendations were formulated which primary measures to prevent accidents at level crossing and on what level crossing should be taken urgently. Originality.Revealed trends and major causes of accidents at railway crossings of Lithuania for 2004-2011 year. The necessity of implementation of progressive technical measures for the prevention accidents on railway level crossing is proved. Practical value. About 50% of Lithuanian railway crossings do not meet the requirements of the level crossing legislation. This parameter is one of the key risk

  8. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  9. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  10. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  11. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  12. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human error and the problem of causality in analysis of accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    , designers or managers have played a major role. There are, however, several basic problems in analysis of accidents and identification of human error. This paper addresses the nature of causal explanations and the ambiguity of the rules applied for identification of the events to include in analysis......Present technology is characterized by complexity, rapid change and growing size of technical systems. This has caused increasing concern with the human involvement in system safety. Analyses of the major accidents during recent decades have concluded that human errors on part of operators...

  14. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers.

  15. Nuclear accidents and policy. Notes on public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Felix; Steenbeck, Malte; Wilhelm, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftspolitik

    2013-07-01

    Major nuclear accidents as recently in Fukushima set nuclear power plant security at the top of the public agenda. Using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel we analyze the effects of the Fukushima accident and a subsequent government decision on nuclear power phase-out on several measures of subjective perception in Germany. In the light of current political debates about the strategic orientation of this energy turnaround, such an analysis is of particular interest since non-pecuniary gains in measures of subjective perception might provide further aspects to be taken into consideration when evaluating the economic costs of the policy. We find that the Fukushima accident increases the probability to report greater worries about the environment. Furthermore, we find evidence for a decrease in the probability to be very worried about the security of nuclear power plants as well as for an increase in reported levels of subjective well-being following the government's resolution on nuclear phase-out. Finally we find that the probabilities of reporting very high concerns are related to the distance between the respondents' place of residence and the nearest nuclear power station.

  16. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  17. Guidelines Manual: Post Accident Procedures for Chemicals and Propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    ASE 95 ( polyacrylic )/MSA warm vapor being buoyant tends to dis- surfacant solution with an expansion perse upward. ratio of approximately 8il, persisted...involving ener- the low expansion mode. gized electrical equipment because of S hazards to personnel and damage to Synthetic or detergent foams are...active agent (e.g., detergent , soaps, alcohols) to compress and thicken spilled material * If dissolved, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled

  18. Evaluation of accidents indicators as ergonomic intervention proposition in a chicken slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Takeda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The slaughterhouse industry makes Brazil a major producer and exporter of meat. In this perspective, this industry keeps in constant pursuit of competitiveness, and the activities within this sector are intensified to achieve greater productivity which results in occupational diseases and injury hazards. In order to propose measures that can contribute to the reduction of occupational accidents in poultry slaughterhouse, this research aims to evaluate and propose demands of ergonomic interventions based on accident numbers that occurred in the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 in a poultry slaughterhouse located in the region of São José – SC. The study is a field research with documental analysis and with the use of the inductive method. The data were evaluated quantitatively using spreadsheet and graphics. The results show that the total of 161 accidents assessed, the accidents with cuts were those with the highest number of cases. The causative agent that generated most accidents was the use of knives and the most affected part of the body was the upper limbs. The results show that the slaughterhouse presents demands of ergonomic interventions to adapt working conditions with a focus on reducing workplace accidents.

  19. Diving accidents treated at a military hospital-based recompression chamber facility in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozali, A; Khairuddin, H; Sherina, M S; Halim, M Abd; Zin, B Mohd; Sulaiman, A

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the pattern of diving accidents treated in a military hospital-based recompression chamber facility in Peninsular Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out to utilize secondary data from the respective hospital medical records from 1st January 1996 to 31st December 2004. A total of 179 cases categorized as diving accidents received treatment with an average of 20 cases per year. Out of 179 cases, 96.3% (n = 173) received recompression treatment. Majority were males (93.3%), civilians (87.2%) and non-Malaysian citizens (59.2%). Commercial diving activities contributed the highest percentage of diving accidents (48.0%), followed by recreational (39.2%) and military (12.8%). Diving accidents due to commercial diving (n = 86) were mainly contributed by underwater logging activities (87.2%). The most common cases sustained were decompression illness (DCI) (96.1%). Underwater logging and recreational diving activities which contribute to a significant number of diving accidents must be closely monitored. Notification, centralised data registration, medical surveillance as well as legislations related to diving activities in Malaysia are essential to ensure adequate monitoring of diving accidents in the future.

