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Sample records for major allergic immune

  1. Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, C M; Larsen, J M; Dabelsteen, S

    2010-01-01

    Background p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances are ingredients of more than two-thirds of oxidative (permanent) hair dyes currently used. Although PPD is a potent skin sensitizer in predictive assays, the extent to which permanent hair dyes sensitize humans has been questioned due...... to the in-use conditions, e.g. the presence of couplers in the hair dye gel and rapid oxidation using a developer. Objectives To study the skin sensitizing potential of permanent hair dyes in mice. Methods Two different permanent hair dye products containing PPD were studied in CBA mice using a modified......-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators...

  2. Modulation of allergic immune responses by mucosal application of recombinant lactic acid bacteria producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Repa, A; Wild, C; Pollak, A; Pot, B; Breiteneder, H; Wiedermann, U; Mercenier, A

    2006-07-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are able to modulate the host immune system and clinical trials have demonstrated that specific strains have the capacity to reduce allergic symptoms. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the potential of recombinant LAB producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 for mucosal vaccination against birch pollen allergy. Recombinant Bet v 1-producing Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis strains were constructed. Their immunogenicity was compared with purified Bet v 1 by subcutaneous immunization of mice. Intranasal application of the live recombinant strains was performed to test their immunomodulatory potency in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy. Bet v 1 produced by the LAB was recognized by monoclonal anti-Bet v 1 and IgE antibodies from birch pollen-allergic patients. Systemic immunization with the recombinant strains induced significantly lower IgG1/IgG2a ratios compared with purified Bet v 1. Intranasal pretreatment led to reduced allergen-specific IgE vs enhanced IgG2a levels and reduced interleukin (IL)-5 production of splenocytes in vitro, indicating a shift towards non-allergic T-helper-1 (Th1) responses. Airway inflammation, i.e. eosinophils and IL-5 in lung lavages, was reduced using either Bet v 1-producing or control strains. Allergen-specific secretory IgA responses were enhanced in lungs and intestines after pretreatment with only the Bet v 1-producing strains. Mucosal vaccination with live recombinant LAB, leading to a shift towards non-allergic immune responses along with enhanced allergen-specific mucosal IgA levels offers a promising approach to prevent systemic and local allergic immune responses.

  3. Importins and Exportins Regulating Allergic Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

  4. Impact on allergic immune response after treatment with vitamin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Berggård, Karin; Barrios, Yvelise

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitamin A may have some influence on the immune system, but the role in allergy modulation is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether high levels of retinoic acid (RA) affects allergic response in vivo, we used a murine experimental model of airway allergic disease...

  5. Effects of mycobacteria major secretion protein, Ag85B, on allergic inflammation in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsujimura

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have suggested that the recent increase in prevalence and severity of allergic diseases such as asthma is inversely correlated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccination. However, the underlying mechanisms by which mycobacterial components suppress allergic diseases are not yet fully understood. Here we showed the inhibitory mechanisms for development of allergic airway inflammation by using highly purified recombinant Ag85B (rAg85B, which is one of the major protein antigens secreted from M. tuberculosis. Ag85B is thought to be a single immunogenic protein that can elicit a strong Th1-type immune response in hosts infected with mycobacteria, including individuals vaccinated with BCG. Administration of rAg85B showed a strong inhibitory effect on the development of allergic airway inflammation with induction of Th1-response and IL-17and IL-22 production. Both cytokines induced by rAg85B were involved in the induction of Th17-related cytokine-production innate immune cells in the lung. Administration of neutralizing antibodies to IL-17 or IL-22 in rAg85B-treated mice revealed that IL-17 induced the infiltration of neutrophils in BAL fluid and that allergen-induced bronchial eosinophilia was inhibited by IL-22. Furthermore, enhancement of the expression of genes associated with tissue homeostasis and wound healing was observed in bronchial tissues after rAg85B administration in a Th17-related cytokine dependent manner. The results of this study provide evidence for the potential usefulness of rAg85B as a novel approach for anti-allergic effect and tissue repair other than the role as a conventional TB vaccine.

  6. Up-date on neuro-immune mechanisms involved in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, L.; Boeckxstaens, G.; Hellings, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) is a common disorder, which can be defined as chronic nasal inflammation, independent of systemic IgE-mediated mechanisms. Symptoms of NAR patients mimic those of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. However, AR patients can easily be diagnosed with skin prick test or

  7. Blocking antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic parvalbumin mutant reduce allergic symptoms in a mouse model of fish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Raphaela; Gstoettner, Antonia; Baranyi, Ulrike; Swoboda, Ines; Stolz, Frank; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Wekerle, Thomas; van Ree, Ronald; Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, Birgit

    2017-06-01

    Fish is a frequent elicitor of severe IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Beside avoidance, there is currently no allergen-specific therapy available. Hypoallergenic variants of the major fish allergen, parvalbumin, for specific immunotherapy based on mutation of the 2 calcium-binding sites have been developed. This study sought to establish a mouse model of fish allergy resembling human disease and to investigate whether mouse and rabbit IgG antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic mutant of the major carp allergen protect against allergic symptoms in sensitized mice. C3H/HeJ mice were sensitized with recombinant wildtype Cyp c 1 or carp extract by intragastric gavage. Antibody, cellular immune responses, and epitope specificity in sensitized mice were investigated by ELISA, rat basophil leukemia assay, T-cell proliferation experiments using recombinant wildtype Cyp c 1, and overlapping peptides spanning the Cyp c 1 sequence. Anti-hypoallergenic Cyp c 1 mutant mouse and rabbit sera were tested for their ability to inhibit IgE recognition of Cyp c 1, Cyp c 1-specific basophil degranulation, and Cyp c 1-induced allergic symptoms in the mouse model. A mouse model of fish allergy mimicking human disease regarding IgE epitope recognition and symptoms as close as possible was established. Administration of antisera generated in mice and rabbits by immunization with a hypoallergenic Cyp c 1 mutant inhibited IgE binding to Cyp c 1, Cyp c 1-induced basophil degranulation, and allergic symptoms caused by allergen challenge in sensitized mice. Antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic Cyp c 1 mutant protect against allergic reactions in a murine model of fish allergy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity-Cell-mediated Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. The Major Players in Adaptive Immunity - Cell-mediated Immunity. Asma Ahmed Banishree Saha Anand Patwardhan Shwetha Shivaprasad Dipankar Nandi. General Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 610-621 ...

  9. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-01-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances

  10. ALLERGIC ASTHMA AND THE DEVELOPING IMMUNE SYSTEM: A PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: The predisposition towards atopic disease begins early in life, and that the risk of developing asthma is heightened following prenatal exposure to some compounds. Nonetheless, the effect of gestational aeroallergen exposure on the developing immune system is unclear....

  11. Innate immunity and effector and regulatory mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Marilene Chaves; Sato, Maria Notomi; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos

    2018-03-01

    Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The antigen-specific inflammation is mediated by T cells, and each subtype of T cells (Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, and Th17/Tc17) activates resident skin cells, thus contributing to inflammation. Skin's regulatory T cells have a strong ability to inhibit the proliferation of hapten-specific T cells, acting at the end of the Allergic Contact Dermatitis response and in the control of systemic immune responses. In this review, we report how cutaneous innate immunity is the first line of defense and focus its role in the activation of the adaptive immune response, with effector response induction and its regulation.

