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Sample records for major anatomical substrate

  1. Major intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic anatomical lung resections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decaluwe, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A multicentre evaluation of the frequency and nature of major intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) anatomical resections. METHODS: Six European centres submitted their series of consecutive anatomical lung resections with the intention to treat by VATS...... for technical reasons. In-hospital mortality was 1.4% (n = 43). Conversion to open thoracotomy was observed in 5.5% (n = 170), of whom 21.8% (n = 37) were for oncological reasons, 29.4% (n = 50) for technical reasons and 48.8% (n = 83) for complications. Vascular injuries were reported in 2.9% (n = 88) patients...... major surgery (n = 9) or immediate life-threatening complications (n = 17). Twenty-three percent of the in-hospital mortalities (n = 10/43) were related to major intraoperative complications. Eight pneumonectomies (five intraoperative and three postoperative at 0.3%) were a consequence of a major...

  2. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  3. Origins of the sympathetic innervation to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT): an anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafetti, Lucas E; Romeo, Horacio E

    2014-11-15

    The participation of sympathetic nerve fibers in the innervation of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) was investigated in hamsters. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), an established sympathetic marker, is expressed in all neurons of superior cervical ganglia (SCG). In addition, VMAT2 -immunoreactive nerve fibers were localized in the NALT as well as in adjacent anatomical structures of the upper respiratory tract. Unilateral surgical ablation of the SCG abolished VMAT2 innervation patterns ipsilaterally while the contra lateral side is unaffected. These results provide the anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection in the NALT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reorganization of Anatomical Connectome following Electroconvulsive Therapy in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkun Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is considered one of the most effective and fast-acting treatment options for depressive episodes. Little is known, however, about ECT’s enabling brain (neuroplasticity effects, particular for plasticity of white matter pathway. Materials and Methods. We collected longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging in the first-episode, drug-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD patients n=24 before and after a predefined time window ECT treatment. We constructed large-scale anatomical networks derived from white matter fiber tractography and evaluated the topological reorganization using graph theoretical analysis. We also assessed the relationship between topological reorganization with improvements in depressive symptoms. Results. Our investigation revealed three main findings: (1 the small-worldness was persistent after ECT series; (2 anatomical connections changes were found in limbic structure, temporal and frontal lobes, in which the connection changes between amygdala and parahippocampus correlate with depressive symptom reduction; (3 significant nodal strength changes were found in right paralimbic network. Conclusions. ECT elicits neuroplastic processes associated with improvements in depressive symptoms that act to specific local ventral frontolimbic circuits, but not small-world property. Overall, ECT induced topological reorganization in large-scale brain structural network, opening up new avenues to better understand the mode of ECT action in MDD.

  5. Motor-function and exercise capacity in children with major anatomical congenital anomalies : An evaluation at 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. van der Cammen-van Zijp (Monique); S.J. Gischler (Saskia); P. Mazer (Petra); M. van Dijk (Monique); D. Tibboel (Dick); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Children with major anatomical congenital anomalies (CA) often need prolonged hospitalization with surgical interventions in the neonatal period and thereafter. Better intensive care treatment has reduced mortality rates, but at the cost of more morbidity. __Aim:__

  6. Increased Sympathetic Renal Innervation in Hemodialysis Patients Is the Anatomical Substrate of Sympathetic Hyperactivity in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriello, Alessandro; Rovella, Valentina; Anemona, Lucia; Servadei, Francesca; Giannini, Elena; Bove, Pierluigi; Anselmo, Alessandro; Melino, Gerry; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2015-11-26

    Renal denervation represents an emerging treatment for resistant hypertension in patients with end-stage renal disease, but data about the anatomic substrate of this treatment are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the morphological basis of sympathetic hyperactivity in the setting of hemodialysis patients to identify an anatomical substrate that could warrant the use of this new therapeutic approach. The distribution of sympathetic nerves was evaluated in the adventitia of 38 renal arteries that were collected at autopsy or during surgery from 25 patients: 9 with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (DIAL group) and 16 age-matched control nondialysis patients (CTRL group). Patients in the DIAL group showed a significant increase in nerve density in the internal area of the peri-adventitial tissue (within the first 0.5 mm of the beginning of the adventitia) compared with the CTRL group (4.01±0.30 versus 2.87±0.28×mm(2), P=0.01). Regardless of dialysis, hypertensive patients with signs of severe arteriolar damage had a greater number of nerve endings in the most internal adventitia, and this number was significantly higher than in patients without hypertensive arteriolar damage (3.90±0.36 versus 2.87±0.41×mm(2), P=0.04), showing a correlation with hypertensive arteriolar damage rather than with hypertensive clinical history. The findings from this study provide a morphological basis underlying sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with end-stage renal disease and might offer useful information to improve the use of renal denervation in this group of patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. An anatomical substrate for integration among functional networks in human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Sporns, Olaf

    2013-09-04

    The human brain shows several characteristics of an efficient communication network architecture, including short communication paths and the existence of modules interlinked by a small set of highly connected regions. Studies of structural networks comprising macroscopic white matter projections have shown that these putative hubs are densely interconnected, giving rise to a spatially distributed and topologically central collective called the "rich club." In parallel, studies of intrinsic brain activity have consistently revealed distinct functional communities or resting-state networks (RSNs), indicative of specialized processing and segregation of neuronal information. However, the pattern of structural connectivity interconnecting these functional RSNs and how such inter-RSN structural connections might bring about functional integration between RSNs remain largely unknown. Combining high-resolution diffusion weighted imaging with resting-state fMRI, we present novel evidence suggesting that the rich club structure plays a central role in cross-linking macroscopic RSNs of the human brain. Rich club hub nodes were present in all functional networks, accounted for a large proportion of "connector nodes," and were found to coincide with regions in which multiple networks overlap. In addition, a large proportion of all inter-RSN connections were found to involve rich club nodes, and these connections participated in a disproportionate number of communication paths linking nodes in different RSNs. Our findings suggest that the brain's rich club serves as a macroscopic anatomical substrate to cross-link functional networks and thus plays an important role in the integration of information between segregated functional domains of the human cortex.

  8. Reappraising the functional implications of the primate visual anatomical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Felleman, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    The primate visual system has been shown to be organized into an anatomical hierarchy by the application of a few principled criteria. It has been widely assumed that cortical visual processing is also hierarchical, with the anatomical hierarchy providing a defined substrate for clear levels of hierarchical function. A large body of empirical evidence seemed to support this assumption, including the general observations that functional properties of visual neurons grow progressively more complex at progressively higher levels of the anatomical hierarchy. However, a growing body of evidence, including recent direct experimental comparisons of functional properties at two or more levels of the anatomical hierarchy, indicates that visual processing neither is hierarchical nor parallels the anatomical hierarchy. Recent results also indicate that some of the pathways of visual information flow are not hierarchical, so that the anatomical hierarchy cannot be taken as a strict flowchart of visual information either. Thus, while the sustaining strength of the notion of hierarchical processing may be that it is rather simple, its fatal flaw is that it is overly simplistic.

  9. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  10. The pectoralis major footprint: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio de Figueired

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon to the humerus, through knowledge of its dimensions in the coronal and sagittal planes. Methods: Twenty shoulders from 10 cadavers were dissected and the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus was identified and isolated. The dimensions of its "footprint" (proximal to distal and medial to lateral borders and the distance from the top edge of the pectoralis major tendon to apex of the humeral head structures were measured. Results: The average proximal to distal border length was 80.8 mm (range: 70 -90 and the medial-to-lateral border length was 6.1 mm (5 -7. The average distance (and range from the apex of the pectoralis major tendon to the humeral head was 59.3 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is laminar, and the pectoralis major tendon has an average footprint height and width of 80.8 mm and 6.1 mm, respectively.

  11. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  12. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  13. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  14. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo eUrgesi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others’ actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others’ actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding.

  15. Anatomically corrected transposition of great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskij, A.V.; Sarkisova, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the description of rare congenital heart disease: anatomically corrected malposition of major vessels in a 9-mos 24 day old girl. The diagnosis of this disease was shown on the results of angiocardiography, concomitant congenital heart diseases were descibed. This abnormality is characterized by common atrioventricular and ventriculovascular joints and inversion position of the major vessels, it is always attended by congenital heart diseases. Surgical intervention is aimed at the elimination of concomitant heart dieseases

  16. Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus anatomical landmark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Femoral vein cannulation may be required during major surgery in infants and children and may prove to be life saving under certain conditions. This study compared ultrasound (US)-guided cannulation of the femoral vein in infants with the traditional anatomical landmark-guided technique. Methods Eighty ...

  17. Contemporary Tools and Techniques for Substrate Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Structural Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mathew D; Garza, Hyon-He K

    2018-02-24

    As we have witnessed in other arenas of catheter-based therapeutics, ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation has become increasingly anatomical in its execution. Multi-modality imaging provides anatomical detail in substrate characterization, which is often complex in nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Patients with intramural, intraseptal, and epicardial substrates provide challenges in delivering effective ablation to the critical arrhythmia substrate due to the depth of origin or the presence of adjacent critical structures. Novel ablation techniques such as simultaneous unipolar or bipolar ablation can be useful to achieve greater lesion depth, though at the expense of increasing collateral damage. Disruptive technologies like stereotactic radioablation may provide a tailored approach to these complex patients while minimizing procedural risk. Substrate ablation is a cornerstone of the contemporary VT ablation procedure, and recent data suggest that it is as effective and more efficient that conventional activation guided ablation. A number of specific targets and techniques for substrate ablation have been described, and all have shown a fairly high success in achieving their acute procedural endpoint. Substrate ablation also provides a novel and reproducible procedural endpoint, which may add predictive value for VT recurrence beyond conventional programmed stimulation. Extrapolation of outcome data to nonischemic phenotypes requires caution given both the variability in substrate nonischemic distribution and the underrepresentation of these patients in previous trials.

  18. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  19. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Shallice, Tim; Danelli, Laura; Sberna, Maurizio; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Frith, Chris D

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971), a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H 2 15 O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain degree of

  20. Salt effect on physiological, biochemical and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we evaluated the salt concentration effect on plant growth, mineral composition, antioxidant responses and anatomical structure of two varieties of Origanum majorana after exposure to NaCl treatment. Our results show an inclusive behaviour of the two varieties, since the majority of sodium was exported and ...

  1. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Paulesu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971, a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H215O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain

  2. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael Arévalo; Benjamin W. van Ee; Ricarda Riina; Paul E. Berry; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context...

  3. Segmentation of medical images using explicit anatomical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laurie S.; Brown, Stephen; Brown, Matthew S.; Young, Jeanne; Li, Rongxin; Luo, Suhuai; Brandt, Lee

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge-based image segmentation is defined in terms of the separation of image analysis procedures and representation of knowledge. Such architecture is particularly suitable for medical image segmentation, because of the large amount of structured domain knowledge. A general methodology for the application of knowledge-based methods to medical image segmentation is described. This includes frames for knowledge representation, fuzzy logic for anatomical variations, and a strategy for determining the order of segmentation from the modal specification. This method has been applied to three separate problems, 3D thoracic CT, chest X-rays and CT angiography. The application of the same methodology to such a range of applications suggests a major role in medical imaging for segmentation methods incorporating representation of anatomical knowledge.

  4. Anatomical Terms in J. Basanavičius’ Manuscript Anatomijos ir medicinos vardyno medžiaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Litevkienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical evolution of anatomical terms dates to antiquity, to the writings of Hippocrates. The historical development of Lithuanian anatomical terminology goes back to the seventeenth century. Anatomical terminology, as a comprehensive system of the names of human body parts is being compiled gradually. The originator of Lithuanian medical terminology was J. Basanavičius. The research paper aims to analyze anatomical terms used in J. Basanavičius’ manuscript Anatomijos ir medicinos vardyno medžiaga (further BM and to compare them with the terms in the Dictionary of Medical Terms ( Medicinos terminų žodynas 1980. The research focuses on the analysis of some aspects of differentiation and congruity of simple and multi-word anatomical terms of the manuscript and the dictionary. About 270 Lithuanian anatomical terms with Russian and Latin equivalents were collected by J. Basanavičius. The results show that the major part of the terms are different, the lesser part of the terms are identical.

  5. Differences in Radiation Dosimetry and Anorectal Function Testing Imply That Anorectal Symptoms May Arise From Different Anatomic Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeenk, Robert Jan; Hopman, Wim P.M.; Hoffmann, Aswin L.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the influence of functional changes and dosimetric parameters on specific incontinence-related anorectal complaints after prostate external beam radiotherapy and to estimate dose–effect relations for the anal wall and rectal wall. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients, irradiated for localized prostate cancer, underwent anorectal manometry and barostat measurements to evaluate anal pressures, rectal capacity, and rectal sensory functions. In addition, 30 untreated men were analyzed as a control group. In 36 irradiated patients, the anal wall and rectal wall were retrospectively delineated on planning computed tomography scans, and dosimetric parameters were retrieved from the treatment plans. Functional and dosimetric parameters were compared between patients with and without complaints, focusing on urgency, incontinence, and frequency. Results: After external beam radiotherapy, reduced anal pressures and tolerated rectal volumes were observed, irrespective of complaints. Patients with urgency and/or incontinence showed significantly lower anal resting pressures (mean 38 and 39 vs. 49 and 50 mm Hg) and lower tolerated rectal pressures (mean 28 and 28 vs. 33 and 34 mm Hg), compared to patients without these complaints. In patients with frequency, almost all rectal parameters were reduced. Several dosimetric parameters to the anal wall and rectal wall were predictive for urgency (e.g., anal D mean >38Gy), whereas some anal wall parameters correlated to incontinence and no dose–effect relation for frequency was found. Conclusions: Anorectal function deteriorates after external beam radiotherapy. Different incontinence-related complaints show specific anorectal dysfunctions, suggesting different anatomic and pathophysiologic substrates: urgency and incontinence seem to originate from both anal wall and rectal wall, whereas frequency seems associated with rectal wall dysfunction. Also, dose–effect relations differed between these complaints

  6. Isthmus sites identified by Ripple Mapping are usually anatomically stable: A novel method to guide atrial substrate ablation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Vishal; Qureshi, Norman; Lim, Phang Boon; Koa-Wing, Michael; Jamil-Copley, Shahnaz; Ng, Fu Siong; Whinnett, Zachary; Davies, D Wyn; Peters, Nicholas S; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Linton, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Postablation reentrant ATs depend upon conducting isthmuses bordered by scar. Bipolar voltage maps highlight scar as sites of low voltage, but the voltage amplitude of an electrogram depends upon the myocardial activation sequence. Furthermore, a voltage threshold that defines atrial scar is unknown. We used Ripple Mapping (RM) to test whether these isthmuses were anatomically fixed between different activation vectors and atrial rates. We studied post-AF ablation ATs where >1 rhythm was mapped. Multipolar catheters were used with CARTO Confidense for high-density mapping. RM visualized the pattern of activation, and the voltage threshold below which no activation was seen. Isthmuses were characterized at this threshold between maps for each patient. Ten patients were studied (Map 1 was AT1; Map 2: sinus 1/10, LA paced 2/10, AT2 with reverse CS activation 3/10; AT2 CL difference 50 ± 30 ms). Point density was similar between maps (Map 1: 2,589 ± 1,330; Map 2: 2,214 ± 1,384; P  =  0.31). RM activation threshold was 0.16 ± 0.08 mV. Thirty-one isthmuses were identified in Map 1 (median 3 per map; width 27 ± 15 mm; 7 anterior; 6 roof; 8 mitral; 9 septal; 1 posterior). Importantly, 7 of 31 (23%) isthmuses were unexpectedly identified within regions without prior ablation. AT1 was treated following ablation of 11/31 (35%) isthmuses. Of the remaining 20 isthmuses, 14 of 16 isthmuses (88%) were consistent between the two maps (four were inadequately mapped). Wavefront collision caused variation in low voltage distribution in 2 of 16 (12%). The distribution of isthmuses and nonconducting tissue within the ablated left atrium, as defined by RM, appear concordant between rhythms. This could guide a substrate ablative approach. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  8. US and MR Imaging of Pectoralis Major Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yauk K; Skalski, Matt R; White, Eric A; Tomasian, Anderanik; Phan, Diane D; Patel, Dakshesh B; Matcuk, George R; Schein, Aaron J

    2017-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the frequency of pectoralis major muscle injuries has increased in association with the increased popularity of bench press exercises. Injury of the pectoralis major can occur at the muscle origin, muscle belly, musculotendinous junction, intratendinous region, and/or humeral insertion-with or without bone avulsion. The extent of the tendon injury ranges from partial to complete tears. Treatment may be surgical or conservative, depending on the clinical scenario and anatomic characteristics of the injury. The radiologist has a critical role in the patient's treatment-first in detecting and then in characterizing the injury. In this article, the authors review the normal anatomy and anatomic variations of the pectoralis major muscle, classifications and typical patterns of pectoralis major injuries, and associated treatment considerations. The authors further provide an instructive guide for ultrasonographic (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evaluation of pectoralis major injuries, with emphasis on a systematic approach involving the use of anatomic landmarks. After reviewing this article, the reader should have an understanding of how to perform-and interpret the findings of-US and MR imaging of the pectoralis major. The reader should also understand how to classify pectoralis major injuries, with emphasis on the key findings used to differentiate injuries for which surgical management is required from those for which nonsurgical management is required. Familiarity with the normal but complex anatomy of the pectoralis major is crucial for performing imaging-based evaluation and understanding the injury findings. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  9. Posterolateral supporting structures of the knee: findings on anatomic dissection, anatomic slices and MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, M. de; Shahabpour, M.; Vanderdood, K.; Ridder, F. de; Osteaux, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium); Roy, F. van [Dept. of Experimental Anatomy, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    In this article we study the ligaments and tendons of the posterolateral corner of the knee by anatomic dissection, MR-anatomic correlation, and MR imaging. The posterolateral aspect of two fresh cadaveric knee specimens was dissected. The MR-anatomic correlation was performed in three other specimens. The MR images of 122 patients were reviewed and assessed for the visualization of different posterolateral structures. Anatomic dissection and MR-anatomic correlation demonstrated the lateral collateral, fabellofibular, and arcuate ligaments, as well as the biceps and popliteus tendons. On MR images of patients the lateral collateral ligament was depicted in all cases. The fabellofibular, arcuate, and popliteofibular ligaments were visualized in 33, 25, and 38% of patients, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging allows a detailed appreciation of the posterolateral corner of the knee. (orig.)

  10. Evolution of wood anatomical characters in Nepenthes and close relatives of Caryophyllales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwallier, Rachel; Gravendeel, Barbara; de Boer, Hugo; Nylinder, Stephan; van Heuven, Bertie Joan; Sieder, Anton; Sumail, Sukaibin; van Vugt, Rogier; Lens, Frederic

    2017-05-01

    Nepenthes attracts wide attention with its spectacularly shaped carnivorous pitchers, cultural value and horticultural curiosity. Despite the plant's iconic fascination, surprisingly little anatomical detail is known about the genus beyond its modified leaf tip traps. Here, the wood anatomical diversity of Nepenthes is explored. This diversity is further assessed with a phylogenetic framework to investigate whether the wood characters within the genus are relevant from an evolutionary or ecological perspective, or rather depend on differences in developmental stages, growth habits, substrates or precipitation. Observations were performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Ancestral states of selected wood and pith characters were reconstructed using an existing molecular phylogeny for Nepenthes and a broader Caryophyllales framework. Pairwise comparisons were assessed for possible relationships between wood anatomy and developmental stages, growth habits, substrates and ecology. Wood anatomy of Nepenthes is diffuse porous, with mainly solitary vessels showing simple, bordered perforation plates and alternate intervessel pits, fibres with distinctly bordered pits (occasionally septate), apotracheal axial parenchyma and co-occurring uni- and multiseriate rays often including silica bodies. Precipitation and growth habit (stem length) are linked with vessel density and multiseriate ray height, while soil type correlates with vessel diameter, vessel element length and maximum ray width. For Caryophyllales as a whole, silica grains, successive cambia and bordered perforation plates are the result of convergent evolution. Peculiar helical sculpturing patterns within various cell types occur uniquely within the insectivorous clade of non-core Caryophyllales. The wood anatomical variation in Nepenthes displays variation for some characters dependent on soil type, precipitation and stem length, but is largely conservative. The helical-banded fibre

  11. The ligament of Parks as a key anatomical structure for safer hemorrhoidectomy: Anatomic study and a simple surgical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Zoulamoglou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhoids are a common anal disorder which affects both men and women of all ages. One out of ten patients with hemorrhoidal disease, requires surgical treatment. Unfortunately though, hemorrhoidectomy is closely related to complications that can be present early or late postoperatively. In the present manuscript, the safe surgical technique which emphasizes to the identification of the key anatomical structure of the ligament of Parks (Trietz's muscle is adequately described. A total of 200 patients with grades III and IV hemorrhoids, underwent Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson's hemorrhoidectomy. The mucosal ligament of Parks was identified to all patients and was used as a key anatomical structure through the excision of the hemorrhoids. Its identification guides surgeons during the operation and reduces the major problem of postoperative complications. Finally, since the mucosal ligament of Parks represents a constantly identifiable landmark, it allows simple and reliable identification of the internal sphincter muscle and minimizes the probability of postoperative complications.

  12. Multifunctionality is affected by interactions between green roof plant species, substrate depth, and substrate type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza, Yann; Barot, Sébastien; Kraepiel, Yvan; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Abbadie, Luc; Raynaud, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services through evapotranspiration and nutrient cycling that depend, among others, on plant species, substrate type, and substrate depth. However, no study has assessed thoroughly how interactions between these factors alter ecosystem functions and multifunctionality of green roofs. We simulated some green roof conditions in a pot experiment. We planted 20 plant species from 10 genera and five families (Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) on two substrate types (natural vs. artificial) and two substrate depths (10 cm vs. 30 cm). As indicators of major ecosystem functions, we measured aboveground and belowground biomasses, foliar nitrogen and carbon content, foliar transpiration, substrate water retention, and dissolved organic carbon and nitrates in leachates. Interactions between substrate type and depth strongly affected ecosystem functions. Biomass production was increased in the artificial substrate and deeper substrates, as was water retention in most cases. In contrast, dissolved organic carbon leaching was higher in the artificial substrates. Except for the Fabaceae species, nitrate leaching was reduced in deep, natural soils. The highest transpiration rates were associated with natural soils. All functions were modulated by plant families or species. Plant effects differed according to the observed function and the type and depth of the substrate. Fabaceae species grown on natural soils had the most noticeable patterns, allowing high biomass production and high water retention but also high nitrate leaching from deep pots. No single combination of factors enhanced simultaneously all studied ecosystem functions, highlighting that soil-plant interactions induce trade-offs between ecosystem functions. Substrate type and depth interactions are major drivers for green roof multifunctionality.

  13. Systematic significance of anatomical characterization in some euphorbiaceous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.B.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to explore the systematic potential of anatomical characters for identification and delimitation among Euphorbia species. Eight species of leafy spurges of genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for variations in micro morphological characters of foliar epidermal anatomy. While anatomical observations are of importance in the assessments and appraisals, use of these characters as an effective tool in interpreting phyletic evaluations and systematic delineations has its limitations too. The epidermal cell wall in majority of species was wavy to undulate on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The observations made in this study indicate that there is not a single type of stomata which appears as characteristic of the genus Euphorbia. Also their distribution whether epistomatic or hypostomatic is not a genus-characteristic. The trichomes found were simple, unicellular or multicellular, uniseriate. Present investigation revealed the utility of both qualitative and quantitative characters in systematic studies; also the potential influence in the delimitation of species cannot be ignored. Our results show that the micro-morphology of anatomical characters play an important role in definition of taxa at species and sectional levels. (author)

  14. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  15. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology.

  16. Mortimer Frank, Johann Ludwig Choulant, and the history of anatomical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feibel, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Mortimer Frank (1874-1919) was an ophthalmologist in Chicago, Illinois. He published a number of papers on the history of medicine, and was secretary of the Chicago Society of the History of Medicine and editor of their Bulletin. His major contribution to the history of medicine relates to the history of anatomical illustration. The classic book on that subject had been published in 1852 in German by the physician and historian, Johann Ludwig Choulant (1791-1861). However, by Frank's time this text was both out dated and out of print. Frank took on the tremendous project of translating Choulant's German text into English as History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration in Its Relation to Anatomic Science and The Graphic Arts. He improved Choulant's text with the results of his and other scholars' research, greatly enlarging the text. Frank supplemented the original book with a biography of Choulant, essays on anatomists not considered in the original text, and an essay on the history of anatomical illustration prior to those authors discussed by Choulant. This book, now referred to as Choulant/Frank, has been reprinted several times, and is still useful as a reference in this field, though some of its research is now dated.

  17. Disruption of brain anatomical networks in schizophrenia: A longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Chen, Yu; Lee, Renick; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Collinson, Simon L; Sim, Kang

    2016-03-01

    Despite convergent neuroimaging evidence indicating a wide range of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, our understanding of alterations in the topological architecture of brain anatomical networks and how they are modulated over time, is still rudimentary. Here, we employed graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI) over a 5-year period to investigate brain network topology in schizophrenia and its relationship with clinical manifestations of the illness. Using deterministic tractography, weighted brain anatomical networks were constructed from 31 patients experiencing schizophrenia and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Although the overall small-world characteristics were observed at both baseline and follow-up, a scan-point independent significant deficit of global integration was found in patients compared to controls, suggesting dysfunctional integration of the brain and supporting the notion of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Specifically, several brain regions (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus and the bilateral insula) that are crucial for cognitive and emotional integration were aberrant. Furthermore, a significant group-by-longitudinal scan interaction was revealed in the characteristic path length and global efficiency, attributing to a progressive aberration of global integration in patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the progressive disruptions of the brain anatomical network topology were associated with the clinical symptoms of the patients. Together, our findings provide insights into the substrates of anatomical dysconnectivity patterns for schizophrenia and highlight the potential for connectome-based metrics as neural markers of illness progression and clinical change with treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval; Ramos, Laura Filgueiras Mourao; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  19. ArthroBroström Lateral Ankle Stabilization Technique: An Anatomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jorge I; Ortiz, Cristian; Golano, Pau; Nery, Caio

    2015-10-01

    Broström technique for lateral ankle stabilization. While none of the critical anatomic structures was entrapped by the suture knots, it was evident that the IER was included in a majority of the repairs. This study further defines the proximity of adjacent anatomic structures and establishes the anatomic safe zones for the ArthroBroström lateral ankle stabilization procedure. By defining this relatively risk-free zone, surgeons who are not as experienced with arthroscopic lateral ligament repair techniques may approach arthroscopic suture passage with more confidence. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. The Enzyme Activity and Substrate Specificity of Two Major Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), SbCAD2 and SbCAD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Se-Young; Walker, Alexander M; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2017-08-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, reducing sinapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and p -coumaraldehyde to their corresponding alcohols in an NADPH-dependent manner. Because of its terminal location in monolignol biosynthesis, the variation in substrate specificity and activity of CAD can result in significant changes in overall composition and amount of lignin. Our in-depth characterization of two major CAD isoforms, SbCAD2 (Brown midrib 6 [bmr6]) and SbCAD4, in lignifying tissues of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ), a strategic plant for generating renewable chemicals and fuels, indicates their similarity in both structure and activity to Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) CAD5 and Populus tremuloides sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. This first crystal structure of a monocot CAD combined with enzyme kinetic data and a catalytic model supported by site-directed mutagenesis allows full comparison with dicot CADs and elucidates the potential signature sequence for their substrate specificity and activity. The L119W/G301F-SbCAD4 double mutant displayed its substrate preference in the order coniferaldehyde > p -coumaraldehyde > sinapaldehyde, with higher catalytic efficiency than that of both wild-type SbCAD4 and SbCAD2. As SbCAD4 is the only major CAD isoform in bmr6 mutants, replacing SbCAD4 with L119W/G301F-SbCAD4 in bmr6 plants could produce a phenotype that is more amenable to biomass processing. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Review of Evidence Suggesting That the Fascia Network Could Be the Anatomical Basis for Acupoints and Meridians in the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical basis for the concept of meridians in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has not been resolved. This paper reviews the evidence supporting a relationship between acupuncture points/meridians and fascia. The reviewed evidence supports the view that the human body's fascia network may be the physical substrate represented by the meridians of TCM. Specifically, this hypothesis is supported by anatomical observations of body scan data demonstrating that the fascia network resembles the theoretical meridian system in salient ways, as well as physiological, histological, and clinical observations. This view represents a theoretical basis and means for applying modern biomedical research to examining TCM principles and therapies, and it favors a holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  2. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Cardiac Conduction System: Delineation of Anatomic Landmarks With Multidetector CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood Saremi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Major components of the cardiac conduction system including the sinoatrial node (SAN, atrioventricular node (AVN, the His Bundle, and the right and left bundle branches are too small to be directly visualized by multidetector CT (MDCT given the limited spatial resolution of current scanners. However, the related anatomic landmarks and variants of this system a well as the areas with special interest to electrophysiologists can be reliably demonstrated by MDCT. Some of these structures and landmarks include the right SAN artery, right atrial cavotricuspid isthmus, Koch triangle, AVN artery, interatrial muscle bundles, and pulmonary veins. In addition, MDCT has an imperative role in demarcating potential arrhythmogenic structures. The aim of this review will be to assess the extent at which MDCT can outline the described anatomic landmarks and therefore provide crucial information used in clinical practice.

  4. Anatomical localization of commensal bacteria in immune cell homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Thomas C; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2014-07-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are essential for promoting normal intestinal physiology. While the majority of commensal bacteria are found in the intestinal lumen, many species have also adapted to colonize different anatomical locations in the intestine, including the surface of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the interior of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. These distinct tissue localization patterns permit unique interactions with the mammalian immune system and collectively influence intestinal immune cell homeostasis. Conversely, dysregulated localization of commensal bacteria can lead to inappropriate activation of the immune system and is associated with numerous chronic infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. Therefore, regulatory mechanisms that control proper anatomical containment of commensal bacteria are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis and limit pathology. In this review, we propose that commensal bacteria associated with the mammalian GI tract can be anatomically defined as (i) luminal, (ii) epithelial-associated, or (iii) lymphoid tissue-resident, and we discuss the role and regulation of these microbial populations in health and disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Artery - Its Morphology, Embryogenesis and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    KS, Siddaraju; Venumadhav, Nelluri; Sharma, Ashish; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of variation pattern of the major arteries of upper limb is of considerable practical importance in the conduct of reparative surgery in the arm, forearm and hand however brachial artery and its terminal branches variations are less common. Aim: Accordingly the present study was designed to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial artery and its morphology, embryogenesis and clinical implications. Materials and Methods: In an anatomical study 140 upper limb specimens of 70 cadavers (35 males and 35 females) were used and anatomical variations of the brachial artery have been documented. Results: Accessory brachial artery was noted in eight female cadavers (11.43%). Out of eight cadavers in three cadavers (4.29%) an unusual bilateral accessory brachial artery arising from the axillary artery and it is continuing in the forearm as superficial accessory ulnar artery was noted. Rare unusual variant unilateral accessory brachial artery and its reunion with the main brachial artery in the cubital fossa and its variable course in relation to the musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve were also noted in five cadavers (7.14%). Conclusion: As per our knowledge such anatomical variations of brachial artery and its terminal branches with their relation to the surrounding structures are not reported in the modern medical literature. An awareness of such a presence is valuable for the surgeons and radiologists in evaluation of angiographic images, vascular and re-constructive surgery or appropriate treatment for compressive neuropathies. PMID:25653931

  6. 4PS/insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, M E; Sun, X J; Bruening, J C; Araki, E; Lipes, M A; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1995-10-20

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the major cytoplasmic substrate of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptors. Transgenic mice lacking IRS-1 are resistant to insulin and IGF-1, but exhibit significant residual insulin action which corresponds to the presence of an alternative high molecular weight substrate in liver and muscle. Recently, Sun et al. (Sun, X.-J., Wang, L.-M., Zhang, Y., Yenush, L. P., Myers, M. G., Jr., Glasheen, E., Lane, W.S., Pierce, J. H., and White, M. F. (1995) Nature 377, 173-177) purified and cloned 4PS, the major substrate of the IL-4 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase in myeloid cells, which has significant structural similarity to IRS-1. To determine if 4PS is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice, we performed immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase assays using specific antibodies to 4PS. Following insulin stimulation, 4PS is rapidly phosphorylated in liver and muscle, binds to the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, and activates the enzyme. Insulin stimulation also results in the association of 4PS with Grb 2 in both liver and muscle. In IRS-1-deficient mice, both the phosphorylation of 4PS and associated PI 3-kinase activity are enhanced, without an increase in protein expression. Immunodepletion of 4PS from liver and muscle homogenates removes most of the phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1-deficient mice. Thus, 4PS is the primary alternative substrate, i.e. IRS-2, which plays a major role in physiologic insulin signal transduction via both PI 3-kinase activation and Grb 2/Sos association. In IRS-1-deficient mice, 4PS/IRS-2 provides signal transduction to these two major pathways of insulin signaling.

  7. Decreased long- and short-range functional connectivity at rest in drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Xue, Zhimin; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal functional connectivity has been observed in major depressive disorder. Anatomical distance may affect functional connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder. However, whether and how anatomical distance affects functional connectivity at rest remains unclear in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder. Forty-four patients with major depressive disorder, as well as 44 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Regional functional connectivity strength was calculated for each voxel in the whole brain, which was further divided into short- and long-range functional connectivity strength. The patients showed decreased long-range positive functional connectivity strength in the right inferior parietal lobule, as well as decreased short-range positive functional connectivity strength in the right insula and right superior temporal gyrus relative to those of the controls. No significant correlations existed between abnormal functional connectivity strength and the clinical variables of the patients. The findings revealed that anatomical distance decreases long- and short-range functional connectivity strength in patients with major depressive disorder, which may underlie the neurobiology of major depressive disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. Familial intracranial aneurysms: is anatomic vulnerability heritable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jason; Brown, Robert D; Moomaw, Charles J; Hornung, Richard; Sauerbeck, Laura; Woo, Daniel; Foroud, Tatiana; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Flaherty, Matthew L; Meissner, Irene; Anderson, Craig; Rouleau, Guy; Connolly, E Sander; Deka, Ranjan; Koller, Daniel L; Abruzzo, Todd; Huston, John; Broderick, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that family members with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) often harbor IAs in similar anatomic locations. IA location is important because of its association with rupture. We tested the hypothesis that anatomic susceptibility to IA location exists using a family-based IA study. We identified all affected probands and first-degree relatives (FDRs) with a definite or probable phenotype in each family. We stratified each IA of the probands by major arterial territory and calculated each family's proband-FDR territory concordance and overall contribution to the concordance analysis. We then matched each family unit to an unrelated family unit selected randomly with replacement and performed 1001 simulations. The median concordance proportions, odds ratios (ORs), and P values from the 1001 logistic regression analyses were used to represent the final results of the analysis. There were 323 family units available for analysis, including 323 probands and 448 FDRs, with a total of 1176 IAs. IA territorial concordance was higher in the internal carotid artery (55.4% versus 45.6%; OR, 1.54 [1.04-2.27]; P=0.032), middle cerebral artery (45.8% versus 30.5%; OR, 1.99 [1.22-3.22]; P=0.006), and vertebrobasilar system (26.6% versus 11.3%; OR, 2.90 [1.05-8.24], P=0.04) distributions in the true family compared with the comparison family. Concordance was also higher when any location was considered (53.0% versus 40.7%; OR, 1.82 [1.34-2.46]; PIA development, we found that IA territorial concordance was higher when probands were compared with their own affected FDRs than with comparison FDRs, which suggests that anatomic vulnerability to IA formation exists. Future studies of IA genetics should consider stratifying cases by IA location.

  9. Anatomical Recruitment of Spinal V2a Interneurons into Phrenic Motor Circuitry after High Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V; Karliner, Jordyn S; Dougherty, Kimberly J; Lane, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown. Using a transgenic Chx10-eGFP mouse line (Strain 011391-UCD), the present study is the first to demonstrate the recruitment of excitatory interneurons into injured phrenic circuitry after a high cervical SCI. Diaphragm electromyography and anatomical analysis were used to confirm lesion-induced functional deficits and document extent of the lesion, respectively. Transneuronal tracing with pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used to identify interneurons within the phrenic circuitry. There was a robust increase in the number of PRV-labeled V2a interneurons ipsilateral to the C2 hemisection, demonstrating that significant numbers of these excitatory spinal interneurons were anatomically recruited into the phrenic motor pathway two weeks after injury, a time known to correspond with functional phrenic plasticity. Understanding this anatomical spinal plasticity and the neural substrates associated with functional compensation or recovery post-SCI in a controlled, experimental setting may help shed light onto possible cellular therapeutic candidates that can be targeted to enhance spontaneous recovery.

  10. Introducing 3-Dimensional Printing of a Human Anatomic Pathology Specimen: Potential Benefits for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Anatomic Pathology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amr; Bennett, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, a rapidly advancing technology, is widely applied in fields such as mechanical engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional printing has been introduced recently into medical practice in areas such as reconstructive surgery, as well as in clinical research. Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic and autopsy pathology specimens can be used for demonstrating pathology entities to undergraduate medical, dental, and biomedical students, as well as for postgraduate training in examination of gross specimens for anatomic pathology residents and pathology assistants, aiding clinicopathological correlation at multidisciplinary team meetings, and guiding reconstructive surgical procedures. To apply 3D printing in anatomic pathology for teaching, training, and clinical correlation purposes. Multicolored 3D printing of human anatomic pathology specimens was achieved using a ZCorp 510 3D printer (3D Systems, Rock Hill, South Carolina) following creation of a 3D model using Autodesk 123D Catch software (Autodesk, Inc, San Francisco, California). Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic pathology specimens created included pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple operation) and radical nephrectomy specimens. The models accurately depicted the topographic anatomy of selected specimens and illustrated the anatomic relation of excised lesions to adjacent normal tissues. Three-dimensional printing of human anatomic pathology specimens is achievable. Advances in 3D printing technology may further improve the quality of 3D printable anatomic pathology specimens.

  11. TIBIAL LANDMARKS IN ACL ANATOMIC REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  12. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Anatomical reconstruction of unstable trochanteric fractures through posterior approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Unstable intertrochanteric fractures continue to be a challenge for orthopedic surgeons due to the functional limitations it results in the postoperative period. Anatomical reconstruction of the posteromedial fragment becomes difficult through conventional lateral approach, leading to excessive fracture collapse and limping. Materials and Methods: prospective, nonrandomized study was done with 40 patients. They were operated in prone position through posterior approach. Cancellous screws or SS-wires were used to fix the greater or lesser trochanteric fragments and dynamic hip screw (DHS or dynamic condylar screw (DCS for the main two fragments. Bone grafts were used to pack cavities at the posterior trochanteric regions. Results: Fracture healing occurred earlier compared to conventional lateral approach without excessive fracture collapse in majority of cases (average time to achieve union was 13.8 weeks; range: 10–18 weeks. Good functional recovery was noted with 75% 'Good' or 'Excellent' Harris Hip Scores at 24 weeks. Conclusion: Anatomical reconstruction of unstable trochanteric fractures becomes easier through posterior approach with earlier and better functional recovery.

  14. Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images) within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR) provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured

  15. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Rafael; van Ee, Benjamin W; Riina, Ricarda; Berry, Paul E; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2017-03-01

    Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date. Plant habit and habitat are highly correlated, but most wood anatomical features correlate more strongly with habit. The ancestral Croton was reconstructed as a tree, the wood of which is inferred to have absent or indistinct growth rings, confluent-like axial parenchyma, procumbent ray cells and disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls. The taxa sampled showed multiple independent origins of the shrub habit in Croton , and this habit shift is contingent on several wood anatomical features (e.g. similar vessel-ray pits, thick fibre walls, perforated ray cells). The only wood anatomical trait correlated with habitat and not habit was the presence of helical thickenings in the vessel elements of mesic Croton . Plant functional traits, individually or in suites, are responses to multiple and often confounding contexts in evolution. By establishing an explicit contingent evolutionary framework, the interplay between habit, habitat and wood anatomical diversity was dissected in the genus Croton . Both habit and habitat influence the evolution of wood anatomical characters, and conversely, the wood anatomy of lineages can affect shifts in plant habit and habitat. This study hypothesizes novel putatively functional trait associations in woody plant structure that could be further tested in a variety of other taxa. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company 2017. This work is

  16. Unilateral Duplication Of Parotid Duct. A Rare Anatomical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paired parotid glands are the largest of the major salivary glands and produces mainly serous secretions. The secretion of this gland reaches the oral cavity through single parotid duct (Stensen’s duct. The parotid duct begins at the anterior border of the gland, crosses the masseter muscle, and then pierces the buccinator muscle to reach the mucosa lining the mouth at the level of the cheek. The purpose of this study is determine the morphologic features of the parotid duct and describe an anatomical variation until now unreported. Methods and Findings: A total of 17 cadavers were used for this study in the Morphology Laboratory at the University of Pamplona. In a cadaver were findings: The main parotid duct originated two conducts: Left superior parotid duct and Left inferior parotid duct, is observed the criss-cross of the ducts, and then perforated the buccinator muscle and entered the oral cavity at a double parotid papilla containing a double opening, separated from each other in 0,98 mm. In the remaining  33 parotid regions (97.06% the parotid duct is conformed to the classical descriptions given in anatomical textbooks. Conclusions: The parotid duct anatomy is important for duct endoscopy, lithotripsy, sialography and trans-ductal facial nerve stimulation in the early stage of facial palsy in some cases. The anatomical variations also has clinical importance for parotid gland surgery and facial cosmetic surgery. To keep in mind the parotid duct variation will reduce iatrogenic injury risks and improve diagnosis of parotid duct injury.

  17. Distinct and Shared Endophenotypes of Neural Substrates in Bipolar and Major Depressive Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsubara

    Full Text Available Little is known about disorder-specific biomarkers of bipolar disorder (BD and major depressive disorder (MDD. Our aim was to determine a neural substrate that could be used to distinguish BD from MDD. Our study included a BD group (10 patients with BD, 10 first-degree relatives (FDRs of individuals with BD, MDD group (17 patients with MDD, 17 FDRs of individuals with MDD, and 27 healthy individuals. Structural and functional brain abnormalities were evaluated by voxel-based morphometry and a trail making test (TMT, respectively. The BD group showed a significant main effect of diagnosis in the gray matter (GM volume of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; p = 0.01 and left insula (p < 0.01. FDRs of individuals with BD showed significantly smaller left ACC GM volume than healthy subjects (p < 0.01, and patients with BD showed significantly smaller ACC (p < 0.01 and left insular GM volume (p < 0.01 than healthy subjects. The MDD group showed a tendency toward a main effect of diagnosis in the right and left insular GM volume. The BD group showed a significantly inverse correlation between the left insular GM volume and TMT-A scores (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that the ACC volume could be a distinct endophenotype of BD, while the insular volume could be a shared BD and MDD endophenotype. Moreover, the insula could be associated with cognitive decline and poor outcome in BD.

  18. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  19. Visual and anatomical outcomes following idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzadi, B.; Rizvi, S.F.; Latif, K.; Naz, S.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the visual and anatomical outcomes following idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane (IERM) surgery. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Layton Rehmatulla Benevolent Trust (L.R.B.T), Free Base Eye Hospital, Karachi, from January 2015 to June 2016. Methodology: Thirty eyes of thirty patients affected with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane stage 2 were enrolled in this study. They subsequently underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with epiretinal membrane removal without internal limiting membrane peeling. The visual outcome was measured as improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of at least two or more lines on ETDRS chart as compared to preoperative BCVA. The anatomical outcome was measured as decrease in foveal thickness on Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Patients were followed for a period of 06 months. Results: At the end of follow-ups, 23 (76%) eyes out of 30 gained 2 or more lines of vision. In 05 (16%) eyes, BCVA remained same and only 02 (6.6%) eyes showed worsening of vision. Mean preoperative foveal thickness was 392 ± 20 micro m, whereas mean postoperative thickness was 305 ± 16 micro m with an average decrease of 87 micro m, in foveal thickness. Recurrence of ERM was found to be the most frequent complication. Conclusion: IERM surgery is a safe procedure and beneficial in achieving significant visual acuity improvement and anatomical recovery in the majority of cases. (author)

  20. Nonintubated uniportal VATS pulmonary anatomical resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Carlos; Navarro-Martinez, Jose; Bolufer, Sergio; Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio; Corcoles, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Nonintubated procedures have widely developed during the last years, thus nowadays major anatomical resections are performed in spontaneously breathing patients in some centers. In an attempt for combining less invasive surgical approaches with less aggressive anesthesia, nonintubated uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomies and segmentectomies have been proved feasible and safe, but there are no comparative trials and the evidence is still poor. A program in nonintubated uniportal major surgery should be started in highly experienced units, overcoming first a learning period performing minor procedures and a training program for the management of potential crisis situations when operating on these patients. A multidisciplinary approach including all the professionals in the operating room (OR), emergency protocols and a comprehensive knowledge of the special physiology of nonintubated surgery are mandatory. Some concerns about regional analgesia, vagal block for cough reflex control and oxygenation techniques, combined with some specific surgical tips can make safer these procedures. Specialists must remember an essential global concept: all the efforts are aimed at decreasing the invasiveness of the whole procedure in order to benefit patients' intraoperative status and postoperative recovery.

  1. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  2. Structure, substrate recognition and reactivity of Leishmania major mevalonate kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter William N

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoprenoid precursor synthesis via the mevalonate route in humans and pathogenic trypanosomatids is an important metabolic pathway. There is however, only limited information available on the structure and reactivity of the component enzymes in trypanosomatids. Since isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential for trypanosomatid viability and may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention it is important to characterize the pathway components. Results Putative mevalonate kinase encoding genes from Leishmania major (LmMK and Trypanosoma brucei (TbMK have been cloned, over-expressed in and proteins isolated from procyclic-form T. brucei. A highly sensitive radioactive assay was developed and shows ATP-dependent phosphorylation of mevalonate. Apo and (R-mevalonate bound crystal structures of LmMK, from a bacterial expression system, have been determined to high resolution providing, for the first time, information concerning binding of mevalonate to an MK. The mevalonate binds in a deep cavity lined by highly conserved residues. His25 is key for binding and for discrimination of (R- over (S-mevalonate, with the main chain amide interacting with the C3 hydroxyl group of (R-mevalonate, and the side chain contributing, together with Val202 and Thr283, to the construction of a hydrophobic binding site for the C3 methyl substituent. The C5 hydroxyl, where phosphorylation occurs, points towards catalytic residues, Lys18 and Asp155. The activity of LmMK was significantly reduced compared to MK from other species and we were unable to obtain ATP-binding data. Comparisons with the rat MK:ATP complex were used to investigate how this substrate might bind. In LmMK, helix α2 and the preceding polypeptide adopt a conformation, not seen in related kinase structures, impeding access to the nucleotide triphosphate binding site suggesting that a conformational rearrangement is required to allow ATP binding. Conclusion Our new structural

  3. Anatomical Basis for the Cardiac Interventional Electrophysiologist

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    Damián Sánchez-Quintana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of radiofrequency catheter ablation techniques as the mainstay in the treatment of tachycardia has renewed new interest in cardiac anatomy. The interventional arrhythmologist has drawn attention not only to the gross anatomic details of the heart but also to architectural and histological characteristics of various cardiac regions that are relevant to the development or recurrence of tachyarrhythmias and procedural related complications of catheter ablation. In this review, therefore, we discuss some anatomic landmarks commonly used in catheter ablations including the terminal crest, sinus node region, Koch’s triangle, cavotricuspid isthmus, Eustachian ridge and valve, pulmonary venous orifices, venoatrial junctions, and ventricular outflow tracts. We also discuss the anatomical features of important structures in the vicinity of the atria and pulmonary veins, such as the esophagus and phrenic nerves. This paper provides basic anatomic information to improve understanding of the mapping and ablative procedures for cardiac interventional electrophysiologists.

  4. Interpreting and Integrating Clinical and Anatomic Pathology Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Lila; Hinrichs, Mary Jane; Skuba, Elizabeth V; Iverson, William O; Ennulat, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The continuing education course on integrating clinical and anatomical pathology data was designed to communicate the importance of using a weight of evidence approach to interpret safety findings in toxicology studies. This approach is necessary, as neither clinical nor anatomic pathology data can be relied upon in isolation to fully understand the relationship between study findings and the test article. Basic principles for correlating anatomic pathology and clinical pathology findings and for integrating these with other study end points were reviewed. To highlight these relationships, a series of case examples, presented jointly by a clinical pathologist and an anatomic pathologist, were used to illustrate the collaborative effort required between clinical and anatomical pathologists. In addition, the diagnostic utility of traditional liver biomarkers was discussed using results from a meta-analysis of rat hepatobiliary marker and histopathology data. This discussion also included examples of traditional and novel liver and renal biomarker data implementation in nonclinical toxicology studies to illustrate the relationship between discrete changes in biochemistry and tissue morphology.

  5. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  6. Standards to support information systems integration in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christel; García Rojo, Marcial; Bourquard, Karima; Henin, Dominique; Schrader, Thomas; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Gilbertson, John; Beckwith, Bruce A

    2009-11-01

    Integrating anatomic pathology information- text and images-into electronic health care records is a key challenge for enhancing clinical information exchange between anatomic pathologists and clinicians. The aim of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) international initiative is precisely to ensure interoperability of clinical information systems by using existing widespread industry standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). To define standard-based informatics transactions to integrate anatomic pathology information to the Healthcare Enterprise. We used the methodology of the IHE initiative. Working groups from IHE, HL7, and DICOM, with special interest in anatomic pathology, defined consensual technical solutions to provide end-users with improved access to consistent information across multiple information systems. The IHE anatomic pathology technical framework describes a first integration profile, "Anatomic Pathology Workflow," dedicated to the diagnostic process including basic image acquisition and reporting solutions. This integration profile relies on 10 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standards. A common specimen model was defined to consistently identify and describe specimens in both HL7 and DICOM transactions. The IHE anatomic pathology working group has defined standard-based informatics transactions to support the basic diagnostic workflow in anatomic pathology laboratories. In further stages, the technical framework will be completed to manage whole-slide images and semantically rich structured reports in the diagnostic workflow and to integrate systems used for patient care and those used for research activities (such as tissue bank databases or tissue microarrayers).