  20. Risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Chen, Guanghan

    2013-10-01

    With the recent economic boom in China, vehicle volume and the number of traffic accident fatalities have become the highest in the world. Meanwhile, traffic accidents have become the leading cause of death in China. Systematically analyzing road safety data from different perspectives and applying empirical methods/implementing proper measures to reduce the fatality rate will be an urgent and challenging task for China in the coming years. In this study, we analyze the traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report, are the only officially available and reliable source of traffic accident data (with a sample size>7000 per year). In particular, we focus on two outcome measures: traffic violations and accident severity. Human, vehicle, road and environmental risk factors are considered. First, the results establish the role of traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. An immediate implication is: if the traffic violation rate could be reduced or controlled successfully, then the rate of serious injuries and fatalities would be reduced accordingly. Second, specific risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity are determined. Accordingly, to reduce traffic accident incidence and fatality rates, measures such as traffic regulations and legislation-targeting different vehicle types/driver groups with respect to the various human, vehicle and environment risk factors-are needed. Such measures could include road safety programs for targeted driver groups, focused enforcement of traffic regulations and road/transport facility improvements. Data analysis results arising from this study will shed lights on the development of similar (adjusted) measures to reduce traffic violations and/or accident fatalities and injuries, and to promote road safety in other regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Occupational accidents in artisanal mining in Katanga, D.R.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Elenge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study focuses on accidents in artisanal mining, to support policies improving miners' employability. Materials and Methods: Based on a questionnaire administered in November 2009 to a sample of 180 miners from the artisanal mining of LUPOTO, in the Province of Katanga, we explored significant trends between the accidents and their consequences and behavioral or sociological variables. Results: During the 12 months preceding the study, 392 accidents occurred, affecting 72.2% of miners. Tools handling represents 51.5%, of the accidents' causes, followed by handling heavy loads (32.9%. Factors such as age, seniority or apprenticeship did not generate significant differences. Contusions were the most common injuries (50.2%, followed by wounds (44.4%. These injuries were located in upper limbs (50.5% and in lower limbs (29.3%. 80.5% of miners were cared for by their colleagues and 50% of them could not work for more than 3 days. Physical sequelae were reported by 19% of the injured miners. Discussion: Many surveys related to accidents in the area of artisanal mining report such high frequency. The unsuitability of tools to jobs to be done is usually raised as one of the major causes of accidents. The lack of differentiation of the tasks carried out in relation to age is another factor explaining the lack of protective effect of seniority as it minimizes the contribution of experience in the worker's safety. The apprenticeship reported is inadequate; it is rather a learning by doing than anything else. That is why it lacks protective effect. Low income combined with precariousness of artisanal mining are likely to explain the low level of work stoppages. Conclusion: Tools improvement associated with adequate training seem to be the basis of accident prevention. Availability of suitable medical care should improve artisanal miners' recovery after accidents.

  2. General aviation accidents related to exceedance of airplane weight/center of gravity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2016-06-01

    Obesity, affects a third of the US population and its corollary occupant weight adversely impacts safe flight operations. Increased aircraft weight results in longer takeoff/landing distances, degraded climb gradients and airframe failure may occur in turbulence. In this study, the rate, temporal changes, and lethality of accidents in piston-powered, general aviation aircraft related to exceeding the maximum aircraft weight/center of gravity (CG) limits were determined. Nation-wide person body mass were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The NTSB database was used to identify accidents related to operation of aircraft outside of their weight/CG envelope. Statistical analyses employed T-tests, proportion tests and a Poisson distribution. While the average body mass climbed steadily (p<0.001) between 1999 and 2014 the rate of accidents related to exceedance of the weight/CG limits did not change (p=0.072). However, 57% were fatal, higher (p<0.001) than the 21% for mishaps attributed to other causes/factors. The majority (77%) of accidents were due to an overloaded aircraft operating within its CG limits. As to the phase of flight, accidents during takeoff and those occurring enroute carried the lowest (50%) and highest (85%) proportion of fatal accidents respectively. While the rate of general aviation accidents related to operating an aircraft outside of its weight/CG envelope has not increased over the past 15 years, these types of accidents carry a high risk of fatality. Airmen should be educated as to such risks and to dispel the notion held by some that flights may be safely conducted with an overloaded aircraft within its CG limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  4. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29... records. Installation law enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on Service/DLA... traffic accident investigation reports pertaining to accidents investigated by military police that...