  12. Innate immunity and effector and regulatory mechanisms involved in allergic contact dermatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Marilene Chaves; Sato, Maria Notomi; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2018-01-01

    Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis. The antigen-specific inflammation is mediated by T cells, and each subtype of T cells (Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, and Th17/Tc17) activates resident skin cells, thus contributing to inflammation. Skin's regulatory T cells have a strong ability to inhibit the proliferation of hapten-specific T cells, acting at the end of the Allergic Contact Dermatitis response and in the control of systemic immune responses. In this review, we report how cutaneous innate immunity is the first line of defense and focus its role in the activation of the adaptive immune response, with effector response induction and its regulation. PMID:29723367

  13. Maternal immune response to helminth infection during pregnancy determines offspring susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubinger, Kathrin; Paul, Sabine; Prazeres da Costa, Olivia; Ritter, Manuel; Buch, Thorsten; Busch, Dirk H; Layland, Laura E; Prazeres da Costa, Clarissa U

    2014-12-01

    Schistosomiasis, a chronic helminth infection, elicits distinct immune responses within the host, ranging from an initial TH1 and subsequent TH2 phase to a regulatory state, and is associated with dampened allergic reactions within the host. We sought to evaluate whether non-transplacental helminth infection during pregnancy alters the offspring's susceptibility to allergy. Ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation was analyzed in offspring from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mothers mated during the TH1, TH2, or regulatory phase of infection. Embryos derived from in vitro fertilized oocytes of acutely infected females were transferred into uninfected foster mice to determine the role of placental environment. The fetomaternal unit was further characterized by helminth-specific immune responses and microarray analyses. Eventually, IFN-γ-deficient mice were infected to evaluate the role of this predominant cytokine on the offspring's allergy phenotype. We demonstrate that offspring from schistosome-infected mothers that were mated in the TH1 and regulatory phases, but not the TH2 immune phase, are protected against the onset of allergic airway inflammation. Interestingly, these effects were associated with distinctly altered schistosome-specific cytokine and gene expression profiles within the fetomaternal interface. Furthermore, we identified that it is not the transfer of helminth antigens but rather maternally derived IFN-γ during the acute phase of infection that is essential for the progeny's protective immune phenotype. Overall, we present a novel immune phase-dependent coherency between the maternal immune responses during schistosomiasis and the progeny's predisposition to allergy. Therefore, we propose to include helminth-mediated transmaternal immune modulation into the expanded hygiene hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The measurement of cell mediated immunity by radioimmunoassay in desensitizing treatment with acupoints for allergic asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ronglin; Luan Meiling; Wang Mingsuo; Liu Keliang

    1994-05-01

    Three mitogens consisted of PHA, PWM, LPS were used to activate lymphocytes. Lymphocyte transformation with radioisotope incorporation of 3 H-TdR was done in 20 patients with allergic asthma and 14 healthy persons as control groups. Cell mediated immune in these cases of desensitizing treatment with acupoints were studied. The experiments showed that the incorporation rates of 3 H-TdR, acupoints were studied. The experiments showed that the incorporation rates of 3 H-TdR, activated by PHA, PWM, LPS, of the allergic asthma patients were P>0.05, P 3 H-TdR in lymphocytes after desensitizing treatment with acupoints compared with that before the treatment tended to be normal. Lymphocyte transformation difference of 3 H-TdR incorporation rates between this group and A or B control groups was significant (P<0.01). This study provides scientific clinical experimental evidences for researching cell mediated immune in attack and curative effects of allergic asthma

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: An update on immune interactions and molecular diagnostics in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, A; Romain, T; Ranque, S; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Dubus, J-C; Mège, J-L; Vitte, J

    2017-11-01

    A wide spectrum of pathological conditions may result from the interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus and the immune system of its human host. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is one of the most severe A. fumigatus-related diseases due to possible evolution toward pleuropulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in cystic fibrosis or asthmatic patients. An estimated 8%-10% of patients with cystic fibrosis experience this condition. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis relies on criteria first established in 1977. Progress in the understanding of host-pathogen interactions in A. fumigatus and patients with cystic fibrosis and the ongoing validation of novel laboratory tools concur to update and improve the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  16. Th2-like chemokine levels are increased in allergic children and influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelius, Martina S; Lempinen, Esma; Lindblad, Karin; Ernerudh, Jan; Berg, Göran; Matthiesen, Leif; Nilsson, Lennart J; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2014-06-01

    The influence of the intra-uterine environment on the immunity and allergy development in the offspring is unclear. We aimed to investigate (i) whether the pregnancy magnifies the Th2 immunity in allergic and non-allergic women, (ii) whether the maternal chemokine levels during pregnancy influenced the offspring's chemokine levels during childhood and (iii) the relationship between circulating Th1/Th2-associated chemokines and allergy in mothers and children. The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and the Th2-associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 were quantified by Luminex and ELISA in 20 women with and 36 women without allergic symptoms at gestational week (gw) 10-12, 15-16, 25, 35, 39 and 2 and 12 months post-partum and in their children at birth, 6, 12, 24 months and 6 years of age. Total IgE levels were measured using ImmunoCAP Technology. The levels of the Th2-like chemokines were not magnified by pregnancy. Instead decreased levels were shown during pregnancy (irrespectively of maternal allergy status) as compared to post-partum. In the whole group, the Th1-like chemokine levels were higher at gw 39 than during the first and second trimester and post-partum. Maternal CXCL11, CCL18 and CCL22 levels during and after pregnancy correlated with the corresponding chemokines in the offspring during childhood. Increased CCL22 and decreased CXCL10 levels in the children were associated with sensitisation and increased CCL17 levels with allergic symptoms during childhood. Maternal chemokine levels were not associated with maternal allergic disease. Allergic symptoms and sensitisation were associated with decreased Th1- and increased Th2-associated chemokine levels during childhood, indicating a Th2 shift in the allergic children, possibly influenced by the maternal immunity during pregnancy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Residential proximity to major roadways is associated with increased prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Porebski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Numerous epidemiologic studies have reported increased risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma in relation to ‘western life-style’, which represents diversity of factors. We hypothesized that residential proximity to major roadways, reflecting an exposure to traffic-related air pollution, is associated with prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in children. [b]materials and methods[/b]. A total of 8290 individuals of two age groups: 16 year olds and 7 year olds from Krakow, Poland were included. We used the Polish version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood supplemented with a question concerning the distance between a responder’s house and a high traffic density road: below 200 m, from 200–500 m, or more than 500 m. [b]results[/b]. Children and adolescents with a residential proximity closer to a major roadway had more frequent asthma-related symptoms in the last 12 months and at any time in the past. Consistent with the increased frequency of asthmatic symptoms, responders residing within 200 meters complained more often of sneezing, runny or blocked nose accompanied by itchy-watery eyes and hay fever in comparison to responders who resided 200–500 meters from a major roadway. The lowest rate of nasal symptoms was observed in residents living in the distance to major roads (> 500 meters. The rate of positive answers decreased in a distant-dependent manner. [b]conclusions[/b]. Our findings suggest an important spatial relationship between the distance from a major roadway and the evaluated respiratory symptoms. The results emphasize the need for more comprehensive air quality policies within urban areas with increased motor vehicle density.