  7. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; An, Jie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Chen, Fanglin; Wang, Wensheng; Qiu, Shijun; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  8. Seismic communication in a blind subterranean mammal: a major somatosensory mechanism in adaptive evolution underground.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevo, E; Heth, G; Pratt, H

    1991-01-01

    Seismic communication, through low-frequency and patterned substrate-borne vibrations that are generated by head thumping, and which travel long distances underground, is important in the nonvisual communication of subterranean mole rats of the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies (2n = 52, 54, 58, and 60) in Israel. This importance pertains both intraspecifically in adaptation and interspecifically in speciation. Neurophysiologic, behavioral, and anatomic findings in this study suggest that the me...

  9. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Ducatman MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization’s methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical “full-time faculty” (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above. The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs–reported median work relative

  10. Substrate binding accelerates the conformational transitions and substrate dissociation in multidrug efflux transporter AcrB

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    Beibei eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tripartite efflux pump assembly AcrAB-TolC is the major multidrug resistance transporter in E. coli. The inner membrane transporter AcrB is a homotrimer, energized by the proton movement down the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The asymmetric crystal structures of AcrB with three monomers in distinct conformational states (access (A, binding (B and extrusion (E support a functional rotating mechanism, in which each monomer of AcrB cycles among the three states in a concerted way. However, the relationship between the conformational changes during functional rotation and drug translocation has not been totally understood. Here, we explored the conformational changes of the AcrB homotrimer during the ABE→BEA transition in different substrate-binding states using targeted MD simulations. It was found that the dissociation of substrate from the distal binding pocket of B monomer is closely related to the concerted conformational changes in the translocation pathway, especially the side chain reorientation of Phe628 and Tyr327. A second substrate binding at the proximal binding pocket of A monomer evidently accelerates the conformational transitions as well as substrate dissociation in B monomer. The acceleration effect of the multi-substrate binding mode provides a molecular explanation for the positive cooperativity observed in the kinetic studies of substrate efflux and deepens our understanding of the functional rotating mechanism of AcrB.

  11. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  12. Anatomical background and generalized detectability in tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, G. J.; Tward, D. J.; Lee, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Anatomical background presents a major impediment to detectability in 2D radiography as well as 3D tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT). This article incorporates theoretical and experimental analysis of anatomical background ''noise'' in cascaded systems analysis of 2D and 3D imaging performance to yield ''generalized'' metrics of noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ) and detectability index as a function of the orbital extent of the (circular arc) source-detector orbit. Methods: A physical phantom was designed based on principles of fractal self-similarity to exhibit power-law spectral density (κ/f β ) comparable to various anatomical sites (e.g., breast and lung). Background power spectra [S B (f)] were computed as a function of source-detector orbital extent, including tomosynthesis (∼10 deg. - 180 deg.) and CBCT (180 deg. +fan to 360 deg.) under two acquisition schemes: (1) Constant angular separation between projections (variable dose) and (2) constant total number of projections (constant dose). The resulting S B was incorporated in the generalized NEQ, and detectability index was computed from 3D cascaded systems analysis for a variety of imaging tasks. Results: The phantom yielded power-law spectra within the expected spatial frequency range, quantifying the dependence of clutter magnitude (κ) and correlation (β) with increasing tomosynthesis angle. Incorporation of S B in the 3D NEQ provided a useful framework for analyzing the tradeoffs among anatomical, quantum, and electronic noise with dose and orbital extent. Distinct implications are posed for breast and chest tomosynthesis imaging system design--applications varying significantly in κ and β, and imaging task and, therefore, in optimal selection of orbital extent, number of projections, and dose. For example, low-frequency tasks (e.g., soft-tissue masses or nodules) tend to benefit from larger orbital extent and more fully 3D tomographic imaging, whereas high-frequency tasks (e

  13. A Proposed Set of Metrics to Reduce Patient Safety Risk From Within the Anatomic Pathology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Peter; Brown, Richard; Laslowski, Alex; Daniels, Yvonne; Branton, Phil; Carpenter, John; Zarbo, Richard; Forsyth, Ramses; Liu, Yan-Hui; Kohl, Shane; Diebold, Joachim; Masuda, Shinobu; Plummer, Tim; Dennis, Eslie

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic pathology laboratory workflow consists of 3 major specimen handling processes. Among the workflow are preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic phases that contain multistep subprocesses with great impact on patient care. A worldwide representation of experts came together to create a system of metrics, as a basis for laboratories worldwide, to help them evaluate and improve specimen handling to reduce patient safety risk. Members of the Initiative for Anatomic Pathology Laboratory Patient Safety (IAPLPS) pooled their extensive expertise to generate a list of metrics highlighting processes with high and low risk for adverse patient outcomes. : Our group developed a universal, comprehensive list of 47 metrics for patient specimen handling in the anatomic pathology laboratory. Steps within the specimen workflow sequence are categorized as high or low risk. In general, steps associated with the potential for specimen misidentification correspond to the high-risk grouping and merit greater focus within quality management systems. Primarily workflow measures related to operational efficiency can be considered low risk. Our group intends to advance the widespread use of these metrics in anatomic pathology laboratories to reduce patient safety risk and improve patient care with development of best practices and interlaboratory error reporting programs. © American Society for Clinical Pathology 2017.

  14. Surface anatomy of major anatomical landmarks of the neck in an adult population: A Ct Evaluation of Vertebral Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Masroor; Soames, Roger; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Jaffar; Khan, Adnan

    2017-09-01

    To compare the projectional surface anatomy of healthy individuals in an adult population with those with a thyroid mass, using computed tomography (CT). Sixteen slice CT images of 101 individuals were analyzed using a 32-bit Radiant DICOM viewer to establish the relationships among major anatomical landmarks in the neck and their vertebral levels. The structures investigated included: hard palate (HP), hyoid bone (HB) including body and lesser horns, soft palate (SP), thyroid gland (TG) (both superior and inferior poles), thyroid gland anteroposterior (APD) and superoinferior (SID) diameters, thyroid isthmus (TI) superoinferior dimension, epiglottis, vertebral arteries (right and left), and both right and left parotid glands (superior and inferior extents). The vertebral levels noted most frequently were: body of hyoid bone (C4, 42.71%); lesser horns of hyoid bone (C3, 36.46%); thyroid gland superior pole (C6, 31.25%); and thyroid gland inferior pole (T2, 30.2%). TG-ID, TG-APD, and TG-SID were not significantly different between males and females in the healthy group; however, there was a significant gender difference in thyroid gland inferior diameter in the pathology group [males 2.16(±1.16) vs. females 3.37(±1.30), P = 0.01, paired sample t-test]. Further studies are needed to determine whether neck pathology in those with a thyroid mass affects the dimensions of the thyroid gland. Moreover, the surface anatomy of the neck should be revisited using modern imaging techniques to address inconsistencies in anatomy and clinical reference texts. Clin. Anat. 30:781-787, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  17. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Di Somma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1 simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions; (2 dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered.

  18. Perceptions of science. The anatomical mission to Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappol, Michael

    2003-10-10

    Until the 1830s, most Americans were unfamiliar with the images of anatomy. Then a small vanguard of reformers and missionaries began to preach, at home and around the world, that an identification with the images and concepts of anatomy was a crucial part of the civilizing process. In his essay, Sappol charts the changes in the perception of self that resulted from this anatomical evangelism. Today, as anatomical images abound in the arts and the media, we still believe that anatomical images show us our inner reality.

  19. Uniportal anatomic combined unusual segmentectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivas, Diego; Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, sublobar anatomic resections are gaining momentum as a valid alternative for early stage lung cancer. Despite being technically demanding, anatomic segmentectomies can be performed by uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach to combine the benefits of minimally invasiveness with the maximum lung sparing. This procedure can be even more complex if a combined resection of multiple segments from different lobes has to be done. Here we report five cases of combined and unusual segmentectomies done by the same experienced surgeon in high volume institutions to show uniportal VATS is a feasible approach for these complex resections and to share an excellent educational resource.

  20. Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical terminology serves as a basic communication tool in all the medical fields. Therefore Latin anatomical nomenclature has been repetitively issued and revised from 1895 (Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica) until 1998, when the last version was approved and published as the Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. A brief history of the terminology and nomenclature development is mentioned, along with the concept and contributions of the Terminologia Anatomica including the employed abbreviations. Examples of obsolete anatomical terms and their current synonyms are listed. Clinicians entered the process of the nomenclature revision and this aspect is demonstrated with several examples of terms used in clinical fields only, some already incorporated in the Terminologia Anatomica and a few obsolete terms still alive in non-theoretical communication. Frequent mistakes in grammar and orthography are stated as well. Authors of the article strongly recommend the use of the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in theoretical and clinical medicine.

  1. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  2. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  3. Anatomic features involved in technical complexity of partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weibin; Yan, Weigang; Ji, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Nephrometry score systems, including RENAL nephrometry, preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical classification system, C-index, diameter-axial-polar nephrometry, contact surface area score, calculating resected and ischemized volume, renal tumor invasion index, surgical approach renal ranking score, zonal NePhRO score, and renal pelvic score, have been reviewed. Moreover, salient anatomic features like the perinephric fat and vascular variants also have been discussed. We then extract 7 anatomic characteristics, namely tumor size, spatial location, adjacency, exophytic/endophytic extension, vascular variants, pelvic anatomy, and perinephric fat as important features for partial nephrectomy. For novice surgeons, comprehensive and adequate anatomic consideration may help them in their early clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomically-aided PET reconstruction using the kernel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchcroft, Will; Wang, Guobao; Chen, Kevin T; Catana, Ciprian; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-09-21

    This paper extends the kernel method that was proposed previously for dynamic PET reconstruction, to incorporate anatomical side information into the PET reconstruction model. In contrast to existing methods that incorporate anatomical information using a penalized likelihood framework, the proposed method incorporates this information in the simpler maximum likelihood (ML) formulation and is amenable to ordered subsets. The new method also does not require any segmentation of the anatomical image to obtain edge information. We compare the kernel method with the Bowsher method for anatomically-aided PET image reconstruction through a simulated data set. Computer simulations demonstrate that the kernel method offers advantages over the Bowsher method in region of interest quantification. Additionally the kernel method is applied to a 3D patient data set. The kernel method results in reduced noise at a matched contrast level compared with the conventional ML expectation maximization algorithm.

  5. Anatomic and functional leg-length inequality: A review and recommendation for clinical decision-making. Part I, anatomic leg-length inequality: prevalence, magnitude, effects and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson Gary A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leg-length inequality is most often divided into two groups: anatomic and functional. Part I of this review analyses data collected on anatomic leg-length inequality relative to prevalence, magnitude, effects and clinical significance. Part II examines the functional "short leg" including anatomic-functional relationships, and provides an outline for clinical decision-making. Methods Online database – Medline, CINAHL and MANTIS – and library searches for the time frame of 1970–2005 were done using the term "leg-length inequality". Results and Discussion Using data on leg-length inequality obtained by accurate and reliable x-ray methods, the prevalence of anatomic inequality was found to be 90%, the mean magnitude of anatomic inequality was 5.2 mm (SD 4.1. The evidence suggests that, for most people, anatomic leg-length inequality does not appear to be clinically significant until the magnitude reaches ~ 20 mm (~3/4". Conclusion Anatomic leg-length inequality is near universal, but the average magnitude is small and not likely to be clinically significant.

  6. The neural substrate of analogical reasoning: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qian; Perry, Conrad; Peng, Danling; Jin, Zhen; Xu, Duo; Ding, Guosheng; Xu, Shiyong

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the anatomical substrate of analogical reasoning using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the study, subjects performed a verbal analogy task (e.g., soldier is to army as drummer is to band) and, to control for activation caused by purely semantic access, a semantic judgment task. Significant activation differences between the verbal analogy and the semantic judgment task were found bilaterally in the prefrontal cortex (right BA 11/BA 47 and left BA45), the fusiform gyrus, and the basal ganglia; left lateralized in the postero-superior temporal gyrus (BA 22) and the (para) hippocampal region; and right lateralized in the anterior cingulate. The role of these areas in analogical reasoning is discussed.

  7. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  8. Interactions of Cannabinoids With Biochemical Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen much progress in the identification and characterization of cannabinoid receptors and the elucidation of the mechanisms by which derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant bind to receptors and produce their physiological and psychological effects. The information generated in this process has enabled better understanding of the fundamental physiological and psychological processes controlled by the central and peripheral nervous systems and has fostered the development of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. A negative aspect of this decades-long effort is the proliferation of clandestinely synthesized analogs as recreational street drugs with dangerous effects. Currently, the interactions of cannabinoids with their biochemical substrates are extensively but inadequately understood, and the clinical application of derived and synthetic receptor ligands remains quite limited. The wide anatomical distribution and functional complexity of the cannabinoid system continue to indicate potential for both therapeutic and side effects, which offers challenges and opportunities for medicinal chemists involved in drug discovery and development.

  9. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  10. Extra-Anatomic Revascularization of Extensive Coral Reef Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggiano, Andrea; Kasemi, Holta; Monti, Andrea; Laurito, Antonella; Maselli, Mauro; Manzo, Paola; Quaglino, Simone; Tavolini, Valeria

    2017-10-01

    Coral reef aorta (CRA) is a rare, potential lethal disease of the visceral aorta as it can cause visceral and renal infarction. Various surgical approaches have been proposed for the CRA treatment. The purpose of this article is to report different extensive extra-anatomic CRA treatment modalities tailored on the patients' clinical and anatomic presentation. From April 2006 to October 2012, 4 symptomatic patients with extensive CRA were treated at our department. Extra-anatomic aortic revascularization with selective visceral vessels clamping was performed in all cases. Technical success was 100%. No perioperative death was registered. All patients remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period (62, 49, 25, and 94 months, respectively), with bypasses and target vessels patency. The extra-anatomic bypass with selective visceral vessels clamping reduces the aortic occlusion time and the risk of organ ischemia. All approaches available should be considered on a case-by-case basis and in high-volume centers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inexpensive anatomical trainer for bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano; Simonassi, Claudio; Chessa, Leonardo

    2007-08-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is an indispensable tool for optimal management of intensive care unit patients. However, the acquisition of sufficient training in bronchoscopy is not straightforward during residency, because of technical and ethical problems. Moreover, the use of commercial simulators is limited by their high cost. In order to overcome these limitations, we realized a low-cost anatomical simulator to acquire and maintain the basic skill to perform bronchoscopy in ventilated patients. We used 1.5 mm diameter iron wire to construct the bronchial tree scaffold; glazier-putty was applied to create the anatomical model. The model was covered by several layers of newspaper strips previously immersed in water and vinilic glue. When the model completely dried up, it was detached from the scaffold by cutting it into six pieces, it was reassembled, painted and fitted with an endotracheal tube. We used very cheap material and the final cost was euro16. The trainer resulted in real-scale and anatomically accurate, with appropriate correspondence on endoscopic view between model and patients. All bronchial segments can be explored and easily identified by endoscopic and external vision. This cheap simulator is a valuable tool for practicing, particularly in a hospital with limited resources for medical training.

  12. Anatomically contoured plates for fixation of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William B; Madey, Steven

    2010-03-01

    : Intraoperative contouring of long bridging plates for stabilization of flail chest injuries is difficult and time consuming. This study implemented for the first time biometric parameters to derive anatomically contoured rib plates. These plates were tested on a range of cadaveric ribs to quantify plate fit and to extract a best-fit plating configuration. : Three left and three right rib plates were designed, which accounted for anatomic parameters required when conforming a plate to the rib surface. The length lP over which each plate could trace the rib surface was evaluated on 109 cadaveric ribs. For each rib level 3-9, the plate design with the highest lP value was extracted to determine a best-fit plating configuration. Furthermore, the characteristic twist of rib surfaces was measured on 49 ribs to determine the surface congruency of anatomic plates with a constant twist. : The tracing length lP of the best-fit plating configuration ranged from 12.5 cm to 14.7 cm for ribs 3-9. The corresponding range for standard plates was 7.1-13.7 cm. The average twist of ribs over 8-cm, 12-cm, and 16-cm segments was 8.3 degrees, 20.6 degrees, and 32.7 degrees, respectively. The constant twist of anatomic rib plates was not significantly different from the average rib twist. : A small set of anatomic rib plates can minimize the need for intraoperative plate contouring for fixation of ribs 3-9. Anatomic rib plates can therefore reduce the time and complexity of flail chest stabilization and facilitate spanning of flail segments with long plates.

  13. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  14. Connecting imaging mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance imaging-based anatomical atlases for automated anatomical interpretation and differential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Nico; Spraggins, Jeffrey M; Murphy, Monika J M; Wang, Hui-Dong; Deutch, Ariel Y; Caprioli, Richard M; Van de Plas, Raf

    2017-07-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a molecular imaging technology that can measure thousands of biomolecules concurrently without prior tagging, making it particularly suitable for exploratory research. However, the data size and dimensionality often makes thorough extraction of relevant information impractical. To help guide and accelerate IMS data analysis, we recently developed a framework that integrates IMS measurements with anatomical atlases, opening up opportunities for anatomy-driven exploration of IMS data. One example is the automated anatomical interpretation of ion images, where empirically measured ion distributions are automatically decomposed into their underlying anatomical structures. While offering significant potential, IMS-atlas integration has thus far been restricted to the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (AMBA) and mouse brain samples. Here, we expand the applicability of this framework by extending towards new animal species and a new set of anatomical atlases retrieved from the Scalable Brain Atlas (SBA). Furthermore, as many SBA atlases are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, a new registration pipeline was developed that enables direct non-rigid IMS-to-MRI registration. These developments are demonstrated on protein-focused FTICR IMS measurements from coronal brain sections of a Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model. The measurements are integrated with an MRI-based rat brain atlas from the SBA. The new rat-focused IMS-atlas integration is used to perform automated anatomical interpretation and to find differential ions between healthy and diseased tissue. IMS-atlas integration can serve as an important accelerator in IMS data exploration, and with these new developments it can now be applied to a wider variety of animal species and modalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Automatic anatomically selective image enhancement in digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezan, M.I.; Minerbo, G.N.; Schaetzing, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors develop a technique for automatic anatomically selective enhancement of digital chest radiographs. Anatomically selective enhancement is motivated by the desire to simultaneously meet the different enhancement requirements of the lung field and the mediastinum. A recent peak detection algorithm and a set of rules are applied to the image histogram to determine automatically a gray-level threshold between the lung field and mediastinum. The gray-level threshold facilitates anatomically selective gray-scale modification and/or unsharp masking. Further, in an attempt to suppress possible white-band or black-band artifacts due to unsharp masking at sharp edges, local-contrast adaptivity is incorporated into anatomically selective unsharp masking by designing an anatomy-sensitive emphasis parameter which varies asymmetrically with positive and negative values of the local image contrast

  16. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  17. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Malley, Martin E.; Alharbi, Fawaz; Chawla, Tanya P.; Moshonov, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  18. [Project HRANAFINA--Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodanović, Marin

    2012-01-01

    HRANAFINA--Croatian Anatomical and Physiological Terminology is a project of the University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine funded by the Croatian Science Foundation. It is performed in cooperation with other Croatian universities with medical schools. This project has a two-pronged aim: firstly, building of Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology and secondly, Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology usage popularization between health professionals, medical students, scientists and translators. Internationally recognized experts from Croatian universities with medical faculties and linguistics experts are involved in the project. All project activities are coordinated in agreement with the National Coordinator for Development of Croatian Professional Terminology. The project enhances Croatian professional terminology and Croatian language in general, increases competitiveness of Croatian scientists on international level and facilitates the involvement of Croatian scientists, health care providers and medical students in European projects.

  19. Anatomic variability of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung-Hau Le Thua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The anatomical study and clinical application for the vascularized corticoperiosteal flap from the medial femoral condyle have been performed and described previously. Although prior studies have described the composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, a detailed analysis of the vascularity of this region has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods: This anatomical study described the variability of the arteries from the medial femoral condyle in 40 cadaveric specimens. Results: The descending genicular artery (DGA was found in 33 of 40 cases (82.5%. The  superomedial genicular artery (SGA was present in 10 cases (25%. All 33 cases (100% of the DGA had articular branches to the periosteum of the medial femoral condyle. Muscular branches and saphenous branches of the DGA were present in 25 cases (62.5% and 26 cases (70.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that the size and length of the vessels to the medial femoral condyle are sufficient for a vascularized bone flap. A careful preoperative vascular assessment is essential prior to use of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, because of the considerable anatomical variations in different branches of the DGA.

  20. Anatomical entity recognition with a hierarchical framework augmented by external resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available References to anatomical entities in medical records consist not only of explicit references to anatomical locations, but also other diverse types of expressions, such as specific diseases, clinical tests, clinical treatments, which constitute implicit references to anatomical entities. In order to identify these implicit anatomical entities, we propose a hierarchical framework, in which two layers of named entity recognizers (NERs work in a cooperative manner. Each of the NERs is implemented using the Conditional Random Fields (CRF model, which use a range of external resources to generate features. We constructed a dictionary of anatomical entity expressions by exploiting four existing resources, i.e., UMLS, MeSH, RadLex and BodyPart3D, and supplemented information from two external knowledge bases, i.e., Wikipedia and WordNet, to improve inference of anatomical entities from implicit expressions. Experiments conducted on 300 discharge summaries showed a micro-averaged performance of 0.8509 Precision, 0.7796 Recall and 0.8137 F1 for explicit anatomical entity recognition, and 0.8695 Precision, 0.6893 Recall and 0.7690 F1 for implicit anatomical entity recognition. The use of the hierarchical framework, which combines the recognition of named entities of various types (diseases, clinical tests, treatments with information embedded in external knowledge bases, resulted in a 5.08% increment in F1. The resources constructed for this research will be made publicly available.

  1. Anatomical and Functional Results of Lamellar Macular Holes Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D; Donati, G; Mangioris, G; Pournaras, C J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the long-term surgical findings and outcomes after vitrectomy for symptomatic lamellar macular holes. We studied 28 patients with lamellar macular holes and central visual loss or distortion. All interventions were standard 25 G vitrectomy with membranectomy of the internal limiting membrane (ILM), peeling and gas tamponade with SF6 20 %. Operations were performed by a single experienced surgeon within the last 3 years. Best corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography appearance were determined preoperatively and postoperatively. Following the surgical procedure, all macular holes were closed; however, in 3 eyes, significant foveal thinning was associated with changes in the retinal pigment epithelium changes. The mean best-corrected visual acuity improved postoperatively in the majority of the patients (n: 21, mean 0.3 logMAR), stabilised in 4 patients and decreased in 3 patients (mean 0.4 logMAR). Spectral Domain-Optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed resolution of the lamellar lesion and improved macular contour in all cases. We demonstrated improvement in postoperative vision and the anatomical reconstruction of the anatomical contour of the fovea in most eyes with symptomatic lamellar holes. These findings indicate that vitrectomy, membranectomy and ILM peeling with gas tamponade is a beneficial treatment of symptomatic lamellar macular holes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Anatomic MRI study of a small muscle: the masseter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheyriat, A.; Lissac, M.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Bonmartin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides functional information in an anatomic presentation allowing to distinguish soft tissues with high sensitivity. The goal of this study was to investigate the normal anatomy of the major masticatory muscle, the masseter, both at rest or during contraction by using three dimensional (3D) MRI. Eighteen subjects aged from 19 to 28 years, all in good health, were studied. Several experiments were first realized on phantoms to test the 3D-MRI technique. After reconstruction and segmentation processing, 3D acquisition, enabled obtaining data on the masseter anatomy. The normal anatomical position of the masseter was reported to the skin plan as the mean internal distance (7.9±0.42 mm) and external distance (15.2±0.41 mm). While there was no difference between internal distance, for sex or side, the external distance was significantly (p = 0.02) shorter in male (7.7±0.5 mm) than in female (8.8±0.4 mm) for both sides. The mean volume for all subjects and both sides (20.3±1.1 cm 3 ) did not change significantly between rest and exercise. The masseter volume was significantly (p 3 ) than in female (16.4±3.6 cm 3 ) groups. These physiological references may be useful for further MRI investigations of masticatory system pathologies. (authors)

  3. Pectoralis major tears: anatomy, classification, and diagnosis with ultrasound and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Department of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Smith, Jay [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Anatomy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Dahm, Diane L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Accurate characterization of pectoralis major tears is important to guide management. Imaging evaluation with ultrasound and MR imaging can be difficult given the complex regional anatomy. In addition, recent literature has redefined the anatomy of the distal pectoralis major. The purpose of this study is to review pectoralis major injuries taking into account new anatomic descriptions using ultrasound and MR imaging, including cadaveric dissection, surgically produced pectoralis tears, and clinical pectoralis tendon tear with surgical correlation. (orig.)

  4. Pectoralis major tears: anatomy, classification, and diagnosis with ultrasound and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavaras, Mary M.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Smith, Jay; Dahm, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate characterization of pectoralis major tears is important to guide management. Imaging evaluation with ultrasound and MR imaging can be difficult given the complex regional anatomy. In addition, recent literature has redefined the anatomy of the distal pectoralis major. The purpose of this study is to review pectoralis major injuries taking into account new anatomic descriptions using ultrasound and MR imaging, including cadaveric dissection, surgically produced pectoralis tears, and clinical pectoralis tendon tear with surgical correlation. (orig.)

  5. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlham Eröz Poyraz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae used for some medicinal purposes like antidiabetic, anticancer, antiviral and treat to gastritis was investigated. Morphological studies were supported by morphometric measurements and drawings of male and female flowers, fruit and seeds of the species. In anatomical studies, cross sections of stem and leaf, upper and lower surface sections of leaves were evaluated. It was detected that the stem with typical anatomical properties of a climbing dicotyl plant. The leaves were amphistotamic and with lots of cyctoliths on the lower surface of leaves. Stomata are anomocytic and situated much more at the lower surface of leaves. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae*

  6. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, J.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  7. Off-the-job training for VATS employing anatomically correct lung models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Toshiro; Imakiire, Takayuki; Miyahara, Sou; Nakashima, Hiroyasu; Hamanaka, Wakako; Yanagisawa, Jun; Hamatake, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Moriyama, Shigeharu; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated our simulated major lung resection employing anatomically correct lung models as "off-the-job training" for video-assisted thoracic surgery trainees. A total of 76 surgeons voluntarily participated in our study. They performed video-assisted thoracic surgical lobectomy employing anatomically correct lung models, which are made of sponges so that vessels and bronchi can be cut using usual surgical techniques with typical forceps. After the simulation surgery, participants answered questionnaires on a visual analogue scale, in terms of their level of interest and the reality of our training method as off-the-job training for trainees. We considered that the closer a score was to 10, the more useful our method would be for training new surgeons. Regarding the appeal or level of interest in this simulation surgery, the mean score was 8.3 of 10, and regarding reality, it was 7.0. The participants could feel some of the real sensations of the surgery and seemed to be satisfied to perform the simulation lobectomy. Our training method is considered to be suitable as an appropriate type of surgical off-the-job training.

  8. Large electron capture-cross-section of the major nonradiative recombination centers in Mg-doped GaN epilayers grown on a GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichibu, S. F.; Shima, K.; Kojima, K.; Takashima, S.; Edo, M.; Ueno, K.; Ishibashi, S.; Uedono, A.

    2018-05-01

    Complementary time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation measurements were carried out at room temperature on Mg-doped p-type GaN homoepitaxial films for identifying the origin and estimating the electron capture-cross-section ( σ n ) of the major nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs). To eliminate any influence by threading dislocations, free-standing GaN substrates were used. In Mg-doped p-type GaN, defect complexes composed of a Ga-vacancy (VGa) and multiple N-vacancies (VNs), namely, VGa(VN)2 [or even VGa(VN)3], are identified as the major intrinsic NRCs. Different from the case of 4H-SiC, atomic structures of intrinsic NRCs in p-type and n-type GaN are different: VGaVN divacancies are the major NRCs in n-type GaN. The σ n value approximately the middle of 10-13 cm2 is obtained for VGa(VN)n, which is larger than the hole capture-cross-section (σp = 7 × 10-14 cm2) of VGaVN in n-type GaN. Combined with larger thermal velocity of an electron, minority carrier lifetime in Mg-doped GaN becomes much shorter than that of n-type GaN.

  9. Using photoshop filters to create anatomic line-art medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Jacobo; Geller, Brian S

    2006-08-01

    There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or presentations. This article demonstrates how to use Photoshop to alter digital radiologic images to create line-art illustrations in a quick and easy way. We present two simple to use methods; however, not every image can adequately be transformed and personal preferences and specific changes need to be applied to each image to obtain the desired result. There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or to prepare presentations. Medical illustrators have always played a major role in the radiology and medical education process. Whether used to teach a complex surgical or radiologic procedure, to define typical or atypical patterns of the spread of disease, or to illustrate normal or aberrant anatomy, medical illustration significantly affects learning (). However, if you are not an accomplished illustrator, the alternatives can be expensive (contacting a professional medical illustrator or buying an already existing stock of digital images) or simply not necessarily applicable to what you are trying to communicate. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how using Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) to alter digital radiologic images we can create line-art illustrations in a quick, inexpensive, and easy way in preparation for electronic presentations and publication.

  10. Real-time sensing of epithelial cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions by impedance spectroscopy on porous substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, D.; RoyChaudhuri, C., E-mail: chirosreepram@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Pal, D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2015-07-28

    Oxidized porous silicon (PS) is a common topographical biocompatible substrate that potentially provides a distinct in vitro environment for better understanding of in vivo behavior. But in the reported studies on oxidized PS, cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions have been detected only by fluorescent labeling. This paper is the first attempt to investigate real-time sensing of these interactions on HaCaT cells by label-free impedance spectroscopy on oxidized PS of two pore diameters (50 and 500 nm). One of the major requirements for successful impedance spectroscopy measurement is to restrict the channeling of electric field lines through the pores. To satisfy this criterion, we have designed the pore depths after analyzing the penetration of the medium by using computational fluid dynamics simulation. A distributed electrical model was also developed for estimating the various cellular attributes by considering a pseudorandom distribution of pores. It is observed from the impedance measurements and from the model that the proliferation rate increases for 50 nm pores but decreases for 500 nm pores compared to that for planar substrates. The rate of decrease in cell substrate separation (h) in the initial stage is more than the rate of increase in cell-cell junction resistance (R{sub b}) corresponding to the initial adhesion phase of cells. It is observed that R{sub b} and h are higher for 50 nm pores than those for planar substrates, corresponding to the fact that substrates more conducive toward cell adhesion encourage cell-cell interactions than direct cell-substrate interactions. Thus, the impedance spectroscopy coupled with the proposed theoretical framework for PS substrates can sense and quantify the cellular interactions.

  11. Real-time sensing of epithelial cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions by impedance spectroscopy on porous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, D.; RoyChaudhuri, C.; Pal, D.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized porous silicon (PS) is a common topographical biocompatible substrate that potentially provides a distinct in vitro environment for better understanding of in vivo behavior. But in the reported studies on oxidized PS, cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions have been detected only by fluorescent labeling. This paper is the first attempt to investigate real-time sensing of these interactions on HaCaT cells by label-free impedance spectroscopy on oxidized PS of two pore diameters (50 and 500 nm). One of the major requirements for successful impedance spectroscopy measurement is to restrict the channeling of electric field lines through the pores. To satisfy this criterion, we have designed the pore depths after analyzing the penetration of the medium by using computational fluid dynamics simulation. A distributed electrical model was also developed for estimating the various cellular attributes by considering a pseudorandom distribution of pores. It is observed from the impedance measurements and from the model that the proliferation rate increases for 50 nm pores but decreases for 500 nm pores compared to that for planar substrates. The rate of decrease in cell substrate separation (h) in the initial stage is more than the rate of increase in cell-cell junction resistance (R b ) corresponding to the initial adhesion phase of cells. It is observed that R b and h are higher for 50 nm pores than those for planar substrates, corresponding to the fact that substrates more conducive toward cell adhesion encourage cell-cell interactions than direct cell-substrate interactions. Thus, the impedance spectroscopy coupled with the proposed theoretical framework for PS substrates can sense and quantify the cellular interactions

  12. Live Donor Renal Anatomic Asymmetry and Post-Transplant Renal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Bekir; Fernandez, Sonalis; Campenot, Eric S.; Newhouse, Jeffrey H.; Oyfe, Irina; Mohan, Prince; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Wexler, Jennifer J.; Carroll, Maureen A.; Sharif, Sairah; Cohen, David J.; Ratner, Lloyd E.; Hardy, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationship between live donor renal anatomic asymmetry and post-transplant recipient function has not been studied extensively. Methods We analyzed 96 live-kidney donors, who had anatomical asymmetry (>10% renal length and/or volume difference calculated from CT angiograms) and their matching recipients. Split function differences (SFD) were quantified with 99mTc-DMSA renography. Implantation biopsies at time-zero were semi-quantitatively scored. A comprehensive model utilizing donor renal volume adjusted to recipient weight (Vol/Wgt), SFD, and biopsy score was used to predict recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at one-year. Primary analysis consisted of a logistic regression model of outcome (odds of developing eGFR>60ml/min/1.73 m2 at one-year), a linear regression model of outcome (predicting recipient eGFR at one-year, using the CKD-EPI formula), and a Monte Carlo simulation based on the linear regression model (N=10,000 iterations). Results In the study cohort, the mean Vol/Wgt and eGFR at one-year were 2.04 ml/kg and 60.4 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. Volume and split ratios between two donor kidneys were strongly correlated (r=0.79, p-value10%) were not different (p=0.190). On multivariate models, only Vol/Wgt was significantly associated with higher odds of having eGFR>60ml/min/1.73 m2 (OR=8.94, 95% CI 2.47–32.25, p=0.001) and had a strong discriminatory power in predicting the risk of eGFRrenal anatomic asymmetry, Vol/Wgt appears to be a major determinant of recipient renal function at one-year post-transplantation. Renography can be replaced with CT volume calculation in estimating split renal function. PMID:25719258

  13. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  14. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  15. Automatic, anatomically selective, artifact-free enhancement of digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezan, M.I.; Tekalp, A.M.; Schaetzing, R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors propose a technique for automatic, anatomically selective, artifact-free enhancement of digital chest radiographs. Anatomically selective enhancement is motivated by the different enhancement requirements of the lung field and the mediastinum. A recent peak detection algorithm is applied to the image histogram to automatically determine a gray-level threshold between the lung and mediastinum fields. The gray-level threshold facilitates anatomically selective gray-scale modification and unsharp masking. Further, in an attempt to suppress possible white-band artifacts due to unsharp masking at sharp edges, local-contrast adaptivity is incorporated into anatomically selective unsharp masking by designing an anatomy-sensitive emphasis parameter that varied asymmetrically with positive and negative values of the local image contrast

  16. Medial arcuate ligament: a new anatomic landmark facilitates the location of the renal artery in retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Hong Zhao; Zhang, Xu; Song, Yong; Ma, Xin; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenzheng; Chen, Guang-Fu; Xu, Yong; Lu, Jin Shan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Shi, Tao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method for locating the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. The medial arcuate ligament (MAL) is a tendinous arch in the fascia under the diaphragm that arches across the psoas major muscle and is attached medially to the side of the first or the second lumbar vertebra. The renal artery arises at the level of the intervertebral disc between the L1 and L2 vertebrae. We evaluate the role of the MAL that serves as an anatomic landmark for locating the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. There is a reproducible consistent anatomic relationship between MAL and the renal artery in 210 cases of retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. Two main types of the MAL, the "narrow arch" and the "fascial band" types, can be observed. MAL can serve as an accurate and reproducible anatomic landmark for the identification of the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery.

  17. Anatomical Cystocele Recurrence: Development and Internal Validation of a Prediction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeldt, Tineke F M; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Notten, Kim J B; Kluivers, Kirsten B; Weemhoff, Mirjam

    2016-02-01

    To develop a prediction model that estimates the risk of anatomical cystocele recurrence after surgery. The databases of two multicenter prospective cohort studies were combined, and we performed a retrospective secondary analysis of these data. Women undergoing an anterior colporrhaphy without mesh materials and without previous pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery filled in a questionnaire, underwent translabial three-dimensional ultrasonography, and underwent staging of POP preoperatively and postoperatively. We developed a prediction model using multivariable logistic regression and internally validated it using standard bootstrapping techniques. The performance of the prediction model was assessed by computing indices of overall performance, discriminative ability, calibration, and its clinical utility by computing test characteristics. Of 287 included women, 149 (51.9%) had anatomical cystocele recurrence. Factors included in the prediction model were assisted delivery, preoperative cystocele stage, number of compartments involved, major levator ani muscle defects, and levator hiatal area during Valsalva. Potential predictors that were excluded after backward elimination because of high P values were age, body mass index, number of vaginal deliveries, and family history of POP. The shrinkage factor resulting from the bootstrap procedure was 0.91. After correction for optimism, Nagelkerke's R and the Brier score were 0.15 and 0.22, respectively. This indicates satisfactory model fit. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 71.6% (95% confidence interval 65.7-77.5). After correction for optimism, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 69.7%. This prediction model, including history of assisted delivery, preoperative stage, number of compartments, levator defects, and levator hiatus, estimates the risk of anatomical cystocele recurrence.

  18. Live Donor Renal Anatomic Asymmetry and Posttransplant Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, Bekir; Fernandez, Sonalis; Campenot, Eric S; Newhouse, Jeffrey H; Oyfe, Irina; Mohan, Prince; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Wexler, Jennifer J; Carroll, Maureen A; Sharif, Sairah; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E; Hardy, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Relationship between live donor renal anatomic asymmetry and posttransplant recipient function has not been studied extensively. We analyzed 96 live kidney donors, who had anatomical asymmetry (>10% renal length and/or volume difference calculated from computerized tomography angiograms) and their matching recipients. Split function differences (SFD) were quantified with technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid renography. Implantation biopsies at time 0 were semiquantitatively scored. A comprehensive model using donor renal volume adjusted to recipient weight (Vol/Wgt), SFD, and biopsy score was used to predict recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year. Primary analysis consisted of a logistic regression model of outcome (odds of developing eGFR>60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year), a linear regression model of outcome (predicting recipient eGFR at one-year, using the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration formula), and a Monte Carlo simulation based on the linear regression model (N=10,000 iterations). In the study cohort, the mean Vol/Wgt and eGFR at 1 year were 2.04 mL/kg and 60.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Volume and split ratios between 2 donor kidneys were strongly correlated (r = 0.79, P 10%) were not different (P = 0.190). On multivariate models, only Vol/Wgt was significantly associated with higher odds of having eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m (odds ratio, 8.94, 95% CI 2.47-32.25, P = 0.001) and had a strong discriminatory power in predicting the risk of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year [receiver operating curve (ROC curve), 0.78, 95% CI, 0.68-0.89]. In the presence of donor renal anatomic asymmetry, Vol/Wgt appears to be a major determinant of recipient renal function at 1 year after transplantation. Renography can be replaced with CT volume calculation in estimating split renal function.

  19. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  20. Anatomical planes: are we teaching accurate surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sarah L; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Anatomical planes used in clinical practice and teaching anatomy are largely derived from cadaver studies. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to reassess the accuracy of common anatomical planes in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. CT scans of the trunk in supine adults at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the anatomy of five anatomical planes: sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal, and the plane of the pubic crest. Patients with kyphosis, scoliosis, or abnormal lordosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. Among 153 thoracic CT scans (mean age 63 years, 53% female), the sternal angle was most common at T4 (females) or T4/5 (males) vertebral level, and the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and pulmonary trunk were most often below this plane. In 108 abdominal CT scans (mean age 60 years, 59% female), the subcostal and supracristal planes were most often at L2 (58%) and L4 (69%), respectively. In 52 thoracoabdominal CT scans (mean age 61 years, 56% female), the transpyloric plane was between lower L1 and upper L2 (75%); in this plane were the superior mesenteric artery (56%), formation of the portal vein (53%), tip of the ninth rib (60%), and the left renal hilum (54%), but the right renal hilum and gallbladder fundus were more often below. The surface anatomy of anatomical planes needs revising in the light of results from living subjects using modern imaging techniques. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Anatomical and functional outcomes of retinectomies in retinal detachments complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Idrees Adhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study anatomical and functional outcomes of retinectomies in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Methods: This is a retrospective interventional consecutive case series of eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments complicated by advanced proliferative vitreoretinopathy and managed by relaxing retinectomy over a period of seventeen years. Three-port pars plana vitrectomy included core vitrectomy and removal of all epi-retinal membranes. On failure to flatten, retina was cut and excised. Basal vitrectomy and removal of anterior flap of retina then followed. Silicone oil was used as temponade in majority of cases. The dependent variables were anatomical and functional outcomes. The statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 21. Results: Series included 370 eyes of 337 patients. Mean follow up was 39 months. Scleral explant was used in 90(24.39% cases. Two hundred and nine (56.49% eyes were operated with trans conjunctival sutureless vitrectomy technique. Procedure was bilateral in 33 patients (09.79%. Retina attached in 311(84.05% eyes after initial surgery. Final re-attachment after one or more surgeries was achieved in 344(92.97% eyes. Two hundred and eleven (57.02% cases achieved visual acuity of 6/60 or better. Conclusion: Relaxing retinectomies have good and encouraging anatomical and functional outcomes. This surgery can be effectively carried out with trans conjunctival sutureless vitrectomy technique. Keywords: Retinotomy and retinectomy, Proliferative vitreoretinopathy, Trans conjunctival sutureless vitrectomy, Silicone oil

  2. Construction of a 3-D anatomical model for teaching temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Wilson, Timothy D

    2012-06-01

    Although we live and work in 3 dimensional space, most of the anatomical teaching during medical school is done on 2-D (books, TV and computer screens, etc). 3-D spatial abilities are essential for a surgeon but teaching spatial skills in a non-threatening and safe educational environment is a much more difficult pedagogical task. Currently, initial anatomical knowledge formation or specific surgical anatomy techniques, are taught either in the OR itself, or in cadaveric labs; which means that the trainee has only limited exposure. 3-D computer models incorporated into virtual learning environments may provide an intermediate and key step in a blended learning approach for spatially challenging anatomical knowledge formation. Specific anatomical structures and their spatial orientation can be further clinically contextualized through demonstrations of surgical procedures in the 3-D digital environments. Recordings of digital models enable learner reviews, taking as much time as they want, stopping the demonstration, and/or exploring the model to understand the anatomical relation of each structure. We present here how a temporal lobectomy virtual model has been developed to aid residents and fellows conceptualization of the anatomical relationships between different cerebral structures during that procedure. We suggest in comparison to cadaveric dissection, such virtual models represent a cost effective pedagogical methodology providing excellent support for anatomical learning and surgical technique training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Anatomical Institute at the University of Greifswald during National Socialism: The procurement of bodies and their use for anatomical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvermann, Dirk; Mittenzwei, Jan

    2016-05-01

    This is the first comprehensive account of body procurement at the Anatomical Institute at Greifswald University during National Socialism (NS). As in all other German anatomical departments, the bodies received during this period included increasing numbers of victims of the NS regime. Prior to 1939, 90% of all bodies came from hospitals, state nursing homes and mental institutions (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten), but dropped to less than 30% after 1941. While the total catchment area for body procurement decreased, the number of suppliers increased and included prisons, POW camps, Gestapo offices and military jurisdiction authorities. Among the 432 documented bodies delivered to the institute, 132 came from state nursing homes and mental institutions, mainly from Ueckermünde. These were bodies of persons, who probably were victims of "euthanasia" crimes. The Anatomical Institute also procured 46 bodies of forced laborers, of whom at least twelve had been executed. Other groups of victims included 21 bodies of executed Wehrmacht soldiers and 16 Russian prisoners of war from the camp Stalag II C in Greifswald, who had died of starvation and exhaustion. From 1941 onwards, the number of bodies delivered from prisons and penitentiaries greatly increased. In total, 60 bodies of prisoners, mainly from the penitentiary in Gollnow, were delivered to the Anatomical Institute. Greifswald Anatomical Institute was not just a passive recipient of bodies from all of these sources, but the anatomists actively lobbied with the authorities for an increased body supply for teaching and research purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Computed tomography of the retroperitoneum: an anatomical and pathological atlas with emphasis on the fascial planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldberg, M.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a descriptive clinical pathological CT atlas of a range of conditions involving retroperitoneum and neighbouring organs and structures (excluding the pelvic part of the retroperitoneum). Chapter 1 describes the patient material studied, some aspects of CT techniques and patient handling. Chapter 2 describes the anatomy of the renal fascia based upon reports derived from the literature and is followed by our CT observations in more than 5000 abdominal CT examinations. In short it is an anatomical CT atlas. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 deal with reactions of the fascial structures in different pathological conditions caused by major disease entities. The patients were scanned for these diseases, of which anatomical topographical appearances and spread are described in the general considerations, followed by CT findings and illustrative cases, combined with abstracted experience from other workers. (Auth.)

  5. Anatomic renal artery branch microdissection to facilitate zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Casey K; Gill, Inderbir S; Patil, Mukul B; Hung, Andrew J; Berger, Andre K; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Eisenberg, Manuel S; Ukimura, Osamu; Thangathurai, Duraiyah; Aron, Monish; Desai, Mihir M

    2012-01-01

    Robot-assisted and laparoscopic partial nephrectomies (PNs) for medial tumors are technically challenging even with the hilum clamped and, until now, were impossible to perform with the hilum unclamped. Evaluate whether targeted vascular microdissection (VMD) of renal artery branches allows zero-ischemia PN to be performed even for challenging medial tumors. A prospective cohort evaluation of 44 patients with renal masses who underwent robot-assisted or laparoscopic zero-ischemia PN either with anatomic VMD (group 1; n=22) or without anatomic VMD (group 2; n=22) performed by a single surgeon from April 2010 to January 2011. Zero-ischemia PN with VMD incorporates four maneuvers: (1) preoperative computed tomographic reconstruction of renal arterial branch anatomy, (2) anatomic dissection of targeted, tumor-specific tertiary or higher-order renal arterial branches, (3) neurosurgical aneurysm microsurgical bulldog clamp(s) for superselective tumor devascularization, and (4) transient, controlled reduction of blood pressure, if necessary. Baseline, perioperative, and postoperative data were collected prospectively. Group 1 tumors were larger (4.3 vs 2.6 cm; p=0.011), were more often hilar (41% vs 9%; p=0.09), were medial (59% and 23%; p=0.017), were closer to the hilum (1.46 vs 3.26 cm; p=0.0002), and had a lower C index score (2.1 vs 3.9; p=0.004) and higher RENAL nephrometry scores (7.7 vs 6.2; p=0.013). Despite greater complexity, no group 1 tumor required hilar clamping, and perioperative outcomes were similar to those of group 2: operating room time (4.7 and 4.1h), median blood loss (200 and 100ml), surgical margins for cancer (all negative), major complications (0% and 9%), and minor complications (18% and 14%). The median serum creatinine level was similar 2 mo postoperatively (1.2 and 1.3mg/dl). The study was limited by the relatively small sample size. Anatomic targeted dissection and superselective control of tumor-specific renal arterial branches facilitate

  6. The Science and Politics of Naming: Reforming Anatomical Nomenclature, ca. 1886-1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2017-04-01

    Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Establishing the soft and hard tissue area centers (centroids) for the skull and introducing a newnon-anatomical cephalometric line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBalkhi, Khalid M; AlShahrani, Ibrahim; AlMadi, Abdulaziz

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how to establish the area center (centroid) of both the soft and hard tissues of the outline of the lateral cephalometric skull image, and to introduce the concept of a new non-anatomical centroid line. Lateral cephalometric radiographs, size 12 x 14 inch, of fifty seven adult subjects were selected based on their pleasant, balanced profile, Class I skeletal and dental relationship and no major dental malocclusion or malrelationship. The area centers (centroids) of both soft and hard tissue skull were practically established using a customized software computer program called the m -file . Connecting the two centers introduced the concept of a new non-anatomical soft and hard centroids line. (author)

  8. Specific B-cell Epitope of Per a 1: A Major Allergen of American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and Anatomical Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookrung, Nitat; Khetsuphan, Thanyathon; Chaisri, Urai; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Reamtong, Onrapak; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee

    2014-07-01

    Cockroach (CR) is a common source of indoor allergens, and Per a 1 is a major American CR (Periplaneta americana) allergen; however, several attributes of this protein remain unknown. This study identifies a novel specific B cell epitope and anatomical locations of Per a 1.0105. Recombinant Per a 1.0105 (rPer a 1.0105) was used as BALB/c mouse immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The MAb specific B cell epitope was identified by determining phage mimotopic peptides and pair-wise alignment of the peptides with the rPer a 1.0105 amino acid sequence. Locations of the Per a 1.0105 in P. americana were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The rPer a 1.0105 (~13 kDa) had 100%, 98% and ≥90% identity to Per a 1.0105, Per a 1.0101, and Cr-PII, respectively. The B-cell epitope of the Per a 1.0105 specific-MAb was located at residues(99) QDLLLQLRDKGV(110) contained in all 5 Per a 1.01 isoforms and Per a 1.02. The epitope was analogous to the Bla g 1.02 epitope; however, this B-cell epitope was not an IgE inducer. Per a 1.0105 was found in the midgut and intestinal content of American CR but not in the other organs. The amount of the Per a 1 was ~544 ℃g per gram of feces. The novel Per a 1 B-cell epitope described in this study is a useful target for allergen quantification in samples; however, the specific MAb can be used as an allergen detection reagent. The MAb based-affinity resin can be made for allergen purification, and the so-purified protein can serve as a standard and diagnostic allergen as well as a therapeutic vaccine component. The finding that the Per a 1 is contained in the midgut and feces is useful to increase yield and purity when preparing this allergen.