  5. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 636.13... Stewart, Georgia § 636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports. In addition to the requirements in § 634... record traffic accident investigations on DA Form 3946 (Military Police Traffic Accident Report) and DA...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States vessel wherever such casualty or accident occurs; or (3) With respect to a foreign tank vessel... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  7. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  8. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-01

    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  9. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  10. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use...

  11. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping... Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of the...

  12. The epidemiology of bicyclist's collision accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    of bicyclists and risk situations. The findings should make a basis for preventive programmes in order to decrease the number and severity of bicyclists collision accidents. Data from the emergency room in a 2 year period was combined with data from questionnaires. The study group consisted of 1021 bicyclists...... group of accidents were the collisions with the 'soft' road users (bicyclists, mopeds, and pedestrians) and another group were the collisions with the 'hard' road users (motor vehicles, motorcycles). Preventive measures have to be directed at both these groups of accidents. To decrease the number...... of collision accidents with motor vehicles it is necessary to separate the bicyclists from the 'hard road traffic' especially at crossings. Preventive measures must also be directed at the bicyclists. Information must be given to warn the bicyclists against the risks, not only for collisions with motor...

  13. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.

    1978-09-01

    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  14. Agricultural implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market...

  15. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  16. Review of models applicable to accident aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

  17. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  18. The Chornobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J. [ed.; Poyarkov, V.; Bar`yakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.; Kholosha, V.; Shestopalov, V.

    1999-10-01

    The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chornobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chornobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chornobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

  19. [Severe parachuting accident. Analysis of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, U; Mischkowsky, T

    1993-06-01

    Based on a population of 122 severely injured patients the causes of paragliding accidents and the patterns of injury are analyzed. A questionnaire is used to establish a sport-specific profile for the paragliding pilot. The lower limbs (55.7%) and the lower parts of the spine (45.9%) are the most frequently injured parts of the body. There is a high risk of multiple injuries after a single accident because of the tremendous axial power. The standard of equipment is good in over 90% of the cases. Insufficient training and failure to take account of geographical and meteorological conditions are the main determinants of accidents sustained by paragliders, most of whom are young. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients want to continue paragliding. Finally some advice is given on how to prevent paragliding accidents and injuries.

  20. Bilateral Shoulder Dislocations Following a Motocross Accident

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H J Schroepfer; B M Martin; P J Millett

    2017-01-01

    .... A professional motocross racer experienced a high speed traumatic accident which resulted in bilateral shoulder dislocations with a rare associated complete anterosuperior RC tear due to a posterior dislocation...

  1. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto I plant in Finland...... with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power...... generation-for the range of parameters studied, i.e. with core uncovering and heat-up to maximum core temperatures of approximately 1800 K, and water flow rates of 45-2000 kg s(-1) injected into the downcomer. Since recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core, the power densities are high...

  2. Guide to radiological accident considerations for siting and design of DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.C.; Graf, J.M.; Dewart, J.M.; Buhl, T.E.; Wenzel, W.J.; Walker, L.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This guide was prepared to provide the experienced safety analyst with accident analysis guidance in greater detail than is possible in Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The guide addresses analysis of postulated serious accidents considered in the siting and selection of major design features of DOE nuclear facilities. Its scope has been limited to radiological accidents at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The analysis steps addressed in the guide lead to evaluation of radiological dose to exposed persons for comparison with siting guideline doses. Other possible consequences considered are environmental contamination, population dose, and public health effects. Choices of models and parameters leading to estimation of source terms, release fractions, reduction and removal factors, dispersion and dose factors are discussed. Although requirements for risk analysis have not been established, risk estimates are finding increased use in siting of major nuclear facilities, and are discussed in the guide. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  4. Health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The clearest effect to be seen to date is the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in children. The evidence for increased leukaemia is less clear, but there are indications of increased leukaemia incidence in Russian clean-up workers. There is also evidence of increases in breast cancer, cataract and cardiovascular disease. However, to date the largest public health problem caused by the accident is the mental health impact.