  19. Th17 immunity in children with allergic asthma and rhinitis: a pharmacological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusy Daniela Albano

    Full Text Available Th17 cells and IL-17A play a role in the development and progression of allergic diseases. We analyzed the IL-17A levels in sputum supernatants (Ss, nasal wash (NW and plasma (P from Healthy Controls (HC and children with Asthma/Rhinitis. We tested the expression of IL-17A, RORγ(t and FOXP3 in peripheral blood T-lymphocytes from intermittent and mild-moderate asthma. The effect of Budesonide and Formoterol was tested "in vitro" on IL-17A, RORγ(t and FOXP3 expression in cultured T-lymphocytes from mild-moderate asthma/persistent rhinitis patients, and on nasal and bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with NW and Ss from mild-moderate asthma/persistent rhinitis. Further, the effect of 12 weeks of treatment with Budesonide and Formoterol was tested "in vivo" in T-lymphocytes from mild-moderate asthma/persistent rhinitis patients. IL-17A was increased in Ss, NW and P from children with mild-moderate asthma compared with intermittent and HC. In cultured T-lymphocytes IL-17A and RORγ(t expression were higher in mild-moderate asthma/persistent rhinitis than in mild-moderate asthma/intermittent rhinitis, while FOXP3 was reduced. Budesonide with Formoterol reduced IL-17A and RORγ(t, while increased FOXP3 in cultured T-lymphocytes from mild-moderate asthma/persistent rhinitis, and reduced the IL-8 release mediated by IL-17A present in NW and Ss from mild-moderate asthma/persistent rhinitis in nasal and bronchial epithelial cells. Finally, Budesonide with Formoterol reduced IL-17A levels in P and Ss, CD4(+IL-17A(+T-cells, in naïve children with mild-moderate asthma/persistent rhinitis after 12 weeks of treatment. Th17 mediated immunity may be involved in the airway disease of children with allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Budesonide with Formoterol might be a useful tool for its therapeutic control.

  20. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

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    Kenichi Kumagai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  1. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

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    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  2. Protective effect of the DNA vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergens on allergic inflammation in the murine model of house dust mite allergy

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    Lee Jaechun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.

  3. Maternal allergic disease does not affect the phenotype of T and B cells or the immune response to allergens in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindsjö, E; Joerink, M; Johansson, C; Bremme, K; Malmström, V; Scheynius, A

    2010-07-01

    It is hypothesized that the in utero environment in allergic mothers can affect the neonatal immune responses. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of maternal allergic disease on cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) phenotype and proliferative responses upon allergen stimulation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 12 allergic and 14 nonallergic mothers and CBMC from their children were analysed. In the mothers, we determined cell proliferation, production of IL-4 and expression of FOXP3 in response to allergen stimulation. In the children, we evaluated cell proliferation and FOXP3 expression following allergen stimulation. Furthermore, expression of different homing markers on T cells and regulatory T cells and maturity of the T cells and B cell subsets were evaluated directly ex vivo. The timothy- and birch-allergic mothers responded with increased proliferation and/or IL-4 production towards timothy and birch extract, respectively, when compared to nonallergic mothers. This could not be explained by impairment of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells in the allergic mothers. CBMC proliferation and FOXP3 expression in response to allergens were not affected by the allergic status of the mother. Also, phenotype of T cells, FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells and B cells was not affected by the allergic status of the mother. Our results suggest that maternal allergic disease has no effect on the neonatal response to allergens or the phenotype of neonatal lymphocytes. The factors studied here could, however, still affect later development of allergy.

  4. Blocking antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic parvalbumin mutant reduce allergic symptoms in a mouse model of fish allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Freidl, Raphaela; Gstoettner, Antonia; Baranyi, Ulrike; Swoboda, Ines; Stolz, Frank; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Wekerle, Thomas; van Ree, Ronald; Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish is a frequent elicitor of severe IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Beside avoidance, there is currently no allergen-specific therapy available. Hypoallergenic variants of the major fish allergen, parvalbumin, for specific immunotherapy based on mutation of the 2 calcium-binding sites have been developed. Objectives This study sought to establish a mouse model of fish allergy resembling human disease and to investigate whether mouse and rabbit IgG antibodies induced by immunizat...

  5. Maternal supplementation with LGG reduces vaccine-specific immune responses in infants at high-risk of developing allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V Licciardi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonisation at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognised as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N=31 compared to placebo-treatment (N=30 but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific Treg in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.

  6. Direct regulatory immune activity of lactic acid bacteria on Der p 1-pulsed dendritic cells from allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochard, Pierre; Hammad, Hamida; Ratajczak, Céline; Charbonnier-Hatzfeld, Anne-Sophie; Just, Nicolas; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2005-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suggested to play a regulatory role in the development of allergic reactions. However, their potential effects on dendritic cells (DCs) directing the immune polarization remain unclear. The immunologic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 (LAB1) on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) from patients allergic to house dust mite was evaluated. MD-DCs were stimulated for 24 hours with the related allergen Der p 1 in the presence or absence of LAB1. Cell-surface markers were assessed by means of FACS analysis, and the key polarizing cytokines IL-12 and IL-10 were quantified. The subsequent regulatory effect of pulsed MD-DCs on naive or memory T cells was evaluated by determining the T-cell cytokine profile. LAB1 induced the maturation of MD-DCs, even if pulsed with Der p 1. Interestingly, after incubation with LAB1 and Der p 1, MD-DCs produced higher amounts of IL-12 than Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Indeed, the T H 2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) production observed when naive or memory autologous T cells were cocultured with Der p 1-pulsed MD-DCs was highly reduced in the presence of LAB1. Finally, in contrast to naive or memory T cells exposed once to Der p 1-pulsed DCs, T cells stimulated by MD-DCs pulsed with Der p 1 and LAB1 failed to produce T H 2 cytokines in response to a new stimulation with Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Thus in the presence of LAB1, MD-DCs from allergic patients tend to reorientate the T-cell response toward a beneficial T H 1 profile.

  7. Allergen-induced activation of natural killer cells represents an early-life immune response in the development of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Matthew C; Whalen, Elizabeth; Togias, Alkis; O'Connor, George T; Bacharier, Leonard B; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Kattan, Meyer; Wood, Robert A; Presnell, Scott; LeBeau, Petra; Jaffee, Katy; Visness, Cynthia M; Busse, William W; Gern, James E

    2018-03-05

    Childhood asthma in inner-city populations is a major public health burden, and understanding early-life immune mechanisms that promote asthma onset is key to disease prevention. Children with asthma demonstrate a high prevalence of aeroallergen sensitization and T H 2-type inflammation; however, the early-life immune events that lead to T H 2 skewing and disease development are unknown. We sought to use RNA sequencing of PBMCs collected at age 2 years to determine networks of immune responses that occur in children with allergy and asthma. In an inner-city birth cohort with high asthma risk, we compared gene expression using RNA sequencing in PBMCs collected at age 2 years between children with 2 or more aeroallergen sensitizations, including dust mite, cockroach, or both, by age 3 years and asthma by age 7 years (cases) and matched control subjects who did not have any aeroallergen sensitization or asthma by age 7 years. PBMCs from the cases showed higher levels of expression of natural killer (NK) cell-related genes. After cockroach or dust mite allergen but not tetanus antigen stimulation, PBMCs from the cases compared with the control subjects showed differential expression of 244 genes. This gene set included upregulation of a densely interconnected NK cell-like gene network reflecting a pattern of cell activation and induction of inflammatory signaling molecules, including the key T H 2-type cytokines IL9, IL13, and CCL17, as well as a dendritic cell-like gene network, including upregulation of CD1 lipid antigen presentation molecules. The NK cell-like response was reproducible in an independent group of children with later-onset allergic sensitization and asthma and was found to be specific to only those children with both aeroallergen sensitization and asthma. These findings provide important mechanistic insight into an early-life immune pathway involved in T H 2 polarization, leading to the development of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2018 American