  9. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  10. Anatomical criteria of malignancy by computed tomography angiography in patients with anomalous coronary arteries with an interarterial course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafpoor, Golmehr [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Paris (France); Danchin, Nicolas [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Cardiology, Paris (France); Houyel, Lucile; Belli, Emre [Centre Chirurgical Marie-Lannelongue, Department of Congenital Cardiac Surgery, Le Plessis-Robinson (France); Ramadan, Ramzi [Centre Chirurgical Marie-Lannelongue, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Le Plessis-Robinson (France); Paul, Jean-Francois [Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2014-10-11

    We sought to determine the relation between major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and anatomical criteria assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with an anomalous coronary artery with an interarterial course (ACAIAC). We selected CCTA studies of patients with an ACAIAC from a database of 4,160 examinations and studied anatomical criteria according to the presence of prior MACE, defined as syncope, unstable angina, myocardial infarction and resuscitated sudden cardiac death. There were 19 patients (18 males) with an ACAIAC during the study period (incidence 0.46 %). Seven patients with prior MACE were younger (26 years vs 59 years, p < 0.001), had a smaller minimal lumen area (3.6 mm{sup 2} vs 9.0 mm{sup 2}, p = 0.001), a higher degree of area stenosis (57 % vs 24 %, p = 0.001), a longer interarterial course (14.7 vs 8.6 mm, p = 0.003) and a smaller proximal segment width (1.6 mm vs 2.5 mm, p = 0.02) compared with the 12 patients without prior MACE. All patients with MACE had the following concomitant anatomical characteristics: minimum lumen area ≤4 mm{sup 2}, an area stenosis ≥50 % and intra-arterial length >10 mm Prior MACE is associated with specific anatomical CCTA characteristics among patients with ACAIAC. CCTA may therefore contribute to distinguish patients at risk of adverse events. (orig.)

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001 ...

  12. Influence of substrate rocks on Fe-Mn crust composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Morgan, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Principal Component and other statistical analyses of chemical and mineralogical data of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide crusts and their underlying rock substrates in the central Pacific indicate that substrate rocks do not influence crust composition. Two ridges near Johnston Atoll were dredged repetitively and up to seven substrate rock types were recovered from small areas of similar water depths. Crusts were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for 24 elements, and substrates were analyzed mineralogically and chemically for the 10 major oxides. Compositions of crusts on phosphatized substrates are distinctly different from crusts on substrates containing no phosphorite. However, that relationship only indicates that the episodes of phosphatization that mineralized the substrate rocks also mineralized the crusts that grew on them. A two-fold increase in copper contents in crusts that grew on phosphatized clastic substrate rocks, relative to crusts on other substrate rock types, is also associated with phosphatization and must have resulted from chemical reorganization during diagenesis. Phosphatized crusts show increases in Sr, Zn, Ca, Ba, Cu, Ce, V, and Mo contents and decreases in Fe, Si, and As contents relative to non-phosphatized crusts. Our statistical results support previous studies which show that crust compositions reflect predominantly direct precipitation from seawater (hydrogenetic), and to lesser extents reflect detrital input and diagenetic replacement of parts of the older crust generation by carbonate fluorapatite.

  13. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Fate of Anatomical Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina; Zwijnenberg, Robert

    Almost every medical faculty possesses anatomical and/or pathological collections: human and animal preparations, wax- and other models, as well as drawings, photographs, documents and archives relating to them. In many institutions these collections are well-preserved, but in others they are poorly

  15. Anatomical success in patients after retinectomy for complex retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.; Ishaq, M.; Islam, Q.U.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of primary and redo retinectomy in eyes with complex retinal detachment. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Fifty eight eyes (patients) underwent relaxing retinectomies for complex retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy or intrinsic retinal shortening. Operative technique included pars plana vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy management, use of intraoperative perfluorocarbon liquid, retinectomy, endolaser and intraocular temponade. The main outcome was anatomic success, defined as complete retinal reattachment at four months follow up. Eighteen eyes out of the same primary group underwent second retinectomy because of anatomical failure. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.78 ± 15.11 years, 56.9% of patients were male(s). Anatomic success rate after 1st retinectomy was achieved in 68.96% (40 eyes out of 58). In eighteen eyes that underwent 2nd retinectomy, anatomic success rate was 72.22% (13 eyes out of 18). Overall success rate was 91.3% (53 eyes out of 58) in our study. Conclusions: Relaxing retinectomies for retinal shortening can improve the anatomical success rate in patients with complex RD. (author)

  16. Evaluation of anatomical and physical properties of Khaya nthotheca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical and physical properties of Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC wood from the transition forest of middle altitude (zone 1) and the humid dense forest of low altitude (zone 2) in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo were evaluated to ascertain the effect of growth area on the anatomical and physical ...

  17. Laryngeal spaces and lymphatics: current anatomic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, L.W.; Welsh, J.J.; Rizzo, T.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the anatomic concepts of individual spaces or compartments within the larynx by isotope and dye diffusion. The authors identified continuity of spaces particularly within the submucosal planes and a relative isolation within the fixed structures resulting from the longitudinal pattern of fibroelastic tissues, muscle bands, and perichondrium. The historical data of anatomic resistance are refuted by the radioisotope patterns of dispersion and the histologic evidence of tissue permeability to the carbon particles. There is little clinical application of the compartment concept to the perimeter of growth and the configuration of extensive endolaryngeal cancers. The internal and extralaryngeal lymphatic network is presented and the regional associations are identified. The normal ipsilateral relationship is distorted by dispersion within the endolarynx supervening the anatomic midline. The effects of lymphatic obstruction caused by regional lymphadenectomy, tumor fixation, and irradiation-infection sequelae are illustrated; these result in widespread bilateral lymphatic nodal terminals. Finally, the evidence suggests that the internal network is modified by external interruption to accommodate an outflow system in continuity with the residual patent lymphatic channels

  18. [Lymphoscintigrams with anatomical landmarks obtained with vector graphics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Giuseppe; Antonica, Filippo; Renna, Maria Antonia; Ferrari, Cristina; Iuele, Francesca; Stabile Ianora, Antonio Amato; Losco, Matteo; Niccoli Asabella, Artor

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear medicine images are difficult to interpret because they do not include anatomical details. The aim of this study was to obtain lymphoscintigrams with anatomical landmarks that could be easily interpreted by General Physicians. Traditional lymphoscintigrams were processed with Adobe© Photoshop® CS6 and converted into vector images created by Illustrator®. The combination with a silhouette vector improved image interpretation, without resulting in longer radiation exposure or acquisition times.

  19. Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Joseph, Robert M; Snyder, Josh; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2006-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired social and emotional skills, the anatomical substrate of which is still unknown. In this study, we compared a group of 14 high-functioning ASD adults with a group of controls matched for sex, age, intelligence quotient, and handedness. We used an automated technique of analysis that accurately measures the thickness of the cerebral cortex and generates cross-subject statistics in a coordinate system based on cortical anatomy. We found local decreases of gray matter in the ASD group in areas belonging to the mirror neuron system (MNS), argued to be the basis of empathic behavior. Cortical thinning of the MNS was correlated with ASD symptom severity. Cortical thinning was also observed in areas involved in emotion recognition and social cognition. These findings suggest that the social and emotional deficits characteristic of autism may reflect abnormal thinning of the MNS and the broader network of cortical areas subserving social cognition.

  20. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  1. Informatics for practicing anatomical pathologists: marking a new era in pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabril, Manal Y; Yousef, George M

    2010-03-01

    Informatics can be defined as using highly advanced technologies to improve patient diagnosis or management. Pathology informatics had evolved as a response to the overwhelming amount of information that was available, in an attempt to better use and maintain them. The most commonly used tools of informatics can be classified into digital imaging, telepathology, as well as Internet and electronic data mining. Digital imaging is the storage of anatomical pathology information, either gross pictures or microscopic slides, in an electronic format. These images can be used for education, archival, diagnosis, and consultation. Virtual microscopy is the more advanced form of digital imaging with enhanced efficiency and accessibility. Telepathology is now increasingly becoming a useful tool in anatomical pathology practice. Different types of telepathology communications are available for both diagnostic and consultation services. The spectrum of applications of informatics in the field of anatomical pathology is broad and encompasses medical education, clinical services, and pathology research. Informatics is now settling on solid ground as an important tool for pathology teaching, with digital teaching becoming the standard tool in many institutions. After a slow start, we now witness the transition of informatics from the research bench to bedside. As we are moving into a new era of extensive pathology informatics utilization, several challenges have to be addressed, including the cost of the new technology, legal issues, and resistance of pathologists. It is clear from the current evidence that pathology informatics will continue to grow and have a major role in the future of our specialty. However, it is also clear that it is not going to fully replace the human factor or the regular microscope.

  2. Quantitative framework for ordered degradation of APC/C substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Girard, Juliet R; Li, Weihan; Mizrak, Arda; Morgan, David O

    2015-11-16

    During cell-cycle progression, substrates of a single master regulatory enzyme can be modified in a specific order. Here, we used experimental and computational approaches to dissect the quantitative mechanisms underlying the ordered degradation of the substrates of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C(Cdc20), a key regulator of chromosome segregation in mitosis. We show experimentally that the rate of catalysis varies with different substrates of APC/C(Cdc20). Using a computational model based on multi-step ubiquitination, we then show how changes in the interaction between a single substrate and APC/C(Cdc20) can alter the timing of degradation onset relative to APC/C(Cdc20) activation, while ensuring a fast degradation rate. Degradation timing and dynamics depend on substrate affinity for the enzyme as well as the catalytic rate at which the substrate is modified. When two substrates share the same pool of APC/C(Cdc20), their relative enzyme affinities and rates of catalysis influence the partitioning of APC/C(Cdc20) among substrates, resulting in substrate competition. Depending on how APC/C(Cdc20) is partitioned among its substrates, competition can have minor or major effects on the degradation of certain substrates. We show experimentally that increased expression of the early APC/C(Cdc20) substrate Clb5 does not delay the degradation of the later substrate securin, arguing against a role for competition with Clb5 in establishing securin degradation timing. The degradation timing of APC/C(Cdc20) substrates depends on the multi-step nature of ubiquitination, differences in substrate-APC/C(Cdc20) interactions, and competition among substrates. Our studies provide a conceptual framework for understanding how ordered modification can be established among substrates of the same regulatory enzyme, and facilitate our understanding of how precise temporal control is achieved by a small number of master regulators to ensure a successful cell division cycle.

  3. Evaluation of 3D printed anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Tyagi; Schlafly, Millicent; Reed, Kyle B

    2017-07-01

    This case study compares a transfemoral amputee's gait while using the existing Ossur Total Knee 2000 and our novel 3D printed anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee. The anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee is 3D printed out of a carbon-fiber and nylon composite that has a gear-mesh coupling with a hard-stop weight-actuated locking mechanism aided by a cross-linked four-bar spring mechanism. This design can be scaled using anatomical dimensions of a human femur and tibia to have a unique fit for each user. The transfemoral amputee who was tested is high functioning and walked on the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) at a self-selected pace. The motion capture and force data that was collected showed that there were distinct differences in the gait dynamics. The data was used to perform the Combined Gait Asymmetry Metric (CGAM), where the scores revealed that the overall asymmetry of the gait on the Ossur Total Knee was more asymmetric than the anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee. The anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee had higher peak knee flexion that caused a large step time asymmetry. This made walking on the anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee more strenuous due to the compensatory movements in adapting to the different dynamics. This can be overcome by tuning the cross-linked spring mechanism to emulate the dynamics of the subject better. The subject stated that the knee would be good for daily use and has the potential to be adapted as a running knee.

  4. Neuroanatomical substrate of noise sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliuchko, Marina; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja

    2018-01-01

    anatomy of auditory and limbic brain areas. Anatomical MR brain images of 80 subjects were parcellated with FreeSurfer to measure grey matter volume, cortical thickness, cortical area and folding index of anatomical structures in the temporal lobe and insular cortex. The grey matter volume of amygdala...

  5. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Khiet [Mission Viejo, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA; Yankoski, Edward P [Corona, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  6. Relative Expression Levels Rather Than Specific Activity Plays the Major Role in Determining In Vivo AKT Isoform Substrate Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The AKT protooncogene mediates many cellular processes involved in normal development and disease states such as cancer. The three structurally similar isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 exhibit both functional redundancy and isoform-specific functions; however the basis for their differential signalling remains unclear. Here we show that in vitro, purified AKT3 is ∼47-fold more active than AKT1 at phosphorylating peptide and protein substrates. Despite these marked variations in specific activity between the individual isoforms, a comprehensive analysis of phosphorylation of validated AKT substrates indicated only subtle differences in signalling via individual isoforms in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesise, at least in this model system, that relative tissue/cellular abundance, rather than specific activity, plays the dominant role in determining AKT substrate specificity in situ.

  7. Anatomical image-guided fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction using kernel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhao, Yue; Fite, Brett Z.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is an important in vivo imaging modality to visualize physiological and pathological processes in small animals. However, FMT reconstruction is ill-posed and ill-conditioned due to strong optical scattering in deep tissues, which results in poor spatial resolution. It is well known that FMT image quality can be improved substantially by applying the structural guidance in the FMT reconstruction. An approach to introducing anatomical information into the FMT reconstruction is presented using the kernel method. In contrast to conventional methods that incorporate anatomical information with a Laplacian-type regularization matrix, the proposed method introduces the anatomical guidance into the projection model of FMT. The primary advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require segmentation of targets in the anatomical images. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments have been performed to demonstrate the proposed approach’s feasibility. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed kernel method can separate two FMT targets with an edge-to-edge distance of 1 mm and is robust to false-positive guidance and inhomogeneity in the anatomical image. For the phantom experiments with two FMT targets, the kernel method has reconstructed both targets successfully, which further validates the proposed kernel method. PMID:28464120

  8. PC Assisted Anatomical Measurements in 3D Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Mogens; Pedersen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton.......To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton....

  9. Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents in transitional Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Harizi (Shemsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: i in a case-control design, to determine the relationship between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents; ii to assess the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and aneurisms among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Albania in 2013-2014, including 100 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 controls (individuals without cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a CT angiography procedure, whereas individuals in the control group underwent a magnetic resonance angiography procedure. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Conversely, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the prevalence of aneurisms between subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with and without anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Results: Among patients, there were 22 (22% cases with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with 10 (10% individuals in the control group (P=0.033. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the types of the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis between patients and controls (P=0.402. In age- and-sex adjusted logistic regression models, there was evidence of a significant positive association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.03-4.68, P=0.048. Within the patients’ group, of the 52 cases with aneurisms, there were 22 (42.3% individuals with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with no individuals with anatomical variations among the 48 patients without aneurisms (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence on the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and

  10. TH-E-17A-06: Anatomical-Adaptive Compressed Sensing (AACS) Reconstruction for Thoracic 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; OBrien, R; Cooper, B; Kuncic, Z; Keall, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used for clinical thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction suffers from noise and streaking artifacts due to projection under-sampling. Compressed sensing theory enables reconstruction of under-sampled datasets via total-variation (TV) minimization, but TV-minimization algorithms such as adaptive-steepest-descent-projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) often converge slowly and are prone to over-smoothing anatomical details. These disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating general anatomical knowledge via anatomy segmentation. Based on this concept, we have developed an anatomical-adaptive compressed sensing (AACS) algorithm for thoracic 4D-CBCT reconstruction. Methods: AACS is based on the ASD-POCS framework, where each iteration consists of a TV-minimization step and a data fidelity constraint step. Prior to every AACS iteration, four major thoracic anatomical structures - soft tissue, lungs, bony anatomy, and pulmonary details - were segmented from the updated solution image. Based on the segmentation, an anatomical-adaptive weighting was applied to the TV-minimization step, so that TV-minimization was enhanced at noisy/streaky regions and suppressed at anatomical structures of interest. The image quality and convergence speed of AACS was compared to conventional ASD-POCS using an XCAT digital phantom and a patient scan. Results: For the XCAT phantom, the AACS image represented the ground truth better than the ASD-POCS image, giving a higher structural similarity index (0.93 vs. 0.84) and lower absolute difference (1.1*10 4 vs. 1.4*10 4 ). For the patient case, while both algorithms resulted in much less noise and streaking than FDK, the AACS image showed considerably better contrast and sharpness of the vessels, tumor, and fiducial marker than the ASD-POCS image. In addition, AACS converged over 50% faster than ASD-POCS in both cases. Conclusions: The proposed AACS algorithm

  11. TH-E-17A-06: Anatomical-Adaptive Compressed Sensing (AACS) Reconstruction for Thoracic 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; OBrien, R; Cooper, B; Kuncic, Z; Keall, P [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used for clinical thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction suffers from noise and streaking artifacts due to projection under-sampling. Compressed sensing theory enables reconstruction of under-sampled datasets via total-variation (TV) minimization, but TV-minimization algorithms such as adaptive-steepest-descent-projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) often converge slowly and are prone to over-smoothing anatomical details. These disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating general anatomical knowledge via anatomy segmentation. Based on this concept, we have developed an anatomical-adaptive compressed sensing (AACS) algorithm for thoracic 4D-CBCT reconstruction. Methods: AACS is based on the ASD-POCS framework, where each iteration consists of a TV-minimization step and a data fidelity constraint step. Prior to every AACS iteration, four major thoracic anatomical structures - soft tissue, lungs, bony anatomy, and pulmonary details - were segmented from the updated solution image. Based on the segmentation, an anatomical-adaptive weighting was applied to the TV-minimization step, so that TV-minimization was enhanced at noisy/streaky regions and suppressed at anatomical structures of interest. The image quality and convergence speed of AACS was compared to conventional ASD-POCS using an XCAT digital phantom and a patient scan. Results: For the XCAT phantom, the AACS image represented the ground truth better than the ASD-POCS image, giving a higher structural similarity index (0.93 vs. 0.84) and lower absolute difference (1.1*10{sup 4} vs. 1.4*10{sup 4}). For the patient case, while both algorithms resulted in much less noise and streaking than FDK, the AACS image showed considerably better contrast and sharpness of the vessels, tumor, and fiducial marker than the ASD-POCS image. In addition, AACS converged over 50% faster than ASD-POCS in both cases. Conclusions: The proposed AACS

  12. Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Tanya K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is a technique that aims to rehabilitate or restore functionality of skeletal muscles using external electrical stimulation. Despite the success achieved within the field of FES, there are still a number of questions that remain unanswered. One way of providing input to the answers is through the use of computational models. Methods This paper describes the development of an anatomically based computer model of the motor neurons in the lower limb of the human leg and shows how it can be used to simulate electrical signal propagation from the beginning of the sciatic nerve to a skeletal muscle. One-dimensional cubic Hermite finite elements were used to represent the major portions of the lower limb nerves. These elements were fit to data that had been digitised using images from the Visible Man project. Nerves smaller than approximately 1 mm could not be seen in the images, and thus a tree-branching algorithm was used to connect the ends of the fitted nerve model to the respective skeletal muscle. To simulate electrical propagation, a previously published mammalian nerve model was implemented and solved on the anatomically based nerve mesh using a finite difference method. The grid points for the finite difference method were derived from the fitted finite element mesh. By adjusting the tree-branching algorithm, it is possible to represent different levels of motor-unit recruitment. Results To illustrate the process of a propagating nerve stimulus to a muscle in detail, the above method was applied to the nerve tree that connects to the human semitendinosus muscle. A conduction velocity of 89.8 m/s was obtained for a 15 μm diameter nerve fibre. This signal was successfully propagated down the motor neurons to a selected group of motor units in the muscle. Conclusion An anatomically and physiologically based model of the posterior motor neurons in the human lower limb was developed. This

  13. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  14. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  15. Pinus sylvestris switches respiration substrates under shading but not during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Henrik; Fischer, Sarah; Hanf, Stefan; Frosch, Torsten; Poppp, Jürgen; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Reduced carbon assimilation during prolonged drought forces trees to rely on stored carbon to maintain vital processes like respiration. It has been shown, however, that the use of carbohydrates, a major carbon storage pool and main respiratory substrate in plants, strongly declines with deceasing plant hydration. Yet, no empirical evidence has been produced to what degree other carbon storage compounds like lipids and proteins may fuel respiration during drought. We exposed young scots pine trees to carbon limitation using either drought or shading and assessed respiratory substrate use by monitoring the respiratory quotient, δ13C of respired CO2and concentrations of the major storage compounds, i.e. carbohydrates (COH), lipids and amino acids. Generally, respiration was dominated by the most abundant substrate. Only shaded trees shifted from carbohydrate-dominated to lipid-dominated respiration and showed progressive carbohydrate depletion. In drought trees respiration was strongly reduced and fueled with carbohydrates from also strongly reduced carbon assimilation. Initial COH content was maintained during drought probably due to reduced COH mobilization and use and the maintained COH content may have prevented lipid catabolism via sugar signaling. Our results suggest that respiratory substrates other than carbohydrates are used under carbohydrate limitation but not during drought. Thus, respiratory substrate change cannot provide an efficient means to counterbalance carbon limitation under natural drought.

  16. Use of regularized principal component analysis to model anatomical changes during head and neck radiation therapy for treatment adaptation and response assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetvertkov, Mikhail A.; Siddiqui, Farzan; Chetty, Indrin; Kumarasiri, Akila; Liu, Chang; Gordon, J. James; Kim, Jinkoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop standard (SPCA) and regularized (RPCA) principal component analysis models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients and assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy, and for extracting quantitative information for treatment response assessment. Methods: Planning CT images of ten H&N patients were artificially deformed to create “digital phantom” images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during radiation therapy. Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients’ actual deformations and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms) and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific SPCA and RPCA models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. EigenDVFs (EDVFs) having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment. Results: Principal component analysis (PCA) models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade PCA’s ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion. Conclusions: Leading EDVFs from the both PCA approaches have the potential to capture systematic anatomical change during H&N radiotherapy when systematic changes are large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. In all cases the RPCA approach appears to be more

  17. Use of regularized principal component analysis to model anatomical changes during head and neck radiation therapy for treatment adaptation and response assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetvertkov, Mikhail A., E-mail: chetvertkov@wayne.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Siddiqui, Farzan; Chetty, Indrin; Kumarasiri, Akila; Liu, Chang; Gordon, J. James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Kim, Jinkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University Hospital, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To develop standard (SPCA) and regularized (RPCA) principal component analysis models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients and assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy, and for extracting quantitative information for treatment response assessment. Methods: Planning CT images of ten H&N patients were artificially deformed to create “digital phantom” images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during radiation therapy. Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients’ actual deformations and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms) and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific SPCA and RPCA models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. EigenDVFs (EDVFs) having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment. Results: Principal component analysis (PCA) models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade PCA’s ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion. Conclusions: Leading EDVFs from the both PCA approaches have the potential to capture systematic anatomical change during H&N radiotherapy when systematic changes are large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. In all cases the RPCA approach appears to be more

  18. Prefrontal-Thalamic Anatomical Connectivity and Executive Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Chica, Monica; Rogers, Baxter P; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Woodward, Neil D

    2018-03-15

    Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses. Forty-five healthy subjects and 62 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed a battery of tests of executive function and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Probabilistic tractography was used to quantify anatomical connectivity between six cortical regions, including PFC, and the thalamus. Thalamocortical anatomical connectivity was compared between healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia using region-of-interest and voxelwise approaches, and the association between PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity and severity of executive function impairment was examined in patients. Anatomical connectivity between the thalamus and PFC was reduced in schizophrenia. Voxelwise analysis localized the reduction to areas of the mediodorsal thalamus connected to lateral PFC. Reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity in schizophrenia correlated with impaired working memory but not cognitive flexibility and inhibition. In contrast to reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity, thalamic connectivity with somatosensory and occipital cortices was increased in schizophrenia. The results are consistent with models implicating disrupted PFC-thalamic connectivity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity may be an important target for procognitive interventions. Further work is needed to determine the implications of increased thalamic connectivity with sensory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Society of

  19. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  20. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest–abdomen–pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore

  1. A reusable anatomically segmented digital mannequin for public health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Kaori; Okubo, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing development of world wide web technologies has facilitated a change in health communication, which has now become bi-directional and encompasses people with diverse backgrounds. To enable an even greater role for medical illustrations, a data set, BodyParts3D, has been generated and its data set can be used by anyone to create and exchange customised three-dimensional (3D) anatomical images. BP3D comprises more than 3000 3D object files created by segmenting a digital mannequin in accordance with anatomical naming conventions. This paper describes the methodologies and features used to generate an anatomically correct male mannequin.

  2. Structural Evidence of a Major Conformational Change Triggered by Substrate Binding in DapE Enzymes: Impact on the Catalytic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocek, Boguslaw; Reidl, Cory; Starus, Anna; Heath, Tahirah; Bienvenue, David; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Becker, Daniel P; Holz, Richard C

    2018-02-06

    The X-ray crystal structure of the dapE-encoded N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase from Haemophilus influenzae (HiDapE) bound by the products of hydrolysis, succinic acid and l,l-DAP, was determined at 1.95 Å. Surprisingly, the structure bound to the products revealed that HiDapE undergoes a significant conformational change in which the catalytic domain rotates ∼50° and shifts ∼10.1 Å (as measured at the position of the Zn atoms) relative to the dimerization domain. This heretofore unobserved closed conformation revealed significant movements within the catalytic domain compared to that of wild-type HiDapE, which results in effectively closing off access to the dinuclear Zn(II) active site with the succinate carboxylate moiety bridging the dinculear Zn(II) cluster in a μ-1,3 fashion forming a bis(μ-carboxylato)dizinc(II) core with a Zn-Zn distance of 3.8 Å. Surprisingly, His194.B, which is located on the dimerization domain of the opposing chain ∼10.1 Å from the dinuclear Zn(II) active site, forms a hydrogen bond (2.9 Å) with the oxygen atom of succinic acid bound to Zn2, forming an oxyanion hole. As the closed structure forms upon substrate binding, the movement of His194.B by more than ∼10 Å is critical, based on site-directed mutagenesis data, for activation of the scissile carbonyl carbon of the substrate for nucleophilic attack by a hydroxide nucleophile. Employing the HiDapE product-bound structure as the starting point, a reverse engineering approach called product-based transition-state modeling provided structural models for each major catalytic step. These data provide insight into the catalytic reaction mechanism and also the future design of new, potent inhibitors of DapE enzymes.

  3. Multimodal Investigation of Network Level Effects Using Intrinsic Functional Connectivity, Anatomical Covariance, and Structure-to-Function Correlations in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Holmes, Sophie E; DellaGioia, Nicole; Schleifer, Charlie; Matuskey, David; Abdallah, Chadi G; Hampson, Michelle; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Converging evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects multiple large-scale brain networks. Analyses of the correlation or covariance of regional brain structure and function applied to structural and functional MRI data may provide insights into systems-level organization and structure-to-function correlations in the brain in MDD. This study applied tensor-based morphometry and intrinsic connectivity distribution to identify regions of altered volume and intrinsic functional connectivity in data from unmedicated individuals with MDD (n=17) and healthy comparison participants (HC, n=20). These regions were then used as seeds for exploratory anatomical covariance and connectivity analyses. Reduction in volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lower structural covariance between the ACC and the cerebellum were observed in the MDD group. Additionally, individuals with MDD had significantly lower whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This mPFC region showed altered connectivity to the ventral lateral PFC (vlPFC) and local circuitry in MDD. Global connectivity in the ACC was negatively correlated with reported depressive symptomatology. The mPFC-vlPFC connectivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Finally, we observed increased structure-to-function correlation in the PFC/ACC in the MDD group. Although across all analysis methods and modalities alterations in the PFC/ACC were a common finding, each modality and method detected alterations in subregions belonging to distinct large-scale brain networks. These exploratory results support the hypothesis that MDD is a systems level disorder affecting multiple brain networks located in the PFC and provide new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  4. Multimodal Investigation of Network Level Effects Using Intrinsic Functional Connectivity, Anatomical Covariance, and Structure-to-Function Correlations in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Holmes, Sophie E; DellaGioia, Nicole; Schleifer, Charlie; Matuskey, David; Abdallah, Chadi G; Hampson, Michelle; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects multiple large-scale brain networks. Analyses of the correlation or covariance of regional brain structure and function applied to structural and functional MRI data may provide insights into systems-level organization and structure-to-function correlations in the brain in MDD. This study applied tensor-based morphometry and intrinsic connectivity distribution to identify regions of altered volume and intrinsic functional connectivity in data from unmedicated individuals with MDD (n=17) and healthy comparison participants (HC, n=20). These regions were then used as seeds for exploratory anatomical covariance and connectivity analyses. Reduction in volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lower structural covariance between the ACC and the cerebellum were observed in the MDD group. Additionally, individuals with MDD had significantly lower whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This mPFC region showed altered connectivity to the ventral lateral PFC (vlPFC) and local circuitry in MDD. Global connectivity in the ACC was negatively correlated with reported depressive symptomatology. The mPFC–vlPFC connectivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Finally, we observed increased structure-to-function correlation in the PFC/ACC in the MDD group. Although across all analysis methods and modalities alterations in the PFC/ACC were a common finding, each modality and method detected alterations in subregions belonging to distinct large-scale brain networks. These exploratory results support the hypothesis that MDD is a systems level disorder affecting multiple brain networks located in the PFC and provide new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:28944772

  5. Sinonasal anatomical variations: their relationship with chronic rhinosinusitis and effect on the severity of disease-a computerized tomography assisted anatomical and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Ahmet; Haksever, Mehmet; Akduman, Davut; Aslan, Sündüs; Sayar, Zeynep

    2014-09-01

    The anatomy of the sinonasal area has a very wide rage of anatomical variations. The significance of these anatomical variations in pathogenesis of rhinosinusitis, which is the commonest disease in the region, is still unclear. The aims of the study were to compare the rate of sinonasal anatomical variations with development and severity of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. CT scan of paranasal sinuses images of 99 individuals were retrospectively reviewed. 65 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis (study group) who had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery were compared with 34 cases without chronic rhinosinusitis (control group). Also in study group Lund-Mackay score of the sinus disease were calculated and compared to the rate of related anatomical variations. There were 74 (74.7 %) males and 25 (25.2 %) females with ages ranging from 13 to 70 years (mean 32.2 years). The anatomical variations recorded were: Septal deviation 47 (72.3) in study and 25 (73.5 %) in control group, concha bullosa 27 (41.5 %) in study and 18 (52.9 %) in control group, overpneumatized ethmoid bulla 17 (26.1 %) in study and 14 (41.1 %) in control group, pneumatized uncinate 3 (4.6 %) in study and 3 (8.8 %) in control group, agger nasi 42 (64.6 %) in study and 19 (55.8 %) in control group, paradoxical middle turbinates 9 (13.8 %) in study and 4 (11.7 %) in control group, Onodi cell 6 (9.2 %) in study and 2 (5.8 %) in control group, Haller's cells (infraorbital ethmoid cell) 9 (13.8 %) in study and 7 (20.5 %) in control group. None of these results were statistically significant between study and control group (p > 0.05). Lund-Mackay score (which was assumed to show the severity of the disease) of the maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinus were calculated and compared to rate of septal deviation, concha bullosa, agger nasi cells. No significant correlation was conducted (p > 0.05). The results of study showed no statistically significant correlation between sinonasal anatomical

  6. ROOT ANATOMICAL PLASTICITY IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS UNDER REAL AND FULL-SEASON FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETERMINATION OF NEW ANATOMIC SELECTION CHARACTERS FOR BREEDING SALT-RESISTANT RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  7. Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siéssere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. Certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. Nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. Such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa, the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve, and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen. The aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. The proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. Human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. With this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. Morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. We also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  8. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  9. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A

    2015-10-01

    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  11. Role of ultrasonography in percutaneous renal access in patients with renal anatomic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penbegul, Necmettin; Hatipoglu, Namik Kemal; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Atar, Murat; Bozkurt, Yasar; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Tepeler, Abdulkadir

    2013-05-01

    To present our experience regarding the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy in anatomically abnormal kidneys. We performed US-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy in 15 patients with anatomically abnormal kidneys and renal calculi. Of the 15 patients, 5 had horseshoe kidneys, 5 had rotation anomalies, 2 had kyphoscoliosis, and 3 had scoliosis. The stone size, number of access tracts, operative time, hospitalization duration, rate of stone clearance, and complication rate were recorded. Percutaneous access was achieved with US guidance in the operating room by the urologist. Successful renal access was obtained by the surgeon using US guidance in all patients, and a single access was obtained in all cases. Of the 15 patients, 8 were females, and 7 were males; 8 patients had solitary stones, and 7 had multiple calculi. The renal calculi were on the right in 7 patients and on the left in 8. Three patients had previously undergone unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy. Complete stone clearance was achieved in 13 patients. The mean operative time was 54.2 minutes. No patient required a blood transfusion because of bleeding. Urinary tract infections occurred in 2 patients, who were treated with antibiotics. A double-J catheter was not inserted in any patient; however, a ureteral catheter was used in 3 patients for 1 day. None of the patients had any major complications during the postoperative period. The stone-free rate was 87%, and 2 patients had clinically insignificant residual fragments. Our results have demonstrated that US-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be performed feasibly, safely, and effectively in anatomically abnormal kidneys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative epidermal anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis Swart in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fajuke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis; N. biserrata, N. cordifolia, N. exaltata (i & (ii, N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata were carried out with a view to identify anatomic characters of taxonomic values. Both qualitative and quantitative anatomical studies were carried out. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Anatomical characters studied include venation patterns, trichome types, presence and absence of stomata and values of the stomatal index which are valuable in delimiting the species. The overall results showed overlaps in the quantitative anatomical attributes of the Nephrolepis taxa studied suggesting that they belong to the same genus. Qualitative anatomical attributes that separated the genus into distinct taxa are the presence of simple multicellular glandular trichomes in N. biserrata and simple multicellular non-glandular trichomes in N. exaltata (i and N. exalta (ii while N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata have simple unicellular non-glandular trichomes and absence of trichome in N. cordifolia. Presence of anisocytic, diacytic or anomocytic stomata were of diagnostic important in the six taxa.

  13. Transsphenoidal surgery in patients with acromegaly: operative strategies for overcoming technically challenging anatomical variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Cavallo, Luigi M; Esposito, Felice; Fernandez-Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Tasiou, Anastasia; De Angelis, Michelangelo; Cafiero, Tullio; Cappabianca, Paolo; Laws, Edward R

    2010-10-01

    In addition to difficulties with anesthetic and medical management, transsphenoidal operations in patients with longstanding acromegaly are associated with inherent intraoperative challenges because of anatomical variations that occur frequently in these patients. The object of this study was to review the overall safety profile and anatomical/technical challenges associated with transsphenoidal surgery in patients with acromegaly. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 169 patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal operations for growth hormone-secreting adenomas to assess the incidence of surgical complications. A review of frequently occurring anatomical challenges and operative strategies employed during each phase of the operation to address these particular issues was performed. Of 169 cases reviewed, there was no perioperative mortality. Internal carotid artery injury occurred in 1 patient (0.6%) with complex sinus anatomy, who remained neurologically intact following endovascular unilateral carotid artery occlusion. Other complications included: significant postoperative epistaxis (5 patients [3%]), transient diabetes insipidus (5 patients [3%]), delayed symptomatic hyponatremia (4 patients [2%]), CSF leak (2 patients [1%]), and pancreatitis (1 patient [0.6%]). Preoperative considerations in patients with acromegaly should include a cardiopulmonary evaluation and planning regarding intubation and other aspects of the anesthetic technique. During the nasal phase of the transsphenoidal operation, primary challenges include maintaining adequate visualization and hemostasis, which is frequently compromised by redundant, edematous nasal mucosa and bony hypertrophy of the septum and the nasal turbinates. During the sphenoid phase, adequate bony removal, optimization of working space, and correlation of imaging studies to intraoperative anatomy are major priorities. The sellar phase is frequently challenged by increased sellar floor thickness

  14. The clinical importance of the anatomic variations in the paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira Junior, Francisco Ribeiro; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Madeira, Ivana Andrade; Diniz, Renata Furletti; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval

    2008-01-01

    The anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses are common findings. The importance of such variations predisposing disease through the obstruction of the drainage pathway has been discussed by several authors, although it is not yet a matter of agreement. The literature was reviewed and a iconographic assay was prepared aiming the discussion of the importance of the main anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses. The prevalence of anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses varies largely amongst studies and its role in sinus disease is controversial. In this article, it is described the different variations associated to paranasal disease and how they relate to pathologic conditions. Most studies confirm the concept that anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses are related to disease when they obstruct the drainage pathways. The knowledge of such alterations and its relations to pathologic conditions is expected from the general radiologist. (author)

  15. Mechanical Characterization of Flexible and Stretchable Electronic Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional IC packages form a rigid shell around silicon IC dies. Their purpose is to provide environmental protection, electrical interconnect and heat dissipation. Despite the fact that majority of current silicon IC?s are realized in a very thin top layer of the silicon substrate (<10µm), the

  16. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  17. How accurate is anatomic limb alignment in predicting mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Choi, Sang-Hee; Chang, Moon Jong

    2015-10-27

    Anatomic limb alignment often differs from mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to assess the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each of three commonly used ranges for anatomic limb alignment (3-9°, 5-10° and 2-10°) in predicting an acceptable range (neutral ± 3°) for mechanical limb alignment after TKA. We also assessed whether the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment was affected by anatomic variation. This retrospective study included 314 primary TKAs. The alignment of the limb was measured with both anatomic and mechanical methods of measurement. We also measured anatomic variation, including the femoral bowing angle, tibial bowing angle, and neck-shaft angle of the femur. All angles were measured on the same full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each range of anatomic limb alignment were calculated and compared using mechanical limb alignment as the reference standard. The associations between the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment and anatomic variation were also determined. The range of 2-10° for anatomic limb alignment showed the highest accuracy, but it was only 73 % (3-9°, 65 %; 5-10°, 67 %). The specificity of the 2-10° range was 81 %, which was higher than that of the other ranges (3-9°, 69 %; 5-10°, 67 %). However, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict varus malalignment was only 16 % (3-9°, 35 %; 5-10°, 68 %). In addition, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict valgus malalignment was only 43 % (3-9°, 71 %; 5-10°, 43 %). The accuracy of anatomical limb alignment was lower for knees with greater femoral (odds ratio = 1.2) and tibial (odds ratio = 1.2) bowing. Anatomic limb alignment did not accurately predict mechanical limb alignment after TKA, and its accuracy was affected by anatomic variation. Thus, alignment after TKA should be assessed by measuring mechanical alignment rather than anatomic

  18. Substrate-Na{sup +} complex formation: Coupling mechanism for {gamma}-aminobutyrate symporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallo, Anna; Simon, Agnes [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Bencsura, Akos [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Heja, Laszlo [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Kardos, Julianna, E-mail: jkardos@chemres.hu [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)

    2009-07-24

    Crystal structures of transmembrane transport proteins belonging to the important families of neurotransmitter-sodium symporters reveal how they transport neurotransmitters across membranes. Substrate-induced structural conformations of gated neurotransmitter-sodium symporters have been in the focus of research, however, a key question concerning the mechanism of Na{sup +} ion coupling remained unanswered. Homology models of human glial transporter subtypes of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid were built. In accordance with selectivity data for subtype 2 vs. 3, docking and molecular dynamics calculations suggest similar orthosteric substrate (inhibitor) conformations and binding crevices but distinguishable allosteric Zn{sup 2+} ion binding motifs. Considering the occluded conformational states of glial human {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter subtypes, we found major semi-extended and minor ring-like conformations of zwitterionic {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion. The existence of the minor ring-like conformation of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion may be attributed to the strengthening of the intramolecular H-bond by the electrostatic effect of Na{sup +} ion. Coupling substrate uptake into cells with the thermodynamically favorable Na{sup +} ion movement through substrate-Na{sup +} ion complex formation may be a mechanistic principle featuring transmembrane neurotransmitter-sodium symporter proteins.

  19. Indole butyric acid and substrates influence on multiplication of blackberry 'Xavante'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrar Hussain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry is a shrubby plant specie which has a high economic importance among agriculture crops. Brazil is the major country of Latin America with the highest future scope for blackberries. For availability of good quality and maximum quantity of seedlings, the present study was carried out at the Universidade Estadual de Londrina,PR from January to March in 2013. The aim of the study was to evaluate the multiplication of blackberry 'Xavante' cuttings under different type of substrates treated with different levels of indole butyric acid (IBA. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 2 factors, i.e., substrate (rice husk, vermiculite and coconut fiber and IBA (0; 1,000; 2,000 and 3,000mg L-1, with 5 replications. Each replicate consisted of 10 cuttings. The variables studied were: cutting rooting, cutting survival, leaf retention, cuttings with new leaves, number of major roots, length of major roots and roots dry weight. Most of the variables were significantly affected by both substrate and IBA. Rice husk and vermiculite performed better than coconut fiber and provided the same results for most of the variables, while coconut fiber showed lower performance for all of the variables studied. IBA significantly affected the rooting and the number of major roots. It is concluded that for multiplication of blackberry 'Xavante', both rice husk and vermiculite can be used along 2,000mg L-1 of IBA

  20. Computerized Tomographic Study on the Anatomic Variation of the Paranasal Sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Kyung; Lim, Sug Young; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Institute of Oral Bio Science, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Ju [Dept. of Prosthodontics, School of Denstistry, Chonbuk National Universty, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    To evaluate the anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses on computed tomographs. The author examined the CT images of the paranasal sinuses retrospectively in 500 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 1997. The highest incidence of anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses in bilateral structures was agger nasi cell (73.2%), followed by concha bullosa (31.1%), Onodi cell (24.0%), Haller cell (19.8%), maxillary sinus septum (13.0%), paradoxical middle turbinate (2.5%), pneumatized uncinate process (2.0%), and bent uncinate process. The highest incidence of anatomic variation in midline structures was nasal septum deviation(53.2%), followed by nasal septumaerated (29.4%), bulla galli (24.7%) asymmetric intersphenoid septum (22.3%), and nasal septum spur (13.8%). The correlation between anatomic variation and paranasal sinusitis was not found. The results of this study will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of paranasal sinus diseases, especially in the treatment planning before functional endoscopic surgery.

  1. Computerized Tomographic Study on the Anatomic Variation of the Paranasal Sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Kyung; Lim, Sug Young; Koh, Kwang Joon; Park, Mi Ju

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses on computed tomographs. The author examined the CT images of the paranasal sinuses retrospectively in 500 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 1997. The highest incidence of anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses in bilateral structures was agger nasi cell (73.2%), followed by concha bullosa (31.1%), Onodi cell (24.0%), Haller cell (19.8%), maxillary sinus septum (13.0%), paradoxical middle turbinate (2.5%), pneumatized uncinate process (2.0%), and bent uncinate process. The highest incidence of anatomic variation in midline structures was nasal septum deviation(53.2%), followed by nasal septumaerated (29.4%), bulla galli (24.7%) asymmetric intersphenoid septum (22.3%), and nasal septum spur (13.8%). The correlation between anatomic variation and paranasal sinusitis was not found. The results of this study will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of paranasal sinus diseases, especially in the treatment planning before functional endoscopic surgery.

  2. Anatomical Variations in the Sinoatrial Nodal Artery: A Meta-Analysis and Clinical Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vikse

    Full Text Available The sinoatrial nodal artery (SANa is a highly variable vessel which supplies blood to the sinoatrial node (SAN. Due to its variability and susceptibility to iatrogenic injury, our study aimed to assess the anatomy of the SANa and determine the prevalence of its anatomical variations.An extensive search of major electronic databases was performed to identify all articles reporting anatomical data on the SANa. No lower date limit or language restrictions were applied. Anatomical data regarding the artery were extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis.Sixty-six studies (n = 21455 hearts were included in the meta-analysis. The SANa usually arose as a single vessel with a pooled prevalence of 95.5% (95%CI:93.6-96.9. Duplication and triplication of the artery were also observed with pooled prevalence of 4.3% (95%CI:2.8-6.0 and 0.3% (95%CI:0-0.7, respectively. The most common origin of the SANa was from the right coronary artery (RCA, found in 68.0% (95%CI:55.6-68.9 of cases, followed by origin from the left circumflex artery, and origin from the left coronary artery with pooled prevalence of 22.1% (95%CI:15.0-26.2 and 2.7 (95%CI:0.7-5.2, respectively. A retrocaval course of the SANa was the most common course of the artery with a pooled prevalence of 47.1% (95%CI:36.0-55.5. The pooled prevalence of an S-shaped SANa was 7.6% (95%CI:2.9-14.1.The SANa is most commonly reported as a single vessel, originating from the RCA, and taking a retrocaval course to reach the SAN. Knowledge of high risk anatomical variants of the SANa, such as an S-shaped artery, must be taken into account by surgeons to prevent iatrogenic injuries. Specifically, interventional or cardiosurgical procedures, such as the Cox maze procedure for atrial fibrillation, open heart surgeries through the right atrium or intraoperative cross-clamping or dissection procedures during mitral valve surgery using the septal approach can all potentiate the risk for injury in the setting of high

  3. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: anant.madabhushi@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Genega, Elizabeth M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  4. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Feleppa, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  5. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A.; Stuart, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: 1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  6. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?; Variacoes anatomicas dos seios paranasais: o que informar ao otorrinolaringologista?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto, E-mail: carollaurita@hotmail.com [Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem da Santa Casa de Misericordia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Natalia Delage; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval; Ramos, Laura Filgueiras Mourao; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira [Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem do Hospital Mater Dei - Mater Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  7. Touching Anatomy. : On the Handling of Anatomical Preparations in the Anatomical Cabinets of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the anatomical Cabinets of Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch must be understood as an early modern workshop in which preparations were continuously handled. It is claimed that preparations actively appealed to anatomists and visitors to handle, re-dissect, touch, and even kiss

  8. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...

  9. SAR analysis of a needle type applicator made from a shape memory alloy using 3-D anatomical human head model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Mitsunori; Mimoto, Naoki; Hirashima, Taku; Morita, Emi; Shindo, Yasuhiro; Kato, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Uzuka, Takeo; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the possibility of a new heating method with a needle applicator made of a shape memory alloy (SMA) to expand the heating area for interstitial brain tumor hyperthermia treatments. The purpose of the study described here is to show the capability of the method to expand a defined heating region with the developed three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical human head model using the finite element method (FEM). One major disadvantage of radiofrequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia treatment is that this heating method has a small heating area. To overcome this problem, a new type of needle made of a SMA was developed. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions of this proposed method, when applied to the 3-D anatomical human head model reconstructed from two-dimensional (2-D) MRI and X-ray CT images, were calculated with computer simulations. The calculated SAR distributions showed no unexpected hot spots within the model. The heated area was localized around the tumor. These results suggest that the proposed heating method using the SMA needle applicator and the developed method for reconstructing a 3-D anatomical human head model are capable of being used for invasive brain tumor hyperthermia treatments. (author)

  10. Retrieving high-resolution images over the Internet from an anatomical image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp-Adams, Annette; Henderson, Earl

    1999-12-01

    The Visible Human Data set is an important contribution to the national collection of anatomical images. To enhance the availability of these images, the National Library of Medicine has supported the design and development of a prototype object-oriented image database which imports, stores, and distributes high resolution anatomical images in both pixel and voxel formats. One of the key database modules is its client-server Internet interface. This Web interface provides a query engine with retrieval access to high-resolution anatomical images that range in size from 100KB for browser viewable rendered images, to 1GB for anatomical structures in voxel file formats. The Web query and retrieval client-server system is composed of applet GUIs, servlets, and RMI application modules which communicate with each other to allow users to query for specific anatomical structures, and retrieve image data as well as associated anatomical images from the database. Selected images can be downloaded individually as single files via HTTP or downloaded in batch-mode over the Internet to the user's machine through an applet that uses Netscape's Object Signing mechanism. The image database uses ObjectDesign's object-oriented DBMS, ObjectStore that has a Java interface. The query and retrieval systems has been tested with a Java-CDE window system, and on the x86 architecture using Windows NT 4.0. This paper describes the Java applet client search engine that queries the database; the Java client module that enables users to view anatomical images online; the Java application server interface to the database which organizes data returned to the user, and its distribution engine that allow users to download image files individually and/or in batch-mode.

  11. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Velde, Joris; Audenaert, Emmanuel; Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas; Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric; Kerckaert, Ingrid; D'Herde, Katharina; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection

  12. Renal Tumor Anatomic Complexity: Clinical Implications for Urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shreyas S; Uzzo, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic tumor complexity can be objectively measured and reported using nephrometry. Various scoring systems have been developed in an attempt to correlate tumor complexity with intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Nephrometry may also predict tumor biology in a noninvasive, reproducible manner. Other scoring systems can help predict surgical complexity and the likelihood of complications, independent of tumor characteristics. The accumulated data in this new field provide provocative evidence that objectifying anatomic complexity can consolidate reporting mechanisms and improve metrics of comparisons. Further prospective validation is needed to understand the full descriptive and predictive ability of the various nephrometry scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sonographic and Anatomic Description of the Subtalar Joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Bong, David; Balint, Peter V

    2018-01-01

    Our study provides a detailed anatomic and sonographic description of the subtalar joint, a single joint that, anatomically, is divided into the anterior subtalar joint (ASTJ) and the posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ). Cadaver specimens of the ankle and foot were examined in detail by ultrasound (US......), and the subtalar joints of all the specimens were injected with colored latex of a contrasting color under US guidance. Compatible with other studies, examination of the sections revealed lack of communication between the ASTJ and the PSTJ and communication between the PSTJ and the posterior recess...... of agreement between images acquired in cadaver specimens and images acquired in four centers using healthy patients....