  5. Personality characteristics of the child accident repeater

    OpenAIRE

    Manheimer, Dean I.; Mellinger, Glen D

    1997-01-01

    From 8874 boys and girls aged 4 to 18 in Berkeley-Oakland, California, 684 were selected to represent high-, intermediateor low-accident-liability children, based on records of medically attended injuries. Using data from intensive interviews with mothers supplemented with school records, we found a statistically significant relation between accident liability and indexes of extraversion, daring, roughhousing, and other traits tending to expose children to hazards. Similar relations held for ...

  6. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, D.B. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Severe accident risks from external events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the early development of design requirements for seismic events in USA early developing nuclear electric generating fleet.Notable safety studies,including WASH-1400,Sandia Siting Study and the NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk study,are briefly reviewed in terms of their relevance to extreme accidents arising from seismic and other severe accident initiators.Specific characteristic about the nature of severe accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) are reviewed along with present day state-of-art analysis methodologies (methods for estimation of leakages and consequences of releases (MELCOR) and MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS)) that are used to evaluate severe accidents and to optimize mitigative and protective actions against such accidents.It is the aim of this paper to make nuclear operating nations aware of the risks that accompany a much needed energy resource and to identify some of the tools,techniques and landmark safety studies that serve to make the technology safer and to maintain vigilance and adequate safety culture for the responsible management of this valuable but unforgiving technology.

  8. FUNDING OF ACCIDENT INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gamankova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of financial provision of public and private accident insurance. Analyzes the methodology of forming insurance premium rates in private accident insurance. The study examines the practice of reforming the financial security of the state social insurance against accidents. The results show need to implement scientifically proven approach to determining premium rates in the state social insurance based on mathematical statistics and actuarial calculations to ensure that such conditions on the one hand, can insure the risk, and the other - to provide the insurer the ability to perform insurance obligations' commitments. One of the promising areas of improvement Accident Insurance determines to define increasing the role of the private sector to create and attraction of investments, financing, reduce costs, and provision of insurance services on insurance against accidents at a qualitatively higher level. The results show the need to consider the usefulness of a mixed provision of services to accident insurance under state or non-state system, and the viability and effectiveness of the combination of these systems.

  9. CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B AMINMAN SOUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

     

  10. Two wheeler accidents on Indian roads--a study from Mangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Animesh; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj; Gagan, S; Jain, Rashmi

    2009-04-01

    The alarming increase in mortality and morbidity owing to road traffic accidents has been a matter of great concern globally. This study was undertaken to find the trend of two wheeler accidents over the five years (2000-2004) with respect to age and sex of the victim, type of injury sustained, type of vehicle involved and time distribution of accidents. Data was retrospectively collected from the records at the Regional Transport Authority's office, office of superintendent of police and also from both the Traffic police stations of the Mangalore city. Results were tabulated and the analysis was done using SPSS version 10. Test of significance was applied and p value accidents were recorded during 2000-2004. Majority (77%) of the victims were in the age group 18-44 years. Accident rate among males (83%) was higher than that among females (17%). Five percent of the victims (n=75) succumbed to injuries, of whom 45 died on the spot. Geared vehicles (81%) were more commonly involved than those without gears. Highest number of accidents was seen during 6-10 pm. There is considerable morbidity and mortality due to two wheeler road traffic accidents. Among the fatalities majority died at the spot. Hence first aid measures at the spot would be of great help. It is recommended to have a good support system and para medical training for the people manning the ambulance. Awareness should be created among general public. Besides, every road traffic injury case has medicolegal elements involved. In India, as per law, every road traffic injury case is registered as a medicolegal case and investigated for prosecution concerns and compensation needs.