  8. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Carlos A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3 during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to

  9. Interactions between epithelial cells and dendritic cells in airway immune responses: lessons from allergic airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, J.; Reinartz, S. M.; Fokkens, W. J.; de Jong, E. C.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-organisms constantly invade the human body and may form a threat to our health. Traditionally, concepts of defence mechanisms have included a protective outer layer of epithelia and a vigilant immune system searching for areas where the integrity of the outer layer may be compromised. Instead

  10. Circumvention of Immunity to the Adenovirus Major Coat Protein Hexon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumitra; Shirley, Pamela S.; McClelland, Alan; Kaleko, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Immunity to adenoviruses is an important hurdle to be overcome for successful gene therapy. The presence of antibodies to the capsid proteins prevents efficacious adenovirus vector administration in vivo. We tested whether immunity to a particular serotype of adenovirus (Ad5) may be overcome with a vector that encodes the hexon sequences from a different adenovirus serotype (Ad12). We successfully constructed an adenovirus vector with a chimeric Ad5-Ad12 hexon which was not neutralized by plasma from C57BL/6 mice immunized with Ad5. The vector was also capable of transducing the livers of C57BL/6 mice previously immunized with Ad5. PMID:9658137

  11. Neuropsychiatry phenotype in asthma: Psychological stress-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-immune system in allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological features. Psychological stress was first recognized as a potential immune system modulator of asthma at the end of the 19th century. The activation of the central nervous system (CNS upon exposure to psychological stress is integral for the initiation of signal transduction processes. The stress hormones, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are secreted following CNS activation, are involved in the immunological alterations involved in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbation. The mechanisms underlying this process may involve a pathological series of events from the brain to the lungs, which is attracting attention as a conceptually advanced phenotype in asthma pathogenesis. This review presents insights into the critical role of psychological stress in the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, with a special focus on our own data that emphasizes on the continuity from the central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  12. [Zinc signaling : a novel regulatory system on bone homeostasis, and immune and allergic responses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Toshiyuki; Nishida, Keigo; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hojyo, Shintaro

    2012-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that is required for proliferation, differentiation, and variety of cellular functions, and unbalanced homeostasis of Zn ion (Zn(2 + )) results in health problems such as abnormal bone formation and immunodeficiency. Recent studies have shed light on important roles of Zn(2 + )as a signaling mediator, called Zn signal. Zn(2 + )homeostasis is regulated through Zn transporters and cation channels. Advances of genetic and molecular approaches have revealed that Zn signal regulates mammalian physiology and pathogenesis. We will address that Zn signal undoubtedly contributes to our health, by highlighting it in bone homeostasis and immune regulation, and discuss that the "Zn signal axis" selectively controls intracellular signal transduction to fine-tune cellular functions.

  13. Histopathology and immune histochemistry of red tattoo reactions. Interface dermatitis is the lead pathology, with increase in T-lymphocytes and Langerhans cells suggesting an allergic pathomechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Thomsen, B M; Serup, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of tattoo reactions are affiliated to red pigmented areas and often suspected to be allergic in nature. A sizeable series of biopsies of such reactions has not previously been performed. The aim of this study was to type and grade epidermal and dermal changes in tattoo re...

  14. The C5a/C5aR1 axis controls the development of experimental allergic asthma independent of LysM-expressing pulmonary immune cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Wiese

    Full Text Available C5a regulates the development of maladaptive immune responses in allergic asthma mainly through the activation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1. Yet, the cell types and the mechanisms underlying this regulation are ill-defined. Recently, we described increased C5aR1 expression in lung tissue eosinophils but decreased expression in airway and pulmonary macrophages as well as in pulmonary CD11b+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs during the allergic effector phase using a floxed green fluorescent protein (GFP-C5aR1 knock-in mouse. Here, we determined the role of C5aR1 signaling in neutrophils, moDCs and macrophages for the pulmonary recruitment of such cells and the importance of C5aR1-mediated activation of LysM-expressing cells for the development of allergic asthma. We used LysM-C5aR1 KO mice with a specific deletion of C5aR1 in LysMCre-expressing cells and confirmed the specific deletion of C5aR1 in neutrophils, macrophages and moDCs in the airways and/or the lung tissue. We found that alveolar macrophage numbers were significantly increased in LysM-C5aR1 KO mice. Induction of ovalbumin (OVA-driven experimental allergic asthma in GFP-C5aR1fl/fl and LysM-C5aR1 KO mice resulted in strong but similar airway resistance, mucus production and Th2/Th17 cytokine production. In contrast, the number of airway but not of pulmonary neutrophils was lower in LysM-C5aR1 KO as compared with GFP-C5aR1fl/fl mice. The recruitment of macrophages, cDCs, moDCs, T cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells was not altered in LysM-C5aR1 KO mice. Our findings demonstrate that C5aR1 is critical for steady state control of alveolar macrophage numbers and the transition of neutrophils from the lung into the airways in OVA-driven allergic asthma. However, C5aR1 activation of LysM-expressing cells plays a surprisingly minor role in the recruitment and activation of such cells and the development of the allergic phenotype in OVA-driven experimental

  15. Pollen lipidomics: lipid profiling exposes a notable diversity in 22 allergenic pollen and potential biomarkers of the allergic immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the

  16. Histopathology and immune histochemistry of red tattoo reactions. Interface dermatitis is the lead pathology, with increase in T-lymphocytes and Langerhans cells suggesting an allergic pathomechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsberg, T; Thomsen, B M; Serup, J

    2015-11-01

    The majority of tattoo reactions are affiliated to red pigmented areas and often suspected to be allergic in nature. A sizeable series of biopsies of such reactions has not previously been performed. The aim of this study was to type and grade epidermal and dermal changes in tattoo reactions to red/red nuances by microscopy and immunochemistry relevant for the assessment of a possible allergic pathomechanism. Skin biopsies were taken from red tattoo reactions, graded by conventional microscopy and stained for T and B-lymphocytes, Langerhans cells, macrophages and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The study included 19 biopsies from 19 patients. The culprit colours were red/pink (n = 15) and purple/bordeaux (n = 4). Interface dermatitis was clearly the lead pathology found in 78% of samples, overlapped with granulomatous (in 32%) and pseudolymphomatous reaction patterns (in 32%). Epidermal hyperkeratosis (in 89%) was common as was leakage of red pigment across the dermo-epidermal junction, with transepidermal elimination (in 28%). The dermal cellular infiltration was dominated by T-lymphocytes (in 100%), Langerhans cells (in 95%) and macrophages (in 100%). TNF-α was common. The predominant histological pattern of chronic tattoo reactions in red/red nuances is interface dermatitis. T-lymphocytes and Langerhans cells are increased suggesting an allergic pathomechanism. TNF-α may contribute to reactions. In many cases, overlapping reactive patterns were identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lukasch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important. Methods To do this we used captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted. Results Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral were associated with several different alleles. Discussion We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.