  14. Recyclable organic solar cells on cellulose nanocrystal substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yinhua; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Khan, Talha M; Liu, Jen-Chieh; Hsu, James; Shim, Jae Won; Dindar, Amir; Youngblood, Jeffrey P; Moon, Robert J; Kippelen, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is potentially the largest source of renewable energy at our disposal, but significant advances are required to make photovoltaic technologies economically viable and, from a life-cycle perspective, environmentally friendly, and consequently scalable. Cellulose nanomaterials are emerging high-value nanoparticles extracted from plants that are abundant, renewable, and sustainable. Here, we report on the first demonstration of efficient polymer solar cells fabricated on optically transparent cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) substrates. The solar cells fabricated on the CNC substrates display good rectification in the dark and reach a power conversion efficiency of 2.7%. In addition, we demonstrate that these solar cells can be easily separated and recycled into their major components using low-energy processes at room temperature, opening the door for a truly recyclable solar cell technology. Efficient and easily recyclable organic solar cells on CNC substrates are expected to be an attractive technology for sustainable, scalable, and environmentally-friendly energy production.

  15. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25° or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means.

  16. Role of major resection in pulmonary metastasectomy for colorectal cancer in the Spanish prospective multicenter study (GECMP-CCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J; Molins, L; Fibla, J J; Heras, F; Embún, R; Rivas, J J

    2016-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) may benefit from aggressive surgical therapy. The objective of this study was to determine the role of major anatomic resection for pulmonary metastasectomy to improve survival when compared with limited pulmonary resection. Data of 522 patients (64.2% men, mean age 64.5 years) who underwent pulmonary resections with curative intent for CRC metastases over a 2-year period were reviewed. All patients were followed for a minimum of 3 years. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with DSS and DFS were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. A total of 394 (75.6%) patients underwent wedge resection, 19 (3.6%) anatomic segmentectomy, 5 (0.9%) lesser resections not described, 100 (19.3%) lobectomy, and 4 (0.8%) pneumonectomy. Accordingly, 104 (19.9%) patients were treated with major anatomic resection and 418 (80.1%) with lesser resection. Operations were carried out with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in 93 patients. The overall DSS and DFS were 55 and 28.3 months, respectively. Significant differences in DSS and DFS in favor of major resection versus lesser resection (DSS median not reached versus 52.2 months, P = 0.03; DFS median not reached versus 23.9 months, P < 0.001) were found. In the multivariate analysis, major resection appeared to be a protective factor in DSS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.96, P = 0.031] and DFS (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.36-0.75, P < 0.001). The surgical approach (VATS versus open surgical resection) had no effect on outcome. Major anatomic resection with lymphadenectomy for pulmonary metastasectomy can be considered in selected CRC patient with sufficient functional reserve to improve the DSS and DFS. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm the present results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  17. Chronic ankle instability: Arthroscopic anatomical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Hernández, M; Mellado-Romero, M; Páramo-Díaz, P; García-Lamas, L; Vilà-Rico, J

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries. Despite appropriate conservative treatment, approximately 20-40% of patients continue to have chronic ankle instability and pain. In 75-80% of cases there is an isolated rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament. A retrospective observational study was conducted on 21 patients surgically treated for chronic ankle instability by means of an arthroscopic anatomical repair, between May 2012 and January 2013. There were 15 men and 6 women, with a mean age of 30.43 years (range 18-48). The mean follow-up was 29 months (range 25-33). All patients were treated by arthroscopic anatomical repair of anterior talofibular ligament. Four (19%) patients were found to have varus hindfoot deformity. Associated injuries were present in 13 (62%) patients. There were 6 cases of osteochondral lesions, 3 cases of posterior ankle impingement syndrome, and 6 cases of peroneal pathology. All these injuries were surgically treated in the same surgical time. A clinical-functional study was performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. The mean score before surgery was 66.12 (range 60-71), and after surgery it increased up to a mean of 96.95 (range 90-100). All patients were able to return to their previous sport activity within a mean of 21.5 weeks (range 17-28). Complications were found in 3 (14%) patients. Arthroscopic anatomical ligament repair technique has excellent clinical-functional results with a low percentage of complications, and enables patients to return to their previous sport activity within a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomical approach for surgery of the male posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpiaz, Orietta; Mitterberger, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Andrea; Pinggera, Germar M; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes

    2008-11-01

    To investigate, in a morphological study, the anatomy of the male rhabdosphincter and the relation between the membranous urethra, the rhabdosphincter and the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) to provide the anatomical basis for surgical approach of the posterior urethra as successful outcomes in urethral reconstructive surgery still remain a challenging issue. In all, 11 complete pelves and four tissue blocks of prostate, rectum, membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter were studied. Besides anatomical preparations, the posterior urethra and their relationship were studied by means of serial histological sections. In the histological cross-sections, the rhabdosphincter forms an omega-shaped loop around the anterior and lateral aspects of the membranous urethra. Ventrally and laterally, it is separated from the membranous urethra by a delicate sheath of connective tissue. Through a midline approach displacing the nerves and vessels laterally, injuries to the NVBs can be avoided. With meticulous dissection of the delicate ventral connective tissue sheath between the ventral wall of the membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter, the two structures can be separated without damage to either of them. This anatomical approach can be used for dissection of the anterior urethral wall in urethral surgery. Based on precise anatomical knowledge, the ventral wall of the posterior urethra can be dissected and exposed without injuring the rhabdosphincter and the NVBs. This approach provides the basis for sparing of the rhabdosphincter and for successful outcomes in urethral surgery for the treatment of bulbo-membranous urethral strictures.

  19. Microbiome analysis shows enrichment for specific bacteria in separate anatomical regions of the deep-sea carnivorous sponge Chondrocladia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Joost T P; Kavanagh, Alana N; Dufour, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    The Cladorhizidae is a unique family of carnivorous marine sponges characterised by either the absence or reduction of the aquiferous system and by the presence of specialised structures to trap and digest mesoplanktonic prey. Previous studies have postulated a key role of host-associated bacteria in enabling carnivory in this family of sponges. In this study, we employed high-throughput Illumina-based sequencing to identify the bacterial community associated with four individuals of the deep-sea sponge Chondrocladia grandis sampled in the Gulf of Maine. By characterising the V6 through V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, we compared the bacterial community composition and diversity in three distinct anatomical regions with predicted involvement in prey capture (sphere), support (axis) and benthic substrate attachment (root). A high abundance of Tenacibaculum, a known siderophore producing bacterial genus, was present in all anatomical regions and specimens. The abundance of Colwellia and Roseobacter was greater in sphere and axis samples, and bacteria from the hydrocarbon-degrading Robiginitomaculum genus were most abundant in the root. This first description of the bacterial community associated with C. grandis provides novel insights into the contribution of bacteria to the carnivorous lifestyle while laying foundations for future cladorhizid symbiosis studies. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy with bone anchor fixation: short-term anatomic and functional results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, M.I.J.; Vierhout, M.E.; Mannaerts, G.H.; Weiden, R.M.F. van der

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term anatomic and functional outcomes and safety of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy with bone anchor fixation. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of women undergoing laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy between 2004 and 2009. Anatomic

  1. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda; Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  2. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (Medradius), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada; Arraes, Fabiana Maia Nobre Rocha [Clinica Sinus, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  3. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  4. Assessment of Anatomical Knowledge and Core Trauma Competency Vascular Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Guinevere; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Garofalo, Evan; Shackelford, Stacy; Shalin, Valerie; Puche, Adam; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin

    2018-03-01

    Surgical residents express confidence in performing specific vascular exposures before training, but such self-reported confidence did not correlate with co-located evaluator ratings. This study reports residents' self-confidence evaluated before and after Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) cadaver-based training, and 12-18 mo later. We hypothesize that residents will better judge their own skill after ASSET than before when compared with evaluator ratings. Forty PGY2-7 surgical residents performed four procedures: axillary artery (AA), brachial artery (BA), femoral artery exposure and control (FA), and lower extremity fasciotomy (FAS) at the three evaluations. Using 5-point Likert scales, surgeons self-assessed their confidence in anatomical understanding and procedure performance after each procedure and evaluators rated each surgeon accordingly. For all the three evaluations, residents consistently rated their anatomical understanding (p < 0.04) and surgical performance (p < 0.03) higher than evaluators for both FA and FAS. Residents rated their anatomical understanding and surgical performance higher (p < 0.005) than evaluators for BA after training and up to 18 mo later. Only for third AA evaluation were there no rating differences. Residents overrate their anatomical understanding and performance abilities for BA, FA, and FAS even after performing the procedures and being debriefed three times in 18 mo.

  5. Evaluation of contrast reproduction method based on the anatomical guidance of the cerebral images reconstruction in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, F.

    2007-04-01

    Positron emission tomography is a medical imaging modality providing in-vivo volumetric images of functional processes of the human body, which is used for the diagnosis and the following of neuro degenerative diseases. PET efficiency is however limited by its poor spatial resolution, which generates a decrease of the image local contrast and leads to an under-estimation of small cerebral structures involved in the degenerative mechanism of those diseases. This so-called partial volume effect degradation is usually corrected in a post-reconstruction processing framework through the use of anatomical information, whose spatial resolution allows a better discrimination between functional tissues. However, this kind of method has the major drawback of being very sensitive to the residual mismatches on the anatomical information processing. We developed in this thesis an alternative methodology to compensate for the degradation, by incorporating in the reconstruction process both a model of the system impulse response and an anatomically-based image prior constraint. This methodology was validated by comparison with a post-reconstruction correction strategy, using data from an anthropomorphic phantom acquisition and then we evaluated its robustness to the residual mismatches through a realistic Monte Carlo simulation corresponding to a cerebral exam. The proposed algorithm was finally applied to clinical data reconstruction. (author)

  6. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: M.Rutten@JBZ.nl; Maresch, Bas J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, Willy Brandtlaan 10, 6710 HN Ede (Netherlands)]. E-mail: MareschB@zgv.nl; Jager, Gerrit J. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: G.Jager@JBZ.nl; Blickman, Johan G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: J.Blickman@rad.umcn.nl; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)]. E-mail: vanholsbeeck@comcast.net

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections.

  7. The maxillary second molar - anatomical variations (case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkenadze, E; Chipashvili, N

    2015-01-01

    To be acquainted with dental anatomical specificity is of great importance for dental endodontic treatment algorithm. The subject of present publication is 2 clinical cases of upper second molars, detailed characterization of, which is considered very important for enrichment of anatomical knowledge about dental anatomical variations. In one case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 38-year-old woman was complains as of esthetic character as well as functional misbalance (disturbance of chewing function due to the damage of orthopedic construction). The patient indicated to the existence of coronary defects of large size aesthetic discomforts, damage and discolouration of old orthopedic construction (denture) in maxillary right molar area. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified as a result of incomplete endodontic treatment. According to the data obtained after clinical and visiographical examinations, the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis of 17 teeth was identified, tooth 17 with 2 roots and 2 canals. In the second clinical case, the reason for admission to the clinic of a 39-year-old woman was severe pain in the upper right molar area. The patient indicated to the caries on the tooth 17. After completion of proper survey clinical and visiographical examinations, acute pulpitis (K04.00) - with three roots and 4 canals was diagnosed. In both cases after the proper examinations and agreement with the patients a treatment plan envisaging: 17 teeth endodontic treatment, filling of caries defects and their preparation on one hand for orthopedic construction (denture) and on the other hand for restoration of anatomical integrity by light-cured composite, was scheduled. The present study is designed to prevent complications of endodontic treatment of the second molar, to optimize diagnosis and treatment algorithm, once again proving reliable information indicating to the

  8. Giant Dirac point shift of graphene phototransistors by doped silicon substrate current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Shimatani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a promising new material for photodetectors due to its excellent optical properties and high-speed response. However, graphene-based phototransistors have low responsivity due to the weak light absorption of graphene. We have observed a giant Dirac point shift upon white light illumination in graphene-based phototransistors with n-doped Si substrates, but not those with p-doped substrates. The source-drain current and substrate current were investigated with and without illumination for both p-type and n-type Si substrates. The decay time of the drain-source current indicates that the Si substrate, SiO2 layer, and metal electrode comprise a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitor due to the presence of defects at the interface between the Si substrate and SiO2 layer. The difference in the diffusion time of the intrinsic major carriers (electrons and the photogenerated electron-hole pairs to the depletion layer delays the application of the gate voltage to the graphene channel. Therefore, the giant Dirac point shift is attributed to the n-type Si substrate current. This phenomenon can be exploited to realize high-performance graphene-based phototransistors.

  9. Giant Dirac point shift of graphene phototransistors by doped silicon substrate current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatani, Masaaki; Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail: Ogawa.Shimpei@eb.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Fujisawa, Daisuke [Advanced Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-Honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Okuda, Satoshi [Advanced Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-Honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); The Institute of the Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kanai, Yasushi; Ono, Takao; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko [The Institute of the Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphene is a promising new material for photodetectors due to its excellent optical properties and high-speed response. However, graphene-based phototransistors have low responsivity due to the weak light absorption of graphene. We have observed a giant Dirac point shift upon white light illumination in graphene-based phototransistors with n-doped Si substrates, but not those with p-doped substrates. The source-drain current and substrate current were investigated with and without illumination for both p-type and n-type Si substrates. The decay time of the drain-source current indicates that the Si substrate, SiO{sub 2} layer, and metal electrode comprise a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor due to the presence of defects at the interface between the Si substrate and SiO{sub 2} layer. The difference in the diffusion time of the intrinsic major carriers (electrons) and the photogenerated electron-hole pairs to the depletion layer delays the application of the gate voltage to the graphene channel. Therefore, the giant Dirac point shift is attributed to the n-type Si substrate current. This phenomenon can be exploited to realize high-performance graphene-based phototransistors.

  10. COMICS: Cartoon Visualization of Omics Data in Spatial Context Using Anatomical Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, Dmitrii; Popov, Iaroslav; Guler, Arzu Tugce; Medvedev, Dmitry; van der Plas-Duivesteijn, Suzanne; Varela, Monica; Kolder, Iris C R M; Meijer, Annemarie H; Spaink, Herman P; Palmblad, Magnus

    2018-01-05

    COMICS is an interactive and open-access web platform for integration and visualization of molecular expression data in anatomograms of zebrafish, carp, and mouse model systems. Anatomical ontologies are used to map omics data across experiments and between an experiment and a particular visualization in a data-dependent manner. COMICS is built on top of several existing resources. Zebrafish and mouse anatomical ontologies with their controlled vocabulary (CV) and defined hierarchy are used with the ontoCAT R package to aggregate data for comparison and visualization. Libraries from the QGIS geographical information system are used with the R packages "maps" and "maptools" to visualize and interact with molecular expression data in anatomical drawings of the model systems. COMICS allows users to upload their own data from omics experiments, using any gene or protein nomenclature they wish, as long as CV terms are used to define anatomical regions or developmental stages. Common nomenclatures such as the ZFIN gene names and UniProt accessions are provided additional support. COMICS can be used to generate publication-quality visualizations of gene and protein expression across experiments. Unlike previous tools that have used anatomical ontologies to interpret imaging data in several animal models, including zebrafish, COMICS is designed to take spatially resolved data generated by dissection or fractionation and display this data in visually clear anatomical representations rather than large data tables. COMICS is optimized for ease-of-use, with a minimalistic web interface and automatic selection of the appropriate visual representation depending on the input data.

  11. Substrate Handbook for Biogas Production; Substrathandbok foer biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My; Uldal, Martina (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    Today, co-digestion plants in Sweden treat a broad range of different substrates, of which some have not previously been used for anaerobic digestion. The major part of this organic waste derives from households, restaurants, food industries and farms. When evaluating a new substrate as feed for anaerobic digestion, several different aspects need to be taken into consideration, such as anaerobic degradability, TS/VS content, nutrient composition and risk for mechanical problems. Consequently, there is a need for practical guidelines on how to evaluate new substrates as raw materials for biogas production, including not only gas yield but also what practical and microbiological problems that may arise when the specific substrate is treated together with other substrates in the plant. The aim with this handbook is to provide a basis on how to evaluate new substrates as feed for anaerobic digestion. The intention is that this material will save time and effort for the personnel at the plant when they come in contact with new types of waste. Also, the aim is to facilitate the process of identifying new substrates within the ABP-regulation (1774/2002) and what requirements are then demanded on handling. The work with the handbook has been divided in three different parts; (1) an extensive literature study and a compilation of the achieved results, (2) interviews with personnel at most of the Swedish co-digestion plants to identify substrates and problems of interest, and (3) lab tests of selected substrates. The lab tests included Bio Methane Potential (BMP) tests as well as a simple characterization of each substrate based on fat/protein/carbohydrate content. All data origins from anaerobic digestion within the mesophilic temperature range, but the results and discussion are applicable also for thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The result of this work is a written report together with an Excel file which are to be directly used by the biogas plants as a basis in the

  12. Epitaxial stabilization of ordered Pd–Fe structures on perovskite substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harton, Renee M., E-mail: reneehar@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stoica, Vladimir A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 201 Old Main, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Clarke, Roy [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We report the fabrication of epitaxial ferromagnetic Pd{sub 3}Fe thin films on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates by promoting the interdiffusion of an Fe/Pd multilayer heterostructure using thermal annealing. Prior to annealing, the results of in-situ Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction characterization suggest that each Fe and Pd layer exhibited an in-plane epitaxial relationship with the SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrate. X-Ray diffraction and magneto-optic Kerr effect characterization, conducted post-annealing, demonstrate that the film composition is majority Pd{sub 3}Fe and exhibits in-plane magnetization reversal with a moderate coercive field of ≈760 Oe. This demonstration of an ordered atomic layer heterostructure grown on a perovskite substrate suggests a route to epitaxial interfacial structures which can achieve strain-assisted magnetic switching.

  13. Estimating anatomical wrist joint motion with a robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Chad G; Kann, Claudia K; Deshpande, Ashish D; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2017-07-01

    Robotic exoskeletons can provide the high intensity, long duration targeted therapeutic interventions required for regaining motor function lost as a result of neurological injury. Quantitative measurements by exoskeletons have been proposed as measures of rehabilitative outcomes. Exoskeletons, in contrast to end effector designs, have the potential to provide a direct mapping between human and robot joints. This mapping rests on the assumption that anatomical axes and robot axes are aligned well, and that movement within the exoskeleton is negligible. These assumptions hold well for simple one degree-of-freedom joints, but may not be valid for multi-articular joints with unique musculoskeletal properties such as the wrist. This paper presents an experiment comparing robot joint kinematic measurements from an exoskeleton to anatomical joint angles measured with a motion capture system. Joint-space position measurements and task-space smoothness metrics were compared between the two measurement modalities. The experimental results quantify the error between joint-level position measurements, and show that exoskeleton kinematic measurements preserve smoothness characteristics found in anatomical measures of wrist movements.

  14. Development of a patient-specific anatomical foot model from structured light scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Samuel J; Huissoon, Jan P; Bedi, Sanjeev S

    2014-01-01

    The use of anatomically accurate finite element (FE) models of the human foot in research studies has increased rapidly in recent years. Uses for FE foot models include advancing knowledge of orthotic design, shoe design, ankle-foot orthoses, pathomechanics, locomotion, plantar pressure, tissue mechanics, plantar fasciitis, joint stress and surgical interventions. Similar applications but for clinical use on a per-patient basis would also be on the rise if it were not for the high costs associated with developing patient-specific anatomical foot models. High costs arise primarily from the expense and challenges of acquiring anatomical data via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) and reconstructing the three-dimensional models. The proposed solution morphs detailed anatomy from skin surface geometry and anatomical landmarks of a generic foot model (developed from CT or MRI) to surface geometry and anatomical landmarks acquired from an inexpensive structured light scan of a foot. The method yields a patient-specific anatomical foot model at a fraction of the cost of standard methods. Average error for bone surfaces was 2.53 mm for the six experiments completed. Highest accuracy occurred in the mid-foot and lowest in the forefoot due to the small, irregular bones of the toes. The method must be validated in the intended application to determine if the resulting errors are acceptable.

  15. The effects of the court-type Thai traditional massage on anatomical relations, blood flow, and skin temperature of the neck, shoulder, and arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakornkul, Vasana; Vannabhum, Manmas; Viravud, Yadaridee; Roongruangchai, Jantima; Mutirangura, Pramook; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Laohapand, Tawee

    2016-09-15

    Court-type Thai traditional massage (CTTM) has specific major signal points (MaSP) for treating musculoskeletal conditions. The objectives of this study are to investigate the anatomical surfaces and structures of MaSPs, and to examine blood flow (BF) and skin temperature (ST) changes after applying pressure on the MaSPs on neck, shoulder, and arm areas. In the anatomical study, 83 cadavers were dissected and the anatomical surfaces and structures of the 15 MaSPs recorded. In human volunteers, BF, peak systolic velocity (PS), diameter of artery (DA), and ST changes were measured at baseline and after pressure application at 0, 30, 60, 180, and 300 s. There was no statistical difference in anatomical surfaces and structures of MaSP between the left and right side of the body. The 3 MaSPs on the neck were shown to be anatomically separated from the location of the common carotid arteries. The BF of MaSPs of the neck significantly and immediately increased after pressure application for 30 s and for 60 s in the arm (p pressure application for 300 s (p < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between BF and ST at any of the MaSPs. This study showed that MaSP massages were mainly directed towards muscles. MaSPs can cause significant, but brief, increases in BF and ST. Further studies are suggested to identify changes in BF and ST for all of the MaSPs after actual massage treatment sessions as well as other physiological effects of massage.

  16. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  17. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a left...

  18. Immediate Direct-To-Implant Breast Reconstruction Using Anatomical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn 2012, a new anatomic breast implant of form-stable silicone gel was introduced onto the Korean market. The intended use of this implant is in the area of aesthetic breast surgery, and many reports are promising. Thus far, however, there have been no reports on the use of this implant for breast reconstruction in Korea. We used this breast implant in breast reconstruction surgery and report our early experience.MethodsFrom November 2012 to April 2013, the Natrelle Style 410 form-stable anatomically shaped cohesive silicone gel-filled breast implant was used in 31 breasts of 30 patients for implant breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix. Patients were treated with skin-sparing mastectomies followed by immediate breast reconstruction.ResultsThe mean breast resection volume was 240 mL (range, 83-540 mL. The mean size of the breast implants was 217 mL (range, 125-395 mL. Breast shape outcomes were considered acceptable. Infection and skin thinning occurred in one patient each, and hematoma and seroma did not occur. Three cases of wound dehiscence occurred, one requiring surgical intervention, while the others healed with conservative treatment in one month. Rippling did not occur. So far, complications such as capsular contracture and malrotation of breast implant have not yet arisen.ConclusionsBy using anatomic breast implants in breast reconstruction, we achieved satisfactory results with aesthetics better than those obtained with round breast implants. Therefore, we concluded that the anatomical implant is suitable for breast reconstruction.

  19. A proteomic approach for comprehensively screening substrates of protein kinases such as Rho-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuki Amano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein kinases are major components of signal transduction pathways in multiple cellular processes. Kinases directly interact with and phosphorylate downstream substrates, thus modulating their functions. Despite the importance of identifying substrates in order to more fully understand the signaling network of respective kinases, efficient methods to search for substrates remain poorly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined mass spectrometry and affinity column chromatography of the catalytic domain of protein kinases to screen potential substrates. Using the active catalytic fragment of Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK as the model bait, we obtained about 300 interacting proteins from the rat brain cytosol fraction, which included the proteins previously reported as Rho-kinase substrates. Several novel interacting proteins, including doublecortin, were phosphorylated by Rho-kinase both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method would enable identification of novel specific substrates for kinases such as Rho-kinase with high sensitivity.

  20. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Effect of anatomical noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Boerjesson, S.; Hoeschen, C.; Tischenko, O.; Kheddache, S.; Vikgren, J.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    The image background resulting from imaged anatomy can be divided into those components that are meaningful to the observers, in the sense that they are recognised as separate structures, and those that are not. These latter components (referred to as anatomical noise) can be removed using a method developed within the RADIUS group. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the removal of the anatomical noise results in images where lung nodules with lower contrast can be detected. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was therefore conducted using two types of images: clinical chest images and chest images in which the anatomical noise had been removed. Simulated designer nodules with a full-width-at-fifth-maximum of 10 mm but with varying contrast were added to the images. The contrast needed to obtain an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, C0.8, was used as a measure of detectability (a low value of C0.8 represents a high delectability). Five regions of the chest X ray were investigated and it was found that in all regions the removal of anatomical noise led to images with lower C0.8 than the original images. On average, C0.8 was 20% higher in the original images, ranging from 7% (the lateral pulmonary regions) to 41% (the upper mediastinal regions). (authors)

  1. Mobilization of the rectum: anatomic concepts and the bookshelf revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Pierre; Bokey, Les; Fahrer, Marius; Sinclair, Gael; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2002-01-01

    Sound surgical technique is based on accurate anatomic knowledge. In surgery for cancer, the anatomy of the perirectal fascia and the retrorectal plane is the basis for correct mobilization of the rectum to ensure clear surgical margins and to minimize the risk of local recurrence. This review of the literature on the perirectal fascia is based on a translation of the original description by Thoma Jonnesco and a later account by Wilhelm Waldeyer. The Jonnesco description, first published in 1896 in French, is compared with the German account of 1899. These were critically analyzed in the context of our own and other techniques of mobilizing the rectum. Mobilization of the rectum for cancer can be performed along anatomic planes with minimal blood loss, preservation of the pelvic autonomic nerves and a low prevalence of local recurrence. Different techniques including total mesorectal excision are based on the same anatomic principles, however, popular words have been used to replace accepted, established terminology. In particular, the description of total mesorectal excision has been confusing because of its emphasis on the words "total" and "mesorectum." The use of the word "mesorectum" anatomically is inaccurate and the implication that total excision of all the perirectal fat contained within the perirectal fascia "en bloc" in all patients with rectal cancer will minimize local recurrence remains contentious.

  2. Prevalence of anatomical variations in maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepjyoti K Mudgade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maxillary sinuses (MS are of particular importance to dentist because of their close proximity to the teeth and their associated structures, so increased risk of maxillary sinusitis has been reported with periapical abscess, periodontal diseases, dental trauma, tooth extraction, and implant placement. Complications of MS are related to its anatomic and pathologic variations. Thus, study was conducted to assess the prevalence of anatomic variations in MS by using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT. Aims and Objectives: To determine different anatomical variations in MS by using CBCT. Materials and Methods: CBCT scans of 150 subjects were collected between the age group of 18 years to 70 years and were analyzed for MS anatomical variation. Statistical Analysis: The distribution of age, sex, reasons for CBCT, and dimensions of sinus calculated using descriptive statistics and distribution of other anatomic findings using Chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of obstructed ostium is 23.3% and septa is 66.7%. Average height, width, and antero-posterior (A-P dimensions for right MS are 34.13 mm, 26.09 mm, 37.39 mm and that of left MS are 33.24 mm, 26.11 mm, 37.72 mm respectively. Average distance between lower border of ostium to sinus floor in right MS is 32.17 mm and that of left is 32.69 mm. Average diameter of ostium in right MS is 1.88 mm and that of left is 1.67 mm. Conclusion: Study highlights the importance of accurate assessment of MS and its variations in order to properly differentiate the pathologic lesions from anatomic variations avoiding unnecessary surgical explorations.

  3. Presence of Cognitive Deterioration and Anatomical-Clinical Topography in Patients with Epilepsy in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Lázaro Rivera López

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: epilepsy is a pathological condition characterized by a recurrent non-provoked crisis, however, the presence of the crisis is a fraction of the global problem, patients with epilepsy develop a variety of neuropsychiatry problems, as cognitive affection, most of all, in the space of memory. Objective: evaluating the behavior of the cognitive deterioration and focalization according to anatomical- clinical topography in patients with epilepsy. Methods: a descriptive, correlational, cross-section and follow-up study of cases. The techniques used were: structured interview, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment's evaluation, and Luria´s neuropsychological exam. It was used SPDD statical parcel, version 1.5 to process the information that made possible the study of the obtained data, with the aim of expressing the results in chart of frequency and relation of variables in number and percent. Results: the 71.4 % of evaluated patients presented cognitive deterioration in any of its of measurement scales and they focalized according to neuropsychological exam. Conclusions: as the time of evolution of the disease increases, the frequency and duration of the crises, the grade of the cognitive deterioration in patients with epilepsy increases, focalizing with dysfunction majority fronto-temporary level according to anatomical-clinical topography.

  4. Magnetic resonance angiography: infrequent anatomic variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo, Mariano; Meli, Francisco; Lambre, Hector; Blessing, Ricardo; Gigy Traynor, Ignacio; Miguez, Victor

    2002-01-01

    We studied through RM angiography (3D TOF) with high magnetic field equipment (1.5 T) different infrequent intracerebral vascular anatomic variants. For their detection we emphasise the value of post-processed images obtained after conventional angiographic sequences. These post-processed images should be included in routine protocols for evaluation of the intracerebral vascular structures. (author)

  5. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  6. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  7. An international ecological study of adult height in relation to cancer incidence for 24 anatomical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Marshall, Roger J; Walpole, Sarah C; Prieto-Merino, David; Liu, Dong-Xu; Perry, Jo K

    2015-03-01

    Anthropometric indices associated with childhood growth and height attained in adulthood, have been associated with an increased incidence of certain malignancies. To evaluate the cancer-height relationship, we carried out a study using international data, comparing various cancer rates with average adult height of women and men in different countries. An ecological analysis of the relationship between country-specific cancer incidence rates and average adult height was conducted for twenty-four anatomical cancer sites. Age-standardized rates were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008. Average female (112 countries) and male (65 countries) heights were sourced and compiled primarily from national health surveys. Graphical and weighted regression analysis was conducted, taking into account BMI and controlling for the random effect of global regions. A significant positive association between a country's average adult height and the country's overall cancer rate was observed in both men and women. Site-specific cancer incidence for females was positively associated with height for most cancers: lung, kidney, colorectum, bladder, melanoma, brain and nervous system, breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, corpus uteri, ovary, and leukemia. A significant negative association was observed with cancer of the cervix uteri. In males, site-specific cancer incidence was positively associated with height for cancers of the brain and nervous system, kidney, colorectum, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, prostate, testicular, lip and oral cavity, and melanoma. Incidence of cancer was associated with tallness in the majority of anatomical/cancer sites investigated. The underlying biological mechanisms are unclear, but may include nutrition and early-life exposure to hormones, and may differ by anatomical site.

  8. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25 deg or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means. (author)

  9. Anatomic variations of the cerebral arteries and their embryology: a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okahara, Mika; Kiyosue, Hiro; Mori, Hiromu; Tanoue, Shuichi; Sainou, Michihumi; Nagatomi, Hirohumi

    2002-01-01

    In the embryonic period, several developmental anomalies of the cerebral arteries occur. The knowledge of these anatomic variations of the cerebral artery is important to avoid the unnecessary surgery and to undergo surgery or interventional radiology with safety. We reviewed 3000 MR angiographies and 700 cerebral angiographies of the previous 5 years to assess cerebral arterial system, and to illustrate the embryological development, imaging findings, occurrence, and clinical significance of the anatomic variation of the cerebral arteries. The normal development and variations of the cerebral arteries are depicted. Knowledge of the anatomic variations is important since it can influence surgical and interventional procedure. (orig.)

  10. Corona mortis: an anatomical variation with clinical relevance. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Adrián Rivera-Cardona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The obturator artery is one of the parietal branches arising from the internal iliac artery, the anatomical variation from which this artery originates is called “The corona mortis”, generally from the external iliac artery or the inferior epigastric artery. This finding was observed bilaterally in a male cadaver during a pelvis dissection. Clinical consideration of the anatomical variation in the obturator artery, during surgical procedures, is of great importance due to the risk of pelvic hemorrhage.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  12. Distribution of major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg in the various anatomical parts of Fadama crops in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were determined in plant organs (bud, flowers, fruit, seed, leaves, stems, roots, cobs, styles, shaft, grains and efflorescences of three Fadama farms located in Ifaki-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti and Ikere-Ekiti of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The highest levels of Mg, K, Na and Ca were obtained in the bud of Hibiscus esculentus with respective values (ppm dry weight, ppm DW of 4397, 2983, 3928 and 1622; this was closely followed by their levels in Lycopersicon esculentum root: Mg (2734, K (1079, Na (2111 and Ca (678. The levels of all the elements were highly varied in the anatomical parts of each plant and between the various plants. The index of bioaccumulation (ratio in plants/soil was recorded for all the elements with all values falling within 1-101 showing that the degree of accumulation was intensive. The overall levels of the elements were Mg > Na > K > Ca.

  13. Dynamics of Preferential Substrate Recognition in HIV-1 Protease: Redefining the Substrate Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Ayşegül; Haliloğlu, Türkan; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) permits viral maturation by processing the Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins. Though HIV-1 PR inhibitors (PIs) are used in combination antiviral therapy, the emergence of drug resistance has limited their efficacy. The rapid evolution of HIV-1 necessitates the consideration of drug resistance in novel drug-design strategies. Drug-resistant HIV-1 PR variants, while no longer efficiently inhibited, continue to efficiently hydrolyze the natural viral substrates. Though highly diverse in sequence, the HIV-1 PR substrates bind in a conserved three-dimensional shape we defined as the “substrate envelope”. We previously showed that resistance mutations arise where PIs protrude beyond the substrate envelope, as these regions are crucial for drug binding but not for substrate recognition. Here, we extend this model by considering the role of protein dynamics in the interaction of HIV-1 PR with its substrates. Seven molecular dynamics simulations of PR-substrate complexes were performed to estimate the conformational flexibility of substrates in their complexes. Interdependency of the substrate-protease interactions may compensate for the variations in cleavage-site sequences, and explain how a diverse set of sequences can be recognized as substrates by the same enzyme. This diversity may be essential for regulating sequential processing of substrates. We also define a dynamic substrate envelope as a more accurate representation of PR-substrate interactions. This dynamic substrate envelope, described by a probability distribution function, is a powerful tool for drug design efforts targeting ensembles of resistant HIV-1 PR variants with the aim of developing drugs that are less susceptible to resistance. PMID:21762811

  14. Rufus of Ephesus and his contribution to the development of anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalkova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Rufus of Ephesus, a famous ancient physician, lived about the years 80 - 150 CE. His theories stressed the importance of anatomy and he preferred pragmatic approach to diagnosis and treatment. In his work "On the Names of the Parts of the Human Body", he put in pragmatic effort to make a lexicon of anatomy for his pupils. In the introduction, he described it as a manual for the students of medical art which relied on demonstration in teaching; visible (outer) parts of the body were shown on a demonstrator and invisible (inner) parts were shown on a dissected monkey. The brief explanation of the anatomical terms includes position, shape, and functions of organs, and this is what makes his work a pioneering effort to explain the anatomy clearly, systematically, and using consistent terminology. Rufus stressed the importance of exact nomenclature to prevent misunderstandings in medical practice. This anatomy manual had a major influence on the development of anatomical terminology. It is an important contribution to the history of teaching. The other essential contribution of Rufus' lexicon (also known for its briefer title Onomastikon) is that the author recognised and critically reviewed the knowledge and views of his predecessors, physicians of the pre-Galenic period. No less important was his teaching to anatomists and physicians who followed, as they often cited or paraphrased Rufus in their own works (Galen, Oribasius). Many fragments of Rufus' work have been preserved by medieval Arabic medical writers, especially by Rhazes.

  15. Less Is More: Substrate Reduction Therapy for Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Coutinho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs are a group of rare, life-threatening genetic disorders, usually caused by a dysfunction in one of the many enzymes responsible for intralysosomal digestion. Even though no cure is available for any LSD, a few treatment strategies do exist. Traditionally, efforts have been mainly targeting the functional loss of the enzyme, by injection of a recombinant formulation, in a process called enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, with no impact on neuropathology. This ineffectiveness, together with its high cost and lifelong dependence is amongst the main reasons why additional therapeutic approaches are being (and have to be investigated: chaperone therapy; gene enhancement; gene therapy; and, alternatively, substrate reduction therapy (SRT, whose aim is to prevent storage not by correcting the original enzymatic defect but, instead, by decreasing the levels of biosynthesis of the accumulating substrate(s. Here we review the concept of substrate reduction, highlighting the major breakthroughs in the field and discussing the future of SRT, not only as a monotherapy but also, especially, as complementary approach for LSDs.

  16. Selective-area growth and controlled substrate coupling of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Brian M.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Zhang, Kehao; Bhimanapati, Ganesh R.; Piasecki, Aleksander F.; Labella, Michael, III; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2017-06-01

    Developing a means for true bottom-up, selective-area growth of two-dimensional (2D) materials on device-ready substrates will enable synthesis in regions only where they are needed. Here, we demonstrate seed-free, site-specific nucleation of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with precise control over lateral growth by utilizing an ultra-thin polymeric surface functionalization capable of precluding nucleation and growth. This polymer functional layer (PFL) is derived from conventional photoresists and lithographic processing, and is compatible with multiple growth techniques, precursors (metal organics, solid-source) and TMDs. Additionally, we demonstrate that the substrate can play a major role in TMD transport properties. With proper TMD/substrate decoupling, top-gated field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated with selectively-grown monolayer MoS2 channels are competitive with current reported MoS2 FETs. The work presented here demonstrates that substrate surface engineering is key to realizing precisely located and geometrically-defined 2D layers via unseeded chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  17. A practical workflow for making anatomical atlases for biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Lewis, A Kelsey; Colasanto, Mary; van Langeveld, Mark; Kardon, Gabrielle; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The anatomical atlas has been at the intersection of science and art for centuries. These atlases are essential to biological research, but high-quality atlases are often scarce. Recent advances in imaging technology have made high-quality 3D atlases possible. However, until now there has been a lack of practical workflows using standard tools to generate atlases from images of biological samples. With certain adaptations, CG artists' workflow and tools, traditionally used in the film industry, are practical for building high-quality biological atlases. Researchers have developed a workflow for generating a 3D anatomical atlas using accessible artists' tools. They used this workflow to build a mouse limb atlas for studying the musculoskeletal system's development. This research aims to raise the awareness of using artists' tools in scientific research and promote interdisciplinary collaborations between artists and scientists. This video (http://youtu.be/g61C-nia9ms) demonstrates a workflow for creating an anatomical atlas.

  18. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  19. Anatomic humeral head replacement with a press-fit prosthesis: An in vivo radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Vopat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful total shoulder arthroplasty is, in part, dependent on anatomic reconstruction of the glenohumeral joint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post-operative anatomy of total shoulder arthroplasty with an anatomic implant design in patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis and compare it to published normative anatomic measurements. Fifty-one patients (56 shoulders with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis were treated with a press-fit humeral component as part of a total shoulder arthroplasty (Aequalis, Tornier, Edina, Minnesota. Analysis of postoperative true anterior posterior radiographs was performed with use of a custom software algorithm. The mean humeral inclination (head-shaft angle, mean humeral implant anatomical humeral axis, mean greater tuberosity height, and mean humeral head center offset (medial offset were 135.4±5.1°, 1.73±1.7°, 6.9±2.4 mm, and 3.8±1.8 mm, respectively. All parameters were within the ranges reported in the literature for normal shoulders except the mean humeral head center offset, which was less than reported in the literature. Anatomic parameters of a total shoulder arthroplasty can be achieved with an anatomically designed, modular adaptable press-fit design. Reduced medial humeral head center offset was likely dependent upon implant specific design parameters.

  20. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment betw...

  1. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...

  2. Anatomical characteristics of the ossa sesamoidea phalangis proximalis in cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus Linné 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Červený, Č. [Vysoka Skola Veterinarni, Brno, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1985-06-15

    The anatomical structure and radiography of the sesamoid bones of the proximal phalanges of cattle digits were studied on osteological material and radiograms of 18 cows and 5 bulls. On the basis of detailed anatomical description, a list of new anatomical names for important anatomical formations was proposed in order to complete the anatomical nomenclature and to provide better orientation on the bones as well as a more precise description of the different bones and determine their origin from the respective digits and/or the left or right thoratic or pelvic limbs.

  3. Anatomical characteristics of the ossa sesamoidea phalangis proximalis in cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus Linné 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Červený, Č.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomical structure and radiography of the sesamoid bones of the proximal phalanges of cattle digits were studied on osteological material and radiograms of 18 cows and 5 bulls. On the basis of detailed anatomical description, a list of new anatomical names for important anatomical formations was proposed in order to complete the anatomical nomenclature and to provide better orientation on the bones as well as a more precise description of the different bones and determine their origin from the respective digits and/or the left or right thoratic or pelvic limbs

  4. Trail making test performance in youth varies as a function of anatomical coupling between the prefrontal cortex and distributed cortical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Raitano Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While researchers have gained a richer understanding of the neural correlates of executive function in adulthood, much less is known about how these abilities are represented in the developing brain and what structural brain networks underlie them. Thus, the current study examined how individual differences in executive function, as measured by the Trail Making Test (TMT, relate to structural covariance in the pediatric brain. The sample included 146 unrelated, typically developing youth (80 females, ages 9-14 years, who completed a structural MRI scan of the brain and the Halstead-Reitan TMT (intermediate form. TMT scores used to index executive function included those that evaluated set-shifting ability: Trails B time (number-letter sequencing and the difference in time between Trails B and A (number sequencing only. Anatomical coupling was measured by examining correlations between mean cortical thickness (MCT across the entire cortical ribbon and individual vertex thickness measured at ~81,000 vertices. To examine how TMT scores related to anatomical coupling strength, linear regression was utilized and the interaction between age-normed TMT scores and both age and sex-normed MCT was used to predict vertex thickness. Results revealed that stronger Trails B scores were associated with greater anatomical coupling between a large swath of prefrontal cortex and the rest of cortex. For the difference between Trails B and A, a network of regions in the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes was found to be more tightly coupled with the rest of cortex in stronger performers. This study is the first to highlight the importance of structural covariance in the prediction of individual differences in executive function skills in youth. Thus, it adds to the growing literature on the neural correlates of childhood executive functions and identifies neuroanatomic coupling as a biological substrate that may contribute to executive function and dysfunction in

  5. Trail making test performance in youth varies as a function of anatomical coupling between the prefrontal cortex and distributed cortical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Raznahan, Armin; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have gained a richer understanding of the neural correlates of executive function in adulthood, much less is known about how these abilities are represented in the developing brain and what structural brain networks underlie them. Thus, the current study examined how individual differences in executive function, as measured by the Trail Making Test (TMT), relate to structural covariance in the pediatric brain. The sample included 146 unrelated, typically developing youth (80 females), ages 9–14 years, who completed a structural MRI scan of the brain and the Halstead-Reitan TMT (intermediate form). TMT scores used to index executive function included those that evaluated set-shifting ability: Trails B time (number-letter sequencing) and the difference in time between Trails B and A (number sequencing only). Anatomical coupling was measured by examining correlations between mean cortical thickness (MCT) across the entire cortical ribbon and individual vertex thickness measured at ~81,000 vertices. To examine how TMT scores related to anatomical coupling strength, linear regression was utilized and the interaction between age-normed TMT scores and both age and sex-normed MCT was used to predict vertex thickness. Results revealed that stronger Trails B scores were associated with greater anatomical coupling between a large swath of prefrontal cortex and the rest of cortex. For the difference between Trails B and A, a network of regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes was found to be more tightly coupled with the rest of cortex in stronger performers. This study is the first to highlight the importance of structural covariance in in the prediction of individual differences in executive function skills in youth. Thus, it adds to the growing literature on the neural correlates of childhood executive functions and identifies neuroanatomic coupling as a biological substrate that may contribute to executive function and dysfunction in

  6. Global phosphoproteomic analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals a network of exercise-regulated kinases and AMPK substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffman, Nolan J; Parker, Benjamin L; Chaudhuri, Rima

    2015-01-01

    -intensity exercise bout, revealing 1,004 unique exercise-regulated phosphosites on 562 proteins. These included substrates of known exercise-regulated kinases (AMPK, PKA, CaMK, MAPK, mTOR), yet the majority of kinases and substrate phosphosites have not previously been implicated in exercise signaling. Given...

  7. Learning-based stochastic object models for characterizing anatomical variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, Steven R.; Lou, Yang; Anastasio, Mark A.; Li, Hua

    2018-03-01

    It is widely known that the optimization of imaging systems based on objective, task-based measures of image quality via computer-simulation requires the use of a stochastic object model (SOM). However, the development of computationally tractable SOMs that can accurately model the statistical variations in human anatomy within a specified ensemble of patients remains a challenging task. Previously reported numerical anatomic models lack the ability to accurately model inter-patient and inter-organ variations in human anatomy among a broad patient population, mainly because they are established on image data corresponding to a few of patients and individual anatomic organs. This may introduce phantom-specific bias into computer-simulation studies, where the study result is heavily dependent on which phantom is used. In certain applications, however, databases of high-quality volumetric images and organ contours are available that can facilitate this SOM development. In this work, a novel and tractable methodology for learning a SOM and generating numerical phantoms from a set of volumetric training images is developed. The proposed methodology learns geometric attribute distributions (GAD) of human anatomic organs from a broad patient population, which characterize both centroid relationships between neighboring organs and anatomic shape similarity of individual organs among patients. By randomly sampling the learned centroid and shape GADs with the constraints of the respective principal attribute variations learned from the training data, an ensemble of stochastic objects can be created. The randomness in organ shape and position reflects the learned variability of human anatomy. To demonstrate the methodology, a SOM of an adult male pelvis is computed and examples of corresponding numerical phantoms are created.

  8. Alterations in Anatomical Covariance in the Prematurely Born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty R; Schneider, Karen C; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2017-01-01

    Preterm (PT) birth results in long-term alterations in functional and structural connectivity, but the related changes in anatomical covariance are just beginning to be explored. To test the hypothesis that PT birth alters patterns of anatomical covariance, we investigated brain volumes of 25 PTs and 22 terms at young adulthood using magnetic resonance imaging. Using regional volumetrics, seed-based analyses, and whole brain graphs, we show that PT birth is associated with reduced volume in bilateral temporal and inferior frontal lobes, left caudate, left fusiform, and posterior cingulate for prematurely born subjects at young adulthood. Seed-based analyses demonstrate altered patterns of anatomical covariance for PTs compared with terms. PTs exhibit reduced covariance with R Brodmann area (BA) 47, Broca's area, and L BA 21, Wernicke's area, and white matter volume in the left prefrontal lobe, but increased covariance with R BA 47 and left cerebellum. Graph theory analyses demonstrate that measures of network complexity are significantly less robust in PTs compared with term controls. Volumes in regions showing group differences are significantly correlated with phonological awareness, the fundamental basis for reading acquisition, for the PTs. These data suggest both long-lasting and clinically significant alterations in the covariance in the PTs at young adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Major Penicillium glabrum Xylanase Using Brewer's Spent Grain as Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitel, Susan Michelz; Fortkamp, Diana; Terrasan, César Rafael Fanchini; de Almeida, Alex Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, xylanases have been used in many processing industries. This study describes the xylanase production by Penicillium glabrum using brewer's spent grain as substrate. Additionally, this is the first work that reports the purification and characterization of a xylanase using this agroindustrial waste. Optimal production was obtained when P. glabrum was grown in liquid medium in pH 5.5, at 25 °C, under stationary condition for six days. The xylanase from P. glabrum was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and inexpensive procedure, using ammonium sulfate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed one band with estimated molecular mass of 18.36 kDa. The optimum activity was observed at 60 °C, in pH 3.0. The enzyme was very stable at 50 °C, and high pH stability was verified from pH 2.5 to 5.0. The ion Mn2+ and the reducing agents β-mercaptoethanol and DTT enhanced xylanase activity, while the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ as well as the detergent SDS were strong inhibitors of the enzyme. The use of brewer's spent grain as substrate for xylanase production cannot only add value and decrease the amount of this waste but also reduce the xylanase production cost. PMID:23762855

  10. Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Major Penicillium glabrum Xylanase Using Brewer's Spent Grain as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Knob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, xylanases have been used in many processing industries. This study describes the xylanase production by Penicillium glabrum using brewer's spent grain as substrate. Additionally, this is the first work that reports the purification and characterization of a xylanase using this agroindustrial waste. Optimal production was obtained when P. glabrum was grown in liquid medium in pH 5.5, at 25 °C, under stationary condition for six days. The xylanase from P. glabrum was purified to homogeneity by a rapid and inexpensive procedure, using ammonium sulfate fractionation and molecular exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed one band with estimated molecular mass of 18.36 kDa. The optimum activity was observed at 60 °C, in pH 3.0. The enzyme was very stable at 50 °C, and high pH stability was verified from pH 2.5 to 5.0. The ion Mn2+ and the reducing agents β-mercaptoethanol and DTT enhanced xylanase activity, while the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ as well as the detergent SDS were strong inhibitors of the enzyme. The use of brewer's spent grain as substrate for xylanase production cannot only add value and decrease the amount of this waste but also reduce the xylanase production cost.

  11. Applying a biodeposition layer to increase the bond of a repair mortar on a mortar substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeck, Didier; Wang, Jianyun; Bentz, D. P.; De Belie, Nele

    2018-01-01

    One of the major concerns in infrastructure repair is a sufficient bond between the substrate and the repair material, especially for the long-term performance and durability of the repaired structure. In this study, the bond of the repair material on the mortar substrate is promoted via the biodeposition of a calcium carbonate layer by a ureolytic bacterium. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the interfaces between the repair material and the substrate, a...