  11. Factors Impacting Mortality in the Pre-Hospital Period After Road Traffic Accidents in Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Ananthnarayan; Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Sandhya; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    India currently has the dubious distinction of experiencing the highest number of road traffic accidents in the world. We believe that this study on road traffic accidents may help to identify factors in the pre-hospital setting that may influence mortality rates. A prospective observational study was carried out in a metro area in India over a period of one year. The study included consecutive patients admitted to the trauma service after road traffic accidents. Demographic information, time and place of accident, and details regarding the vehicle and the events leading up to the hospital admission were recorded. Injury severity, management in the hospital, and final outcomes in terms of mortality were noted. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. A total of 773 patients were enrolled. Of these, there were 197 deaths and 576 survivors. The majority of patients were aged 15 - 40 years (67%) and were male (87.84%). More accidents occurred at night (58.2%) than during the day (41.8%). Mortality was not significantly associated with age, sex, or time of accident. City roads (38.9%) saw more accidents than highways (26.13%), but highway accidents were more likely to be fatal. Two-wheeler riders (37.65%) and pedestrians (35.75%) formed the majority of our study population. Mortality was significantly associated with crossing the road on foot (P = 0.004). Pillion riders on two-wheeler vehicles were more likely to experience poor outcomes (relative risk [RR] = 1.9, P = 0.001). Front-seat occupants in four-wheeler vehicles were at an increased risk of not surviving the accident (61.98%; RR=2.56, P = 0.01). Lack of safety gear, such as helmets, seat belts, and airbags, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.05). Delays in transfers of patients to the hospital and a lack of pre-hospital emergency services was significantly associated with increased mortality (P = 0.000). A lack of respect for the law, weak legislation and law enforcement, disregard for

  12. Development of Methodology for Spent Fuel Pool Severe Accident Analysis Using MELCOR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Shin, Jae-Uk [RETech. Co. LTD., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kwang-Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    framework of the MELCOR analysis will be helpful to establish a basis for the severe accident mitigation strategy. As shown in Table 5, all postulated major scenarios were estimated resulting in the reduction of water inventory level and the mass of hydrogen generation. In the case of loss of cooling accident, time to water level reduction was obviously dependent of the decay heat load. It was revealed that the loss of inventory was dominant factor in the case of loss of coolant accident. With respect to the mass of hydrogen generation, massive amount of hydrogen was generated from the molten corium concrete reaction in MELCOR calculation. Through the MELCOR modeling developed in this study, it was found that MELCOR program has capabilities to predict entire progress of water level, fuel degradation, hydrogen generation, and concrete reaction.

  13. Institutional support of learning from accidents: some obstacles to getting a useful community-wide database in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Andersen, Henning Boje

    Learning from other people’s accidents and misfortune is not a novel accident prevention strategy. The benefits of such learning are obvious. What is not so obvious, however, is how to provide institutional support and how to set up systems that facilitate such learning. We examine the European...... Union’s Major Accident Reporting System (MARS), which is created in conjunction with the EU regulatory instruments to prevent major industrial accidents, the Seveso-directive. We review some of the general requirements that a successful reporting system must meet and suggest that MARS may not live up...... to the noble intentions behind its creation. Our case example is a simple methanol tank storage installation which we believe can be found in most if not all EU member states. We demonstrate that the data in some of the Short Reports in MARS have a number of serious shortcomings. Causes are not identified...

  14. Accidents in nuclear facilities: classification, incidence and impact; Accidentes en instalaciones nucleares: clasificacion, incidencia e impacto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia A, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. C., E-mail: blink19871@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    A general analysis of the 146 accidents reported officially in nuclear facilities from 1945 to 2012 is presented, among them some took place in: power or research nuclear reactors, critical and subcritical nuclear assemblies, handling of nuclear materials inside laboratories belonging to institutes or universities, in radiochemistry industrial plants and nuclear fuel factories. In form graph the incidence of these accidents is illustrated classified for; category, decades, geographical localization, country classification before the OECD, failure type, and the immediate or later victims. On the other hand, the main learned lessons of the nuclear accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima are stood out, among those that highlight; the human factors, the necessity of designs more innovative and major technology for the operation, control and surveillance of the nuclear facilities, to increase the criterions of nuclear, radiological and physics safety applied to these facilities, the necessity to carry out probabilistic analysis of safety more detailed for cases of not very probable accidents and their impact, to revalue the selection criterions of the sites for nuclear locations, the methodology of post-accident sites recovery and major instrumentation for parameters evaluation and the radiological monitoring among others. (Author)