  18. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasch, Barbara; Westerdahl, Helena; Strandh, Maria; Winkler, Hans; Moodley, Yoshan; Knauer, Felix; Hoi, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA) or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important. To do this we used captive house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) to survey MHC diversity and immune function controlling for several environmental factors. MHC class I alleles were identified using parallel amplicon sequencing and to mirror immune function, several immunological tests that correspond to the innate and adaptive immunity were conducted. Our results reveal that MHC was linked to all immune tests, highlighting its importance for the immune defence. While all innate responses were associated with one single FA, adaptive responses (cell-mediated and humoral) were associated with several different alleles. We found that repeated injections of an antibody in nestlings and adults were linked to different FA and hence might affect different areas of the immune system. Also, individuals with a higher number of different FA produced a smaller secondary response, indicating a disadvantage of having numerous MHC alleles. These results demonstrate the complexity of the immune system in relation to the MHC and lay the foundation for other studies to further investigate this topic.

  19. A new era of targeting the ancient gatekeepers of the immune system: toll-like agonists in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Zahra; Holgate, Stephen T; Radzioch, Danuta; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) belong to a large family of pattern recognition receptors known as the ancient 'gatekeepers' of the immune system. TLRs are located at the first line of defense against invading pathogens as well as aeroallergens, making them interesting targets to modulate the natural history of respiratory allergy. Agonists of TLRs have been widely employed in therapeutic or prophylactic preparations useful for asthma/allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. MPL® (a TLR4 agonist) and the CpG oligodeoxynucleotide of 1018 ISS, a TLR9 agonist, show strong immunogenicity effects that make them appropriate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Targeting the TLRs can enhance the efficacy of specific allergen immunotherapy, currently the only available 'curative' treatment for respiratory allergies. In addition, intranasal administration of AZD8848 (a TLR7 agonist) and VTX-1463 (a TLR8 agonist) as stand-alone therapeutics have revealed efficacy in the relief of the symptoms of AR patients. No anaphylaxis has been so far reported with such compounds targeting TLRs, with the most common adverse effects being transient and local irritation (e.g. redness, swelling and pruritus). Many other compounds that target TLRs have been found to suppress airway inflammation, eosinophilia and airway hyper-responsiveness in various animal models of allergic inflammation. Indeed, in the future a wide variability of TLR agonists and even antagonists that exhibit anti-asthma/AR effects are likely to emerge. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The Virome and Its Major Component, Anellovirus, a Convoluted System Molding Human Immune Defenses and Possibly Affecting the Development of Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Freer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome, a thriving and complex microbial community colonizing the human body, has a broad impact on human health. Colonization is a continuous process that starts very early in life and occurs thanks to shrewd strategies microbes have evolved to tackle a convoluted array of anatomical, physiological, and functional barriers of the human body. Cumulative evidence shows that viruses are part of the microbiome. This part, called virome, has a dynamic composition that reflects what we eat, how and where we live, what we do, our genetic background, and other unpredictable variables. Thus, the virome plays a chief role in shaping innate and adaptive host immune defenses. Imbalance of normal microbial flora is thought to trigger or exacerbate many acute and chronic disorders. A compelling example can be found in the respiratory apparatus, where early-life viral infections are major determinants for the development of allergic diseases, like asthma, and other non-transmissible diseases. In this review, we focus on the virome and, particularly, on Anelloviridae, a recently discovered virus family. Anelloviruses are major components of the virome, present in most, if not all, human beings, where they are acquired early in life and replicate persistently without causing apparent disease. We will discuss how modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems by Anelloviruses can influence the development of respiratory diseases in childhood and provide evidence for the use of Anelloviruses as useful and practical molecular markers to monitor inflammatory processes and immune system competence.

  1. The Role of Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor in Immunity to Leishmania major Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Whitcomb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D signaling modulates a variety of immune responses. Here, we assessed the role of vitamin D in immunity to experimental leishmaniasis infection in vitamin D receptor-deficient mice (VDRKO. We observed that VDRKO mice on a genetically resistant background have decreased Leishmania major-induced lesion development compared to wild-type (WT mice; additionally, parasite loads in infected dermis were significantly lower at the height of infection. Enzymatic depletion of the active form of vitamin D mimics the ablation of VDR resulting in an increased resistance to L. major. Conversely, VDRKO or vitamin D-deficient mice on the susceptible Th2-biased background had no change in susceptibility. These studies indicate vitamin D deficiency, either through the ablation of VDR or elimination of its ligand, 1,25D3, leads to an increase resistance to L. major infection but only in a host that is predisposed for Th-1 immune responses.

  2. Comparison of immune reactivity profiles against various environmental allergens between adult patients with atopic dermatitis and patients with allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, N; Aiba, S; Tanaka, M; Aoyama, H; Tabata, N; Tamura, G; Tagami, H

    1997-09-01

    To clarify the pathomechanisms underlying the involvement of different organs by atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic respiratory disease (ARD), we compared the immune reactivities to various environmental allergens between 46 adult patients who suffered only from AD but were without any history of ARD and 41 patients who had only ARD, using a RAST FEIA (radioallergosorbent test/fluoroenzyme immunoassay) and a scarification patch test. We also studied 42 healthy adult subjects in a similar fashion. Total serum IgE antibody levels were found to be far higher in the AD group than in the ARD and healthy control group, and RAST revealed that the AD group was sensitized to far larger numbers of allergens such as food mix, cereal mix, fungus mix and Candida albicans than were the other groups. The ARD group displayed a high incidence in RAST, comparable to that of the AD group, only against Japanese cedar and grass pollen mix antigen. However, the most remarkable difference in the immune reactivity profiles was that the AD group showed a uniquely higher RAST score and a lower incidence of positive patch test reactions to C. albicans antigen than did the ARD group. The reactivities in the ARD group to C. albicans antigen did not differ from those in the control group. Our present data suggest that a more pronounced shift from Th1 to Th2 cells, reactive against various allergens, takes place in AD patients.

  3. Identification of sole parvalbumin as a major allergen: study of cross-reactivity between parvalbumins in a Spanish fish-allergic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gordo, M; Cuesta-Herranz, J; Maroto, A S; Cases, B; Ibáñez, M D; Vivanco, F; Pastor-Vargas, C

    2011-05-01

    Fish allergy is becoming an important health problem in Spain, a country with the third highest level of fish consumption after Japan and Portugal. The most common fish allergens are parvalbumins. In our area, the most widely consumed fish species are lean, such as whiff (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) and sole (Solea solea). Adverse reactions to fish are usually related to these species, a fact that is largely unknown to allergists in other countries. The aim of this study was to identify and purify the major allergen implicated in allergic response to sole and evaluate the IgE cross-reactivity of purified parvalbumins from whiff and sole, which are phylogenetically close, and more distant species (i.e. cod and salmon). Eighteen Spanish fish-allergic patients with a positive history of type I allergy to fish were recruited from the clinic. Total protein extracts and purified parvalbumins from whiff and sole were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining two-dimensional Western blotting and mass spectrometry. The extent of cross-reactivity between these parvalbumins along with cod and salmon parvalbumins was investigated by IgE ELISA inhibition assay. An IgE-binding spot of approximately 14 kDa was identified as parvalbumin and confirmed as a major allergen in sole extract, which is recognized by almost 70% of the patients. Whiff parvalbumin was recognized by 83.4% of the patients. High cross-reactivity was determined for all purified parvalbumins by IgE inhibition assay. Sole and whiff parvalbumin were confirmed as major allergens. The parvalbumins of sole, whiff, cod and salmon were highly cross-reactive, thus suggesting a high amino acid sequence identity between them. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  5. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    condition include itching, excessive lacrimation, ophthalmic ... allergens with the surface of the eye in a person who is allergic .... Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: more severe disorder, which usually affects boys living in warm, dry climates.