  12. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  13. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  14. Time dependency of morphological remodeling of endothelial cells in response to substrate stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli-Malekabadi, Zahra; Tafazzoli-shadpour, Mohammad; Tamayol, Ali; Seyedjafari, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Substrate stiffness regulates cellular behavior as cells experience different stiffness values of tissues in the body. For example, endothelial cells (ECs) covering the inner layer of blood vessels are exposed to different stiffness values due to various pathologic and physiologic conditions. Despite numerous studies, cells by time span sense mechanical properties of the substrate, but the response is not well understood. We hypothesized that time is a major determinant influencing the behavior of cells seeded on substrates of varying stiffness. Methods: We monitored cell spreading, internal structure, 3D topography, and the viability of ECs over 24 hours of culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with two different degrees of elastic modulus. Results: Despite significant differences in cell spreading after cell seeding, cells showed a similar shape and internal structure after 24 hours of culture on both soft and stiff substrates. However, 3D topographical images confirmed existence of rich lamellipodia and filopodia around the cells cultured on stiffer PDMS substrates. Conclusion: It was concluded that the response of ECs to the substrate stiffness was time dependent with initial enhanced cellular spreading and viability on stiffer substrates. Results can provide a better comprehension of cell mechanotransduction for tissue engineering applications. PMID:28546952

  15. Influences on anatomical knowledge: The complete arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Verheijen, I.W.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bruin, A.B. De

    2014-01-01

    Eight factors are claimed to have a negative influence on anatomical knowledge of medical students: (1) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (2) the absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (3) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (4) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (5)

  16. Anatomic partial nephrectomy: technique evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Raed A; Metcalfe, Charles; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-03-01

    Partial nephrectomy provides equivalent long-term oncologic and superior functional outcomes as radical nephrectomy for T1a renal masses. Herein, we review the various vascular clamping techniques employed during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy, describe the evolution of our partial nephrectomy technique and provide an update on contemporary thinking about the impact of ischemia on renal function. Recently, partial nephrectomy surgical technique has shifted away from main artery clamping and towards minimizing/eliminating global renal ischemia during partial nephrectomy. Supported by high-fidelity three-dimensional imaging, novel anatomic-based partial nephrectomy techniques have recently been developed, wherein partial nephrectomy can now be performed with segmental, minimal or zero global ischemia to the renal remnant. Sequential innovations have included early unclamping, segmental clamping, super-selective clamping and now culminating in anatomic zero-ischemia surgery. By eliminating 'under-the-gun' time pressure of ischemia for the surgeon, these techniques allow an unhurried, tightly contoured tumour excision with point-specific sutured haemostasis. Recent data indicate that zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy may provide better functional outcomes by minimizing/eliminating global ischemia and preserving greater vascularized kidney volume. Contemporary partial nephrectomy includes a spectrum of surgical techniques ranging from conventional-clamped to novel zero-ischemia approaches. Technique selection should be tailored to each individual case on the basis of tumour characteristics, surgical feasibility, surgeon experience, patient demographics and baseline renal function.

  17. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence.

  18. Relapse and stability of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, an anatomical biomechanical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, M.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Schulten, A.J.M.; van der Wal, K.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This anatomic biomechanical study was undertaken to gain insight into the underlining mechanism of tipping of the maxillary segments during transverse expansion using tooth-borne and bone-borne distraction devices. Materials and Methods: An anatomic biomechanical study was performed on 10

  19. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Holocene Substrate Influences on Plant and Fire Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briles, C.; Whitlock, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    The role of substrates in facilitating plant responses to climate change in the past has received little attention. Ecological studies, documenting the relative role of fertile and infertile substrates in mediating the effects of climate change, lack the temporal information that paleoecological lake studies provide on how plants have responded under equal, larger and more rapid past climate events than today. In this paper, pollen and macroscopic charcoal preserved in the sediments of eight lakes surrounded by infertile ultramafic soils and more fertile soils in the Klamath Mountains of northern California were analyzed. Comparison of late-Quaternary paleoecological sites suggests that infertile and fertile substrates supported distinctly different plant communities. Trees and shrubs on infertile substrates were less responsive to climate change than those on fertile substrates, with the only major compositional change occurring at the glacial/interglacial transition (~11.5ka), when temperature rose 5oC. Trees and shrubs on fertile substrates were more responsive to climate changes, and tracked climate by moving along elevational gradients, including during more recent climate events such as the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. Fire regimes were similar until 4ka on both substrate types. After 4ka, understory fuels on infertile substrates became sparse and fire activity decreased, while on fertile substrates forests became increasingly denser and fire activity increased. The complacency of plant communities on infertile sites to climate change contrasts with the individualistic and rapid adjustments of species on fertile sites. The findings differ from observations on shorter time scales that show the most change in herb cover and richness in the last 60 years on infertile substrates. Thus, the paleorecord provides unique long-term ecological data necessary to evaluate the response of plants to future climate change under different levels of soil

  1. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L

    2016-07-01

    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Deposition of Co-Ti alloy on mild steel substrate using laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemohammad, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2007-01-01

    Laser cladding of a Co-Ti alloy on a mild steel substrate is studied. Premixed powders with the composition of 85 wt% cobalt and 15 wt% titanium are pre-placed on the substrate and a moving laser beam at different velocities is used to produce clad layers well bounded to the substrate. Characteristics of the clad are investigated using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and microhardness tests. The results reveal that the intermetallic phase TiCo 3 and β (i.e. fcc) cobalt are formed in the clad layer. The clad layer can also have major dilution from the substrate depending on the laser scanning velocity. It is observed that a finer microstructure is achievable with higher laser velocities whereas higher hardness is achieved using lower velocities. The latter is due to the formation of a larger fraction of TiCo 3 phase

  3. Deposition of Co-Ti alloy on mild steel substrate using laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemohammad, Hamidreza [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: shalemoh@engmail.uwaterloo.ca; Esmaeili, Shahrzad [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Toyserkani, Ehsan [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Laser cladding of a Co-Ti alloy on a mild steel substrate is studied. Premixed powders with the composition of 85 wt% cobalt and 15 wt% titanium are pre-placed on the substrate and a moving laser beam at different velocities is used to produce clad layers well bounded to the substrate. Characteristics of the clad are investigated using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and microhardness tests. The results reveal that the intermetallic phase TiCo{sub 3} and {beta} (i.e. fcc) cobalt are formed in the clad layer. The clad layer can also have major dilution from the substrate depending on the laser scanning velocity. It is observed that a finer microstructure is achievable with higher laser velocities whereas higher hardness is achieved using lower velocities. The latter is due to the formation of a larger fraction of TiCo{sub 3} phase.

  4. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....... In tree-space, the airway tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway...

  5. Modelling substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for lipases and esterases by substrate-imprinted docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Sadhna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, ways to adapt docking programs that were developed for modelling inhibitor-receptor interaction have been explored. Two main issues were discussed. First, when trying to model catalysis a reaction intermediate of the substrate is expected to provide more valid information than the ground state of the substrate. Second, the incorporation of protein flexibility is essential for reliable predictions. Results Here we present a predictive and robust method to model substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of lipases and esterases that uses reaction intermediates and incorporates protein flexibility. Substrate-imprinted docking starts with covalent docking of reaction intermediates, followed by geometry optimisation of the resulting enzyme-substrate complex. After a second round of docking the same substrate into the geometry-optimised structures, productive poses are identified by geometric filter criteria and ranked by their docking scores. Substrate-imprinted docking was applied in order to model (i enantioselectivity of Candida antarctica lipase B and a W104A mutant, (ii enantioselectivity and substrate specificity of Candida rugosa lipase and Burkholderia cepacia lipase, and (iii substrate specificity of an acetyl- and a butyrylcholine esterase toward the substrates acetyl- and butyrylcholine. Conclusion The experimentally observed differences in selectivity and specificity of the enzymes were reproduced with an accuracy of 81%. The method was robust toward small differences in initial structures (different crystallisation conditions or a co-crystallised ligand, although large displacements of catalytic residues often resulted in substrate poses that did not pass the geometric filter criteria.

  6. Contextual cueing of tactile search is coded in an anatomical reference frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Leonardo; Shi, Zhuanghua; Zang, Xuelian; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the reference frame(s) underlying tactile context memory, a form of statistical learning in a tactile (finger) search task. In this task, if a searched-for target object is repeatedly encountered within a stable spatial arrangement of task-irrelevant distractors, detecting the target becomes more efficient over time (relative to nonrepeated arrangements), as learned target-distractor spatial associations come to guide tactile search, thus cueing attention to the target location. Since tactile search displays can be represented in several reference frames, including multiple external and an anatomical frame, in Experiment 1 we asked whether repeated search displays are represented in tactile memory with reference to an environment-centered or anatomical reference frame. In Experiment 2, we went on examining a hand-centered versus anatomical reference frame of tactile context memory. Observers performed a tactile search task, divided into a learning and test session. At the transition between the two sessions, we introduced postural manipulations of the hands (crossed ↔ uncrossed in Expt. 1; palm-up ↔ palm-down in Expt. 2) to determine the reference frame of tactile contextual cueing. In both experiments, target-distractor associations acquired during learning transferred to the test session when the placement of the target and distractors was held constant in anatomical, but not external, coordinates. In the latter, RTs were even slower for repeated displays. We conclude that tactile contextual learning is coded in an anatomical reference frame. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A quantitative comparison of the electrical and anatomical definition of the pulmonary vein ostium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Florian; Kühne, Michael; Reichlin, Tobias; Osswald, Stefan; Sticherling, Christian; Knecht, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Anatomically guided pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. However, the position where to confirm electrical isolation is ill-defined. The aim of the current study was to quantify the relationship between the anatomical and electrical definition of the pulmonary vein ostium. We analyzed 20 patients with paroxysmal AF undergoing PVI using radiofrequency energy and an electroanatomical mapping system. The anatomical ostium was defined based on the geometry obtained from preprocedural magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The electrical ostium was defined at the position with a far-field atrial signal preceding a sharp pulmonary vein (PV) signal without any isoelectric interval in between. The electrically defined ostia were 8.4 ± 4.7 mm more distal in the PV compared to the anatomically defined ostia. The distances varied considerably between the four PVs and were 10.5 ± 6.5 mm, 7.4 ± 4.3 mm, 5.3 ± 4.0 mm, and 8.3 ± 3.4 mm for the left superior, left inferior, right superior, and right inferior PVs, respectively (P  =  0.009). The position of the electrical and anatomical ostium differs markedly. The site of the electrical ostium is variable within the PV but always more distal in the PV compared to the site of the anatomical ostium. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Visualisation of bony and vascular structures via digital subtraction images upon the amount of anatomic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, A.; Scholz, A.; Zwicker, C.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the loss of contrast leaving a part of the anatomic background in digital subtraction angiography by visual analysis and densitometry. We observed a greater loss of the quality at the representation of the bone below than above an amount of anatomic background of 60%. The loss of quality at the representation of the vessels decreases more above than below an anatomical background of 45%. We think that, depending on the clinical problem, an anatomical background between 15 and 30% should be left. (orig.) [de

  9. Comparison of leaf anatomical characteristics of hibiscus rosa-sinensis grown in faisalabad region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noman, A.; Ali, Q.; Mehmood, T.; Iftikhar, T.; Mahmeed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic potential of different plant species to different environmental conditions differ in relation to different physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics. Of these varying attributes leaf anatomical characteristics play most important role for the establishment of that cultivar in varied environmental conditions. So, the present study was conducted to assess the inter-cultivar genetic potential of Hibiscus in relation to leaf anatomical characteristics. To fulfill the study requirements Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and its six cultivars (were well adapted to their specific natural habitat) were collected from different locations of district Faisalabad Pakistan that have great environmental changes round the year. Results showed significant variability among cultivars in relation to analyzed anatomical characteristics. Cultivars Lemon shiffon and Wilder's white emerge more promising among others by possessing more epidermal thickness, increased epidermal cell area, high cortical cell area and incremented stomatal density as compared with other cultivars. On the other hand, cultivars Cooperi alba, Mrs. George Davis and Frank green possessed least cortex cell area, lowest xylem region thickness and minimum phloem region thickness respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that anatomical genetic potential has endorsed cultivars Lemon chiffon and Wilder's white with enormous capability to grow well under variable environments. (author)

  10. Anatomic Aspects of Formation and Growth of the Cape Gooseberry Fruit Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Mazorra

    2006-01-01

    confirmed that anatomically the Cape gooseberry fruits, ecotipo Colombia, and ruderal type are similar, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable anatomical changes that explain the greater size of the fruits of ecotipo Colombia.

  11. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  12. PREFACE: Cell-substrate interactions Cell-substrate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, Margaret; Schwarz, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    One of the most striking achievements of evolution is the ability to build cellular systems that are both robust and dynamic. Taken by themselves, both properties are obvious requirements: robustness reflects the fact that cells are there to survive, and dynamics is required to adapt to changing environments. However, it is by no means trivial to understand how these two requirements can be implemented simultaneously in a physical system. The long and difficult quest to build adaptive materials is testimony to the inherent difficulty of this goal. Here materials science can learn a lot from nature, because cellular systems show that robustness and dynamics can be achieved in a synergetic fashion. For example, the capabilities of tissues to repair and regenerate are still unsurpassed in the world of synthetic materials. One of the most important aspects of the way biological cells adapt to their environment is their adhesive interaction with the substrate. Numerous aspects of the physiology of metazoan cells, including survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration, require the formation of adhesions to the cell substrate, typically an extracellular matrix protein. Adhesions guide these diverse processes both by mediating force transmission from the cell to the substrate and by controlling biochemical signaling pathways. While the study of cell-substrate adhesions is a mature field in cell biology, a quantitative biophysical understanding of how the interactions of the individual molecular components give rise to the rich dynamics and mechanical behaviors observed for cell-substrate adhesions has started to emerge only over the last decade or so. The recent growth of research activities on cell-substrate interactions was strongly driven by the introduction of new physical techniques for surface engineering into traditional cell biological work with cell culture. For example, microcontact printing of adhesive patterns was used to show that cell fate depends

  13. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wognum, S; Bondar, L; Zolnay, A G; Chai, X; Hulshof, M C C M; Hoogeman, M S; Bel, A

    2013-02-01

    Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight parameters were determined

  14. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A.; Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors’ unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  15. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Meiberdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  16. Anatomic variation in the origin of the main renal arteries: spiral CTA evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beregi, J.P.; Willoteaux, S.; Remy-Jardin, M. [Department of Vascular Radiology, Hopital Cardiologique, 59 - Lille (France); Mauroy, B.; Francke, J.P. [Laboratoire d`Anatomie, Univ. de Lille (France); Mounier-Vehier, C. [Department of Hypertension and Internal Medicine, Hopital Cardiologique, Lille (France)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide quantitative data on the origin and trajectory of the main renal arteries using spiral CT angiography and arteriography. Normal renal artery anatomy was assessed on spiral CT angiography (axial transverse sections and shaded-surface-display reconstructions) in 100 patients referred for renal arteriography who had no significant renal artery stenosis. Two hundred major renal arteries were studied. The vast majority of right (88 %) and left (87 %) renal arteries originated between the lower third of the first lumbar vertebra and the lower border of the second lumbar vertebra. In 50 patients both ostia were at the same level; in the remaining 50 patients, the right ostium was located above the left in 37 patients. On the right, the angle of origin varied from -10 to + 55 (mean + 24 ). On the left, the angle of origin varied from + 30 to -55 (mean -11 ). Spiral CT angiography provides additional anatomic data, notably regarding the angle of origin of the renal arteries, that is potentially useful for planning interventional procedures. (orig.) With 4 figs., 19 refs.

  17. Anatomic variation in the origin of the main renal arteries: spiral CTA evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beregi, J.P.; Willoteaux, S.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Mauroy, B.; Francke, J.P.; Mounier-Vehier, C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide quantitative data on the origin and trajectory of the main renal arteries using spiral CT angiography and arteriography. Normal renal artery anatomy was assessed on spiral CT angiography (axial transverse sections and shaded-surface-display reconstructions) in 100 patients referred for renal arteriography who had no significant renal artery stenosis. Two hundred major renal arteries were studied. The vast majority of right (88 %) and left (87 %) renal arteries originated between the lower third of the first lumbar vertebra and the lower border of the second lumbar vertebra. In 50 patients both ostia were at the same level; in the remaining 50 patients, the right ostium was located above the left in 37 patients. On the right, the angle of origin varied from -10 to + 55 (mean + 24 ). On the left, the angle of origin varied from + 30 to -55 (mean -11 ). Spiral CT angiography provides additional anatomic data, notably regarding the angle of origin of the renal arteries, that is potentially useful for planning interventional procedures. (orig.)

  18. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO 2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO 2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO 2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO 2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (i.e., root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO 2 conditions. Correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO 2 treated trees. - Highlights: • First study of wood properties after 11 years of higher level of CO 2 treatment. • Elevated CO 2 exposure does not impact structural components of wood. • Total phenolics content and some inorganics were significantly affected. • Branch xylem cells were larger under elevated CO 2 . • Cell wall thickness was thinner under elevated CO 2 . - Elevated CO 2 in atmosphere did not impact the structural components yet altered some of non-structural components and anatomical properties after 11 years of exposure on sweetgum

  19. Deep learning of the sectional appearances of 3D CT images for anatomical structure segmentation based on an FCN voting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    We propose a single network trained by pixel-to-label deep learning to address the general issue of automatic multiple organ segmentation in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. Our method can be described as a voxel-wise multiple-class classification scheme for automatically assigning labels to each pixel/voxel in a 2D/3D CT image. We simplify the segmentation algorithms of anatomical structures (including multiple organs) in a CT image (generally in 3D) to a majority voting scheme over the semantic segmentation of multiple 2D slices drawn from different viewpoints with redundancy. The proposed method inherits the spirit of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) that consist of "convolution" and "deconvolution" layers for 2D semantic image segmentation, and expands the core structure with 3D-2D-3D transformations to adapt to 3D CT image segmentation. All parameters in the proposed network are trained pixel-to-label from a small number of CT cases with human annotations as the ground truth. The proposed network naturally fulfills the requirements of multiple organ segmentations in CT cases of different sizes that cover arbitrary scan regions without any adjustment. The proposed network was trained and validated using the simultaneous segmentation of 19 anatomical structures in the human torso, including 17 major organs and two special regions (lumen and content inside of stomach). Some of these structures have never been reported in previous research on CT segmentation. A database consisting of 240 (95% for training and 5% for testing) 3D CT scans, together with their manually annotated ground-truth segmentations, was used in our experiments. The results show that the 19 structures of interest were segmented with acceptable accuracy (88.1% and 87.9% voxels in the training and testing datasets, respectively, were labeled correctly) against the ground truth. We propose a single network based on pixel-to-label deep learning to address the challenging

  20. SU-C-BRF-03: PCA Modeling of Anatomical Changes During Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetvertkov, M; Kim, J; Siddiqui, F; Kumarasiri, A; Chetty, I; Gordon, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop principal component analysis (PCA) models from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H and N) patients that could be used prospectively in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: : For 7 H and N patients, Pinnacle Treatment Planning System (Philips Healthcare) was used to retrospectively deformably register daily CBCTs to the planning CT. The number N of CBCTs per treatment course ranged from 14 to 22. For each patient a PCA model was built from the deformation vector fields (DVFs), after first subtracting the mean DVF, producing N eigen-DVFs (EDVFs). It was hypothesized that EDVFs with large eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment, and that it is feasible to relate each EDVF to a clinically meaningful systematic or random change in anatomy, such as weight loss, neck flexion, etc. Results: DVFs contained on the order of 3×87×87×58=1.3 million scalar values (3 times the number of voxels in the registered volume). The top 3 eigenvalues accounted for ∼90% of variance. Anatomical changes corresponding to an EDVF were evaluated by generating a synthetic DVF, and applying that DVF to the CT to produce a synthetic CBCT. For all patients, the EDVF for the largest eigenvalue was interpreted to model weight loss. The EDVF for other eigenvalues appeared to represented quasi-random fraction-to-fraction changes. Conclusion: The leading EDVFs from single-patient PCA models have tentatively been identified with weight loss changes during treatment. Other EDVFs are tentatively identified as quasi-random inter-fraction changes. Clean separation of systematic and random components may require further work. This work is expected to facilitate development of population-based PCA models that can be used to prospectively identify significant anatomical changes, such as weight loss, early in treatment, triggering replanning where beneficial

  1. Host immunostimulation and substrate utilization of the gut symbiont Akkermansia muciniphila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottman, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    Host immunostimulation and substrate utilization of the gut symbiont Akkermansia muciniphila

    Noora A. Ottman

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a complex community of micro-organisms, the gut microbiota. The majority of these

  2. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, W.S.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO 2 to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures

  3. Aspects of animal models for major neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefter Radu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will review the main animal models for the major neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, anxiety and autism. Although these mental disorders are specifically human pathologies and therefore impossible to perfectly replicate in animals, the use of experimental animals is based on the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and animals such as the rat, and mouse, and on the fact that 99% of human and murine genomes are shared. Pathological conditions in animals can be assessed by manipulating the metabolism of neurotransmitters, through various behavioral tests, and by determining biochemical parameters that can serve as important markers of disorders.

  4. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  5. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  6. A signal-substrate match in the substrate-borne component of a multimodal courtship display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian O. ELIAS, Andrew C. MASON, Eileen A. HEBETS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The environment can impose strong limitations on the efficacy of signal transmission. In particular, for vibratory communication, the signaling environment is often extremely heterogeneous at very small scales. Nevertheless, natural selection is expected to select for signals well-suited to effective transmission. Here, we test for substrate-dependent signal efficacy in the wolf spider Schizocosa stridulans Stratton 1991. We first explore the transmission characteristics of this important signaling modality by playing recorded substrate-borne signals through three different substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and red clay and measuring the propagated signal. We found that the substrate-borne signal of S. stridulans attenuates the least on leaf litter, the substrate upon which the species is naturally found. Next, by assessing mating success with artificially muted and non-muted males across different signaling substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and sand, we explored the relationship between substrate-borne signaling and substrate for mating success. We found that muted males were unsuccessful in obtaining copulations regardless of substrate, while mating success was dependent on the signaling substrate for non-muted males. For non-muted males, more males copulated on leaf litter than any other substrate. Taken together, these results confirm the importance of substrate-borne signaling in S. stridulans and suggest a match between signal properties and signal efficacy – leaf litter transmits the signal most effectively and males are most successful in obtaining copulations on leaf litter [Current Zoology 56 (3: 370–378, 2010].

  7. Renal mass anatomic characteristics and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivian, Matvey; Ulusoy, Said; Abern, Michael; Wandel, Ayelet; Sidi, A Ami; Tsivian, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Anatomic parameters determining renal mass complexity have been used in a number of proposed scoring systems despite lack of a critical analysis of their independent contributions. We sought to assess the independent contribution of anatomic parameters on perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Preoperative imaging studies were reviewed for 147 consecutive patients undergoing LPN for a single renal mass. Renal mass anatomy was recorded: Size, growth pattern (endo-/meso-/exophytic), centrality (central/hilar/peripheral), anterior/posterior, lateral/medial, polar location. Multivariable models were used to determine associations of anatomic parameters with warm ischemia time (WIT), operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), intra- and postoperative complications, as well as renal function. All models were adjusted for the learning curve and relevant confounders. Median (range) tumor size was 3.3 cm (1.5-11 cm); 52% were central and 14% hilar. While 44% were exophytic, 23% and 33% were mesophytic and endophytic, respectively. Anatomic parameters did not uniformly predict perioperative outcomes. WIT was associated with tumor size (P=0.068), centrality (central, P=0.016; hilar, P=0.073), and endophytic growth pattern (P=0.017). OT was only associated with tumor size (Panatomic parameter predicted EBL. Tumor centrality increased the odds of overall and intraoperative complications, without reaching statistical significance. Postoperative renal function was not associated with any of the anatomic parameters considered after adjustment for baseline function and WIT. Learning curve, considered as a confounder, was independently associated with reduced WIT and OT as well as reduced odds of intraoperative complications. This study provides a detailed analysis of the independent impact of renal mass anatomic parameters on perioperative outcomes. Our findings suggest diverse independent contributions of the anatomic parameters to the

  8. MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) is considered to be the next step in uroradiology. This technique combines superb anatomical images and functional information in a single test. In this article, we aim to present the topic of MRU in children and how it has been implemented in Northern Greece so ...

  9. Anatomical and physical changes in leaves during the production of tamales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Guillermo; Lascurain, Maite; Davalos-Sotelo, Raymundo; Zarate-Morales, Reyna Paula; Ortega-Escalona, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Tamale preparation has a long tradition in Mexico. To understand which material properties have been considered important for this purpose throughout the years, a study was conducted of the anatomical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the leaves of four plant species used in tamale preparation in Veracruz, Mexico: Calathea misantlensis, Canna indica, Musa paradisiaca, and Oreopanax capitatus. Four cooking treatments were considered: fresh (F), roasted (soasado, R), steamed (S), and roasted plus steamed (R/S). Chemical, anatomical, and mechanical analyses were conducted before and after each treatment. Leaf samples were tested for tensile strength at both parallel and perpendicular orientation relative to the fibers. Musa paradisiaca had the highest proportion of cellulose, while the remaining species shared similar lower proportions. Leaves were stronger and stiffer in the longitudinal direction of the fibers. Musa paradisiaca leaves had higher values of mechanical strength than the other species. The cooking process that most affected the mechanical properties was steaming. The chemical constituents of the leaves are closely correlated with their physical properties. The treatment that caused the greatest decrease in leaf physical integrity was steaming, while the combination of roasting and steaming showed similar results to those of steaming alone. No evident anatomical changes are produced by any of the treatments. This is one of the few studies comparing physical, chemical, and anatomical characteristics of leaves used for human consumption, before and after cooking.

  10. The nonvisual illusion of self-touch: Misaligned hands and anatomical implausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebekah C; Weinberg, Jennifer L; Aimola Davies, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    The self-touch illusion is elicited when the participant (with eyes closed) administers brushstrokes to a prosthetic hand while the examiner administers synchronous brushstrokes to the participant's other (receptive) hand. In three experiments we investigated the effects of misalignment on the self-touch illusion. In experiment 1 we manipulated alignment (0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees, 180 degrees) of the prosthetic hand relative to the participant's receptive hand. The illusion was equally strong at 0 degrees and 45 degrees: the two conditions in which the prosthetic hand was in an anatomically plausible orientation. To investigate whether the illusion was diminished at 90 degrees (and beyond) by anatomical implausibility rather than by misalignment, in experiment 2 hand positioning was changed. The illusion was equally strong at 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees, but diminished at 135 degrees despite the prosthetic hand now being in an anatomically plausible orientation. Thus the illusion is diminished with misalignment of 135 degrees, irrespective of anatomical plausibility. Having demonstrated that the illusion was equally strong with the hands aligned (0 degrees) or misaligned by 45 degrees, in experiment 3 we demonstrated that participants did not detect a 45 degrees misalignment. Large degrees of misalignment prevent a compelling experience of the self-touch illusion, and the self-touch illusion prevents detection of small degrees of misalignment.

  11. Visualization strategies for major white matter tracts for intraoperative use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimsky, C.; Ganslandt, O.; Buchfelder, M. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Neurocenter; Enders, F.; Merhof, D. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Neurocenter; Hammen, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Neurocenter; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Neurology

    2006-03-15

    Streamline representation of major fiber tract systems along with high-resolution anatomical data provides a reliable orientation for the neurosurgeon. For intraoperative visualization of these data either on navigation screens near the surgical field or directly in the surgical field applying heads-up displays of operating microscopes, wrapping of all streamlines of interest to render an individual object representing the whole fiber bundle is the most suitable representation. Integration of fiber tract data into a neuronavigation setup allows removal of tumors adjacent to eloquent brain areas with low morbidity. (orig.)

  12. Visualization strategies for major white matter tracts for intraoperative use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimsky, C.; Ganslandt, O.; Buchfelder, M.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen; Enders, F.; Merhof, D.; Hammen, T.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    2006-01-01

    Streamline representation of major fiber tract systems along with high-resolution anatomical data provides a reliable orientation for the neurosurgeon. For intraoperative visualization of these data either on navigation screens near the surgical field or directly in the surgical field applying heads-up displays of operating microscopes, wrapping of all streamlines of interest to render an individual object representing the whole fiber bundle is the most suitable representation. Integration of fiber tract data into a neuronavigation setup allows removal of tumors adjacent to eloquent brain areas with low morbidity. (orig.)

  13. An Application of Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) Technology to Anatomic Dental Charting

    OpenAIRE

    Bartling, William C.; Schleyer, Titus K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Historically, an anatomic dental chart is a compilation of color-coded symbols and numbers used within a template, either paper or computerized, to create a graphic record of a patient’s oral health status. This poster depicts how Geospatial Information System (GIS) technology can be used to create an accurate, current anatomic dental chart that contains detailed information not present in current charting systems.

  14. Muscular Variation In The Neck Region With Narrowing Of The Minor And Major Supraclavicular Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sternocleidomastoideus muscle is the most prominent landmarks of the surface anatomy of the neck, separates the anterior part of the neck (anterior triangle from the posterior part of the neck (posterior triangle. An accessory head of sternocleidomastoideus muscle may cause complications while trying to access vital neurovascular structures that are located in the minor and major supraclavicular fossa. The purpose of this study is to describe an anatomical variation of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and clinical impact. Methods and Findings: The anatomical variations described were found during routine dissection conducted in the laboratory of Morphology of the University of Pamplona in two male cadavers of 47 and 75 years respectively. Measurements were taken using a Vernier caliper. Topographic details of the variations were examined, recorded and photographed. The morphological variations in the number of heads (three and four of origin of sternocleidomastoideus muscle was found in two male subjects in right and left neck, bilaterally.  The posterior cervical triangle was diminished. The bilateral narrowing of the minor and major supraclavicular fossa minimizing space needed for potential surgical access. The branching patterns of the spinal accessory nerve and arterial patterns were normal. Conclusions: The Knowledge of the presence of additional heads of sternocleidomastoideus muscle it might cause difficulties in subclavian or external jugular vein catheterization, and in surgical interventions involving structures lying under the sternocleidomastoideus muscle. These variations must be kept in mind while approaching the region to avoid complications as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse.

  15. Computed-tomography-guided anatomic standardization for quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kota [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Sumida, Kaoru; Sone, Daichi; Kimura, Yukio; Sato, Noriko [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Mukai, Youhei; Murata, Miho [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    For the quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter (DAT) using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (DaTscan), anatomic standardization is preferable for achieving objective and user-independent quantification of striatal binding using a volume-of-interest (VOI) template. However, low accumulation of DAT in Parkinson's disease (PD) would lead to a deformation error when using a DaTscan-specific template without any structural information. To avoid this deformation error, we applied computed tomography (CT) data obtained using SPECT/CT equipment to anatomic standardization. We retrospectively analyzed DaTscan images of 130 patients with parkinsonian syndromes (PS), including 80 PD and 50 non-PD patients. First we segmented gray matter from CT images using statistical parametric mapping 12 (SPM12). These gray-matter images were then anatomically standardized using the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. Next, DaTscan images were warped with the same parameters used in the CT anatomic standardization. The target striatal VOIs for decreased DAT in PD were generated from the SPM12 group comparison of 20 DaTscan images from each group. We applied these VOIs to DaTscan images of the remaining patients in both groups and calculated the specific binding ratios (SBRs) using nonspecific counts in a reference area. In terms of the differential diagnosis of PD and non-PD groups using SBR, we compared the present method with two other methods, DaTQUANT and DaTView, which have already been released as software programs for the quantitative assessment of DaTscan images. The SPM12 group comparison showed a significant DAT decrease in PD patients in the bilateral whole striatum. Of the three methods assessed, the present CT-guided method showed the greatest power for discriminating PD and non-PD groups, as it completely separated the two groups. CT-guided anatomic standardization using

  16. Anatomic variations in vascular and collecting systems of kidneys from deceased donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, H C; Moreira, R J; Fukunaga, P; Fernandes, R C; Boni, R C; Matos, A C

    2011-01-01

    Nephroureterectomy for transplantation has increased owing to the greater number of deceased donors. Anatomic variations may complicate the procedure or, if unrecognized, compromise the viability of kidneys for transplantation. We reviewed 254 surgical descriptions of nephroureterectomy specimens from January 2008 to December 2009. All organs collected according by standard techniques were evaluated for age, cause of death, renal function, frequency of injury during the procedure, as well as variations in the vascular and collecting systems. The mean donor age was 42 years (range, 2-74). The mean serum creatinine was 1.2 mg/dL (range, 1.0-7.0). The causes of death were cerebrovascular cause (stroke; n = 130), traumatic brain injury (n = 81) or other cause (n = 43). Among the anatomic variations: 8.6% (n = 22) were right arterial anatomical variations: 19 cases with 2 arteries and 3 cases with 3 arteries. In 25 cases (9.8%) the identified variation was the left artery: 2 arteries (n = 23), 3 arteries (n = 1) and 4 arteries (n = 1). We observed 9.8% on right side and 1.5% on left side venous anatomic variations, including 24 cases with 2 veins on the right side and 4 cases with 2 veins on the left side. Three cases of a retroaortic left renal vein and 1 case of a retro necklace vein (anterior and posterior to the aorta). Two cases of ureteral duplication were noted on the left and 1 on the right kidney. There were 3 horseshoe and 1 pelvic kidney. In 7.5% of cases, an injury to the graft included ureteral (n = 3), arterial (n = 10), or venous (n = 6). The most common anatomic variation was arterial (17.8%). Duplication of the renal vein was more frequent on the right. The high incidences of anatomic variations require more attention in the dissection of the renal hilum to avoid an injury that may compromise the graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proximity of arthroscopic ankle stabilization procedures to surrounding structures: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark; Behrens, Steve B; Mulcahey, Mary K; Paller, David; Hoffman, Eve; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

    2013-06-01

    To examine the anatomy of the lateral ankle after arthroscopic repair of the lateral ligament complex (anterior talofibular ligament [ATFL] and calcaneofibular ligament [CFL]) with regard to structures at risk. Ten lower extremity cadaveric specimens were obtained and were screened for gross anatomic defects and pre-existing ankle laxity. The ATFL and CFL were sectioned from the fibula by an open technique. Standard anterolateral and anteromedial arthroscopy portals were made. An additional portal was created 2 cm distal to the anterolateral portal. The articular surface of the fibula was identified, and the ATFL and CFL were freed from the superficial and deeper tissues. Suture anchors were placed in the fibula at the ATFL and CFL origins and were used to repair the origin of the lateral collateral structures. The distance from the suture knot to several local anatomic structures was measured. Measurements were taken by 2 separate observers, and the results were averaged. Several anatomic structures lie in close proximity to the ATFL and CFL sutures. The ATFL sutures entrapped 9 of 55 structures, and no anatomic structures were inadvertently entrapped by the CFL sutures. The proximity of the peroneus tertius and the extensor tendons to the ATFL makes them at highest risk of entrapment, but the proximity of the intermediate branch of the superficial peroneal nerve (when present) is a risk with significant morbidity. Our results indicate that the peroneus tertius and extensor tendons have the highest risk for entrapment and show the smallest mean distances from the anchor knot to the identified structure. Careful attention to these structures, as well as the superficial peroneal nerve, is mandatory to prevent entrapment of tendons and nerves when one is attempting arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction. Defining the anatomic location and proximity of the intervening structures adjacent to the lateral ligament complex of the ankle may help clarify the

  18. Oligomerization of Paramagnetic Substrates Result in Signal Amplification and Can be Used for MR Imaging of Molecular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Bogdanov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has evolved into a sophisticated, noninvasive imaging modality capable of high-resolution anatomical and functional characterization of transgenic animals. To expand the capabilities MRI, we have developed a novel MR signal amplification (MRamp strategy based on enzyme-mediated polymerization of paramagnetic substrates into oligomers of higher magnetic relaxivity. The substrates consist of chelated gadolinium covalently bound to phenols, which then serve as electron donors during enzymatic hydrogen peroxide reduction by peroxidase. The converted monomers undergo rapid condensation into paramagnetic oligomers leading to a threefold increase in atomic relaxivity (R1/Gd. The observed relaxivity changes are largely due to an increase in the rotational correlation time τr of the lanthanide. Three applications of the developed system are demonstrated: (1 imaging of nanomolar amounts of an oxidoreductase (peroxidase; (2 detection of a model ligand using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay format; and (3 imaging of E-selectin on the surface of endothelial cells probed for with an anti-E-selectin – peroxidase conjugate. The development of “enzyme sensing” probes is expected to have utility for a number of applications including in vivo detection of specific molecular targets. One particular advantage of the MRamp technique is that the same paramagnetic substrate can be potentially used to identify different molecular targets by attaching enzymes to various antibodies or other target-seeking molecules.

  19. Evaluation of influences of the Viennese Anatomical School on the work of the Croatian Anatomist Jelena Krmpotic-Nemanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinjar, Kristijan; Toth, Jurica; Atalic, Bruno; Radanovic, Danijela; Maric, Svjetlana

    2012-01-01

    This paper tries to evaluate the connections between the Viennese Anatomical School and the Croatian Anatomist Jelena Krmpotic-Nemanic. 17 papers written by Professor Jelena Krmpotic-Nemanic in the last decade of her life were chosen for analyses. According to their themes they could be divided into three groups: ones which evaluate the anatomical terminology, ones which research the development of anatomical structures, and ones which describe the anatomical variations. Mentioned papers were analysed through their topics, methods of research and cited references. Analyses of the mentioned papers revealed the indirect link between the Viennese Anatomical School and the Professor Jelena Krmpotic-Nemanic, through her mentor Professor Drago Perovic, regarding the themes and the methods of her anatomical researches. It has also showed her preference for Austrian and German anatomical textbooks and atlases, primarily ones published in Vienna and Jena, rather than English and American ones. Finally, her direct connections with the Viennese Institute for the History of Medicine and the Viennese Josephinum Wax Models Museum were emphasized. Mentioned indirect and direct influences of the Viennese Anatomical School on the work of Professor Jelena Krmpotic-Nemanic were critically appraised.

  20. Substrate specificity within a family of outer membrane carboxylate channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  1. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  2. Evolution of the Anatomical Theatre in Padova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in…

  3. Anatomic characteristics and natural history of renal artery aneurysms during longitudinal imaging surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Erik J; Edwards, Matthew S; Stafford, Jeanette M; Hansen, Kimberley J; Corriere, Matthew A

    2014-08-01

    Renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) are uncommon, and rates of growth and rupture are unknown. Limited evidence therefore exists to guide clinical management of RAAs, particularly small aneurysms that are asymptomatic. To further characterize the natural history of RAAs, we studied anatomic characteristics and changes in diameter during imaging surveillance. Patients evaluated for native RAAs at a single institution during a 5-year period (July 2008 to July 2013) were identified and analyzed retrospectively. Patients with two or more cross-sectional imaging studies (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) more than 1 month apart were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected from medical records, and anatomic data (including aneurysm diameter, calcification, and location) were obtained from electronic images. Changes in RAA diameters over time were evaluated by plots and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Sixty-eight RAAs in 55 patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 19.4 months (interquartile range, 11.2-49.0 months). Mean age at presentation was 61.8 ± 9.8 years, and 73% of patients were women. Hypertension was prevalent among 73% of patients. Multiple RAAs were present in 18% of patients, and 24% also had arterial aneurysms of other splanchnic or iliac vessels. The majority of RAAs were calcified and located at the main renal artery bifurcation. Mean initial aneurysm diameter was 16.0 ± 6.4 mm. Median annualized growth rate was 0.06 mm (interquartile range, -0.07 to 0.33 mm; P = .11). No RAA ruptures or acute symptoms occurred during surveillance, and 10.3% of RAAs were repaired electively. Risk of short-term RAA growth or rupture was low. These findings suggest that annual (or less frequent) imaging surveillance is safe in the majority of patients and do not support pre-emptive repair of asymptomatic, small-diameter RAAs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.moeller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Eismann, Frank, E-mail: info@antoc.de [Eismann & Stöbe GbR, GeoPark, Geb. A12, Bautzner Strasse 67, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Wißmann, Daniel, E-mail: d.s.wissmann@gmx.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Nägele, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: hajo.naegele@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Zielonka, Simon, E-mail: simon.zielonka@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Roland A., E-mail: roland.mueller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Zehnsdorf, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.zehnsdorf@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Foaming in biogas plants depends on the interactions between substrate and digestate. • Foaming tests enable the evaluation of substrate foaming tendency in biogas plants. • Leipzig foam tester enables foaming tests of substrates prior to use. - Abstract: Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  5. Anatomical study of forearm arteries with ultrasound for percutaneous coronary procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-xian; Zhou, Yu-jie; Zhao, Ying-xin; Zhou, Zhi-ming; Yang, Shi-wei; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, the radial artery (RA) has become an alternative vascular access site for percutaneous coronary procedures, and the ulnar artery (UA) is another possibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the forearm arteries with ultrasound (US) and to evaluate the effect of the anatomy of the right RA (RRA) on the outcomes of transradial coronary procedures. The 638 patients undergoing transradial coronary procedures were examined with US for measurement of the diameters of the forearm arteries and determination of their anatomical abnormalities before the procedures. The next day the incidence of RA occlusion was recorded. The diameters of the radial and ulnar arteries were similar (P>0.05). The procedure time was longer in patients with anatomical abnormalities (Pforearm arteries of Chinese people are similar. The small diameter and anatomical abnormalities of the RRA could result in longer procedure time, more incidence of procedure failure and RA occlusion.

  6. Relationship between Peeled Internal Limiting Membrane Area and Anatomic Outcomes following Macular Hole Surgery: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Sakir Goker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of peeled internal limiting membrane (ILM area and anatomic outcomes following macular hole surgery using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods. Forty-one eyes in 37 consecutive patients with idiopathic, Gass stage 3-4 macular hole (MH were enrolled in this retrospective comparative study. All patients were divided into 2 groups according to anatomic success or failure. Basal MH diameter, peeled ILM area, and MH height were calculated using SD-OCT. Other prognostic parameters, including age, stage, preoperative BCVA, and symptom duration were also assessed. Results. Thirty-two cases were classified as anatomic success, and 9 cases were classified as anatomic failure. Peeled ILM area was significantly wider and MH basal diameter was significantly less in the anatomic success group (p=0.024 and 0.032, resp.. Other parameters did not demonstrate statistical significance. Conclusion. The findings of the present study show that the peeled ILM area can affect the anatomic outcomes of MH surgery.

  7. Sites of reactive oxygen species generation by mitochondria oxidizing different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L. Quinlan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial radical production is important in redox signaling, aging and disease, but the relative contributions of different production sites are poorly understood. We analyzed the rates of superoxide/H2O2 production from different defined sites in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria oxidizing a variety of conventional substrates in the absence of added inhibitors: succinate; glycerol 3-phosphate; palmitoylcarnitine plus carnitine; or glutamate plus malate. In all cases, the sum of the estimated rates accounted fully for the measured overall rates. There were two striking results. First, the overall rates differed by an order of magnitude between substrates. Second, the relative contribution of each site was very different with different substrates. During succinate oxidation, most of the superoxide production was from the site of quinone reduction in complex I (site IQ, with small contributions from the flavin site in complex I (site IF and the quinol oxidation site in complex III (site IIIQo. However, with glutamate plus malate as substrate, site IQ made little or no contribution, and production was shared between site IF, site IIIQo and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. With palmitoylcarnitine as substrate, the flavin site in complex II (site IIF was a major contributor (together with sites IF and IIIQo, and with glycerol 3-phosphate as substrate, five different sites all contributed, including glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, the relative and absolute contributions of specific sites to the production of reactive oxygen species in isolated mitochondria depend very strongly on the substrates being oxidized, and the same is likely true in cells and in vivo.

  8. Self-Assembled Local Artificial Substrates of GaAs on Si Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frigeri C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a self-assembling procedure for the fabrication of GaAs islands by Droplet Epitaxy on silicon substrate. Controlling substrate temperature and amount of supplied gallium is possible to tune the base size of the islands from 70 up to 250 nm and the density from 107 to 109 cm−2. The islands show a standard deviation of base size distribution below 10% and their shape evolves changing the aspect ratio from 0.3 to 0.5 as size increases. Due to their characteristics, these islands are suitable to be used as local artificial substrates for the integration of III–V quantum nanostructures directly on silicon substrate.

  9. The "G-Spot" Is Not a Structure Evident on Macroscopic Anatomic Dissection of the Vaginal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Nathan; Keast, Janet R; O'Connell, Helen E

    2017-12-01

    Controversy exists in the literature regarding the presence or absence of an anatomic "G-spot." However, few studies have examined the detailed topographic or histologic anatomy of the putative G-spot location. To determine the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall and present detailed, systematic, accessible findings from female cadaveric dissections to provide anatomic clarity with respect to this location. Systematic anatomic dissections were performed on 13 female cadavers (32-97 years old, 8 fixed and 5 fresh) to characterize the gross anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. Digital photography was used to document dissections. Dissection preserved the anterior vaginal wall, urethra, and clitoris. In 9 cadavers, the vaginal epithelial layer was reflected to expose the underlying urethral wall and associated tissues. In 4 cadavers, the vaginal wall was left intact before preservation. Once photographed, 8 specimens were transversely sectioned for macroscopic inspection and histologic examination. The presence or absence of a macroscopic anatomic structure at detailed cadaveric pelvis dissection that corresponds to the previously described G-spot and gross anatomic description of the anterior vaginal wall. Deep to the lining epithelium of the anterior vaginal wall is the urethra. There is no macroscopic structure other than the urethra and vaginal wall lining in the location of the putative G-spot. Specifically, there is no apparent erectile or "spongy" tissue in the anterior vaginal wall, except where the urethra abuts the clitoris distally. The absence of an anatomic structure corresponding to the putative G-spot helps clarify the controversy on this subject. Limitations to this study include limited access to specimens immediately after death and potential for observational bias. In addition, age, medical history, and cause of death are not publishable for privacy reasons. However, it is one of the most thorough and complete anatomic evaluations documenting the

  10. Extra-anatomical complications of antegrade double-J insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion of a double-J (JJ stent is a common procedure often carried out in the retrograde route by the urologists and the antegrade route by the radiologists. Reported complications include stent migration, encrustation, and fracture. Extra-anatomic placement of an antegrade JJ stent is a rare but infrequently recognized complication. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective audit of 165 antegrade JJ stent insertions performed over three consecutive years by a single interventional radiologist. All renal units were hydronephrotic at the time of nephrostomy. All procedures were performed under local anaesthetic with antibiotic prophylaxis. Results: Antegrade stent insertion was carried out simultaneously at the time of nephrostomy in 55 of the 165 cases (33%. The remainder were inserted at a mean of 2 weeks following decompression. In five (3% patients, who had delayed antegrade stenting following nephrostomy, the procedure was complicated by silent ureteric perforation and an extra-anatomic placement of the stent. These complications had delayed manifestations, which included two retroperitoneal abscesses, a pelvic urinoma, a case each of ureterorectal fistula, and ureterovaginal fistula. Risk factors for ureteric perforation include previous pelvic malignancy, pelvic surgery, pelvic radiation, and a history of ureteric manipulation. Conclusion: Antegrade ureteric JJ stenting is a procedure not without complications. Extra-anatomic placement of the antegrade stent is a hitherto the infrequently reported complication but needs a high index of suspicion to be diagnosed. Risk factors for ureteric perforation at the time of stent insertion have to be considered to prevent this potential complication.

  11. Designing learning spaces for interprofessional education in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Kvan, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores connections between interprofessional education (IPE) models and the design of learning spaces for undergraduate and graduate education in the anatomical sciences and other professional preparation. The authors argue that for IPE models to be successful and sustained they must be embodied in the environment in which interprofessional learning occurs. To elaborate these arguments, two exemplar tertiary education facilities are discussed: the Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney for science education and research, and Victoria University's Interprofessional Clinic in Wyndham for undergraduate IPE in health care. Backed by well-conceived curriculum and pedagogical models, the architectures of these facilities embody the educational visions, methods, and practices they were designed to support. Subsequently, the article discusses the spatial implications of curriculum and pedagogical change in the teaching of the anatomical sciences and explores how architecture might further the development of IPE models in the field. In conclusion, it is argued that learning spaces should be designed and developed (socially) with the expressed intention of supporting collaborative IPE models in health education settings, including those in the anatomical sciences. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Anatomical etiology of “pseudo-sciatica” from superior cluneal nerve entrapment: a laboratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Hiroshi Kuniya,1 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Spine & Spinal Cord Surgery, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Objective: The superior cluneal nerve (SCN may become entrapped where it pierces the thoracolumbar fascia over the iliac crest; this can cause low back pain (LBP and referred pain radiating into the posterior thigh, calf, and occasionally the foot, producing the condition known as “pseudo-sciatica.” Because the SCN was thought to be a cutaneous branch of the lumbar dorsal rami, originating from the dorsal roots of L1–L3, previous anatomical studies failed to explain why SCN causes “pseudo-sciatica”. The purpose of the present anatomical study was to better elucidate the anatomy and improve the understanding of “pseudo-sciatica” from SCN entrapment. Materials and methods: SCN branches were dissected from their origin to termination in subcutaneous tissue in 16 cadavers (5 male and 11 female with a mean death age of 88 years (range 81–101 years. Special attention was paid to identify SCNs from their emergence from nerve roots and passage through the fascial attachment to the iliac crest. Results: Eighty-one SCN branches were identified originating from T12 to L5 nerve roots with 13 branches passing through the osteofibrous tunnel. These 13 branches originated from L3 (two sides, L4 (six sides, and L5 (five sides. Ten of the 13 branches showed macroscopic entrapment in the tunnel. Conclusion: The majority of SCNs at risk of nerve entrapment originated from the lower lumbar nerve. These anatomical results may explain why patients with SCN entrapment often evince leg pain or tingling that mimics sciatica. Keywords: superior cluneal nerve, entrapment neuropathy, dorsal rami

  13. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Human Brain Anatomical Network Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. However, few studies have investigated the hemispheric asymmetries of the human brain from the perspective of the network model, and little is known about the asymmetries of the connection patterns of brain regions, which may reflect the functional integration and interaction between different regions. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 72 right-handed healthy adult subjects. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and subcortical regions using deterministic tractography. To investigate the hemispheric asymmetries of the brain, statistical analyses were performed to reveal the brain regions with significant differences between bilateral topological properties, such as degree of connectivity, characteristic path length, and betweenness centrality. Furthermore, local structural connections were also investigated to examine the local asymmetries of some specific white matter tracts. From the perspective of both the global and local connection patterns, we identified the brain regions with hemispheric asymmetries. Combined with the previous studies, we suggested that the topological asymmetries in the anatomical network may reflect the functional lateralization of the human brain.