  15. Emission of spherical cesium-bearing particles from an early stage of the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Kajino, Mizuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident released radioactive materials into the environment over the entire Northern Hemisphere in March 2011, and the Japanese government is spending large amounts of money to clean up the contaminated residential areas and agricultural fields. However, we still do not know the exact physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials. This study directly observed spherical Cs-bearing particles emitted during a relatively early stage (March 14-15) of the accident. In contrast to the Cs-bearing radioactive materials that are currently assumed, these particles are larger, contain Fe, Zn, and Cs, and are water insoluble. Our simulation indicates that the spherical Cs-bearing particles mainly fell onto the ground by dry deposition. The finding of the spherical Cs particles will be a key to understand the processes of the accident and to accurately evaluate the health impacts and the residence time in the environment.

  16. Accident Generated Particulate Materials and Their Characteristics -- A Review of Background Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, S. L.

    1982-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of the amount of radioactive particulate material initially airborne (source term) during accidents. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has surveyed the literature, gathering information on the amount and size of these particles that has been developed from limited experimental work, measurements made from operational accidents, and known aerosol behavior. Information useful for calculating both liquid and powder source terms is compiled in this report. Potential aerosol generating events discussed are spills, resuspension, aerodynamic entrainment, explosions and pressurized releases, comminution, and airborne chemical reactions. A discussion of liquid behavior in sprays, sparging, evaporation, and condensation as applied to accident situations is also included.

  17. [Types of injuries among victims and dead persons after sea accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrevskiĭ, Iu N; Manuĭlov, V M; Matveev, R P

    2010-11-01

    The traumas received by victims in the largest sea catastrophes and accidents, connected with case (hull) damage, overturning and flooding of courts from 1983 to 2010 are considered. It is established that principal views of damages at rescued and victims are sharp hypothermia of light and moderate severity, combined mechanic-cold and mechanic-burn-chemical traumas, drowning. The analysis of the received combined traumas reveals prevalence of heavy damages among the rescued victims in the sea catastrophes and accidents. The size and structure of sanitary losses depends on weight of accident, remoteness from coast, weather conditions, speed of flooding of a vessel, readiness of forces of rescue and the beginning of carrying out of a rescue operation, training of crew and passengers.

  18. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  19. Exploring Environmental Effects of Accidents During Marine Transport of Dangerous Goods by Use of Accident Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Hans Gottberg; Haastrup, P.; Petersen, H J Styhr

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of 1776 descriptions of water transport accidents involving dangerous goods, environmental problems in connection with releases of this kind are described and discussed. It was found that most detailed descriptions of environmental consequences concerned oil accidents, although most...

  20. Outcomes following liver trauma in equestrian accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Abbadi, Reyad; Oakland, Kathryn; Jamdar, Saurabh; Harper, Simon Jf; Jamieson, Neville V; Huguet, Emmanual L; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K

    2014-01-01

    Equestrian sports are common outdoor activities that may carry a risk of liver injury. Due to the relative infrequency of equestrian accidents the injury patterns and outcomes associated with liver trauma in these patients have not been well characterized. We examined our experience of the management of equestrian liver trauma in our regional hepatopancreaticobiliary unit at a tertiary referral center. The medical records of patients who sustained liver trauma secondary to equestrian activities were analysed for parameters such as demographic data, liver function tests, patterns of injury, radiological findings, the need for intervention and outcomes. 20 patients sustained liver trauma after falling from or being kicked by a horse. The majority of patients were haemodynamically stable on admission. Alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were elevated in all patients and right-sided rib fractures were a frequently associated finding. CT demonstrated laceration of the liver in 12 patients, contusion in 3 and subcapsular haematoma in 2. The right lobe of the liver was most commonly affected. Only two patients required laparotomy and liver resection; the remaining 18 were successfully managed conservatively. The risk of liver injury following a horse kick or falling off a horse should not be overlooked. Early CT imaging is advised in these patients, particularly in the presence of high ALT levels and concomitant chest injuries such as rib fractures. Despite significant liver trauma, conservative management in the form of close observation, ideally in a high-dependency setting, is often sufficient. Laparotomy is only rarely warranted and associated with a significantly higher risk of post-operative bile leaks.