  6. Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immunologist)? Resources American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Medline Plus, Allergic Rhinitis Last Updated: December 8, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: ...

  7. Early Nutrition as a Major Determinant of 'Immune Health': Implications for Allergy, Obesity and Other Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function--including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the

  8. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  9. Immunization Strategies Producing a Humoral IgG Immune Response against Devil Facial Tumor Disease in the Majority of Tasmanian Devils Destined for Wild Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Pye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government’s Wild Devil Recovery project. 95% of the devils developed anti-DFTD antibody responses. Given the relatively large sample sizes of the trials (N = 19 and N = 33, these responses are likely to reflect those of the general devil population. DFTD cells manipulated to express MHC-I were used as the antigenic basis of the immunizations in both trials. Although the adjuvant composition and number of immunizations differed between trials, similar anti-DFTD antibody levels were obtained. The first trial comprised DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination of ISCOMATRIX™, polyIC, and CpG with up to four immunizations given at monthly intervals. This compared to the second trial whereby two immunizations comprising DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination ISCOMATRIX™, polyICLC (Hiltonol® and imiquimod were given a month apart, providing a shorter and, therefore, more practical protocol. Both trials incorporated a booster immunization given up to 5 months after the primary course. A key finding was that devils in the second trial responded more quickly and maintained their antibody levels for longer compared to devils in the first trial. The different adjuvant combination incorporating the RNAase resistant polyICLC and imiquimod used in the second trial is likely to be responsible. The seroconversion in the majority of

  10. Immunization Strategies Producing a Humoral IgG Immune Response against Devil Facial Tumor Disease in the Majority of Tasmanian Devils Destined for Wild Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Ruth; Patchett, Amanda; McLennan, Elspeth; Thomson, Russell; Carver, Scott; Fox, Samantha; Pemberton, David; Kreiss, Alexandre; Baz Morelli, Adriana; Silva, Anabel; Pearse, Martin J.; Corcoran, Lynn M.; Belov, Katherine; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Woods, Gregory M; Lyons, A. Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I) on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government’s Wild Devil Recovery project. 95% of the devils developed anti-DFTD antibody responses. Given the relatively large sample sizes of the trials (N = 19 and N = 33), these responses are likely to reflect those of the general devil population. DFTD cells manipulated to express MHC-I were used as the antigenic basis of the immunizations in both trials. Although the adjuvant composition and number of immunizations differed between trials, similar anti-DFTD antibody levels were obtained. The first trial comprised DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination of ISCOMATRIX™, polyIC, and CpG with up to four immunizations given at monthly intervals. This compared to the second trial whereby two immunizations comprising DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination ISCOMATRIX™, polyICLC (Hiltonol®) and imiquimod were given a month apart, providing a shorter and, therefore, more practical protocol. Both trials incorporated a booster immunization given up to 5 months after the primary course. A key finding was that devils in the second trial responded more quickly and maintained their antibody levels for longer compared to devils in the first trial. The different adjuvant combination incorporating the RNAase resistant polyICLC and imiquimod used in the second trial is likely to be responsible. The seroconversion in the majority of devils in these anti

  11. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  12. Component-resolved microarray analysis of IgE sensitization profiles to Felis catus major allergen molecules in Russian cat-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, Anna Sergeevna; Sudina, Anna Evgenevna; Cherkashina, Anna Sergeevna; Stukolova, Olga Alekseevna

    We aimed to determine the profile of IgE reactivity to three major cat allergens, Fel d 1, Fel d 2 and Fel d 4, in cat-allergic patients in the Moscow region in Russia. sIgE levels to recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (Fel d 1 and Fel d 4) and to Fel d 2 protein purified from cat serum were measured using a microarray method developed in our laboratory. Sera from 174 anonymous subjects with a positive reaction (≥0.35 IU/mL) to cat dander extract (e1, ImmunoCAP) and 56 negative controls were used for IgE testing. Fel d 1 was recognized by 92.5%, Fel d 2 by 29.9% and Fel d 4 by 39.1% of the tested patient sera. The sensitivity to these three proteins was approximately 98% compared to cat dander extract (correlation coefficient to ImmunoCAP is 0.94 with PPV = 0.99 and NPV = 0.95). These predictive values appeared to be even more statistically significant than the divergence between the ISAC IgE test and the extract-based singleplex ImmunoCAP. The combination of the three investigated proteins (Fel d 1, Fel d 2 and Fel d 4) is suitable for in vitro molecular (serological) diagnosis of cat allergy in this region as a complement to cat dander extract. Moreover, with this method, we found distinction between Fel d 2 and other Feline sIgEs formation.

  13. Reconstructing an ancestral mammalian immune supercomplex from a marsupial major histocompatibility complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Belov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The first sequenced marsupial genome promises to reveal unparalleled insights into mammalian evolution. We have used the Monodelphis domestica (gray short-tailed opossum sequence to construct the first map of a marsupial major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The MHC is the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and is critical to immunity and reproductive success. The marsupial MHC bridges the phylogenetic gap between the complex MHC of eutherian mammals and the minimal essential MHC of birds. Here we show that the opossum MHC is gene dense and complex, as in humans, but shares more organizational features with non-mammals. The Class I genes have amplified within the Class II region, resulting in a unique Class I/II region. We present a model of the organization of the MHC in ancestral mammals and its elaboration during mammalian evolution. The opossum genome, together with other extant genomes, reveals the existence of an ancestral "immune supercomplex" that contained genes of both types of natural killer receptors together with antigen processing genes and MHC genes.

  14. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and immune changes under antidepressive treatment in major depression in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoga, Margarita; Oulis, Panagiotis; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Boufidou, Fotini; Foteli, Stefania; Soldatos, Constantin R; Nikolaou, Chryssoula; Papageorgiou, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) induction has been suggested as a mechanism by which immune activation affects tryptophan metabolism and serotonin synthesis in major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated IDO and changes in inflammatory mediators in patients with MDD undergoing effective treatment. Forty female patients with MDD and 40 controls were recruited. Serum IDO was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We also determined tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ (IFNγ), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serotonin concentrations. Patients' baseline concentrations of IDO and immune mediators were higher and serotonin concentrations were lower compared to controls. IDO and TNFα concentrations decreased under treatment and IDO changes were positively correlated with patient improvement. IFNγ and CRP concentrations remained unchanged. Serotonin concentration tended to increase. IDO might play an important role in the pathophysiology of MDD. Moreover, antidepressant therapy might reduce IDO production through an IFNγ-independent pathway. Finally, peripheral concentration of IDO assessed by ELISA might be a useful marker of MDD. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. The allergic march

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allergic rhinitis (Fig. 1). Several studies have demonstrated the allergic march from atopic ... Boys appear to be at greater risk of developing the typical progression of allergic .... childhood asthma: lessons from the German. Multicentre Study ...