  14. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.F. II; Smallwood, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. The head was scanned using high-resolution imaging with a slice thickness of 8 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was placed in a walk-in freezer until completely frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm (head at 8-mm) intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The forzen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Intact, sagittally sectioned, and disarticulated dog skulls were used as reference models. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In this paper, the CT anatomy of the head and neck of the mesaticephalic dog is presented

  15. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Lucie; Eismann, Frank; Wißmann, Daniel; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Zielonka, Simon; Müller, Roland A; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from two specific locations in one town, depending on environmental conditions, were carried out: anthropogenic Ada Huja (polluted zone) and non anthropogenic Topcider park (unpolluted). Study included the diferences in the structure of leaves, ...

  17. Growth regulators and substrates for Oncidium baueri Lindl. micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An adequate concentration of growth regulators as well as the replacement of agar by an alternative medium may be promising from practical and financial points of view to produce orchid plants by micropropagation. The objective of this work was to evaluate different concentrations of growth regulator and alternative substrates for agar replacement in culture medium for in vitro multiplication and rooting of Oncidium baueri. In the explant multiplication phase, two experimental factors were evaluated- various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mg L-1 and substrates (agar, vermiculite, and coconut fiber added to MS medium. In the rooting phase, different concentrations of indole butyric acid (IBA (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg L-1 were added to culture medium containing the same substrate. Six months after the experiments were initiated, the survival percentage, number of leaves, shoots, and roots and length of the aerial part and the major root were evaluated. The results suggested that addition of 1.0 mg L-1 BAP is necessary for the O. baueri in vitro multiplication phase, but IBA is not necessary in the rooting phase. For the substrate, vermiculite is not indicated as an agar replacement. In contrast, coconut fiber can be used in both multiplication and rooting phases of Oncidium baueri in vitro culture.

  18. A stem anatomical investigation of Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae species in Khorassan provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Vaezi

    2014-04-01

    C. epithymum, C. pedicellata, C. lehmanniana var. lehmanniana and C. babylonica var. babylonica distributed in Khorassan provinces were investigated using the blue toluidine staining. Cross sections were provided by hand. Results showed that anatomical characters including stem diameter, position and distribution of vessels, number and size of vessels and number of parenchymatous layers were effective traits to taxonomically separate the species under study. Furthermore, the anatomical relationship between parasite and its host plant was examined.

  19. Does EMS Perceived Anatomic Injury Predict Trauma Center Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Roberts, Jennifer; Guse, Clare E.; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Brasel, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the predictive value of the anatomic step of the 2011 Field Triage Decision Scheme for identifying trauma center need. Methods EMS providers caring for injured adults transported to regional trauma centers in 3 midsized communities were interviewed over two years. Patients were included, regardless of injury severity, if they were at least 18 years old and were transported by EMS with a mechanism of injury that was an assault, motor vehicle or motorcycle crash, fall, or pedestrian or bicyclist struck. The interview was conducted upon ED arrival and collected physiologic condition and anatomic injury data. Patients who met the physiologic criteria were excluded. Trauma center need was defined as non-orthopedic surgery within 24 hours, intensive care unit admission, or death prior to hospital discharge. Data were analyzed by calculating descriptive statistics including positive likelihood ratios (+LR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results 11,892 interviews were conducted. One was excluded because of missing outcome data and 1,274 were excluded because they met the physiologic step. EMS providers identified 1,167 cases that met the anatomic criteria, of which 307 (26%) needed the resources of a trauma center (38% sensitivity, 91% specificity, +LR 4.4; CI: 3.9 - 4.9). Criteria with a +LR ≥5 were flail chest (9.0; CI: 4.1 - 19.4), paralysis (6.8; CI: 4.2 - 11.2), two or more long bone fractures (6.3; CI: 4.5 - 8.9), and amputation (6.1; CI: 1.5 - 24.4). Criteria with a +LR >2 and <5 were penetrating injury (4.8; CI: 4.2 - 5.6), and skull fracture (4.8; CI: 3.0 - 7.7). Only pelvic fracture (1.9; CI: 1.3 - 2.9) had a +LR less than 2. Conclusions The anatomic step of the Field Triage Guidelines as determined by EMS providers is a reasonable tool for determining trauma center need. Use of EMS perceived pelvic fracture as an indicator for trauma center need should be re-evaluated. PMID:23627418

  20. Anatomical landmarks of radical prostatecomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen; Constantinides, Costantinos; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we review current literature and based on our experience, we present the anatomical landmarks of open and laparoscopic/endoscopic radical prostatectomy. A thorough literature search was performed with the Medline database on the anatomy and the nomenclature of the structures surrounding the prostate gland. The correct handling of puboprostatic ligaments, external urethral sphincter, prostatic fascias and neurovascular bundle is necessary for avoiding malfunction of the urogenital system after radical prostatectomy. When evaluating new prostatectomy techniques, we should always take into account both clinical and final oncological outcomes. The present review adds further knowledge to the existing "postprostatectomy anatomical hazard" debate. It emphasizes upon the role of the puboprostatic ligaments and the course of the external urethral sphincter for urinary continence. When performing an intrafascial nerve sparing prostatectomy most urologists tend to approach as close to the prostatic capsula as possible, even though there is no concurrence regarding the nomenclature of the surrounding fascias and the course of the actual neurovascular bundles. After completion of an intrafascial technique the specimen does not contain any periprostatic tissue and thus the detection of pT3a disease is not feasible. This especially becomes problematic if the tumour reaches the resection margin. Nerve sparing open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy should aim in maintaining sexual function, recuperating early continence after surgery, without hindering the final oncological outcome to the procedure. Despite the different approaches for radical prostatectomy the key for better results is the understanding of the anatomy of the bladder neck and the urethra.

  1. Dissection of lung parenchyma using electrocautery is a safe and acceptable method for anatomical sublobar resection

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtsuka, Takashi; Goto, Taichiro; Anraku, Masaki; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Izumi, Yotaro; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Nomori, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anatomic sublobar resection is being assessed as a substitute to lobectomy for primary lung cancers. However, persistent air leak after anatomic sublobar resection is prevalent and increasing surgical morbidity and costs. The use of electrocautery is being popularized recently in anatomic sublobar resection. We have retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of intersegmental plane dissection using electrocautery. Methods Between April 2009 to September 2010, 47 pat...

  2. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-02-28

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features.

  3. Teaching of anatomical sciences: A blended learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Abdel Meguid, Eiman M; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2018-04-01

    Blended learning is the integration of different learning approaches, new technologies, and activities that combine traditional face-to-face teaching methods with authentic online methodologies. Although advances in educational technology have helped to expand the selection of different pedagogies, the teaching of anatomical sciences has been challenged by implementation difficulties and other limitations. These challenges are reported to include lack of time, costs, and lack of qualified teachers. Easy access to online information and advances in technology make it possible to resolve these limitations by adopting blended learning approaches. Blended learning strategies have been shown to improve students' academic performance, motivation, attitude, and satisfaction, and to provide convenient and flexible learning. Implementation of blended learning strategies has also proved cost effective. This article provides a theoretical foundation for blended learning and proposes a validated framework for the design of blended learning activities in the teaching and learning of anatomical sciences. Clin. Anat. 31:323-329, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An interactive three-dimensional virtual body structures system for anatomical training over the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Malvankar, Ameya; Vaidyanath, Sreeram

    2006-04-01

    The Visible Human digital datasets make it possible to develop computer-based anatomical training systems that use virtual anatomical models (virtual body structures-VBS). Medical schools are combining these virtual training systems and classical anatomy teaching methods that use labeled images and cadaver dissection. In this paper we present a customizable web-based three-dimensional anatomy training system, W3D-VBS. W3D-VBS uses National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Visible Human Male datasets to interactively locate, explore, select, extract, highlight, label, and visualize, realistic 2D (using axial, coronal, and sagittal views) and 3D virtual structures. A real-time self-guided virtual tour of the entire body is designed to provide detailed anatomical information about structures, substructures, and proximal structures. The system thus facilitates learning of visuospatial relationships at a level of detail that may not be possible by any other means. The use of volumetric structures allows for repeated real-time virtual dissections, from any angle, at the convenience of the user. Volumetric (3D) virtual dissections are performed by adding, removing, highlighting, and labeling individual structures (and/or entire anatomical systems). The resultant virtual explorations (consisting of anatomical 2D/3D illustrations and animations), with user selected highlighting colors and label positions, can be saved and used for generating lesson plans and evaluation systems. Tracking users' progress using the evaluation system helps customize the curriculum, making W3D-VBS a powerful learning tool. Our plan is to incorporate other Visible Human segmented datasets, especially datasets with higher resolutions, that make it possible to include finer anatomical structures such as nerves and small vessels. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Changes of wood anatomical characters of selected species of Araucaria- during artificial charring - implications for palaeontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Carla Osterkamp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Charcoal is widely accepted as evidence of the occurrence of palaeo-wildfire. Although fossil charcoal remains have been used in many studies, investigation into the anatomical changes occurring during charring are few. The present study analyses changes in selected anatomical characters during artificial charring of modern wood of three species of the genus Araucaria (i.e. Araucaria angustifolia, Araucaria bidwillii and Araucaria columnaris. Wood samples of the studied species was charred under controlled conditions at varying temperatures. Measurements of anatomical features of uncharred wood and artificial charcoal were statistically analysed. The anatomical changes were statistically correlated with charring temperatures and most of the parameters showed marked decreases with increasing charring temperature. Compared to the intrinsic variability in anatomical features, both within and between growth rings of an individual plant, the changes induced by temperature account only for a comparatively small percentage of the observed variability. Regarding Araucaria charcoal, it seems possible that at least general taxonomic and palaeoenvironmental implications can be drawn from such material. However, it is not clear so far whether these results and interpretations based on only three taxa, can be generalized for the entire family and anatomically similar fossil taxa or not.

  6. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  7. Comparative of fibroblast and osteoblast cells adhesion on surface modified nanofibrous substrates based on polycaprolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Fereshteh; Irani, Shiva; Zandi, Mojgan; Soleimani, Masoud; Atyabi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    One of the determinant factors for successful bioengineering is to achieve appropriate nano-topography and three-dimensional substrate. In this research, polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibrous mat with different roughness modified with O 2 plasma was fabricated via electrospinning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of plasma modification along with surface nano-topography of mats on the quality of human fibroblast (HDFs) and osteoblast cells (OSTs)-substrate interaction. Surface properties were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated mechanical properties of fabricated mats by tensile test. The viability and proliferation of HDFs and OSTs on the substrates were followed by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Mineralization of the substrate was determined by alizarin red staining method and calcium content of OSTs was determined by calcium content kit. Cells morphology was studied by SEM analysis. The results revealed that the plasma-treated electrospun nano-fibrous substrate with higher roughness was an excellent designed substrate. A bioactive topography for stimulating proliferation of HDFs and OSTs is to accelerate the latter's differentiation time. Therefore, the PCL substrate with high density and major nano-topography were considered as a bio-functional and elegant bio-substrate for tissue regeneration applications.

  8. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  9. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; George, T. II.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  10. Longitudinal retention of anatomical knowledge in second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, Denise E; van Goor, Harry; Kooloos, Jan G M; Ten Broek, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    The Radboud University Medical Center has a problem-based, learner-oriented, horizontally, and vertically integrated medical curriculum. Anatomists and clinicians have noticed students' decreasing anatomical knowledge and the disability to apply knowledge in diagnostic reasoning and problem solving. In a longitudinal cohort, the retention of anatomical knowledge gained during the first year of medical school among second-year medical students was assessed. In May 2011, 346 medical students applied for the second-year gastro-intestinal (GI) tract course. The students were asked to participate in a reexamination of a selection of anatomical questions of an examination from October 2009. The examination consisted of a clinical anatomy case scenario and two computed tomography (CT) images of thorax and abdomen in an extended matching format. A total of 165 students were included for analysis. In 2011, students scored significantly lower for the anatomy examination compared to 2009 with a decline in overall examination score of 14.7% (±11.7%). Decrease in knowledge was higher in the radiological questions, compared to the clinical anatomy cases 17.5% (±13.6%) vs. 7.9% (±10.0%), respectively, d = 5.17. In both years, male students scored slightly better compared to female students, and decline of knowledge seems somewhat lower in male students (13.1% (±11.1%) vs. 15.5% (±12.0%), respectively), d = -0.21. Anatomical knowledge in the problem-oriented horizontal and vertical integrated medical curriculum, declined by approximately 15% 1.5 year after the initial anatomy course. The loss of knowledge in the present study is relative small compared to previous studies. Anat Sci Educ 10: 242-248. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Epicardial Breakthrough Waves During Sinus Rhythm: Depiction of the Arrhythmogenic Substrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-09-01

    Epicardial breakthrough waves (EBW) during atrial fibrillation are important elements of the arrhythmogenic substrate and result from endo-epicardial asynchrony, which also occurs to some degree during sinus rhythm (SR). We examined the incidence and characteristics of EBW during SR and its possible value in the detection of the arrhythmogenic substrate associated with atrial fibrillation. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (interelectrode distances 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle, the left atrioventricular groove, and the pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 381 patients (289 male, 67±10 years) with ischemic or valvular heart disease. EBW were referred to as sinus node breakthrough waves if they were the earliest right atrial activated site. A total of 218 EBW and 57 sinus node breakthrough waves were observed in 168 patients (44%). EBW mostly occurred at right atrium (N=105, 48%) and left atrioventricular groove (N=67, 31%), followed by Bachmann's bundle (N=27, 12%) and pulmonary vein area (N=19, 9%; P <0.001). EBW occurred most often in ischemic heart disease patients (N=114, 49%) compared with (ischemic and) valvular heart disease patients (N=26, 17%; P <0.001). EBW electrograms most often consisted of double and fractionated potentials (N=137, 63%). In case of single potentials, an R wave was observed in 88% (N=71) of EBW, as opposed to 21% of sinus node breakthrough waves (N=5; P <0.001). Fractionated EBW potentials were more often observed at the right atrium and Bachmann's bundle ( P <0.001). During SR, EBW are present in over a third of patients, particularly in thicker parts of the atrial wall. Features of SR EBW indicate that muscular connections between endo- and epicardium underlie EBW and that a slight degree of endo-epicardial asynchrony required for EBW to occur is already present in some areas during SR. Hence, an anatomic substrate is present, which may enhance the occurrence of EBW during atrial fibrillation, thereby

  12. Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcoles-Parada, M.; Müller, N.C.J.; Ubero, M.; Serrano-Del-Pueblo, V.M.; Mansilla, F.; Marcos-Rabal, P.; Artacho-Perula, E.; Dresler, M.; Insausti, R.; Fernandez, G.; Munoz-Lopez, M.

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas

  13. Peroneal nerve injury in three patients with knee trauma: MR imaging and correlation with anatomic findings in volunteers and anatomic specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trappeniers, Laurence; Osteaux, Michel [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); De Maeseneer, Michel [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Department of Radiology, AZ VUB, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090, Jette (Belgium); Van Roy, Peter [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Chaskis, Christo [Department of Neurosurgery, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this article is to report on three patients with injuries of the peroneal nerve along the posterolateral aspect of the knee. Injuries in this area are less common than the injuries occurring at the level of the fibular head. In this article we report on three patients with posterolateral knee trauma who had peroneal nerve dysfunction. To better understand the precise location of the nerve on MR images, we performed MR imaging in five volunteers, and studied the position of the nerve on anatomic dissection (n=1) and anatomic slices (n=1). The common peroneal nerve is easily depicted on MR images and has a typical location along the posterior margin of the biceps tendon. Non-visualisation of the peroneal nerve at the posterolateral aspect of the knee, as seen on MR images, is consistent with nerve injury. Scar tissue at the posterolateral aspect of the knee indicates injury of this specific area, and involvement of the peroneal nerve is likely. (orig.)

  14. Biomechanical analysis of psoas major muscle by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagura, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the biomechanical function of the psoas major muscle. First, we carried out anatomical and function-morphological observation of 2 cadavers (46-year-old man and 86-year-old woman). Second, we reconstituted the three-dimensional geometrical models of the psoas major muscle using MR multi-laminograms of the lumber spine regions from 15 normal adult men. Third, we calculated the moment against the lumber hip joint region and the lumber pelvic region. We also examined, the functional change of the psoas major muscle associated with various positional changes by using the model. The psoas major muscle developed the lateroflection moment and the axial compression force against the lumber vertebra and the anterior shear force against the lower lumber vertebra, and posterior shear force against the pelvic at the iliopubic eminence region. The lateroflection moment is largest at the hip joint. We could find no individual differences of the function in the psoas major muscle and a few change in functional activity by the positional change between the lumber and the hip joint. These results suggest that the psoas major muscle has the function to support and stabilize the lumber by compression force and the pelvic-hip joint by posterior shear force, and also the function as an actuator for the hip joint. These suggest that the psoas major muscle has the sufficient function and structure for human to take orthograde by 2 feet. (K.H.)

  15. Automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Joseph Arthur; Boyer, Jeremy James; Mack, Joseph; DeChellis, Michael; Koo, Michael

    2014-03-18

    An automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system includes a cassette storage module for storing a plurality of substrates in cassettes before and after processing. A substrate carrier storage module stores a plurality of substrate carriers. A substrate carrier loading/unloading module loads substrates from the cassette storage module onto the plurality of substrate carriers and unloads substrates from the plurality of substrate carriers to the cassette storage module. A transport mechanism transports the plurality of substrates between the cassette storage module and the plurality of substrate carriers and transports the plurality of substrate carriers between the substrate carrier loading/unloading module and a processing chamber. A vision system recognizes recesses in the plurality of substrate carriers corresponding to empty substrate positions in the substrate carrier. A processor receives data from the vision system and instructs the transport mechanism to transport substrates to positions on the substrate carrier in response to the received data.

  16. Three-dimensional CT features of occipital squama normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jungang; Li Xin; Wang Chunxiang; Zhang Lin; Guo Wanhua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate 3D CT features of normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama. Methods: The 3D CT features on MIP, VR images were analyzed retrospectively in 589 pediatric cases. The normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama were observed respectively, and the differential diagnostic features including the individual location, appearance and extension were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and thirty-three patients (75.2%) showed normal anatomy, including 154 patients with adult occipital anatomical features, 279 patients with posterior intraoccipital synchondrosis, and 37 patients with Kerckring-supraoccipital synchondrosis. When cases with recent trauma history were excluded, 113 patients (19.1%) showed anatomic variants, including unpenetrating sutures and penetrating sutures. The former could be subdivided to Mendosal sutures in 23 cases, superior median fissures in 19 cases, and midline supraoccipital fissures in 4 cases, while the latter could be subdivided to the interparietal bone variations in 54 cases, wormian bones in 23 cases, and accessory bones in 7 cases. Two or more variations coexisted in 33 cases. The occipital squama fractures were shown in 34 cases (5.6%), including linear fractures in 27 cases, comminuted fractures in 3 cases, with depression fracture in one case, separation of cranial sutures in 3 cases, and other fractures associated with variants in 3 cases. The fractures were sharp, or jagged, without limitation of the occification. Conclusion: There are different 3D CT features of normal anatomy, anatomic variations and fractures of occipital squama in children, which are important for making the accurate diagnosis. (authors)

  17. THE AZYGOS VENOUS SYSTEM AND ITS ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiki Sudhakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Azygos veins are important cavocaval and portacaval junctions, which form a collateral circulation in caval vein occlusion and in portal hypertension, cirrhosis of liver. The unpaired azygos venous system consists of azygos vein, hemiazygos vein and accessory azygos vein. This system of veins, along with its mediastinal, bronchial and oesophageal tributaries drains most of the body wall of trunk, namely posterior abdominal and thoracic wall. Anatomical variations of this unpaired azygos venous system are clinically important. AIMS To study and report the occurrence of anatomical variations of the unpaired azygos venous system in the region of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh (India. METHODS The present study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, KIMS & RF, Amalapuram and G.S.L. Medical College, Rajahmundry over a period of 2 years. The present study was conducted on 60 cadavers (irrespective of age and sex. The entire course of the azygos venous system in these 60 cadavers was carefully observed and documented. RESULTS Anatomical variations were present in 16.66% of cases, out of which three distinct types were identified. 6.6% exhibited two separate azygos venous systems with no communications, 5% with communication between the left brachiocephalic vein and the azygos vein and 5% presence of post-aortic venous channels. CONCLUSION Variations of azygos venous system may be wrongly dubbed as aneurysm, lymphadenopathy or other abnormalities while reporting a CT scan of mediastinum. Venous anomalies are also detected only during surgery. The most troublesome intraoperative hazard is haemorrhage, which is mainly of venous origin. To avoid such situations is to have an awareness and knowledge of the expected venous anomalies.

  18. Students perception about the clinico-anatomical conferences as a teaching methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.; Baptist, M.; Mukhtar, F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has always been considered as an essential basis for clinical sciences. In recent decades there has been an increased trend towards incorporation of clinical problems in the teaching of anatomy. To promote clinical knowledge clinico-anatomical conferences have been conducted in our department for the last five years. This study has been undertaken to determine perception of medical students regarding these conferences and to formulate recommendations for their improvement based on feedback obtained from students. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2013 to January 2014 at the Lahore Medical and Dental College (LMDC), Lahore. A sample of 200 students of first and second year MBBS classes was selected for the study through convenience sampling technique. A 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) was used to determine students perception about clinic-anatomical conferences, using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS-19.0. Results: Out of total 144 (72%) students were of the opinion that clinico-anatomical conferences were a good source of clinical knowledge, 126 (63%) opined that these conferences promoted understanding rather than memorization, 122 (61%) found them interesting, and 15 (30%) found improvement in their grades in the subject of anatomy after attending the conferences. Conclusion: The clinico-anatomical conferences were found interesting and reported to be a good source of clinical knowledge. It is recommended that these conferences should be conducted frequently, made interactive and patients should be presented as case studies during the conferences. (author)

  19. SU-C-207B-02: Maximal Noise Reduction Filter with Anatomical Structures Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitree, R; Guzman, G; Chundury, A; Roach, M; Yang, D [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: All medical images contain noise, which can result in an undesirable appearance and can reduce the visibility of anatomical details. There are varieties of techniques utilized to reduce noise such as increasing the image acquisition time and using post-processing noise reduction algorithms. However, these techniques are increasing the imaging time and cost or reducing tissue contrast and effective spatial resolution which are useful diagnosis information. The three main focuses in this study are: 1) to develop a novel approach that can adaptively and maximally reduce noise while preserving valuable details of anatomical structures, 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of available noise reduction algorithms in comparison to the proposed algorithm, and 3) to demonstrate that the proposed noise reduction approach can be used clinically. Methods: To achieve a maximal noise reduction without destroying the anatomical details, the proposed approach automatically estimated the local image noise strength levels and detected the anatomical structures, i.e. tissue boundaries. Such information was used to adaptively adjust strength of the noise reduction filter. The proposed algorithm was tested on 34 repeating swine head datasets and 54 patients MRI and CT images. The performance was quantitatively evaluated by image quality metrics and manually validated for clinical usages by two radiation oncologists and one radiologist. Results: Qualitative measurements on repeated swine head images demonstrated that the proposed algorithm efficiently removed noise while preserving the structures and tissues boundaries. In comparisons, the proposed algorithm obtained competitive noise reduction performance and outperformed other filters in preserving anatomical structures. Assessments from the manual validation indicate that the proposed noise reduction algorithm is quite adequate for some clinical usages. Conclusion: According to both clinical evaluation (human expert ranking) and

  20. SU-C-207B-02: Maximal Noise Reduction Filter with Anatomical Structures Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitree, R; Guzman, G; Chundury, A; Roach, M; Yang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: All medical images contain noise, which can result in an undesirable appearance and can reduce the visibility of anatomical details. There are varieties of techniques utilized to reduce noise such as increasing the image acquisition time and using post-processing noise reduction algorithms. However, these techniques are increasing the imaging time and cost or reducing tissue contrast and effective spatial resolution which are useful diagnosis information. The three main focuses in this study are: 1) to develop a novel approach that can adaptively and maximally reduce noise while preserving valuable details of anatomical structures, 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of available noise reduction algorithms in comparison to the proposed algorithm, and 3) to demonstrate that the proposed noise reduction approach can be used clinically. Methods: To achieve a maximal noise reduction without destroying the anatomical details, the proposed approach automatically estimated the local image noise strength levels and detected the anatomical structures, i.e. tissue boundaries. Such information was used to adaptively adjust strength of the noise reduction filter. The proposed algorithm was tested on 34 repeating swine head datasets and 54 patients MRI and CT images. The performance was quantitatively evaluated by image quality metrics and manually validated for clinical usages by two radiation oncologists and one radiologist. Results: Qualitative measurements on repeated swine head images demonstrated that the proposed algorithm efficiently removed noise while preserving the structures and tissues boundaries. In comparisons, the proposed algorithm obtained competitive noise reduction performance and outperformed other filters in preserving anatomical structures. Assessments from the manual validation indicate that the proposed noise reduction algorithm is quite adequate for some clinical usages. Conclusion: According to both clinical evaluation (human expert ranking) and

  1. Microcomputed tomography analysis of mesiobuccal orifices and major apical foramen in first maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Ametrano, Gianluca; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Formisano, Anna; Simeone, Michele; Riccitiello, Francesco; Amato, Massimo; Rengo, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study was to determined by microcomputed tomography (µCT) the horizontal distance between the main (MB1) and the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) orifices, the vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices planes, and the distance between the anatomic apex and major apical foramen (AF). Furthermore, we characterized the entire internal and external anatomy of the MB, distalbuccal (DB) and palatal (P) maxillary first molars roots. Twenty-two intact extracted first maxillary molars were scanned by X-ray computed transaxial µCT and then 2D and 3D images were processed and analyzed. The results showed that 77.27% of the mesiobuccal (MB) roots presented a second MB canal, and 29.41% of the MB2 were independent from the MB1 canals. In 15 teeth, there were three root canal orifices on the chamber floor, and 10 of these teeth presented MB2 canals. The mean vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 planes was 1.68 ± 0.83 mm. Seven teeth had four orifices. The mean horizontal interorificial distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices was 1.21 ± 0.5 mm. Accessory canals were observed in 33.33% of the roots, loops in 6.06%, while isthmuses were found in 15 of the 22 MB roots. Of the total roots, 74.24% presented one foramen, while all of the roots showed a major apical foramen that was not coincident with the anatomic apex. Our µCT analysis provided interesting features on the horizontal and vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices and on the distance of AF and anatomic apex. These results have an important clinical value because might support the endodontist in the recruitment, negotiation and obturation of maxillary first molar canal system.

  2. Thin Bioactive Zn Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coating Deposited on Ultrafine Grained Titanium Substrate: Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosolov, Konstantin A.; Belyavskaya, Olga A.; Muehle, Uwe; Sharkeev, Yurii P.

    2018-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Zn substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on the surface of ultrafine-grained titanium substrates. Cross section transmission electron microscopy provided information about the morphology and texture of the thin film while in-column energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the coating. The Zn substituted hydroxyapatite coating was formed by an equiaxed polycrystalline grain structure. Effect of substrate crystallinity on the structure of deposited coating is discussed. An amorphous TiO2 sublayer of 8 nm thickness was detected in the interface between the polycrystalline coating and the Ti substrate. Its appearance in the amorphous state is attributed to prior to deposition etching of the substrate and subsequent condensation of oxygen-containing species sputtered from the target. This layer contributes to the high coating-to-substrate adhesion. The major P-O vibrational modes of high intensity were detected by Raman spectroscopy. The Zn substituted hydroxyapatite could be a material of choice when antibacterial osteoconductive coating with a possibility of withstanding mechanical stress during implantation and service is needed.

  3. Thin Bioactive Zn Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coating Deposited on Ultrafine-Grained Titanium Substrate: Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Prosolov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on the surface of ultrafine-grained titanium substrates. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy provided information about the morphology and texture of the thin film while in-column energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the coating. The Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite coating was formed by an equiaxed polycrystalline grain structure. Effect of substrate crystallinity on the structure of deposited coating is discussed. An amorphous TiO2 sublayer of 8-nm thickness was detected in the interface between the polycrystalline coating and the Ti substrate. Its appearance in the amorphous state is attributed to prior to deposition etching of the substrate and subsequent condensation of oxygen-containing species sputtered from the target. This layer contributes to the high coating-to-substrate adhesion. The major P–O vibrational modes of high intensity were detected by Raman spectroscopy. The Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite could be a material of choice when antibacterial osteoconductive coating with a possibility of withstanding mechanical stress during implantation and service is needed.

  4. Aortic anatomic severity grade correlates with resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Khurram; Cullen, John P; Seaman, Matthew J; Messing, Susan; Ellis, Jennifer L; Glocker, Roan J; Doyle, Adam J; Stoner, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Potential cost effectiveness of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) compared with open aortic repair (OAR) is offset by the use of intraoperative adjuncts (components) or late reinterventions. Anatomic severity grade (ASG) can be used preoperatively to assess abdominal aortic aneurysms, and provide a quantitative measure of anatomic complexity. The hypothesis of this study is that ASG is directly related to the use of intraoperative adjuncts and cost of aortic repair. Patients who undergo elective OAR and EVAR for abdominal aortic aneurysms were identified over a consecutive 3-year period. ASG scores were calculated manually using three-dimensional reconstruction software by two blinded reviewers. Statistical analysis of cost data was performed using a log transformation. Regression analyses, with a continuous or dichotomous outcome, used a generalized estimating equations approach with the sandwich estimator, being robust with respect to deviations from model assumptions. One hundred forty patients were identified for analysis, n = 33 OAR and n = 107 EVAR. The mean total cost (± standard deviation) for OAR was per thousand (k) $38.3 ± 49.3, length of stay (LOS) 13.5 ± 14.2 days, ASG score 18.13 ± 3.78; for EVAR, mean total cost was k $24.7 ± 13.0 (P = .016), LOS 3.0 ± 4.4 days (P = .012), ASG score 15.9 ± 4.13 (P = .010). In patients who underwent EVAR, 25.2% required intraoperative adjuncts, and analysis of this group revealed a mean total cost of k $31.5 ± 15.9, ASG score 18.48 ± 3.72, and LOS 3.9 ± 4.5, which were significantly greater compared with cases without adjunctive procedures. An ASG score of ≥15 correlated with an increased propensity for requirement of intraoperative adjuncts; odds ratio, 5.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.82-18.19). ASG >15 was also associated with chronic kidney disease, end stage renal disease, hypertension, female sex, increased cost, and use of adjunctive procedures. Complex aneurysm anatomy correlates with increased

  5. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Sven; Jennings, Wayne; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

  6. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Sven; Jennings, Wayne; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: kuehn@itis.ethz.ch

    2009-02-21

    The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

  7. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  8. Electromagnetic Modelling of Raman Enhancement from Nanoscale Structures as a Means to Predict the Efficacy of SERS Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. C. Brown

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirement to optimise the balance between signal enhancement and reproducibility in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS is stimulating the development of novel substrates for enhancing Raman signals. This paper describes the application of finite element electromagnetic modelling to predict the Raman enhancement produced from a variety of SERS substrates with differently sized, spaced and shaped morphologies with nanometre dimensions. For the first time, a theoretical comparison between four major generic types of SERS substrate (including metal nanoparticles, structured surfaces, and sharp tips has been performed and the results are presented and discussed. The results of the modelling are consistent with published experimental data from similar substrates.

  9. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  10. A 3D imaging system integrating photoacoustic and fluorescence orthogonal projections for anatomical, functional and molecular assessment of rodent models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Hans P.; Ivanov, Vassili; Dumani, Diego S.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Anastasio, Mark A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a preclinical 3D imaging instrument integrating photoacoustic tomography and fluorescence (PAFT) addressing known deficiencies in sensitivity and spatial resolution of the individual imaging components. PAFT is designed for simultaneous acquisition of photoacoustic and fluorescence orthogonal projections at each rotational position of a biological object, enabling direct registration of the two imaging modalities. Orthogonal photoacoustic projections are utilized to reconstruct large (21 cm3 ) volumes showing vascularized anatomical structures and regions of induced optical contrast with spatial resolution exceeding 100 µm. The major advantage of orthogonal fluorescence projections is significant reduction of background noise associated with transmitted or backscattered photons. The fluorescence imaging component of PAFT is used to boost detection sensitivity by providing low-resolution spatial constraint for the fluorescent biomarkers. PAFT performance characteristics were assessed by imaging optical and fluorescent contrast agents in tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo. The proposed PAFT technology will enable functional and molecular volumetric imaging using fluorescent biomarkers, nanoparticles, and other photosensitive constructs mapped with high fidelity over robust anatomical structures, such as skin, central and peripheral vasculature, and internal organs.

  11. MRI anatomical mapping and direct stereotactic targeting in the subthalamic region: functional and anatomical correspondence in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Coste, Jerome; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Hemm, Simone; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Durif, Franck; Siadoux, Severine; Gabrillargues, Jean; Chazal, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Object Relationships between clinical effects, anatomy, and electrophysiology are not fully understood in DBS of the subthalamic region in Parkinson's disease. We proposed an anatomic study based on direct image-guided stereotactic surgery with a multiple source data analysis. Materials and Methods A manual anatomic mapping was realized on coronal 1.5-Tesla MRI of 15 patients. Biological data were collected under local anesthesia: the spontaneous neuron activities and the clinical efficiency and the appearance of adverse effects. They were related to relevant current values (mA), the benefit threshold (bt, minimal current leading an clear efficiency), the adverse effect threshold (at, minimal current leading an adverse effect) and the stimulation margin (sm = at - bt); they were matched with anatomy. Results We found consistent relationships between anatomy and biological data. The optimal stimulation parameters (low bt + high sm) were noted in the dorsolateral STN. The highest spontaneous neuron activity was found in the ventromedial STN. Dorsolateral (sensorimotor) STN seems the main DBS effector. The highest spontaneous neuron activity seems related to the anterior (rostral) ventromedial (limbic) STN. Conclusion 1.5 Tesla images provide sufficiently detailed subthalamic anatomy for image-guided stereotactic surgery and may aid in understanding DBS mechanisms. (orig.)

  12. Influence of the different anteromedial portal on femoral tunnel orientation during anatomic ACL reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Moon

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: In anatomic ACL reconstruction, a mal-positioned AM portal can cause abnormal tunnel orientation, which may lead to mechanical failure during ACL reconstruction. Therefore, it is important to select accurate AM portal positioning, and possibly using an AAM portal by measuring an accurate position when drilling a femoral tunnel in anatomic ACL reconstruction.

  13. New Crystal-Growth Methods for Producing Lattice-Matched Substrates for High-Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatner, L.A.

    2008-06-24

    This effort addressed the technical problem of identifying and growing, on a commercial scale, suitable single-crystal substrates for the subsequent deposition of epitaxial thin films of high temperature semiconductors such as GaN/AlN. The lack of suitable lattice-matched substrate materials was one of the major problem areas in the development of semiconducting devices for use at elevated temperatures as well as practical opto-electronic devices based on Al- and GaN technology. Such lattice-matched substrates are necessary in order to reduce or eliminate high concentrations of defects and dislocations in GaN/AlN and related epitaxial thin films. This effort concentrated, in particular, on the growth of single crystals of ZnO for substrate applications and it built on previous ORNL experience in the chemical vapor transport growth of large single crystals of zinc oxide. This combined expertise in the substrate growth area was further complemented by the ability of G. Eres and his collaborators to deposit thin films of GaN on the subject substrates and the overall ORNL capability for characterizing the quality of such films. The research effort consisted of research on the growth of two candidate substrate materials in conjunction with concurrent research on the growth and characterization of GaN films, i.e. the effort combined bulk crystal growth capabilities in the area of substrate production at both ORNL and the industrial partner, Commercial Crystal Growth Laboratories (CCL), Naples, Florida, with the novel thin-film deposition techniques previously developed in the ORNL SSD.

  14. Three-Dimensional Anatomic Evaluation of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament for Planning Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hoshino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic study related to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction surgery has been developed in accordance with the progress of imaging technology. Advances in imaging techniques, especially the move from two-dimensional (2D to three-dimensional (3D image analysis, substantially contribute to anatomic understanding and its application to advanced ACL reconstruction surgery. This paper introduces previous research about image analysis of the ACL anatomy and its application to ACL reconstruction surgery. Crucial bony landmarks for the accurate placement of the ACL graft can be identified by 3D imaging technique. Additionally, 3D-CT analysis of the ACL insertion site anatomy provides better and more consistent evaluation than conventional “clock-face” reference and roentgenologic quadrant method. Since the human anatomy has a complex three-dimensional structure, further anatomic research using three-dimensional imaging analysis and its clinical application by navigation system or other technologies is warranted for the improvement of the ACL reconstruction.

  15. Radio-guided sentinel lymph node identification by lymphoscintigraphy fused with an anatomical vector profile: clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli Asabella, A; Antonica, F; Renna, M A; Rubini, D; Notaristefano, A; Nicoletti, A; Rubini, G

    2013-12-01

    To develop a method to fuse lymphoscintigraphic images with an adaptable anatomical vector profile and to evaluate its role in the clinical practice. We used Adobe Illustrator CS6 to create different vector profiles, we fused those profiles, using Adobe Photoshop CS6, with lymphoscintigraphic images of the patient. We processed 197 lymphoscintigraphies performed in patients with cutaneous melanomas, breast cancer or delayed lymph drainage. Our models can be adapted to every patient attitude or position and contain different levels of anatomical details ranging from external body profiles to the internal anatomical structures like bones, muscles, vessels, and lymph nodes. If needed, more new anatomical details can be added and embedded in the profile without redrawing them, saving a lot of time. Details can also be easily hidden, allowing the physician to view only relevant information and structures. Fusion times are about 85 s. The diagnostic confidence of the observers increased significantly. The validation process showed a slight shift (mean 4.9 mm). We have created a new, practical, inexpensive digital technique based on commercial software for fusing lymphoscintigraphic images with built-in anatomical reference profiles. It is easily reproducible and does not alter the original scintigraphic image. Our method allows a more meaningful interpretation of lymphoscintigraphies, an easier recognition of the anatomical site and better lymph node dissection planning.

  16. Sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase enzyme assay using a BODIPY-labeled substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Li Zaiguo; Bittman, Robert; Saba, Julie D.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (SPL) is responsible for the irreversible catabolism of sphingosine 1-phosphate, which signals through five membrane receptors to mediate cell stress responses, angiogenesis, and lymphocyte trafficking. The standard assay for SPL activity utilizes a radioactive dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate substrate and is expensive and cumbersome. In this study, we describe an SPL assay that employs an ω-labeled BODIPY-sphingosine 1-phosphate substrate, allowing fluorescent product detection by HPLC and incorporating advantages of the BODIPY fluorophore. The major aldehyde product is confirmed by reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The SPL-catalyzed reaction is linear over a 30 min time period and yields a K m of 35 μM for BODIPY-sphingosine 1-phosphate.

  17. Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry. Part 4: assessment of anatomical landmark misplacement and its effects on joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Croce, Ugo; Leardini, Alberto; Chiari, Lorenzo; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2005-02-01

    Estimating the effects of different sources of error on joint kinematics is crucial for assessing the reliability of human movement analysis. The goal of the present paper is to review the different approaches dealing with joint kinematics sensitivity to rotation axes and the precision of anatomical landmark determination. Consistent with the previous papers in this series, the review is limited to studies performed with video-based stereophotogrammetric systems. Initially, studies dealing with estimates of precision in determining the location of both palpable and internal anatomical landmarks are reviewed. Next, the effects of anatomical landmark position uncertainty on anatomical frames are shown. Then, methods reported in the literature for estimating error propagation from anatomical axes location to joint kinematics are described. Interestingly, studies carried out using different approaches reported a common conclusion: when joint rotations occur mainly in a single plane, minor rotations out of this plane are strongly affected by errors introduced at the anatomical landmark identification level and are prone to misinterpretation. Finally, attempts at reducing joint kinematics errors due to anatomical landmark position uncertainty are reported. Given the relevance of this source of errors in the determination of joint kinematics, it is the authors' opinion that further efforts should be made in improving the reliability of the joint axes determination.

  18. Unmasking tandem site interaction in human acetylcholinesterase. Substrate activation with a cationic acetanilide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph L; Cusack, Bernadette; Davies, Matthew P; Fauq, Abdul; Rosenberry, Terrone L

    2003-05-13

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) contains a narrow and deep active site gorge with two sites of ligand binding, an acylation site (or A-site) at the base of the gorge, and a peripheral site (or P-site) near the gorge entrance. The P-site contributes to catalytic efficiency by transiently binding substrates on their way to the acylation site, where a short-lived acyl enzyme intermediate is produced. A conformational interaction between the A- and P-sites has recently been found to modulate ligand affinities. We now demonstrate that this interaction is of functional importance by showing that the acetylation rate constant of a substrate bound to the A-site is increased by a factor a when a second molecule of substrate binds to the P-site. This demonstration became feasible through the introduction of a new acetanilide substrate analogue of acetylcholine, 3-(acetamido)-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium (ATMA), for which a = 4. This substrate has a low acetylation rate constant and equilibrates with the catalytic site, allowing a tractable algebraic solution to the rate equation for substrate hydrolysis. ATMA affinities for the A- and P-sites deduced from the kinetic analysis were confirmed by fluorescence titration with thioflavin T as a reporter ligand. Values of a >1 give rise to a hydrolysis profile called substrate activation, and the AChE site-specific mutant W86F, and to a lesser extent wild-type human AChE itself, showed substrate activation with acetylthiocholine as the substrate. Substrate activation was incorporated into a previous catalytic scheme for AChE in which a bound P-site ligand can also block product dissociation from the A-site, and two additional features of the AChE catalytic pathway were revealed. First, the ability of a bound P-site ligand to increase the substrate acetylation rate constant varied with the structure of the ligand: thioflavin T accelerated ATMA acetylation by a factor a(2) of 1.3, while propidium failed to accelerate. Second, catalytic rate

  19. Terminologia anatomica in the past and the future from perspective of 110th anniversary of Polish Anatomical Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielecki, J; Zurada, A; Osman, N

    2008-05-01

    Professional terminology is commonplace, particularly in the fields of mathematics, medicine, veterinary and natural sciences. The use of the terminology can be international, as it is with Anatomical Terminology (AT). In the early age of modern education, anatomists adopted Latin as the international language for AT. However, at the end of the 20th century, the English language became more predominant around the world. It can be said that the AT is a specific collection of scientific terms. One of the major flaws in early AT was that body structures were described by varying names, while some of the terms was irrational in nature, and confusing. At this time, different international committees were working on preparing a unified final version of the AT, which in the end consisted of 5,640 terms (4,286 originally from the Basle Nomina Anatomica, BNA). Also, each country wanted to have its own nomenclature. In order to accomplish this, each country based their nomenclature on the international AT, and then translated it into their own language. The history of the Polish Anatomical Terminology (PAT) is unique, and follows the events of history. It was first published in 1898, at a time when its neighbours partitioned the territory of Poland. During 150 years, the Polish culture and language was under the Russification and Germanization policy. It is important to note, that even with such difficult circumstances, the PAT was the first national AT in the world. The PAT was a union of the accepted first BNA in Latin and the original Polish anatomical equivalents. This union formed the basis for theoretical and clinical medicine in Poland.

  20. Brachial plexus lesions: Anatomical knowledge as an essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This clinical feature was in conformity with a lesion of inferior primary trunk. All diagnoses were made based on the clinical findings. These cases demonstrate the significance of a through anatomical knowledge in the clinical examination if one has to avoid confusing the signs of terminal nerves lesion with the trunk's lesion.

  1. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... The tendon sheath of the posterior tibial muscle covers the posterior and ..... may be associated with avulsion fractures at either the origin or the insertion .... 14. Shibata Y, Nishi G, Masegi A. Stress test and anatomical study of.

  2. Extra-anatomic transplantations in autologous adult cell therapies aiding anatomical regeneration and physiological recovery – An insight and categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autologous mature adult cells as well as stem cells, which are not considered pluripotent, have been reported to be safe and efficacious in clinical applications for regenerating cartilage [1] and corneal epithelium [2]. Use of primary autologous cells and stem cells expanded in number from cartilage and corneal epithelial tissues have shown abilities to reconstruct and regenerate tissues, de novo. It is to be noted that in both these cases, the source of the cells that have been used for transplantation into the cornea and cartilage have been from the same organ and tissue. The replacement cells for regeneration have also been sourced from the same germ layer, as that of the cells of the target tissue; corneal epithelial tissue embryologically originating from the ectoderm has been replaced with corneal limbal stem cells that are also of ectodermal origin from the unaffected healthy eye of the same individual. Similarly, the cartilage which developmentally is from the mesoderm has been replaced with mature chondrocytes from the non-weight bearing area of the cartilage, again of the same individual. Figure 1: Autologous, in vitro cultured, adult cell based therapies; An overview and categorization. (Click here for High Resol. Image The proceedings of the IIDIAS session published in this issue have described two novel cell therapies, where cells taken from a tissue or organ, after normal in vitro expansion, have been clinically applied to aid the regeneration of a different tissue or organ, i.e skeletal myoblasts having been used for myocardial regeneration and buccal mucosal epithelium having been used for corneal epithelial regeneration heralding the birth of a new paradigm called ‘extra-anatomic cell therapy’. The myocardium is a specialized muscle in that it works as an electrical synctitium with an intrinsic capacity to generate and propagate action potentials (involuntary as opposed to the skeletal muscles that are dependent on neuronal

  3. Functionalization of nanotextured substrates for enhanced identification of metastatic breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Nuzhat; Raziul Hasan, Mohammad; Kim, Young-tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2017-09-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of low survival rates among cancer patients. Once cancer cells metastasize, it is extremely difficult to contain the disease. We report on a nanotextured platform for enhanced detection of metastatic cells. We captured metastatic (MDA-MDB-231) and non-metastatic (MCF-7) breast cancer cells on anti-EGFR aptamer modified plane and nanotextured substrates. Metastatic cells were seen to change their morphology at higher rates when captured on nanotextured substrates than on plane substrates. Analysis showed statistically different morphological behaviors of metastatic cells that were very pronounced on the nanotextured substrates. Several distance matrices were calculated to quantify the dissimilarity of cell shape change. Nanotexturing increased the dissimilarity of the metastatic cells and as a result the contrast between metastatic and non-metastatic cells increased. Jaccard distance measurements found that the shape change ratio of the non-metastatic and metastatic cells was enhanced from 1:1.01 to 1:1.81, going from plane to nanotextured substrates. The shape change ratio of the non-metastatic to metastatic cells improved from 1:1.48 to 1:2.19 for the Hausdorff distance and from 1:1.87 to 1:4.69 for the Mahalanobis distance after introducing nanotexture. Distance matrix analysis showed that nanotexture increased the shape change ratios of non-metastatic and metastatic cells. Hence, the detectability of metastatic cells increased. These calculated matrices provided clear and explicit measures to discriminate single cells for their metastatic state on functional nanotextured substrates.

  4. The Type of Forage Substrate Preparation Included as Substrate in a RUSITEC System Affects the Ruminal Microbiota and Fermentation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V. Chaves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fermentation systems such as the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC are frequently used to assess dietary manipulations in livestock, thereby limiting the use of live animals. Despite being in use for nearly 40 years, improvements are continually sought in these systems to better reflect and mimic natural processes in ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forage preparation, i.e., frozen minced (FM and freeze-dried and ground (FDG, on the ruminal microbiota and on fermentation characteristics when included as a substrate in a RUSITEC system. A completely randomized design experiment was performed over a 15-day period, with 7 days of adaptation and an 8-day experimental period. Fermentation parameters (total gas, CH4, and volatile fatty acid production were analyzed on a daily basis over the experimental period and the archaeal and bacterial microbiota (liquid-associated microbes [LAM] and solid-associated microbes [SAM] was assessed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results from this study suggested a tendency (P = 0.09 of FM treatment to increase daily CH4 (mg/d production by 16.7% when compared with FDG treatment. Of the major volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, only butyrate production was greater (P = 0.01 with FM treatment compared with FDG substrate. The archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness did not differ between the forage preparations, although feed particle size of the forage had a significant effect on microbial community structure in the SAM and LAM samples. The Bacteroidetes phylum was more relatively abundant in the FM substrate treatment, while Proteobacteria was enriched in the FDG treatment. At the genus-level, Butyrivibrio, Prevotella, and Roseburia were enriched in the FM substrate treatment and Campylobacter and Lactobacillus in the FDG substrate treatment. Evidence from this study suggests that forage preparation

  5. Interfractional Variations in Patient Setup and Anatomic Change Assessed by Daily Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. Allen; Qi, X. Sharon; Pitterle, Marissa; Kalakota, Kapila; Mueller, Kevin; Erickson, Beth A.; Wang Dian; Schultz, Christopher J.; Firat, Selim Y.; Wilson, J. Frank

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the interfractional variations in patient setup and anatomic changes at seven anatomic sites observed in image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 152 patients treated at seven anatomic sites using a Hi-Art helical tomotherapy system were analyzed. Daily tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography images acquired before each treatment were fused to the planning kilovoltage computed tomography images to determine the daily setup errors and organ motions and deformations. The setup errors were corrected before treatment and were used, along with the organ motions, to determine the clinical target volume/planning target volume margins. The organ motions and deformations for 3 representative patient cases (pancreas, uterus, and soft-tissue sarcoma) and for 14 kidneys of 7 patients are presented. Results: Interfractional setup errors in the skull, brain, and head and neck are significantly smaller than those in the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. These site-specific relationships are statistically significant. The margins required to account for these setup errors range from 3 to 8 mm for the seven sites. The margin to account for both setup errors and organ motions for kidney is 16 mm. Substantial interfractional anatomic changes were observed. For example, the pancreas moved up to ±20 mm and volumes of the uterus and sarcoma varied ≤30% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: The interfractional variations in patient setup and in shapes, sizes, and positions of both targets and normal structures are site specific and may be used to determine the site-specific margins. The data presented in this work dealing with seven anatomic sites may be useful in developing adaptive radiotherapy

  6. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-An [Milpitas, CA; Abas, Emmanuel Chua [Laguna, PH; Divino, Edmundo Anida [Cavite, PH; Ermita, Jake Randal G [Laguna, PH; Capulong, Jose Francisco S [Laguna, PH; Castillo, Arnold Villamor [Batangas, PH; Ma,; Xiaobing, Diana [Saratoga, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  7. Patient reported and anatomical outcomes after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azab, Ahmed S; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Imam, Hala M K

    2009-01-01

    Primary aim was to modify Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ) to assess pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Arabic Muslim women. Secondary aim was to compare functional and anatomical outcomes of POP repair. Questionnaire. A characteristic (prayer) was added to PFIQ. Linguistic validation of questionnaires was then done. Twenty cases were enrolled in a pilot study to test internal consistency and reliability. Subsequent study. Prospective study included women with symptomatic POP >or= stage II. History, examination by POP-Q, and administration of PFDI and PFIQ, were done before and 6 months after surgery. Questionnaire. Internal consistency of added question was good (Cronbach alpha = 0.78). Test-retest reliability of individual PFIQ items was variable. Subsequent Study. Between September 2004 and February 2007, 78 consecutive women were included. Cystocele, rectocele, and no site predominated in 74.4%, 17.9% and 7.7% of cases, respectively. Preoperatively 19.2%, 15.4% and 47.4% reported stress, urge, and mixed incontinence, respectively. Overall and individual urinary symptoms scores improved significantly after surgery. There were significant improvements in individual symptoms of constipation, splint to defecate and losing not well formed stools. Low self-esteem was most negative impact of prolapse on quality of life (QoL) followed by prayer. After surgery 90% of subjects had anatomical cure. After surgery, QoL issues are significantly related to anatomic location of prolapse as determined by POP-Q. Modified PFIQ and PFDI are suitable to assess POP among Muslim women. Postoperatively, many prolapse-related symptoms and QoL significantly improve after surgery on the short term with an anatomic cure rate of 90%.

  8. Anatomical basics, variations, and degenerative changes of the shoulder joint and shoulder girdle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescher, Andreas E-mail: dkeyserlingk@post.klinikum.rwth-aachen.de

    2000-08-01

    -lesions may occur and at the glenoid rim, where the labrum is often not fixed to the bony margin, avulsions of the labrum may occur. This well-established anatomical condition must not be mistaken for a manifest Bankart-lesion. The glenohumeral ligaments, which are located in the ventral articular capsule, have a stabilizing function for the ventral part of the glenoid labrum. The glenohumeral ligaments lift the articular lip where it crosses the glenoid notch. This 'labrum-lift effect' supports the stabilizing features of the articular lip and the glenohumeral ligaments. The rotator cuff is composed of the tendons of the teres minor, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles. This cuff has a poorly vascularized area, due to mechanical conditions, about 1.5 cm from the major tubercle, which causes degenerative changes and eventually may lead to ruptures. Results of the impingement-syndrome and the osteoarthrotic changes of the shoulder and acromioclavicular joint are also presented and discussed. Finally, the coracoclavicular joint, which probably represents no congenital entity but appears due to a changed, lowered position of the shoulder girdle, is discussed. The paper also presents instructive figures of anatomical preparations that can be used to make more precise radiological and differential diagnoses. All preparations were done by the author and are part of a series of more than 300 preparations of the shoulder joint and girdle.

  9. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Khan

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Curr Opin Urol 2008;18:214–9. [9] Lingeman JE, Siegal YI, Steele B, Nyhus AW, Woods JR. Manage- ment of lower pole nephrolithiasis: a critical analysis. J Urol 1994;151: 663–7. [10] Sampaio FJB, Aragao AHM. Limitations of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stone: anatomic insight.

  10. The new vestibular stimuli: sound and vibration-anatomical, physiological and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curthoys, Ian S

    2017-04-01

    The classical view of the otoliths-as flat plates of fairly uniform receptors activated by linear acceleration dragging on otoconia and so deflecting the receptor hair bundles-has been replaced by new anatomical and physiological evidence which shows that the maculae are much more complex. There is anatomical spatial differentiation across the macula in terms of receptor types, hair bundle heights, stiffness and attachment to the overlying otolithic membrane. This anatomical spatial differentiation corresponds to the neural spatial differentiation of response dynamics from the receptors and afferents from different regions of the otolithic maculae. Specifically, receptors in a specialized band of cells, the striola, are predominantly type I receptors, with short, stiff hair bundles and looser attachment to the overlying otoconial membrane than extrastriolar receptors. At the striola the hair bundles project into holes in the otolithic membrane, allowing for fluid displacement to deflect the hair bundles and activate the cell. This review shows the anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the hypothesis that fluid displacement, generated by sound or vibration, deflects the short stiff hair bundles of type I receptors at the striola, resulting in neural activation of the irregular afferents innervating them. So these afferents are activated by sound or vibration and show phase-locking to individual cycles of the sound or vibration stimulus up to frequencies above 2000 Hz, underpinning the use of sound and vibration for clinical tests of vestibular function.

  11. Simultaneous anatomical sketching as learning by doing method of teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Hoseini, Leila; Amini, Mitra; Dehghani, Mohammad-Reza; Kojuri, Javad; Bazrafkan, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Learning by lecture is a passive experience. Many innovative techniques have been presented to stimulate students to assume a more active attitude toward learning. In this study, simultaneous sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique was applied to teach anatomy to the medical students. We reconstructed a fun interactive model of teaching anatomy as simultaneous anatomic sketching. To test the model's instruction effectiveness, we conducted a quasi- experimental study and then the students were asked to write their learning experiences in their portfolio, also their view was evaluated by a questionnaire. The results of portfolio evaluation revealed that students believed that this method leads to deep learning and understanding anatomical subjects better. Evaluation of the students' views on this teaching approach was showed that, more than 80% of the students were agreed or completely agreed with this statement that leaning anatomy concepts are easier and the class is less boring with this method. More than 60% of the students were agreed or completely agreed to sketch anatomical figures with professor simultaneously. They also found the sketching make anatomy more attractive and it reduced the time for learning anatomy. These number of students were agree or completely agree that the method help them learning anatomical concept in anatomy laboratory. More than 80% of the students found the simultaneous sketching is a good method for learning anatomy overall. Sketch drawing, as an interactive learning technique, is an attractive for students to learn anatomy.

  12. Anatomical Peculiarities in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) varieties Under Copper Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabayeva, S.; Nurmahanova, A.; Akhmetova, A.; Narmuratova, M.; Asrandina, S.; Alybayeva, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations (0.25 mM, 0.5 mM) of Cu/sup 2+/ on anatomical parameters of leaves and roots was investigated in hydroponically grown five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Kazakhstanskaya rannaya, Kazakhstanskaya-3, Melturn, Kaiyr and Shagala). The results showed that wheat varieties exposed to 0.5 mM Cu/sup 2+/ exhibited significant alterations in anatomical structure of leaves and roots. The thickness of the upper and lower epidermis, diameter of vascular bundles of leaves of almost all varieties showed a tendency to decrease under copper stress. Our experiments showed an activation of defense responses in the root anatomical structure like exodermis thickening in some varieties in the presence of copper in growth medium as compared to the control. This indicates that copper ions increase the thickness of exodermis, which reduce the absorption of toxic elements by root cells. Copper stress caused a decrease in the thickness of the lower and upper epidermis to varying degrees and reduction in the diameter of vascular bundles of wheat leaves. Copper stress caused a reduction in endodermis thickness thereby decreasing the diameter of the central cylinder of wheat roots. (author)

  13. Fabrication and perfusion culture of anatomically shaped artificial bone using stereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Dajiang; Asaoka, Teruo; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S

    2014-01-01

    Because patient bone defects are usually varied and complicated in geometry, it would be preferred to fabricate custom-made artificial bone grafts that are anatomically specific to individual patient defects. Using a rabbit femoral segment as a bone reconstruction model, we successfully produced customized ceramic scaffolds by stereolithography, which not only had an anatomically correct external shape according to computed tomography data but also contained an interconnecting internal network of channels designed for perfusion culture. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and cultured with these scaffolds using a novel oscillatory perfusion system that was stereolithographically fabricated to fit well to the unique scaffold shapes. After five days of three-dimensional culture with oscillatory perfusion, the cells attached and proliferated homogenously in the scaffolds. However, control cells inside the scaffolds cultured under static conditions were dead after prolonged in vitro culture. Cellular DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the perfusion group versus the static group. Therefore, anatomically correct artificial bone can be successfully constructed using stereolithography and oscillatory culture technology, and could be useful for bone engraftment and defect repair. (paper)

  14. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  15. [Application of polyguanidine solution for fixation of biological and anatomical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichkov, N M; Danilova, I A; Riabinin, I A; Kipenko, A V

    2010-01-01

    A new method for fixation of biological material is described, and its effectiveness is compared to that one of formalin fixation. As an embalming agent, polyhexamethylenguanidine (PHMG) hydrochloride was used. Using the proposed method of fixation, the anatomical and histological preparations of human organs and of chick embryos at developmental 12 days, were produced. The anatomical preparations obtained show the appearance, similar to that of the recently removed organs. Histological preparations were free from significant distortions of the microscopic characteristics of the specimens, which are typical to the material fixed with formalin. The results of the study suggest the possibility of PHMG application in the morphological studies.

  16. Enhanced flux of substrates into polyamine biosynthesis but not ethylene in tomato fruit engineered with yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Lasanajak; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha; Ravinder Goyal; Tahira Fatima; Avtar K. Handa; Autar K. Mattoo

    2014-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a major substrate in 1-C metabolism is a common precursor in the biosynthetic pathways of polyamines and ethylene, two important plant growth regulators, which exhibit opposing developmental effects, especially during fruit ripening. However, the flux of various substrates including SAM into the two competing pathways in...

  17. Volumetric Nephrogram Represents Renal Function and Complements Aortic Anatomic Severity Grade in Predicting EVAR Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balceniuk, Mark D; Trakimas, Lauren; Aghaie, Claudia; Mix, Doran; Rasheed, Khurram; Seaman, Matthew; Ellis, Jennifer; Glocker, Roan; Doyle, Adam; Stoner, Michael C

    2018-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a predictor of poor outcomes for patients undergoing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Anatomic severity grade (ASG) represents a quantitative mechanism for assessing anatomical suitability for endovascular aortic repair. Anatomic severity grade has been correlated with repair outcomes and resource utilization. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel renal perfusion metric as a way to assist ASG with predicting EVAR outcomes. Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database identified elective infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair cases. Anatomic grading was undertaken by independent reviewers. Using volumetric software, kidney volume, and a novel measure of kidney functional volume, the volumetric nephrogram (VN) was recorded. Systematic evaluation of the relationship of kidney volume and VN to CKD and ASG was undertaken using linear regression and receiver-operator statistical tools. A total of 386 cases with patient and anatomic data were identified and graded. Mean age was 72.9 ± 0.4 years. Renal volume renal volume (AUC = .628; P ≤ .0001) and VN (AUC = .628; P ≤ .0001). Regression analysis demonstrated a strong, inverse relationship between ASG and VN ( R 2 = .95). These data demonstrate that VN is a strong predictor of CKD in a large database of patients undergoing elective aneurysm repair. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between renal function and ASG that has not been previously described in the literature. Additionally, we have shown that VN complements ASG as a model of overall cardiovascular health and atherosclerotic burden. Outcomes in patients with poor renal function may be related to anatomical issues in addition to well-described systemic ramifications.

  18. A general XML schema and SPM toolbox for storage of neuro-imaging results and anatomical labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, David Bryant; Gadde, Syam; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Taylor, Derek V; Potkin, Steven G

    2006-01-01

    With the increased frequency of multisite, large-scale collaborative neuro-imaging studies, the need for a general, self-documenting framework for the storage and retrieval of activation maps and anatomical labels becomes evident. To address this need, we have developed and extensible markup language (XML) schema and associated tools for the storage of neuro-imaging activation maps and anatomical labels. This schema, as part of the XML-based Clinical Experiment Data Exchange (XCEDE) schema, provides storage capabilities for analysis annotations, activation threshold parameters, and cluster and voxel-level statistics. Activation parameters contain information describing the threshold, degrees of freedom, FWHM smoothness, search volumes, voxel sizes, expected voxels per cluster, and expected number of clusters in the statistical map. Cluster and voxel statistics can be stored along with the coordinates, threshold, and anatomical label information. Multiple threshold types can be documented for a given cluster or voxel along with the uncorrected and corrected probability values. Multiple atlases can be used to generate anatomical labels and stored for each significant voxel or cluter. Additionally, a toolbox for Statistical Parametric Mapping software (http://www. fil. ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/) was created to capture the results from activation maps using the XML schema that supports both SPM99 and SPM2 versions (http://nbirn.net/Resources/Users/ Applications/xcede/SPM_XMLTools.htm). Support for anatomical labeling is available via the Talairach Daemon (http://ric.uthscsa. edu/projects/talairachdaemon.html) and Automated Anatomical Labeling (http://www. cyceron.fr/freeware/).

  19. Morpho-anatomical and physicochemical studies of Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta; Ch V Rao

    2012-01-01

    To study morpho-anatomical characters and physicochemical analysis ofFumaria indica (F. indica) (Hausskn.) Pugsley, (Fumariaceae), an important medicinal plant used extensively for treating a variety of ailments in various system of indigenous medicine.Methods:Evaluation of the different parts of the plant was carried out to determine the morpho-anatomical, physicochemical, phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting profile of F. indica and other WHO recommended methods were performed for standardization. Results: Morpho-anatomical studies showed compound and pinnatifid leaf, 4 to 6 cm in length, linear and oblong in shape and anomocytic arrangement of stomata, thin walled parenchymatous cells, scattered, sclerenchymatous, capped vascular bundles and radiating medullary rays. Physicochemical studies showed foreign matter 0.2%, loss on drying 6.8%, total ash 16.77%, alcohol and water soluble extractives 8.92% and 20.26%, respectively, sugar 17.75%, starch 22.97% and tannins 2.37%. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and sterol. Thin layer chromatography was carried out with different solvents and the best solvent system was chloroform and methanol in 80:20 ratio and revealed 12 spots with different Rf value under UV light 366λ. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material for future investigations and applications.

  20. Comparison of digital surface displacements of maxillary dentures based on noninvasive anatomic landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Nicholas G; Korioth, Tom V; Cagna, David R; Versluis, Antheunis

    2018-02-08

    Artificial markers called fiducials are commonly used to orient digitized surfaces for analysis. However, when these markers are tangible and placed in the region of interest, they may alter surface topography and influence data analysis. The purpose of this in vitro study was to apply a modified digital surface fitting method based on anatomic landmarks to evaluate denture accuracy and to use 2 different denture processing techniques to evaluate the method. The goal was to noninvasively measure and describe any surface differences in denture processing techniques at the intaglio and denture tooth levels. Twenty standardized maxillary complete dentures were waxed on standardized edentulous casts and processed by using acrylic resin compression (COM, n=10) and injection molding (INJ, n=10) methods. Digital scans were recorded of the anatomic surface of the cast, the intaglio and cameo surfaces of the acrylic resin dentures, and the cameo surface of the wax dentures. Three anatomic fiducials were identified on denture intaglio and cast scans and 4 on the cameo surfaces of waxed and acrylic resin denture scans. These fiducials were then used to digitally align the anatomic with the processed intaglio surfaces and the waxed with the processed cameo surfaces. Surface displacements were compared among processed dentures expressed at specific points (9 tissue landmarks and 8 tooth landmarks). The accuracy of surface displacements was assessed by changes in the number and location of anatomic fiducials. The scanning precision and the intraobserver repeatability in the selection of dental landmarks were also determined. For each landmark, the spatial (x, y, and z) mean differences between the 2 processing techniques were calculated for the intaglio and the cameo surfaces and presented on each orthogonal plane. Statistical nonparametric comparison of these means was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Benjamini-Hochberg corrections for multiple comparisons were

  1. Investigating commercial cellulase performances toward specific biomass recalcitrance factors using reference substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Bowden, Mark; Engelhard, Mark; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Three commercial cellulase preparations, Novozymes Cellic(®) Ctec2, Dupont Accellerase(®) 1500, and DSM Cytolase CL, were evaluated for their hydrolytic activity using a set of reference biomass substrates with controlled substrate characteristics. It was found that lignin remains a significant recalcitrance factor to all the preparations, although different enzyme preparations respond to the inhibitory effect of lignin differently. Also, different types of biomass lignin can inhibit cellulase enzymes in different manners. Enhancing enzyme activity toward biomass fiber swelling is an area significantly contributing to potential improvement in cellulase performance. While the degree of polymerization of cellulose in the reference substrates did not present a major recalcitrance factor to Novozymes Cellic(®) Ctec2, cellulose crystallite has been shown to have a significant lower reactivity toward all enzyme mixtures. The presence of polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) in Novozymes Ctec2 appears to enhance enzyme activity toward decrystallization of cellulose. This study demonstrated that reference substrates with controlled chemical and physical characteristics of structural features can be applied as an effective and practical strategy to identify cellulosic enzyme activities toward specific biomass recalcitrance factor(s) and provide specific targets for enzyme improvement.

  2. A theoretical ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anatomical structure of each human female body. Hassen ... pregnancy ovaries become really slightly displaced they would keep the proposed three- ... ovarian ligament, which anchors the ovary to the uterus; and the suspensory ligament,.

  3. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  4. Anatomic Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Engineered Cartilage Constructs for Biologic Total Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Kim, Minwook; Keah, Niobra M.; Neuwirth, Alexander L.; Stoeckl, Brendan D.; Bickard, Kevin; Restle, David J.; Salowe, Rebecca; Wang, Margaret Ye; Steinberg, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage has a poor healing response, and few viable options exist for repair of extensive damage. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) polymerized through UV crosslinking can generate functional tissue, but this crosslinking is not compatible with indirect rapid prototyping utilizing opaque anatomic molds. Methacrylate-modified polymers can also be chemically crosslinked in a cytocompatible manner using ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). The objectives of this study were to (1) compare APS/TEMED crosslinking with UV crosslinking in terms of functional maturation of MSC-seeded HA hydrogels; (2) generate an anatomic mold of a complex joint surface through rapid prototyping; and (3) grow anatomic MSC-seeded HA hydrogel constructs using this alternative crosslinking method. Juvenile bovine MSCs were suspended in methacrylated HA (MeHA) and crosslinked either through UV polymerization or chemically with APS/TEMED to generate cylindrical constructs. Minipig porcine femoral heads were imaged using microCT, and anatomic negative molds were generated by three-dimensional printing using fused deposition modeling. Molded HA constructs were produced using the APS/TEMED method. All constructs were cultured for up to 12 weeks in a chemically defined medium supplemented with TGF-β3 and characterized by mechanical testing, biochemical assays, and histologic analysis. Both UV- and APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs showed increasing mechanical properties and robust proteoglycan and collagen deposition over time. At 12 weeks, APS/TEMED-polymerized constructs had higher equilibrium and dynamic moduli than UV-polymerized constructs, with no differences in proteoglycan or collagen content. Molded HA constructs retained their hemispherical shape in culture and demonstrated increasing mechanical properties and proteoglycan and collagen deposition, especially at the edges compared to the center of these

  5. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development.

  6. [Sacroiliac joint injury treated with oblique insertion at anatomical points: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jiayi; Li, Yuxuan; He, Yufeng; Gan, Lin; Wang, Aiming; Chen, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoting; Guo, Lin; Tang, Rongjun

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of oblique insertion at anatomical points and conventional acupuncture for sacroiliac joint injury. Eighty patients were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each one. In the observation group, oblique insertion therapy at anatomical points was used, and the 9 points of equal division (anatomical points) marked by palpating the anatomical symbol were treated as the insertion acupoints. In the control group, conventional acupuncture was applied, and perpendicular insertion was adopted at Huantiao (GB 30), Zhibian (BL 54) and Weizhong (BL 40), etc. In the two groups, the! treatment was given once a day and 5 times per week. Ten treatments were made into one course and two courses were required. The clinical effects, the changes of visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry dysfunctional index. (ODI) before and after treatment were observed in the two groups. The total effective rate of the observation group was 90.0% (36/40), which was better than 72.5% (29/40) of the control group (P sacroiliac joint injury is superior to that of conventional acupuncture, which can effectively relieve pain and improve the disfunction.

  7. Anatomical basics and variations of the scapula in Turkish adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskan, Nigar; Demirel, Bahadir M.; Sindel, M.; Karaali, Kamil; Cevikol, C.

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the anatomical basis of the scapula, acromion, os acromiale, coracoid process, coraco-acromial arch, and glenoid cavity in Turkish adults.We performed the study at the Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Turkey between January 2004 and December 2005. A total of 90 dry bones of the scapula from human cadavers were randomly selected. The length, width, and anterior thickness of the acromion and the acromial facet of the acromioclavicular joint were measured with an electronic caliber and was examined visually. For the radiological evaluation, the posterior anterior and the lateral shoulder radiographs of 90 consecutive adult patients with normal findings were used. These films were evaluated and grouped according to the acromial arch morphology.The distribution of the acromial morphologic types according to slope was type I (flat) 10%, type II (curved) 73%, type III (hooked) 17%. Type I was seen in 11%, type II 66%, type III 23% of the specimens. The morphological shape of the tip of the acromion was 31% cobra shaped, 13% square shaped, and 56% intermediate type. The scapulas, coracoid process and the coraco acromial arch were measured. In 72% of the specimen, the glenoid notch of the scapulas were absent and oval shaped, whereas in 28% the notch was well expressed and the glenoid cavity was pear shaped. The mean vertical length of the glenoid cavity was 36.3 +/- 3 mm, and the mean transverse length was 24.6 +/- 2.5 mm. Os acromiale is a rare anatomical condition. Its incidence has been documented in radiographic and anatomical studies to be between 1-15%. The presence of os acromiale was 1% in shoulder radiographs (os pre-acromiale), and in dry bones (os meta-acromiale). We reported the exact morphological measurements of the bone structures of the scapula in Turkish adult population. Our results present an instructive figures of anatomical preparations and radiological cases that can be used to make a more precise radiological and a differential

  8. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists: The Association of Pathology Chairs Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Barbara S; Parslow, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC) databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization's methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical "full-time faculty" (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above). The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs-reported median work relative value unit productivity

  9. A Body Of Knowledge: The Wellcome Ayurvedic Anatomical Man And His Sanskrit Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wujastyk, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    A widely-known painting currently in the Wellcome Library (Iconographic 574912i) depicts an anatomical view of the male human body according to the tenets of classical Indian medicine, or ayurveda. The painting is surrounded by text passages in the Sanskrit language on medical and anatomical topics. In this paper, the Sanskrit texts are identified, edited, translated and assessed. I establish a terminus a quo for the painting, and explore the relationship of text and image.

  10. [The alteration of Japanese anatomical terminology in the early Showa period and the Japanese language reform campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    In the second decade of the Showa period, great changes were made in the Japanese anatomical terms. It has been proposed that the presentation of JNA (Jenaer nomina anatomica) was one of the factors leading to the change. The Japanese language reform campaign, however, played an important role. The party kokugoaigo doumei and its successor kokugo kyokai required concise and unified technical terms. The anatomical nomenclature committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists worked to satisfy this requirement. The committee consulted with nomenclature committees of other medical associations and took account of their opinions. The anatomical nomenclature committee abandoned the literal translation from Latin to Japanese and shaped a succinct Japanese terminology. Modern Japanese anatomical terms are based on this terminology.

  11. The oblique occipital sinus: anatomical study using bone subtraction 3D CT venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwa Seon; Choi, Dae Seob; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Jeong Yeol; Park, SungEun

    2017-06-01

    An occipital sinus draining into the sigmoid sinus has been termed the oblique occipital sinus (OOS). The frequency, anatomical features, patterns, and relationship with the transverse sinus of the oblique occipital sinus were analyzed in this study. The study included 1805 patients who underwent brain CT angiography during a 3-year period from 2013 to 2015. CT examinations were performed using a 64-slice MDCT system. The OOS was identified in 41 patients (2.3%). There were many anatomical variations in the oblique occipital sinuses. A hypoplastic or aplastic TS was seen in 31 (75.6%) of the 41 patients with OOS. Many anatomical variations in the oblique occipital sinus can be seen on CT venography. Some OOSs function as the main drainage route of the intracranial veins instead of the TS. Thus, careful examination is essential for preoperative evaluation in posterior fossa lesions.

  12. A Review of the Published Anatomical Research on the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of the Published Anatomical Research on the African Giant Rat ... of their anatomy and morphophysiology however, the scientific bases for these ... conference proceedings and unpublished research dissertations and thesis. All data ...

  13. Anatomic pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy: the Brazilian experience (VATS Brazil study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mingarini Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the results of anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil. Methods: Thoracic surgeons (members of the Brazilian Society of Thoracic Surgery were invited, via e-mail, to participate in the study. Eighteen surgeons participated in the project by providing us with retrospective databases containing information related to anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. Demographic, surgical, and postoperative data were collected with a standardized instrument, after which they were compiled and analyzed. Results: The surgeons provided data related to a collective total of 786 patients (mean number of resections per surgeon, 43.6. However, 137 patients were excluded because some data were missing. Therefore, the study sample comprised 649 patients. The mean age of the patients was 61.7 years. Of the 649 patients, 295 (45.5% were male. The majority-521 (89.8%-had undergone surgery for neoplasia, which was most often classified as stage IA. The median duration of pleural drainage was 3 days, and the median hospital stay was 4 days. Of the 649 procedures evaluated, 598 (91.2% were lobectomies. Conversion to thoracotomy was necessary in 30 cases (4.6%. Postoperative complications occurred in 124 patients (19.1%, the most common complications being pneumonia, prolonged air leaks, and atelectasis. The 30-day mortality rate was 2.0%, advanced age and diabetes being found to be predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Our analysis of this representative sample of patients undergoing pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil showed that the procedure is practicable and safe, as well as being comparable to those performed in other countries.

  14. The pornographic anatomy book? The curious tale of the Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Studying the history of medical education helps teach us that medicine is a social activity that occurs in the context of social mores and customs. In 1971, a major new anatomy textbook aimed at first-year medical students was published. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice, written by Professors R. Frederick Becker, James S. W. Wilson, and John A. Gehweiler, emphasized surface anatomy, embryology, and radiographic anatomy. At multiple places in the text, the authors used sexually suggestive and "cheeky" comments about women. A small fraction of the illustrations were stylized, posed female nude photographs purchased from California photographer Peter Gowland. These photographs, of a type typically seen in Playboy centerfolds or "pin-up girl" calendars, produced a firestorm of controversy. The book was criticized in the press and in reviews in scholarly journals, and a boycott was organized by the Association of Women in Science. The publisher received negative feedback from consumers, and the book was withdrawn from the market. The book is now a minor collector's item. Professors Becker and Wilson vigorously responded. They laid blame for the debacle on the publisher and also claimed they were the victims of a witch hunt by feminists. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice appeared as the women's movement became part of the American popular consciousness. It was also an era in which the public began to grapple with how to define pornography. Professor Becker and his coauthors thought that they were writing a witty, engaging, and funny book. Their detractors thought the book denigrated women.

  15. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Nitriles through Dehydration of Aldoximes: The Substrate Scope of Aldoxime Dehydratases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betke, Tobias; Higuchi, Jun; Rommelmann, Philipp; Oike, Keiko; Nomura, Taiji; Kato, Yasuo; Asano, Yasuhisa; Gröger, Harald

    2018-04-16

    Nitriles, which are mostly needed and produced by the chemical industry, play a major role in various industry segments, ranging from high-volume, low-price sectors, such as polymers, to low-volume, high-price sectors, such as chiral pharma drugs. A common industrial technology for nitrile production is ammoxidation as a gas-phase reaction at high temperature. Further popular approaches are substitution or addition reactions with hydrogen cyanide or derivatives thereof. A major drawback, however, is the very high toxicity of cyanide. Recently, as a synthetic alternative, a novel enzymatic approach towards nitriles has been developed with aldoxime dehydratases, which are capable of converting an aldoxime in one step through dehydration into nitriles. Because the aldoxime substrates are easily accessible, this route is of high interest for synthetic purposes. However, whenever a novel method is developed for organic synthesis, it raises the question of substrate scope as one of the key criteria for application as a "synthetic platform technology". Thus, the scope of this review is to give an overview of the current state of the substrate scope of this enzymatic method for synthesizing nitriles with aldoxime dehydratases. As a recently emerging enzyme class, a range of substrates has already been studied so far, comprising nonchiral and chiral aldoximes. This enzyme class of aldoxime dehydratases shows a broad substrate tolerance and accepts aliphatic and aromatic aldoximes, as well as arylaliphatic aldoximes. Furthermore, aldoximes with a stereogenic center are also recognized and high enantioselectivities are found for 2-arylpropylaldoximes, in particular. It is further noteworthy that the enantiopreference depends on the E and Z isomers. Thus, opposite enantiomers are accessible from the same racemic aldehyde and the same enzyme. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Analysis of anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of Iva xanthifolia nutt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Lana N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Iva xanthifolia is a North American weed species, which was introduced and naturalized in Europe. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of this species were investigated, in order to get better knowledge of its biology, which could help in development of strategies for prevention of its spreading. Detailed descriptions of lamina, petiole, stem and inflorescence axis anatomical structures were given, together with micromorphological characteristics of epidermis and indumentum of lamina, petiole, stem, inflorescence axis, involucre and fruit. All vegetative organs had mesomorphic structure, with some xeromorphic adaptations. Mechanical tissue was well developed, which gave those plants additional strength and resistance. Trichomes were the most numerous on lamina and in the region of inflorescence, while rare on petiole and stem epidermis and their distribution varied according to plant organ.

  17. Anatomic variants of interest in endoscopic sinus surgery: role of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, S.; Arenas, J.; Fernandez, F.; Gil, S.; Guirau, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed radiological study of the anatomy of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinus is essential prior to endoscopic sinus surgery since, on the one hand, it discloses the extent of the disease and, on the other hand, it aids in the detection of the numerous anatomic variants, some of which are of great interest to the endoscopic as the lack of preoperative knowledge of them may increase the risk of complications. the objective of the present report is to review these variants, stressing those that may be associated with a greater surgical risk. Although coronal computed tomography is the technique of choice for pre endoscopy examination, certain structures and anatomic variants are better viewed in axial images. These exceptions include anterior and posterior walls of the frontal sinuses, the anatomic relationships between posterior ethmoid complex and the sphenoid sinus, the relationships between the sphenoid sinus and the optic nerve, and the detection of Onodi cells. Thus, we recommend that the radiological examination include both coronal and axial images. (Author) 16 refs

  18. Anatomical Basis of the Myofascial Trigger Points of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Emi Akamatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by pain and limited range of motion in joints and caused by muscular contracture related to dysfunctional motor end plates and myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. We aimed to observe the anatomical correlation between the clinically described MTrPs and the entry point of the branches of the inferior gluteal nerve into the gluteus maximus muscle. We dissected twenty gluteus maximus muscles from 10 human adult cadavers (5 males and 5 females. We measured the muscles and compiled the distribution of the nerve branches into each of the quadrants of the muscle. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student’s t-test and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Although no difference was observed either for muscle measurements or for distribution of nerve branching among the subjects, the topography of MTrPs matched the anatomical location of the entry points into the muscle. Thus, anatomical substract of the MTrPs may be useful for a better understanding of the physiopathology of these disorders and provide basis for their surgical and clinical treatment.

  19. Prevalence and anatomical pattern of the median artery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ...

  20. [Establishment of A Clinical Prediction Model of Prolonged Air Leak 
after Anatomic Lung Resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianning; Xu, Shibin; Ke, Li; Fan, Jun; Wang, Jun; Xie, Mingran; Jiang, Xianliang; Xu, Meiqing

    2017-12-20

    Prolonged air leak (PAL) after anatomic lung resection is a common and challenging complication in thoracic surgery. No available clinical prediction model of PAL has been established in China. The aim of this study was to construct a model to identify patients at increased risk of PAL by using preoperative factors exclusively. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data and PAL occurrence of patients after anatomic lung resection, in department of thoracic surgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, from January 2016 to October 2016. 359 patients were in group A, clinical data including age, body mass index (BMI), gender, smoking history, surgical methods, pulmonary function index, pleural adhesion, pathologic diagnosis, side and site of resected lung were analyzed. By using univariate and multivariate analysis, we found the independent predictors of PAL after anatomic lung resection and subsequently established a clinical prediction model. Then, another 112 patients (group B), who underwent anatomic lung resection in different time by different team, were chosen to verify the accuracy of the prediction model. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed using the prediction model. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify six clinical characteristics [BMI, gender, smoking history, forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1%), pleural adhesion, site of resection] as independent predictors of PAL after anatomic lung resection. The area under the ROC curve for our model was 0.886 (95%CI: 0.835-0.937). The best predictive P value was 0.299 with sensitivity of 78.5% and specificity of 93.2%. Our prediction model could accurately identify occurrence risk of PAL in patients after anatomic lung resection, which might allow for more effective use of intraoperative prophylactic strategies.
.

  1. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Naomi R; Ripke, Stephan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Byrne, Enda M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Adams, Mark J; Agerbo, Esben; Air, Tracy M; Andlauer, Till M F; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Beekman, Aartjan F T; Bigdeli, Tim B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blackwood, Douglas R H; Bryois, Julien; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Cai, Na; Castelao, Enrique; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Coleman, Jonathan I R; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Craddock, Nick; Crawford, Gregory E; Crowley, Cheynna A; Dashti, Hassan S; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Derks, Eske M; Direk, Nese; Dolan, Conor V; Dunn, Erin C; Eley, Thalia C; Eriksson, Nicholas; Escott-Price, Valentina; Kiadeh, Farnush Hassan Farhadi; Finucane, Hilary K; Forstner, Andreas J; Frank, Josef; Gaspar, Héléna A; Gill, Michael; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Goes, Fernando S; Gordon, Scott D; Grove, Jakob; Hall, Lynsey S; Hannon, Eilis; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Hansen, Thomas F; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hoffmann, Per; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hougaard, David M; Hu, Ming; Hyde, Craig L; Ising, Marcus; Jansen, Rick; Jin, Fulai; Jorgenson, Eric; Knowles, James A; Kohane, Isaac S; Kraft, Julia; Kretzschmar, Warren W; Krogh, Jesper; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lane, Jacqueline M; Li, Yihan; Li, Yun; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Leina; MacIntyre, Donald J; MacKinnon, Dean F; Maier, Robert M; Maier, Wolfgang; Marchini, Jonathan; Mbarek, Hamdi; McGrath, Patrick; McGuffin, Peter; Medland, Sarah E; Mehta, Divya; Middeldorp, Christel M; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Milani, Lili; Mill, Jonathan; Mondimore, Francis M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostafavi, Sara; Mullins, Niamh; Nauck, Matthias; Ng, Bernard; Nivard, Michel G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Reilly, Paul F; Oskarsson, Hogni; Owen, Michael J; Painter, Jodie N; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Peterson, Roseann E; Pettersson, Erik; Peyrot, Wouter J; Pistis, Giorgio; Posthuma, Danielle; Purcell, Shaun M; Quiroz, Jorge A; Qvist, Per; Rice, John P; Riley, Brien P; Rivera, Margarita; Saeed Mirza, Saira; Saxena, Richa; Schoevers, Robert; Schulte, Eva C; Shen, Ling; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley I; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Sinnamon, Grant B C; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Daniel J; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockmeier, Craig A; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Tansey, Katherine E; Teismann, Henning; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Wesley; Thomson, Pippa A; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Tian, Chao; Traylor, Matthew; Treutlein, Jens; Trubetskoy, Vassily; Uitterlinden, André G; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; van Hemert, Albert M; Viktorin, Alexander; Visscher, Peter M; Wang, Yunpeng; Webb, Bradley T; Weinsheimer, Shantel Marie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witt, Stephanie H; Wu, Yang; Xi, Hualin S; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Futao; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Berger, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cichon, Sven; Dannlowski, Udo; de Geus, E C J; DePaulo, J Raymond; Domenici, Enrico; Domschke, Katharina; Esko, Tõnu; Grabe, Hans J; Hamilton, Steven P; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kloiber, Stefan; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S; Lucae, Susanne; Madden, Pamela F A; Magnusson, Patrik K; Martin, Nicholas G; McIntosh, Andrew M; Metspalu, Andres; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nordentoft, Merete; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Paciga, Sara A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perlis, Roy H; Porteous, David J; Potash, James B; Preisig, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; Schaefer, Catherine; Schulze, Thomas G; Smoller, Jordan W; Stefansson, Kari; Tiemeier, Henning; Uher, Rudolf; Völzke, Henry; Weissman, Myrna M; Werge, Thomas; Winslow, Ashley R; Lewis, Cathryn M; Levinson, Douglas F; Breen, Gerome; Børglum, Anders D; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2018-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

  2. The left amygdala: A shared substrate of alexithymia and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Lamm, Claus; Pripfl, Juergen; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2015-11-15

    Alexithymia, a deficit in emotional self-awareness, and deficits in empathy, which encompasses the awareness of other's emotions, are related constructs that are both associated with a range of psychopathological disorders. Neuroimaging studies suggest that there is overlap between the neural bases of alexithymia and empathy, but no systematic comparison has been conducted so far. The aim of this structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to disentangle the overlap and differences between the morphological profiles of the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, and to find out to what extent these differ between women and men. High-resolution T1 anatomical images were obtained from 125 healthy right-handers (18-42 years), 70 women and 55 men. By means of voxel-based morphometry, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed on gray matter volumes of several anatomically defined a-priori regions previously linked to alexithymia and empathy. Partial correlations were conducted within the female and male group using ROI parameter estimates as dependent variables and the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, respectively, as predictors, controlling for age. Results were considered significant if they survived Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The left amygdala was identified as a key substrate of both alexithymia and empathy. This association was characterized by an opposite pattern: The cognitive alexithymia dimension was linked to smaller, the two empathy dimensions to larger left amygdala volume. While sex-specific effects were not observed for empathy, they were evident for the affective alexithymia dimension: Men-but not women-with difficulty fantasizing had smaller gray matter volume in the middle cingulate cortex. Moreover, structural covariance patterns between the left amygdala and other emotion-related brain regions differed markedly between alexithymia and empathy. These differences

  3. Considerations in the selection of model substrates for microbiological effects research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Rose, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of several energy residues have been briefly reviewed in order to select a model or representative substrate of basic research to determine the significance of anaerobic microbial dissolution and mobilization or immobilization of toxic trace elements under subsurface environmental conditions. The major factors which influence the dissolution and mobilization of trace metals have been critically examined, e.g., (i) effects on pH of leachates (pyrite oxidation), soluble acid, and basic compounds; (ii) effects on oxidation state of leachates (oxidation state of Fe, presence of organics); (iii) concentration of toxic inorganic species, and chemical form; (iv) surface area of waste particles; and (v) physical strength and particle size, with resulting effects on permeability of the substrate. Several major physical and chemical characteristics are common to energy-related residues yet each of these materials has a unique set of physical and chemical properties. The pros and cons of selecting a single model substrate for microbiological research were discussed at the Geochemical and Biochemical Working Group Meeting and use of the end-member concept was suggested. From the abundance, distribution, forms of trace metals present, and volume of these metal-containing residues disposed of in the subsurface environments, microbiological studies can be performed with coal beneficiation and coal gasification residues under a variety of subsurface environmental conditions, and results can be validated in the field. The basic scientific information obtained from this research can be applied to other materials of similar composition. 18 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  4. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  5. Anatomical contributions to plant taxonomy II. The affinities of Hua Pierre and Afrostyrax Perkins et Gilg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1972-01-01

    Vegetative anatomy, fruit and seed structure, and pollen morphology of Hua and Afrostyrax (tropical West and Central Africa) are described in detail. The two genera have many anatomical characters in common (see anatomical family diagnosis on p. 182) but are sufficiently different from other

  6. The nasal approach to delivering treatment for brain diseases: an anatomic, physiologic, and delivery technology overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djupesland, Per G; Messina, John C; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2014-06-01

    The intricate pathophysiology of brain disorders, difficult access to the brain, and the complexity and high risks and costs of drug development represent major hurdles for improving therapies. Nose-to-brain drug transport offers an attractive alternative or addition to formulation-only strategies attempting to enhance drug penetration into the CNS. Although still a matter of controversy, many studies in animals claim direct nose-to-brain transport along the olfactory and trigeminal nerves, circumventing the traditional barriers to CNS entry. Some clinical trials in man also suggest nose-to-brain drug delivery, although definitive proof in man is lacking. This review focuses on new nasal delivery technologies designed to overcome inherent anatomical and physiological challenges and facilitate more efficient and targeted drug delivery for CNS disorders.

  7. The effect of peer assisted learning (PAL) on anatomic competencies of prospective student’s biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, S.

    2018-05-01

    Research about the effect of Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) strategy on Plant Anatomy Course, which aims to improve anatomic competencies of prospective student’s biology teacher, has been done. This study used a quasi-experimental pre-test post-test control group design. The draft includes a group of students who were given a pre-test which is then followed by observing the PAL treatment process and post-test. The other students group (control) was given the pre-test and post-test only. The PAL program began with a discussion between the lecturer and the tutor about the pretest results and then discussion between the tutors and their tutees in the class about the responses items. After that, all students were assigned to answer a set of response items, and then did the posttest. The results showed that the PAL strategy can increase student’s anatomic literacy significantly and can increase student’s anatomic lab skills no significantly. Thus the PAL strategy implementation has a potential to improve student’s anatomic competencies. The generally students weaknesses were they lack practice in interpreting of research results in the graphs form and rarely shared about anatomic lab skills. All students respond positively to the PAL strategy.

  8. Computed tomography of the vesicular glands: anatomical animal model (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, R.; Stamatova-Yovcheva, K.; Hamza, S.; Toneva, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Spiral CT is a non-invasive imaging method of choice for animal anatomical studies. The aim of the study was to establish the imaging anatomical features of the vesicular glands in the rabbit. Eight sexually mature healthy clinically male New Zealand rabbits of 18 months of age with body weight from 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were used. The animals were anesthetized. As contrast medium Opti-ray350 was administrated. The computed tomography scan was complied with certain bone and soft tissue markers. For this purpose, a whole body multi-slice spiral computed tomography scanner was used. The both soft tissue glands were heterogeneous and relatively hyperdense structures, and defined in detail from the adjacent soft tissues. The urinary bladder neck was ventrally to the glands. Both vesicular glands were better differentiated each other when the rabbit is examined in abdominal recumbence. In dorsal recumbence the shape of the transversal image of the glandular finding was oval. In abdominal recumbence both the left and right soft tissue vesicular gland were defined. Transversal anatomical computed tomographic investigation of the rabbit vesicular gland is a detailed and definitive method, to study the normal morphology of these glands. Key words: Vesicular Gland. Helical Computed Tomography. Anatomy. Rabbit

  9. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration is dependent on readily decomposable C substrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Yevdokimov, I. V.; Bykhovets, S. S.

    2007-06-01

    Temperature acclimation of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is one of the major uncertainties in predicting soil CO2 efflux by the increase in global mean temperature. A reasonable explanation for an apparent acclimation proposed by Davidson and colleagues (2006) based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggests that temperature sensitivity decreases when both maximal activity of respiratory enzymes (Vmax) and half- saturation constant (Ks) cancel each other upon temperature increase. We tested the hypothesis of the canceling effect by the mathematical simulation of the data obtained in the incubation experiments with forest and arable soils. Our data confirm the hypothesis and suggest that concentration of readily decomposable C substrate as glucose equivalent is an important factor controlling temperature sensitivity. The highest temperature sensitivity was observed when C substrate concentration was much lower than Ks. Increase of substrate content to the half-saturation constant resulted in temperature acclimation associated with the canceling effect. Addition of the substrate to the level providing respiration at a maximal rate Vmax leads to the acclimation of the whole microbial community as such. However, growing microbial biomass was more sensitive to the temperature alterations. This study improves our understanding of the instability of temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under field conditions, explaining this phenomenon by changes in concentration of readily decomposable C substrate. It is worth noting that this pattern works regardless of the origin of C substrate: production by SOM decomposition, release into the soil by rhizodeposition, litter fall or drying-rewetting events.

  10. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  11. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  12. Cloud-Based Evaluation of Anatomical Structure Segmentation and Landmark Detection Algorithms : VISCERAL Anatomy Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-del-Toro, Oscar; Muller, Henning; Krenn, Markus; Gruenberg, Katharina; Taha, Abdel Aziz; Winterstein, Marianne; Eggel, Ivan; Foncubierta-Rodriguez, Antonio; Goksel, Orcun; Jakab, Andres; Kontokotsios, Georgios; Langs, Georg; Menze, Bjoern H.; Fernandez, Tomas Salas; Schaer, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the shape and appearance of anatomical structures in medical images are often relevant radiological signs of disease. Automatic tools can help automate parts of this manual process. A cloud-based evaluation framework is presented in this paper including results of benchmarking current state-of-the-art medical imaging algorithms for anatomical structure segmentation and landmark detection: the VISCERAL Anatomy benchmarks. The algorithms are implemented in virtual machines in the ...

  13. Cluster-based upper body marker models for three-dimensional kinematic analysis: Comparison with an anatomical model and reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Quinn A; Valevicius, Aïda M; Lavoie, Ewen B; Chapman, Craig S; Pilarski, Patrick M; Hebert, Jacqueline S; Vette, Albert H

    2018-04-27

    Quantifying angular joint kinematics of the upper body is a useful method for assessing upper limb function. Joint angles are commonly obtained via motion capture, tracking markers placed on anatomical landmarks. This method is associated with limitations including administrative burden, soft tissue artifacts, and intra- and inter-tester variability. An alternative method involves the tracking of rigid marker clusters affixed to body segments, calibrated relative to anatomical landmarks or known joint angles. The accuracy and reliability of applying this cluster method to the upper body has, however, not been comprehensively explored. Our objective was to compare three different upper body cluster models with an anatomical model, with respect to joint angles and reliability. Non-disabled participants performed two standardized functional upper limb tasks with anatomical and cluster markers applied concurrently. Joint angle curves obtained via the marker clusters with three different calibration methods were compared to those from an anatomical model, and between-session reliability was assessed for all models. The cluster models produced joint angle curves which were comparable to and highly correlated with those from the anatomical model, but exhibited notable offsets and differences in sensitivity for some degrees of freedom. Between-session reliability was comparable between all models, and good for most degrees of freedom. Overall, the cluster models produced reliable joint angles that, however, cannot be used interchangeably with anatomical model outputs to calculate kinematic metrics. Cluster models appear to be an adequate, and possibly advantageous alternative to anatomical models when the objective is to assess trends in movement behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical and anatomical observations of a two-headed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K R; Partlow, G D; Walker, A F

    1986-04-01

    The clinical and anatomical features of a live-born diprosopic lamb are described. There are no complete anatomical analyses of two-faced lambs in the literature despite the frequency of conjoined twinning in sheep. The lamb had two heads fused in the occipital region. Each head had two eyes. The pinnae of the medial ears were fused. Caudal to the neck the lamb appeared grossly normal. The lamb was unable to raise its heads or stand. Both heads showed synchronous sucking motions and cranial reflexes were present. Nystagmus, strabismus, and limb incoordination were present. The respiratory and heart rates were elevated. There was a grade IV murmur over the left heart base and a palpable thrill on the left side. Each head possessed a normal nasopharynx, oropharynx, and tongue. There was a singular laryngopharnyx and esophagus although the hyoid apparatus was partially duplicated. The cranial and cervical musculature reflected the head duplications. The aortic trunk emerged from the right ventricle just to the right of the conus arteriosus. A ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus were present along with malformed atrioventricular valves. Brainstem fusion began at the cranial medulla oblongata between cranial nerves IX and XII. The cerebella were separate but small. The ventromedial structures from each medulla oblongata were compressed into an extraneous midline remnant of tissue which extended caudally to the level of T2. The clinical signs therefore reflected the anatomical anomalies. A possible etiology for this diprosopus might be the presence early in development of an excessively large block of chordamesoderm. This would allow for the formation of two head folds and hence two "heads."

  15. Population-based evaluation of a suggested anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart defects based on the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffinet François

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification of the overall spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHD has always been challenging, in part because of the diversity of the cardiac phenotypes, but also because of the oft-complex associations. The purpose of our study was to establish a comprehensive and easy-to-use classification of CHD for clinical and epidemiological studies based on the long list of the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC. Methods We coded each individual malformation using six-digit codes from the long list of IPCCC. We then regrouped all lesions into 10 categories and 23 subcategories according to a multi-dimensional approach encompassing anatomic, diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. This anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart disease (ACC-CHD was then applied to data acquired from a population-based cohort of patients with CHD in France, made up of 2867 cases (82% live births, 1.8% stillbirths and 16.2% pregnancy terminations. Results The majority of cases (79.5% could be identified with a single IPCCC code. The category "Heterotaxy, including isomerism and mirror-imagery" was the only one that typically required more than one code for identification of cases. The two largest categories were "ventricular septal defects" (52% and "anomalies of the outflow tracts and arterial valves" (20% of cases. Conclusion Our proposed classification is not new, but rather a regrouping of the known spectrum of CHD into a manageable number of categories based on anatomic and clinical criteria. The classification is designed to use the code numbers of the long list of IPCCC but can accommodate ICD-10 codes. Its exhaustiveness, simplicity, and anatomic basis make it useful for clinical and epidemiologic studies, including those aimed at assessment of risk factors and outcomes.