  16. Effect of nutrition support on immunity in paediatric patients with beta-thalassaemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienboon, Prasong

    2003-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies have been variably observed in thalassaemia and the aetiology of many of the immune abnormalities in thalassaemic children are poorly defined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that certain immune abnormalities have a nutritional basis. Nutritional status, selective quantitative and functional indices of immunity were studied in twelve children (7 females, 5 males; mean age 28 months, SD 5 and range 19.8-35.5), with thalassaemia major before and after a one month period of intensive nutrition support (the study diet consisted of 'Enfapro' liquid formula (Mead Johnson) with added dextrose and corn oil to achieve a caloric density of 1.1 kcal/cc in addition to vitamins and minerals). Each child was provided approximately 150 kcal/day and 4 g of protein/day. Lymphocyte proliferation to Concanavalin A (Con A) (P = 0.008) and Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) (P = 0.002) was depressed upon entry into the study, however the response to Con A attained normal values by the end of the intervention. Compared to baselines, the proliferative response to Con A (P = 0.005) and Phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) (P = 0.031) both improved after the nutrition support. Although there was no general correlation of zinc status with lymphocyte proliferation, normal baseline zinc status was associated with improvement of proliferation. The %CD4 increased (P = 0.036), primarily because of a decrease in total lymphocytes and to lesser extent a decrease in CD8 lymphocytes. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were found to be elevated on admission but were not significantly affected by the nutrition intervention. C3 concentrations were uniformly depressed on admission but increased by the end of the study protocol (P = 0.037). C4 and CH50 activity were not significantly influenced by the intervention. In conclusion, children with beta thalassaemia have abnormalities of lymphocyte function as well as key complement components that are responsive to nutrition support. In

  17. Murine immune response induced by Leishmania major during the implantation of paraffin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Maria Letícia Costa; Ferreira, Vanessa Martins; Zhang, Xia; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Vieira, Leda Quércia; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Mosser, David M; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-11-01

    We carried out a model of chronic inflammation using a subcutaneous paraffin tablet in mice experimentally infected with Leishmania major. It was previously reported that the parasite load following paraffin implantation occurred at a peak of 21 days in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. At the present study, we have investigated what cytokines and chemokines are directly related to the parasite load in C57BL/6 mice. All mice were divided in four groups: mice implanted with paraffin tablets; mice experimentally infected with L. major; mice implanted with paraffin tablets and experimentally infected with L. major; and mice submitted only to the surgery were used for the Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) controls. Fragments of skin tissue and the tissue surrounding the paraffin tablets (inflammatory capsule) were collected for histopathology and RT-PCR studies. By 21 days, a diffuse chronic inflammatory reaction was mainly observed in the deep dermis where macrophages parasitized with Leishmania amastigotes were also found. RT-PCR analysis has shown that BALB/c mice showed strong IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression than controls with very little expression of IFN-γ. In contrast, both IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA was found in higher levels in C57BL/6 animals. Moreover, in C57BL/6 mice the expression of chemokines mRNA of CCL3/MIP-1α was more highly expressed than CCL2/MCP-1. We conclude that the Th1 immune response C57BL/6 did not change to a Th2 response, even though C57BL/6 animals presented higher parasitism than BALB/c mice 21 days after infection and paraffin implantation.

  18. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  19. Peripheral Immune Alterations in Major Depression: The Role of Subtypes and Pathogenetic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Euteneuer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Depression has been associated with peripheral inflammatory processes and alterations in cellular immunity. Growing evidence suggests that immunological alterations may neither be necessary nor sufficient to induce depression in general, but seem to be associated with specific features. Using baseline data from the Outcome of Psychological Interventions in Depression trial, this exploratory study examines associations between depression subtypes and pathogenetic characteristics (i.e., melancholic vs non-melancholic depression, chronic vs non-chronic depression, age of onset, cognitive-affective and somatic symptom dimensions with plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, and numbers of leukocyte subpopulations in 98 patients with major depression (MD and 30 age and sex-matched controls. Patients with MD exhibited higher CRP levels, higher neutrophil and monocyte counts, lower IL-10 levels, and an increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR than controls. Patient with later age of onset had higher levels of two inflammatory markers (CRP, NLR and lower cytotoxic T cell counts after adjusting for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and antidepressants. Furthermore, lower anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels were related to more severe somatic depressive symptoms. These results confirm and extend previous findings suggesting that increased levels of CRP are associated with a later onset of depression and demonstrate that also NLR as a subclinical inflammatory marker is related to a later onset of depression.

  20. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  1. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  2. The Impact of Two Different Transfusion Strategies on Patient Immune Response during Major Abdominal Surgery: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Theodoraki, Kassiani; Markatou, Maria; Rizos, Demetrios; Fassoulaki, Argyro

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusion is associated with well-known risks. We investigated the difference between a restrictive versus a liberal transfusion strategy on the immune response, as expressed by the production of inflammatory mediators, in patients subjected to major abdominal surgery procedures. Fifty-eight patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomized preoperatively to either a restrictive transfusion protocol or a liberal transfusion protocol (with transfusion if hemoglobin dropped be...

  3. Toll-like Receptor 4: Innate Immune Regulator of Neuroimmune and Neuroendocrine interactions in Stress and Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun eLiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD poses one of the highest disease burdens worldwide. Yet, current treatments targeting serotonergic and noradrenaline reuptake systems are insufficient to provide long-term relief from depressive symptoms in most patients, indicating the need for new treatment targets. Having the ability to influence behaviour similar to depressive symptoms, as well as communicate with neuronal and neuroendocrine systems, the innate immune system is a strong candidate for MDD treatments. Given the complex nature of immune signalling, the main question becomes: What is the role of the innate immune system in MDD?The current review presents evidence that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, via driving both peripheral and central immune responses, can interact with serotonergic neurotransmission and cause neuroendocrine disturbances, thus integrating with widely observed hallmarks of MDD. Additionally, through describing the multi-directional communication between immune, neural and endocrine systems in stress, TLR4 – related mechanisms can mediate stress-induced adaptations, which are necessary for the development of MDD. Therefore, apart from exogenous pathogenic mechanisms, TLR4 is involved in immune changes as a result of endogenous stress signals, playing an integral part in the pathophysiology, and could be a potential target for pharmacological treatments to improve current interventions for MDD.