  16. Structural Basis for Substrate Recognition by the Ankyrin Repeat Domain of Human DHHC17 Palmitoyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verardi, Raffaello; Kim, Jin-Sik; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Banerjee, Anirban

    2017-09-01

    DHHC enzymes catalyze palmitoylation, a major post-translational modification that regulates a number of key cellular processes. There are up to 24 DHHCs in mammals and hundreds of substrate proteins that get palmitoylated. However, how DHHC enzymes engage with their substrates is still poorly understood. There is currently no structural information about the interaction between any DHHC enzyme and protein substrates. In this study we have investigated the structural and thermodynamic bases of interaction between the ankyrin repeat domain of human DHHC17 (ANK17) and Snap25b. We solved a high-resolution crystal structure of the complex between ANK17 and a peptide fragment of Snap25b. Through structure-guided mutagenesis, we discovered key residues in DHHC17 that are critically important for interaction with Snap25b. We further extended our finding by showing that the same residues are also crucial for the interaction of DHHC17 with Huntingtin, one of its most physiologically relevant substrates.

  17. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luiz Felipe; Giordano, Marcos; Cardoso, Gustavo Novaes; Farias, Rafael Baptista; E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires

    2015-01-01

    To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP) view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film. An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements. From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements. Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  18. Anatomical sciences: A foundation for a solid learning experience in dental technology and dental prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Thompson, C Mark; Massadiq, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Basic science courses are extremely important as a foundation for scaffolding knowledge and then applying it in future courses, clinical situations as well as in a professional career. Anatomical sciences, which include tooth morphology, oral histology, oral embryology, and head and neck anatomy form a core part of the preclinical courses in dental technology programs. In this article, the importance and relevance of anatomical sciences to dental personnel with no direct contact with patients (dental technicians) and limited discipline related contact with patients (dental prosthetists) is highlighted. Some light is shed on the role of anatomical sciences in the pedagogical framework and its significance in the educational process and interprofessional learning of dental technicians and prosthetists using oral biology as an example in the dental curriculum. To conclude, anatomical sciences allow dental technicians and prosthetists to a gain a better insight of how tissues function, leading to a better understanding of diagnosis, comprehensive treatment planning and referrals if needed. Patient communication and satisfaction also increases as a result of this deep understanding of oral tissues. Anatomical sciences bridge the gap between basic science, preclinical, and clinical courses, which leads to a holistic approach in patient management. Finally, treatment outcomes are positively affected due to the appreciation of the macro and micro structure of oral tissues. Anat Sci Educ 10: 395-404. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Longitudinal retention of anatomical knowledge in second-year medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Goor, H. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Broek, R.P. ten

    2017-01-01

    The Radboud University Medical Center has a problem-based, learner-oriented, horizontally, and vertically integrated medical curriculum. Anatomists and clinicians have noticed students' decreasing anatomical knowledge and the disability to apply knowledge in diagnostic reasoning and problem solving.

  20. Occipital neuralgia: anatomic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Histo-anatomical researches of two subspecies of Lavandula angustifolia Mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Silvia; Galeş, Ramona; Toma, C; Stănescu, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the inflorescences of two subspecies of Lavandula angustifolia sL. angustifolia ssp. angustifolia and. L. angustifolia ssp. pyrenaica (D.C.) Guineaţ was studied to determine the range of variation in certain histo-anatomical characters. The flower and leaf structure has been analysed on cross and superficial section using the usual techniques and methods applied in plant histo-anatomical research. In cross-section, inflorescence axis has a squared-shape contour, with four proeminent ribs. On the epiderme of inflorescence axis there are present stomata, trichoms and secretory hairs. The trichoms are pluricelullar and T-branched. The secretory hairs have a short pedicel and a uni-or bicellular head. The study revealed that there are only quantitative differences, referring to the degree of sclerification and lignification of mechanical elements and the size of the vascular bundles.

  2. The effect of anatomic differences on the relationship between renal artery and diaphragmatic crus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, K; Tok, S; Balci, Yuksel; Apaydin, F D; Kara, E; Uzmansel, D

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of anatomic differences on the relationship between renal artery and diaphragmatic crus via the touch of two structures. The study included dynamic computed tomography (CT) scans of 308 patients performed mainly for characterisation of liver and renal masses. Anatomic differences including the thickness of the diaphragmatic crus, the localisation of renal artery ostium at the wall of aorta, the level of renal artery origin with respect to superior mesenteric artery were evaluated. Statistical relationships between renal artery-diaphragmatic crus contact and the anatomic differences were assessed. Thickness of the diaphragmatic crus at the level of renal artery origin exhibited a statistically significant relationship to renal artery-diaphragmatic crus contact at the left (p renal artery origin and renal artery- -diaphragmatic crus contact at the left (p renal artery ostium at the wall of aorta (right side, p = 0.436, left side, p = 0.681) did not demonstrate a relationship to renal artery-diaphragmatic crus contact. Thickness of the diaphragmatic crus and high renal artery origin with respect to superior mesenteric artery are crucial anatomic differences determining the relationship of renal artery and diaphragmatic crus. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 22-28).

  3. Significance of the anatomical distribution of major skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In Tanzania, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequent skin malignancy followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) then malignant melanoma with the lower limb as the predominant site. This is at variance with Caucasians where the head and neck is the commonest site for non-melanoma and melanoma ...

  4. Wood anatomical and chemical properties related to the pulpability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most important hardwood species used by the pulp and paper industry due to its high pulp yield, high wood density, excellent fibre quality and good handsheet properties. However, the wood is a highly variable and complex material that has different chemical, physical and anatomical ...

  5. ALGAE PROLIFERATION ON SUBSTRATES IMMERSED IN BIOLOGICALLY TREATED SEWAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due fast biomass production, high affinity for N and P and possibilities to CO2 sequestration microalgae are currently in the spotlight, especially in renewable energy technologies sector. The majority of studies focus their attention on microalgae cultivation with respect to biomass production. Fuel produced from algal biomass can contribute to reducing consumption of conventional fossil fuels and be a remedy for a rising energy crisis and global warming induced by air pollution. Some authors opt for possibilities of using sewage as a nutrient medium in algae cultivation. Other scientists go one step further and present concepts to introduce microalgal systems as an integral part of wastewater treatment plants. High costs of different microalgal harvesting methods caused introduction of the idea of algae immobilization in a form of periphyton on artificial substrates. In the present study the attention has focused on possibilities of using waste materials as substrates to proliferation of periphyton in biologically treated sewage that contained certain amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  6. [Anatomical study of men's nipple areola complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, R; Dast, S; Assaf, N; Sinna, R

    2016-06-01

    The surgical approach of gynecomastia, sexual reassignment surgery in female-to-male transsexuals and the increase of number of obese wishing to turn to plastic surgery led us to deepen the anatomical knowledge of the nipple areola complex (NAC) in men, poorly retailed in the literature. By inspiring us of the methodology of a Japanese study, we studied 50 healthy volunteers male, from 18 to 55 years old, from July till August 2015. We measured various distances relative to the NAC to define its vertical and horizontal position, as well as the internipple distance according to the size, to the weight and to the body mass index (BMI). At the end of the analysis, we were able to underline a lower vertical thoracic position of the NAC in the tall category of person, a more side horizontal position to the subject presenting a high BMI and a linear relation between the BMI and the internipple (Em) defined by (Em)=8.96×BMI. The surgeon's judgment and the desires of the patient are essentials basis of therapeutics decisions that could be lean on this anatomical study, which allowed to establish an idea of the cartography of the NAC in man. It will be interesting and necessary to confront it with other studies with larger scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Medical Image Processing Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States); Torigian, Drew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  8. Melanocytic Nevi and Sun Exposure in a Cohort of Colorado Children: Anatomic Distribution and Site-Specific Sunburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Athena T.; Morelli, Joseph; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Asdigian, Nancy; Byers, Tim E.; Crane, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Sun exposure and high prevalence of melanocytic nevi are major risk factors for melanoma, but the relationship between them is not well understood. This study examines the relationship between sun exposure (detailed by anatomic location and history of site-specific sunburns) and the presence of melanocytic nevi on 743 White children in Denver, Colorado. Parental reports of site-specific sunburns were collected annually for 2 years starting at ages 5 to 6 years. In the third year, nevi were counted and mapped by anatomic location. Nevus density was higher for boys (36.0 nevi/m2) than for girls (31.0 nevi/m2; P = 0.04). Nevus density was highest on the face, neck, and lateral forearms and was significantly higher in chronically versus intermittently sun-exposed areas (P sunburn. The face, shoulders, and back were the most frequently sunburned areas of the body. When adjusted for host factors, total number of sunburns was significantly associated with higher total nevus prevalence (P = 0.01 for one burn). Site-specific sunburns were significantly associated with nevus prevalence on the back (P = 0.03 for three or more sunburns), but not on the face, arms, or legs. In this high-risk population, there is evidence for two pathways to nevus accumulation: by chronic sun exposure and by intermittent exposure related to sunburns. PMID:17932362

  9. Comparison of anatomic vs. straight femoral stem design in total hip replacement - femoral canal fill in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Friso A; Sariali, Elhadi

    2017-05-12

    The femoral canal fill between an anatomic and a straight prosthesis design in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) was compared. We hypothesised that the anatomic SPS stem has higher proximal fill and lesser distal fill than the straight stem. The femoral canal fill was measured on 3 months routine postoperative x-rays at 5 levels of the stem in 50 consecutive patients, aged 35-83 years, who underwent 56 THA procedures by a single surgeon in this hospital. 22 patients received a straight design Ceramconcept Global stem, 34 patients received an anatomic design Symbios SPS stem. Both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral x-rays were combined to suggest a 3-D measurement. On the AP x-rays, the canal fill was significantly higher using the anatomic design stem at the proximal measurement levels, and was significantly higher at the distal levels using the straight stem. With the AP and lateral x-rays combined, the canal fill at the proximal levels was also significantly higher in the anatomic groups, nonsignificantly lower at the central level and significantly lower at the distal levels. In THA surgery, achieving high fill at the metaphysis of the femur and less fill at the diaphysis has been suggested to result in satisfactory outcome and high stability of the prosthesis. This study demonstrated that, compared to straight stem design, an anatomically designed stem has a significantly higher metaphyseal femoral canal fill.

  10. Coating of substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.A.; Nelson, R.L.; Woodhead, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The process is concerned with providing substrates with coatings obtainable from sols, for example to protect the substrate (such as in nuclear reactors or hydrocarbon cracking plant) or to provide a carrier for catalytically active material. Hitherto, coatings obtained from sols have had a high porosity and high surface area so that they have not been entirely satisfactory for the above applications. In the process described, dense, low-porosity coatings are provided by contacting the substrate with a sol of refractory material (e.g. CeO 2 or SiO 2 ) convertible to a gel of density at least 40% of the theoretical density of the refractory material, and converting the sol to the gel. Optionally, the gel may be converted to a ceramic coating by firing. (author)

  11. Hydrological performance of dual-substrate-layer green roofs using porous inert substrates with high sorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui

    2017-06-01

    Given that the common medium in existing green roofs is a single layer composed of organic and inorganic substrates, seven pilot-scale dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs (G1-G7), which include nutrition and adsorption substrate layers, were constructed in this study. The effectiveness of porous inert substrates (activated charcoal, zeolite, pumice, lava, vermiculite and expanded perlite) used as the adsorption substrate for stormwater retention was investigated. A single-substrate-layer green roof (G8) was built for comparison with G1-G7. Despite the larger total rainfall depth (mm) of six types of simulated rains (43.2, 54.6, 76.2, 87.0, 85.2 and 86.4, respectively), the total percent retention of G1-G7 varied between 14% and 82% with an average of 43%, exhibiting better runoff-retaining capacity than G8 based on the maximum potential rainfall storage depth per unit height of adsorption substrate. Regression analysis showed that there was a logarithmic relationship between cumulative rainfall depth with non-zero runoff and stormwater retention for G1-G4 and a linear relationship for G5-G8. To enhance the water retention capacity and extend the service life of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs, the mixture of activated charcoal and/or pumice with expanded perlite and/or vermiculite is more suitable as the adsorption substrate than the mixture containing lava and/or zeolite.

  12. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  13. Comprehensive structural and substrate specificity classification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae methyltransferome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Tomasz; Kutner, Jan; Towpik, Joanna; Knizewski, Lukasz; Rychlewski, Leszek; Kudlicki, Andrzej; Rowicka, Maga; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Methylation is one of the most common chemical modifications of biologically active molecules and it occurs in all life forms. Its functional role is very diverse and involves many essential cellular processes, such as signal transduction, transcriptional control, biosynthesis, and metabolism. Here, we provide further insight into the enzymatic methylation in S. cerevisiae by conducting a comprehensive structural and functional survey of all the methyltransferases encoded in its genome. Using distant homology detection and fold recognition, we found that the S. cerevisiae methyltransferome comprises 86 MTases (53 well-known and 33 putative with unknown substrate specificity). Structural classification of their catalytic domains shows that these enzymes may adopt nine different folds, the most common being the Rossmann-like. We also analyzed the domain architecture of these proteins and identified several new domain contexts. Interestingly, we found that the majority of MTase genes are periodically expressed during yeast metabolic cycle. This finding, together with calculated isoelectric point, fold assignment and cellular localization, was used to develop a novel approach for predicting substrate specificity. Using this approach, we predicted the general substrates for 24 of 33 putative MTases and confirmed these predictions experimentally in both cases tested. Finally, we show that, in S. cerevisiae, methylation is carried out by 34 RNA MTases, 32 protein MTases, eight small molecule MTases, three lipid MTases, and nine MTases with still unknown substrate specificity.

  14. Comprehensive structural and substrate specificity classification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae methyltransferome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wlodarski

    Full Text Available Methylation is one of the most common chemical modifications of biologically active molecules and it occurs in all life forms. Its functional role is very diverse and involves many essential cellular processes, such as signal transduction, transcriptional control, biosynthesis, and metabolism. Here, we provide further insight into the enzymatic methylation in S. cerevisiae by conducting a comprehensive structural and functional survey of all the methyltransferases encoded in its genome. Using distant homology detection and fold recognition, we found that the S. cerevisiae methyltransferome comprises 86 MTases (53 well-known and 33 putative with unknown substrate specificity. Structural classification of their catalytic domains shows that these enzymes may adopt nine different folds, the most common being the Rossmann-like. We also analyzed the domain architecture of these proteins and identified several new domain contexts. Interestingly, we found that the majority of MTase genes are periodically expressed during yeast metabolic cycle. This finding, together with calculated isoelectric point, fold assignment and cellular localization, was used to develop a novel approach for predicting substrate specificity. Using this approach, we predicted the general substrates for 24 of 33 putative MTases and confirmed these predictions experimentally in both cases tested. Finally, we show that, in S. cerevisiae, methylation is carried out by 34 RNA MTases, 32 protein MTases, eight small molecule MTases, three lipid MTases, and nine MTases with still unknown substrate specificity.

  15. Multimodal Examination of Atrial Fibrillation Substrate: Correlation of Left Atrial Bipolar Voltage Using Multi-Electrode Fast Automated Mapping, Point-by-Point Mapping, and Magnetic Resonance Image Intensity Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghaib, Tarek; Keramati, Ali; Chrispin, Jonathan; Huang, Dong; Balouch, Muhammad A; Ciuffo, Luisa; Berger, Ronald D; Marine, Joseph E; Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Calkins, Hugh; Nazarian, Saman; Spragg, David D

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar voltage mapping, as part of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, is traditionally performed in a point-by-point (PBP) approach using single-tip ablation catheters. Alternative techniques for fibrosis-delineation include fast-anatomical mapping (FAM) with multi-electrode circular catheters, and late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic-resonance imaging (LGE-MRI). The correlation between PBP, FAM, and LGE-MRI fibrosis assessment is unknown. In this study, we examined AF substrate using different modalities (PBP, FAM, and LGE-MRI mapping) in patients presenting for an AF ablation. LGE-MRI was performed pre-ablation in 26 patients (73% males, age 63±8years). Local image-intensity ratio (IIR) was used to normalize myocardial intensities. PBP- and FAM-voltage maps were acquired, in sinus rhythm, prior to ablation and co-registered to LGE-MRI. Mean bipolar voltage for all 19,087 FAM voltage points was 0.88±1.27mV and average IIR was 1.08±0.18. In an adjusted mixed-effects model, each unit increase in local IIR was associated with 57% decrease in bipolar voltage (p0.74 corresponded to bipolar voltage voltage was significantly associated with log-PBP bipolar voltage (ß=0.36, pvoltages, FAM-mapping distribution was shifted to the left compared to PBP-mapping; at intermediate voltages, FAM and PBP voltages were overlapping; and at high voltages, FAM exceeded PBP-voltages. LGE-MRI, FAM and PBP-mapping show good correlation in delineating electro-anatomical AF substrate. Each approach has fundamental technical characteristics, the awareness of which allows proper assessment of atrial fibrosis.

  16. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava [Fremont, CA

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  17. The concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, M.; Muller, B. [=Bart; Murawski, C. D.; van Eck, C. F.; Fu, F. H.

    2014-01-01

    To describe the concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The PubMed/Medline database was searched using keywords pertaining to ACL reconstruction. Relevant articles were reviewed in order to summarize important concepts of individualized surgery in ACL

  18. Anatomía quirúrgica de las arritmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Sánchez-Quintana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El interés por la anatomía cardíaca se ha visto incrementado con la utilización de las técnicas de ablación mediante catéter para el tratamiento de las taquiarritmias en el corazón humano. La cardiología intervencionista vuelve a estudiar la morfología macroscópica y las características estructurales del corazón. En suma, una onda nueva ha nacido para revisitar la anatomía cardíaca dado que la información de que disponíamos hasta el momento era incompleta o llanamente errónea. Como resultado de este interés, recientes estudios han revelado las características anatómicas, aspectos arquitectónicos y detalles histológicos de ciertos componentes del corazón que son de interés para el entendimiento del sustrato de las arritmias y su ablación. El propósito de este estudio ha sido revisar detalles de la morfología cardíaca tales como el istmo inferior o istmo cavotricuspídeo, la región sinoatrial y la cresta terminal, el triángulo de Koch y su contenido, los orificios de las venas pulmonares y su vecindad con la aurícula izquierda, la arquitectura de la unión venoatrial y de la pared auricular posterior. En resumen, describimos la anatomía y arquitectura de la orejuela izquierda y de la cresta lateral izquierda, la vena de Marshall y el seno coronario, así como la inervación autónoma de las aurículas y su relación con el esófago y los nervios frénicos. Finalmente, estudiamos las características anatómicas de los ventrículos derecho e izquierdo.

  19. Flexible and foldable paper-substrate thermoelectric generator (teg)

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2017-08-24

    Flexible and foldable paper-substrate thermoelectric generators (TEGs) and methods for making the paper-substrate TEGs are disclosed. A method includes depositing a plurality of thermocouples in series on a paper substrate to create a paper-substrate TEG, wherein the plurality of thermocouples is deposited between two contact points of the paper-substrate TEG. The method may also include setting the power density and maximum achievable temperature gradient of the paper-substrate TEG by folding the paper-substrate TEG. A paper-substrate TEG apparatus may include a paper substrate and a plurality of thermocouples deposited in series on the paper substrate between two contact points of the paper-substrate TEG, wherein the power density and maximum achievable temperature gradient of the paper-substrate TEG is set by folding the paper-substrate TEG.

  20. Severity scores in trauma patients admitted to ICU. Physiological and anatomic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serviá, L; Badia, M; Montserrat, N; Trujillano, J

    2018-02-02

    The goals of this project were to compare both the anatomic and physiologic severity scores in trauma patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), and to elaborate mixed statistical models to improve the precision of the scores. A prospective study of cohorts. The combined medical/surgical ICU in a secondary university hospital. Seven hundred and eighty trauma patients admitted to ICU older than 16 years of age. Anatomic models (ISS and NISS) were compared and combined with physiological models (T-RTS, APACHE II [APII], and MPM II). The probability of death was calculated following the TRISS method. The discrimination was assessed using ROC curves (ABC [CI 95%]), and the calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshoẃs H test. The mixed models were elaborated with the tree classification method type Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detection. A 14% global mortality was recorded. The physiological models presented the best discrimination values (APII of 0.87 [0.84-0.90]). All models were affected by bad calibration (P<.01). The best mixed model resulted from the combination of APII and ISS (0.88 [0.83-0.90]). This model was able to differentiate between a 7.5% mortality for elderly patients with pathological antecedents and a 25% mortality in patients presenting traumatic brain injury, from a pool of patients with APII values ranging from 10 to 17 and an ISS threshold of 22. The physiological models perform better than the anatomical models in traumatic patients admitted to the ICU. Patients with low scores in the physiological models require an anatomic analysis of the injuries to determine their severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms: Attention/Scatter correction, motion compensation, and noise reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Se Young [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    PET and SPECT are important tools for providing valuable molecular information about patients to clinicians. Advances in nuclear medicine hardware technologies and statistical image reconstruction algorithms enabled significantly improved image quality. Sequentially or simultaneously acquired anatomical images such as CT and MRI from hybrid scanners are also important ingredients for improving the image quality of PET or SPECT further. High-quality anatomical information has been used and investigated for attenuation and scatter corrections, motion compensation, and noise reduction via post-reconstruction filtering and regularization in inverse problems. In this article, we will review works using anatomical information for molecular image reconstruction algorithms for better image quality by describing mathematical models, discussing sources of anatomical information for different cases, and showing some examples.

  2. La anatomía comparada: su vigencia como programa de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala, Virginia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En los círculos científicos actuales predomina la idea de que la anatomía es casi un anacronismo victoriano, salvo en el contexto de proveedora de caracteres para análisis filogenéticos. Esta estimación del rol de la anatomía como una actividad subordinada lleva implícita la idea de que no se trata más de una disciplina científica. Que probablemente lo haya sido, pero que no merece más ese status.

  3. Plastic properties of thin films on substrates as measured by submicron indentation hardness and substrate curvature techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, M.F.; Gardner, D.S.; Nix, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Substrate curvature and submicron indentation measurements have been used recently to study plastic deformation in thin films on substrates. In the present work both of these techniques have been employed to study the strength of aluminum and tungsten thin films on silicon substrates. In the case of aluminum films on silicon substrates, the film strength is found to increase with decreasing thickness. Grain size variations with film thickness do not account for the variations in strength. Wafer curvature measurements give strengths higher than those predicted from hardness measurements suggesting the substrate plays a role in strengthening the film. The observed strengthening effect with decreased thickness may be due to image forces on dislocations in the film due to the elastically stiffer silicon substrate. For sputtered tungsten films, where the substrate is less stiff than the film, the film strength decreases with decreasing film thickness

  4. PrenDB, a Substrate Prediction Database to Enable Biocatalytic Use of Prenyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunera, Jakub; Kindinger, Florian; Li, Shu-Ming; Kolb, Peter

    2017-03-10

    Prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) superfamily catalyze the attachment of prenyl or prenyl-like moieties to diverse acceptor compounds. These acceptor molecules are generally aromatic in nature and mostly indole or indole-like. Their catalytic transformation represents a major skeletal diversification step in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including the indole alkaloids. DMATS enzymes thus contribute significantly to the biological and pharmacological diversity of small molecule metabolites. Understanding the substrate specificity of these enzymes could create opportunities for their biocatalytic use in preparing complex synthetic scaffolds. However, there has been no framework to achieve this in a rational way. Here, we report a chemoinformatic pipeline to enable prenyltransferase substrate prediction. We systematically catalogued 32 unique prenyltransferases and 167 unique substrates to create possible reaction matrices and compiled these data into a browsable database named PrenDB. We then used a newly developed algorithm based on molecular fragmentation to automatically extract reactive chemical epitopes. The analysis of the collected data sheds light on the thus far explored substrate space of DMATS enzymes. To assess the predictive performance of our virtual reaction extraction tool, 38 potential substrates were tested as prenyl acceptors in assays with three prenyltransferases, and we were able to detect turnover in >55% of the cases. The database, PrenDB (www.kolblab.org/prendb.php), enables the prediction of potential substrates for chemoenzymatic synthesis through substructure similarity and virtual chemical transformation techniques. It aims at making prenyltransferases and their highly regio- and stereoselective reactions accessible to the research community for integration in synthetic work flows. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA controls enzyme activity and localization of its protein substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Pedersen, Malene Mejer; Paspaliari, Dafni Katerina

    2010-01-01

    -phosphorylated proteins in B. subtilis. We found that the majority of these proteins could be phosphorylated by PtkA in vitro. Among these new substrates, single-stranded DNA exonuclease YorK, and aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase Asd were activated by PtkA-dependent phosphorylation. Because enzyme activity......A was dramatically altered in Delta ptkA background. Our results confirm that PtkA can control enzyme activity of its substrates in some cases, but also reveal a new mode of action for PtkA, namely ensuring correct cellular localization of its targets.......P>Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA was previously shown to phosphorylate, and thereby regulate the activity of two classes of protein substrates: UDP-glucose dehydrogenases and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. Our recent phosphoproteome study identified nine new tyrosine...

  6. In vivo estimation of normal amygdala volume from structural MRI scans with anatomical-based segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siozopoulos, Achilleas; Thomaidis, Vasilios; Prassopoulos, Panos; Fiska, Aliki

    2018-02-01

    Literature includes a number of studies using structural MRI (sMRI) to determine the volume of the amygdala, which is modified in various pathologic conditions. The reported values vary widely mainly because of different anatomical approaches to the complex. This study aims at estimating of the normal amygdala volume from sMRI scans using a recent anatomical definition described in a study based on post-mortem material. The amygdala volume has been calculated in 106 healthy subjects, using sMRI and anatomical-based segmentation. The resulting volumes have been analyzed for differences related to hemisphere, sex, and age. The mean amygdalar volume was estimated at 1.42 cm 3 . The mean right amygdala volume has been found larger than the left, but the difference for the raw values was within the limits of the method error. No intersexual differences or age-related alterations have been observed. The study provides a method for determining the boundaries of the amygdala in sMRI scans based on recent anatomical considerations and an estimation of the mean normal amygdala volume from a quite large number of scans for future use in comparative studies.

  7. Notes from the field: Investigation of infectious disease risks associated with a nontransplant anatomical donation center--Arizona, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A; Bernard, Bruce P; Delaney, Lisa J; Pesik, Nicki; Cohen, Nicole J

    2014-05-02

    CDC is investigating reports of potential occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis among workers performing preparation and dissection procedures on human nontransplant anatomical materials at a nontransplant anatomical donation center in Arizona. CDC is working with Arizona public health officials to inform persons exposed to these potentially infected materials. Nontransplant anatomical centers around the United States process thousands of donated cadavers annually. These materials (which might be fresh, frozen, or chemically preserved) are used by universities and surgical instrument and pharmaceutical companies for medical education and research. The American Association of Tissue Banks has developed accreditation policies for nontransplant anatomical donation organizations. It also has written standards that specify exclusion criteria for donor material, as well as use of proper environmental controls and safe work practices to prevent transmission of infectious agents during receipt and handling of nontransplant anatomical materials. At the center under investigation, which is now closed, these standards might not have been consistently implemented.

  8. Lingual Foramina and Canals of the Mandible: Anatomic Variations in a Lebanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Aoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular lingual foramina (LF and canals and their anatomic variations using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT technology in a Lebanese population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we analyzed CBCT images of 90 adult Lebanese patients (41 males and 49 females. We assessed the number and location of the LF. In additional, we measured: (a The distance from both the alveolar crest and the inferior border of the mandible to the LF and (b the length of the lingual canals (LCs. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Shapiro–Wilk normality test, t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: In our sample, the LF and canals were present in 93.33% of the CBCT analyzed, and the majority (76.64% was located above the genial tubercles. The distance from the foramen of the superior and the inferior LCs to the alveolar crest was 16.24 ± 2.82 mm and 25.49 ± 2.43 mm, respectively. The distance from the foramen of the superior canal to the inferior border of the mandible was 14 ± 2.32 mm. The mean length of the superior canal was 5.81 ± 1.6 mm and 4.25 ± 1.2 mm for the inferior one. There were no gender-related differences in the anatomic characteristics of the LF and canals except for the distance measured from the superior canal foramina to the alveolar crest where the measurement was significantly greater in males compared to females. Neither the number of canals nor the positions of the foramina were different between males and females. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that in our sample of Lebanese adults, there was substantial variability in the LF and canals anatomy and location.

  9. Biofunctionalization on alkylated silicon substrate surfaces via "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guoting; Santos, Catherine; Zhang, Wen; Li, Yan; Kumar, Amit; Erasquin, Uriel J; Liu, Kai; Muradov, Pavel; Trautner, Barbara Wells; Cai, Chengzhi

    2010-11-24

    Biofunctionalization of silicon substrates is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and devices. Compared to conventional organosiloxane films on silicon oxide intermediate layers, organic monolayers directly bound to the nonoxidized silicon substrates via Si-C bonds enhance the sensitivity of detection and the stability against hydrolytic cleavage. Such monolayers presenting a high density of terminal alkynyl groups for bioconjugation via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC, a "click" reaction) were reported. However, yields of the CuAAC reactions on these monolayer platforms were low. Also, the nonspecific adsorption of proteins on the resultant surfaces remained a major obstacle for many potential biological applications. Herein, we report a new type of "clickable" monolayers grown by selective, photoactivated surface hydrosilylation of α,ω-alkenynes, where the alkynyl terminal is protected with a trimethylgermanyl (TMG) group, on hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates. The TMG groups on the film are readily removed in aqueous solutions in the presence of Cu(I). Significantly, the degermanylation and the subsequent CuAAC reaction with various azides could be combined into a single step in good yields. Thus, oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) with an azido tag was attached to the TMG-alkyne surfaces, leading to OEG-terminated surfaces that reduced the nonspecific adsorption of protein (fibrinogen) by >98%. The CuAAC reaction could be performed in microarray format to generate arrays of mannose and biotin with varied densities on the protein-resistant OEG background. We also demonstrated that the monolayer platform could be functionalized with mannose for highly specific capturing of living targets (Escherichia coli expressing fimbriae) onto the silicon substrates.

  10. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  11. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  12. Graphene on insulating crystalline substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcoeltekin, S; El Kharrazi, M; Koehler, B; Lorke, A; Schleberger, M

    2009-01-01

    We show that it is possible to prepare and identify ultra-thin sheets of graphene on crystalline substrates such as SrTiO 3 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaF 2 by standard techniques (mechanical exfoliation, optical and atomic force microscopy). On the substrates under consideration we find a similar distribution of single layer, bilayer and few-layer graphene and graphite flakes as with conventional SiO 2 substrates. The optical contrast C of a single graphene layer on any of those substrates is determined by calculating the optical properties of a two-dimensional metallic sheet on the surface of a dielectric, which yields values between C = -1.5% (G/TiO 2 ) and C = -8.8% (G/CaF 2 ). This contrast is in reasonable agreement with experimental data and is sufficient to make identification by an optical microscope possible. The graphene layers cover the crystalline substrate in a carpet-like mode and the height of single layer graphene on any of the crystalline substrates as determined by atomic force microscopy is d SLG = 0.34 nm and thus much smaller than on SiO 2 .

  13. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Matos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film.METHODS: An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements.RESULTS: From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements.CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  14. Laparoscopic Cryoablation Of Small Renal Tumors – Does Anatomical Tumor Complexity Affect Treatment Outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Andersen, Gratien

    risk in relation to nephron sparing surgery, but they may also be useful when planning cryoablation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients with an anatomical complex tumor, represented by a high PADUA-score (≥10), carried a higher risk of residual unablated tumor...... compared to patients with a less anatomical complex tumor when treated with laparoscopic cryoablation. Material and methods: A retrospective review of Aarhus Cryoablation Register identified 120 patients with a single biopsy-verified pT1a renal tumor, treated with primary laparoscopic cryoablation between....... This relative risk of 2.9 (95%CI 1.1;7.6) was statistically significant (p=0.03). The mean follow-up time from treatment to diagnosis of treatment failure was 13 months (95%CI 8;18), which was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Patients with an anatomical complex tumor, represented...

  15. Laparoscopic Cryoablation Of Small Renal Tumors – Does Anatomical Tumor Complexity Effect Treatment Outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Andersen, Gratien

    risk in relation to nephron sparing surgery, but they may also be useful when planning cryoablation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients with an anatomical complex tumor, represented by a high PADUA-score (≥10), carried a higher risk of residual unablated tumor...... compared to patients with a less anatomical complex tumor when treated with laparoscopic cryoablation. Material and methods: A retrospective review of Aarhus Cryoablation Register identified 120 patients with a single biopsy-verified pT1a renal tumor, treated with primary laparoscopic cryoablation between....... This relative risk of 2.9 (95%CI 1.1;7.6) was statistically significant (p=0.03). The mean follow-up time from treatment to diagnosis of treatment failure was 13 months (95%CI 8;18), which was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Patients with an anatomical complex tumor, represented...

  16. Anatomical and spatial matching in imitation: Evidence from left and right brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengotti, Paola; Ripamonti, Enrico; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2015-12-01

    Imitation is a sensorimotor process whereby the visual information present in the model's movement has to be coupled with the activation of the motor system in the observer. This also implies that greater the similarity between the seen and the produced movement, the easier it will be to execute the movement, a process also known as ideomotor compatibility. Two components can influence the degree of similarity between two movements: the anatomical and the spatial component. The anatomical component is present when the model and imitator move the same body part (e.g., the right hand) while the spatial component is present when the movement of the model and that of the imitator occur at the same spatial position. Imitation can be achieved by relying on both components, but typically the model's and imitator's movements are matched either anatomically or spatially. The aim of this study was to ascertain the contribution of the left and right hemisphere to the imitation accomplished either with anatomical or spatial matching (or with both). Patients with unilateral left and right brain damage performed an ideomotor task and a gesture imitation task. Lesions in the left and right hemispheres gave rise to different performance deficits. Patients with lesions in the left hemisphere showed impaired imitation when anatomical matching was required, and patients with lesions in the right hemisphere showed impaired imitation when spatial matching was required. Lesion analysis further revealed a differential involvement of left and right hemispheric regions, such as the parietal opercula, in supporting imitation in the ideomotor task. Similarly, gesture imitation seemed to rely on different regions in the left and right hemisphere, such as parietal regions in the left hemisphere and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical regions in the right hemisphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integration substrate with a ultra-high-density capacitor and a through-substrate via

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Roozeboom, F.; Ruigrok, J.J.M.; Reefman, D.

    2014-01-01

    An integration substrate for a system in package comprises a through-substrate via and a trench capacitor wherein with a trench filling that includes at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers in an alternating arrangement with dielectric layers. --The capacitor-electrode

  18. Congenital blindness is associated with large-scale reorganization of anatomical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Uri; Andric, Michael; Atilgan, Hicret; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Blindness is a unique model for understanding the role of experience in the development of the brain's functional and anatomical architecture. Documenting changes in the structure of anatomical networks for this population would substantiate the notion that the brain's core network-level organization may undergo neuroplasticity as a result of life-long experience. To examine this issue, we compared whole-brain networks of regional cortical-thickness covariance in early blind and matched sighted individuals. This covariance is thought to reflect signatures of integration between systems involved in similar perceptual/cognitive functions. Using graph-theoretic metrics, we identified a unique mode of anatomical reorganization in the blind that differed from that found for sighted. This was seen in that network partition structures derived from subgroups of blind were more similar to each other than they were to partitions derived from sighted. Notably, after deriving network partitions, we found that language and visual regions tended to reside within separate modules in sighted but showed a pattern of merging into shared modules in the blind. Our study demonstrates that early visual deprivation triggers a systematic large-scale reorganization of whole-brain cortical-thickness networks, suggesting changes in how occipital regions interface with other functional networks in the congenitally blind. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomical traces of vocabulary acquisition in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HweeLing; Devlin, Joseph T; Shakeshaft, Clare; Stewart, Lauren H; Brennan, Amanda; Glensman, Jen; Pitcher, Katherine; Crinion, Jenny; Mechelli, Andrea; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-31

    A surprising discovery in recent years is that the structure of the adult human brain changes when a new cognitive or motor skill is learned. This effect is seen as a change in local gray or white matter density that correlates with behavioral measures. Critically, however, the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms underlying these learning-related structural brain changes remain unknown. Here, we combined brain imaging, detailed behavioral analyses, and white matter tractography in English-speaking monolingual adolescents to show that a critical linguistic prerequisite (namely, knowledge of vocabulary) is proportionately related to relative gray matter density in bilateral posterior supramarginal gyri. The effect was specific to the number of words learned, regardless of verbal fluency or other cognitive abilities. The identified region was found to have direct connections to other inferior parietal areas that separately process either the sounds of words or their meanings, suggesting that the posterior supramarginal gyrus plays a role in linking the basic components of vocabulary knowledge. Together, these analyses highlight the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms that mediate an essential language skill.

  20. Clinical effect of anatomical hepatectomy in treatment of intrahepatic bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Dianbei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of anatomical hepatectomy in the treatment of intrahepatic bile duct stones. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 117 patients with intrahepatic bile duct stones who underwent hepatectomy in The Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College from July 2013 to December 2015. Among these patients, 66 underwent anatomical hepatectomy (anatomical hepatectomy group and 51 underwent irregular hepatectomy (irregular hepatectomy group. The time of operation, intraoperative blood loss, volume of drainage on the day after surgery, serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and total bilirubin (TBil, and length of postoperative hospital stay were recorded, as well as the patients′ general status, liver function parameters, and abdominal ultrasound, and CT or MRI findings from 2 months to 2 years after discharge, to observe the presence or absence of residual stones or stone recurrence. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsCompared with the irregular hepatectomy group, the anatomical hepatectomy group had a significantly longer time of operation (303.1±51.6 min vs 246.5±36.2 min, t=6.963, P<0.01, but it had significantly less intraoperative blood loss (467.9±80.6 ml vs 565.9±92.0 ml, t=6.026, P<0.01, a significantly lower volume of drainage on the day after surgery (212.6±54.9 ml vs 358.3±69.4 ml, t=12.682, P<0.01, a significantly lower incidence rate of complications (10.6% vs 25.5%, χ2=4.497, P=0.034, a significantly lower rate of postoperative residual stones (4.5% vs 15.7%, χ2=4.192, P=0.041, and a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (13.4±2.6 d vs 21.9±3.2 d, t=15.427, P<001. On day 3 after surgery, the anatomical hepatectomy group had significantly lower serum levels of ALT, AST, and

  1. Resting state cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity networks: A comparison of anatomical and self-organizing map approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a role in a wide variety of complex behaviors. In order to better understand the role of the cerebellum in human behavior, it is important to know how this structure interacts with cortical and other subcortical regions of the brain. To date, several studies have investigated the cerebellum using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI; Buckner et al., 2011; Krienen & Buckner, 2009; O’Reilly et al., 2009. However, none of this work has taken an anatomically-driven approach. Furthermore, though detailed maps of cerebral cortex and cerebellum networks have been proposed using different network solutions based on the cerebral cortex (Buckner et al., 2011, it remains unknown whether or not an anatomical lobular breakdown best encompasses the networks of the cerebellum. Here, we used fcMRI to create an anatomically-driven cerebellar connectivity atlas. Timecourses were extracted from the lobules of the right hemisphere and vermis. We found distinct networks for the individual lobules with a clear division into motor and non-motor regions. We also used a self-organizing map algorithm to parcellate the cerebellum. This allowed us to investigate redundancy and independence of the anatomically identified cerebellar networks. We found that while anatomical boundaries in the anterior cerebellum provide functional subdivisions of a larger motor grouping defined using our self-organizing map algorithm, in the posterior cerebellum, the lobules were made up of sub-regions associated with distinct functional networks. Together, our results indicate that the lobular boundaries of the human cerebellum are not indicative of functional boundaries, though anatomical divisions can be useful, as is the case of the anterior cerebellum. Additionally, driving the analyses from the cerebellum is key to determining the complete picture of functional connectivity within the structure.

  2. Strain rate effects on localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers

    OpenAIRE

    BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Due to their good mechanical and technological performances, thin substrate-supported metal layers are increasingly used as functional components in flexible electronic devices. Consequently, the prediction of necking, and the associated limit strains, for such components is of major academic and industrial importance. The current contribution aims to numerically investigate the respective and combined effects of strain rate sensitivity of the metal layer and the addition of an elastomer l...

  3. The Composition of Colonic Commensal Bacteria According to Anatomical Localization in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a multistage disease resulting from complex factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, chronic inflammation, diet, and lifestyle. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is a new and important player in the development of CRC. Imbalance of the gut microbiota, especially dysregulated gut bacteria, contributes to colon cancer through mechanisms of inflammation, host defense modulations, oxidative stress, and alterations in bacterial-derived metabolism. Gut commensal bacteria are anatomically defined as four populations: luminal commensal bacteria, mucus-resident bacteria, epithelium-resident bacteria, and lymphoid tissue-resident commensal bacteria. The bacterial flora that are harbored in the gastrointestinal (GI tract vary both longitudinally and cross-sectionally by different anatomical localization. It is notable that the translocation of colonic commensal bacteria is closely related to CRC progression. CRC-associated bacteria can serve as a non-invasive and accurate biomarker for CRC diagnosis. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the oncogenic roles of gut bacteria with different anatomical localization in CRC progression.

  4. Cultured representatives of two major phylogroups of human colonic Faecalibacterium prausnitzii can utilize pectin, uronic acids, and host-derived substrates for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Siles, Mireia; Khan, Tanweer M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Garcia-Gil, L Jesús; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the most abundant commensal bacteria in the healthy human large intestine, but information on genetic diversity and substrate utilization is limited. Here, we examine the phylogeny, phenotypic characteristics, and influence of gut environmental factors on growth of F. prausnitzii strains isolated from healthy subjects. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequences indicated that the cultured strains were representative of F. prausnitzii sequences detected by direct analysis of fecal DNA and separated the available isolates into two phylogroups. Most F. prausnitzii strains tested grew well under anaerobic conditions on apple pectin. Furthermore, F. prausnitzii strains competed successfully in coculture with two other abundant pectin-utilizing species, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Eubacterium eligens, with apple pectin as substrate, suggesting that this species makes a contribution to pectin fermentation in the colon. Many F. prausnitzii isolates were able to utilize uronic acids for growth, an ability previously thought to be confined to Bacteroides spp. among human colonic anaerobes. Most strains grew on N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating an ability to utilize host-derived substrates. All strains tested were bile sensitive, showing at least 80% growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 μg/ml bile salts, while inhibition at mildly acidic pH was strain dependent. These attributes help to explain the abundance of F. prausnitzii in the colonic community but also suggest factors in the gut environment that may limit its distribution.

  5. Does the anatomical localization of lower extremity venous diseases affect the quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikoglu, Ganime; Ozcakir, Alis; Ercan, Ilker; Yildiz, Caner; Sadikoglu, Yurtkuran

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the effects of venous diseases at different anatomical localizations on the qualities of life of patients with varicose veins. The study included 354 cases, which was referred to a private vascular and interventional radiology center in Bursa, Turkey between January 2005 to January 2006. The cases were diagnosed with visual inspection and were clinically indicative of varicose veins. Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to radiologically examine the varicose veins. All cases were accepted as class II criteria according to the Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, Pathophysiologic classification. The generic Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) was used to measure physical and mental quality of life (QOL). High scores indicated good QOL. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13.0 program was used for the statistical evaluation. When the life SF-36 quality parameters of cases with different anatomical localizations of the varicose veins were examined, only the mental health scores were found to differ in different groups (pemotional role scores among the mental state determinants. When females and males with deep vein disease were compared, significant differences were found among both physical and mental health determinants. Anatomical localization of lower extremity varicose veins can be accepted as a predictive factor in determining the life qualities of patients with varicosities in their lower limb, and should be used to regulate their therapy and follow up protocols.

  6. Electrocautery device does not provide adequate pulmonary vessel sealing in transumbilical anatomic pulmonary lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Ping; Chu, Yen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Liu, Chieng-Ying; Chen, Tzu-Ping; Chao, Yin-Kai; Wu, Ching-Yang; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Ko, Po-Jen; Liu, Yun-Hen

    2016-05-01

    Safe pulmonary vessel sealing device plays a crucial role in anatomic lung resection. In 2014, we reported high rates of massive bleeding complications during transumbilical lobectomy in a canine model due to difficulty in managing the pulmonary vessel with an endostapler. In this animal survival series, we aimed to evaluate the outcome of pulmonary vessel sealing with an electrocautery device to simplify the transumbilical thoracic surgery. Under general anesthesia, a 3-cm longitudinal incision was made over the umbilicus. Under video guidance, a bronchoscope was inserted through the incision for exploration. The diaphragmatic wound was created with an electrocautery knife and used as the entrance into the thoracic cavity. Using the transumbilical technique, anatomic lobectomy was performed with electrosurgical devices and endoscopic vascular staplers in 15 canines. Transumbilical endoscopic anatomic lobectomy was successfully completed in 12 of the 15 animals. Intraoperative bleeding developed in three animals during pulmonary hilum dissection, where one animal was killed due to hemodynamic instability and the other two animals required thoracotomy to complete the operation. There were five delayed bleeding and surgical mortality cases caused by inadequate vessel sealing by electrosurgical devices. Postmortem examination confirmed correct transumbilical lobectomy in the twelve animals that survived the operations. Transumbilical anatomic lobectomy is technically feasible in a canine model; however, the electrosurgical devices were not effective in sealing the pulmonary vessel in the current canine model.

  7. Electronic, structural, and substrate effect properties of single-layer covalent organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Liangbo; Zhu, Pan; Meunier, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Recently synthesized two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (COFs) exhibit high surface area, large pore size, and unique structural architectures, making them promising materials for various energy applications. Here, a total of nine COFs structures, including two deposited on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate, are investigated using density functional theory, quasi-particle many-body theory within the GW approximation, and an image charge model. The structures considered belong to two major families (thiophene-based COF-n (T-COF-n) and tetrakis (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin-x (TAPP-x)) differing from the presence of B—O or C=N linkers. While T-COF-n structures are shown to constitute planar networks, TAPP-x systems can display non-negligible corrugation due to the out-of-plane rotation of phenyl rings. We find that the electronic properties do not differ significantly when altering the chain molecules within each family. Many-body effects are shown to lead to large band-gap increase while the presence of the substrate yields appreciable reductions of the gaps, due to substrate polarization effects

  8. Substrate promiscuity of a rosmarinic acid synthase from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Christian; Hücherig, Stefanie; Fink, Barbara; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dittlein, Daniela; Coiner, Heather A; Schwab, Wilfried

    2011-08-01

    One of the most common types of modification of secondary metabolites is the acylation of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing substrates to produce esters and amides, respectively. Among the known acyltransferases, the members of the plant BAHD family are capable of acylating a wide variety of substrates. Two full-length acyltransferase cDNAs (LaAT1 and 2) were isolated from lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia L.) by reverse transcriptase-PCR using degenerate primers based on BAHD sequences. Recombinant LaAT1 exhibited a broad substrate tolerance accepting (hydroxy)cinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors and not only tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and anthranilic acid but also shikimic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid as acceptors. Thus, LaLT1 forms esters and amides like its phylogenetic neighbors. In planta LaAT1 might be involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid, the ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, a major constituent of lavender flowers. LaAT2 is one of three members of clade VI with unknown function.

  9. Integration substrate with a ultra-high-density capacitor and a through-substrate via

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    An integration substrate for a system in package comprises a through-substrate via and a trench capacitor wherein with a trench filling that includes at least 4 elec. conductive capacitor-electrode layers in an alternating arrangement with dielec. layers. The capacitor-electrode layers are

  10. STUDY OF THE ANATOMICAL AND VISUAL RESULTS OF THERAPEUTIC PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaya Ashok Shinde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for corneal infections restores anatomical integrity. Improvement in instrumentation and surgical techniques, better postoperative management have improved corneal transplant outcome. Purpose of the study was to know what are the anatomical and visual results after therapeutic keratoplasty and to judge what could be the factors affecting the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective, non-comparative, observational cohort study was done in 56 patient (56 eyes operated for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty at tertiary care institute .Patients were reviewed for demographic data, postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, graft clarity, and complications. Pre-operative treatment in bacterial infections included Cefazolin 50 mg/ml and Tobramycin 1.4 % or gentamicin 1.4% half hourly, 1% atropine drops. Fungal infections were treated with Natamycin 5% suspension. Debridement was done. Amphotericin B was used against yeasts. Voriconazole (1% eye drops were given in Aspergillus species. With full aseptic precautions penetrating keratoplasty was carried out. The graft was 0.5 mm larger than the lesion. Keratoplasties were evaluated for (1 Graft clarity at 1 month and 1 year postoperative. (2 Cure of the infectious disease after surgery. (3 Anatomical success rate and visual results. RESULTS At the end of one year clear graft with bacterial keratitis was seen in 23 eyes (74.19% out of 31 eyes. In fungal keratitis clear graft was seen in 10 eyes (45.45% out of 22 eyes. 48.22% patients had vision of FC 1m-6/60 compared to preoperative vision at the end of one year. At the end of one year anatomical integrity was maintained in 53 (94.64% cases and it was lost in 5.36% patients. CONCLUSION Patients who underwent keratoplasty with 7.5 mm graft size had maximum graft clarity at the end of one year. Graft was clear in 36 patients (64.29% out of total 56 patients. At the end of 1 year vision improved to FC 1 mt

  11. Posterolateral Corner Reconstruction using the Anatomical Two-Tailed Graft Technique: Clinical Outcomes in the Multiligament Injured Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmass, Jarret M; Sanders, Thomas L; Johnson, Nick R; Wu, Isabella T; Krych, Aaron J; Stuart, Michael J; Levy, Bruce A

    2018-02-14

    Injury to the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee can lead to both varus and rotational instability. Multiple PLC reconstruction techniques have been described, including one-tailed graft (fibula-based constructs) or two-tailed graft (combined fibula- and tibia-based constructs). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of anatomical two-tailed graft reconstruction of the PLC in the setting of multiligament knee injuries (MKLIs) with grade III varus instability. Patients were identified through a prospective MLKI d