  4. Distinctive cellular immunity in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice recovered from Leishmania major infection or after subcutaneous immunization with killed parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, F.Y.; Dhaliwal, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Genetically susceptible BALB/c mice are refractory to further infection after recovery from Leishmania major infection after a sublethal dose of gamma-irradiation. In contrast, mice immunized with killed promastigotes s.c. develop exacerbated lesions after infection. Both groups of mice produce only a low level of specific antibody and no detectable cytotoxic T cells, but do have a strong antigen-specific DTH, which is adoptively transferable with Lyt-1+2-, L3T4+ T cells. Kinetic and histological studies revealed that mice immunized s.c. developed Jones-Mote hypersensitivity, peaking at 15 hr. with little mononuclear cell infiltration at the site of antigen administration; whereas mice that had recovered from infection developed tuberculin-type of reactivity, peaking at 24 to 48 hr, with intense mononuclear cell infiltration. Splenic T cells from recovered mice, when injected into the footpads of normal recipients together with live promastigotes, were able to retard lesion development; whereas T cells from s.c. immunized mice, when similarly transferred, accelerated disease progression. Antigen-specific culture supernatant of spleen cells from recovered mice also activated normal resident peritoneal macrophages to kill intracellular L. major amastigotes and tumor cells. Culture supernatants of spleen cells from s.c. immunized or normal mice were devoid of such activities. Part of the macrophage-activating potential can be inhibited by antibody specific for IFN-gamma. These results therefore demonstrate that whereas the Jones-Mote reaction is correlated with disease exacerbation, the tuberculin-type of DTH may be protective. Furthermore, in vivo immunity is directly related to the capacity of T cells to produce macrophage-activating factor

  5. Immunization against Leishmania major infection using LACK- and IL-12-expressing Lactococcus lactis induces delay in footpad swelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hugentobler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania is a mammalian parasite affecting over 12 million individuals worldwide. Current treatments are expensive, cause severe side effects, and emerging drug resistance has been reported. Vaccination is the most cost-effective means to control infectious disease but currently there is no vaccine available against Leishmaniasis. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-colonizing Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium commonly used in the dairy industry. Recently, L. lactis was used to express biologically active molecules including vaccine antigens and cytokines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the generation of L. lactis strains expressing the protective Leishmania antigen, LACK, in the cytoplasm, secreted or anchored to the bacterial cell wall. L. lactis was also engineered to secrete biologically active single chain mouse IL-12. Subcutaneous immunization with live L. lactis expressing LACK anchored to the cell wall and L. lactis secreting IL-12 significantly delayed footpad swelling in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice. The delay in footpad swelling correlated with a significant reduction of parasite burden in immunized animals compared to control groups. Immunization with these two L. lactis strains induced antigen-specific multifunctional T(H1 CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells and a systemic LACK-specific T(H1 immune response. Further, protection in immunized animals correlated with a Leishmania-specific T(H1 immune response post-challenge. L. lactis secreting mouse IL-12 was essential for directing immune responses to LACK towards a protective T(H1 response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report demonstrates the use of L. lactis as a live vaccine against L. major infection in BALB/c mice. The strains generated in this study provide the basis for the development of an inexpensive and safe vaccine against the human parasite Leishmania.

  6. Immunization against Leishmania major Infection Using LACK- and IL-12-Expressing Lactococcus lactis Induces Delay in Footpad Swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugentobler, Felix; Yam, Karen K.; Gillard, Joshua; Mahbuba, Raya; Olivier, Martin; Cousineau, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania is a mammalian parasite affecting over 12 million individuals worldwide. Current treatments are expensive, cause severe side effects, and emerging drug resistance has been reported. Vaccination is the most cost-effective means to control infectious disease but currently there is no vaccine available against Leishmaniasis. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-colonizing Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium commonly used in the dairy industry. Recently, L. lactis was used to express biologically active molecules including vaccine antigens and cytokines. Methodology/Principal findings We report the generation of L. lactis strains expressing the protective Leishmania antigen, LACK, in the cytoplasm, secreted or anchored to the bacterial cell wall. L. lactis was also engineered to secrete biologically active single chain mouse IL-12. Subcutaneous immunization with live L. lactis expressing LACK anchored to the cell wall and L. lactis secreting IL-12 significantly delayed footpad swelling in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice. The delay in footpad swelling correlated with a significant reduction of parasite burden in immunized animals compared to control groups. Immunization with these two L. lactis strains induced antigen-specific multifunctional TH1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and a systemic LACK-specific TH1 immune response. Further, protection in immunized animals correlated with a Leishmania-specific TH1 immune response post-challenge. L. lactis secreting mouse IL-12 was essential for directing immune responses to LACK towards a protective TH1 response. Conclusions/Significance This report demonstrates the use of L. lactis as a live vaccine against L. major infection in BALB/c mice. The strains generated in this study provide the basis for the development of an inexpensive and safe vaccine against the human parasite Leishmania. PMID:22348031

  7. Vaccination with Recombinant Baculovirus Expressing Ranavirus Major Capsid Protein Induces Protective Immunity in Chinese Giant Salamander, Andrias davidianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (CGSIV, belonging to the genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae, is the causative agent of an emerging infectious disease causing high mortality of more than 90% and economic losses in Chinese giant salamanders in China. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus-based vaccine expressing the CGSIV major capsid protein (MCP was developed and its protective immunity in Chinese giant salamanders was evaluated. The recombinant Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcNPV, expressing CGSIV MCP, designated as AcNPV-MCP, was generated with the highest titers of 1 × 108 plaque forming units/mL (PFU/mL and confirmed by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF assays. Western blot analysis revealed that the expressed MCP reacted with mouse anti-MCP monoclonal antibodies at the band of about 53 kDa. The results of IIF indicated that the MCP was expressed in the infected Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9 cells with the recombinant baculovirus, and the Chinese giant salamander muscle cells also transduced with the AcNPV-MCP. Immunization with the recombinant baculovirus of AcNPV-MCP elicited robust specific humoral immune responses detected by ELISA and neutralization assays and potent cellular immune responses in Chinese giant salamanders. Importantly, the effective immunization conferred highly protective immunity for Chinese giant salamanders against CGSIV challenge and produced a relative percent of survival rate of 84%. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus expressing CGSIV MCP can induce significant immune responses involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in Chinese giant salamanders and might represent a potential baculovirus based vaccine candidate for Chinese giant salamanders against CGSIV.

  8. Hypnosis and the allergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler-Harper, J; Bircher, A J; Langewitz, W; Kiss, A

    1994-01-01

    In recent years our knowledge of the immune system and the pathogenesis of immune disorders has increased. There has been much research on the complex connections between the psyche, the central nervous system and the immune system and the effect of mood on disease processes. This paper reviews the evidence on the effects of hypnosis on the allergic skin test reaction, on allergies, particularly respiratory allergies and hayfever, and on bronchial hyperreactivity and asthma. Hypnosis, which is generally regarded as an altered state of consciousness associated with concentration, relaxation and imagination, and amongst other characteristics an enhanced responsiveness to suggestion, has long been thought to be effective in the amelioration of various bodily disorders. It has seemed that the state of hypnosis is capable of a bridging or mediating function in the supposed dualism between mind and body. There has been great variation in the experimental and clinical procedures such as type of hypnotic intervention employed, the training of subjects and the timing of the intervention. Also, variability in the type of allergen used and its mode of application is evident. But despite these limitations, many of the studies have shown a link between the use of hypnosis and a changed response to an allergic stimulus or to a lessened bronchial hyperreactivity. There is as yet no clear explanation for the effectiveness of hypnosis, but there is some evidence for an influence on the neurovascular component of the allergic response.

  9. Unlipidated Outer Membrane Protein Omp16 (U-Omp16) from Brucella spp. as Nasal Adjuvant Induces a Th1 Immune Response and Modulates the Th2 Allergic Response to Cow’s Milk Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Andrés E.; Smaldini, Paola; Coria, Lorena M.; Delpino, María V.; Pacífico, Lucila G. G.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Risso, Gabriela S.; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Docena, Guillermo H.; Cassataro, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of novel mucosal adjuvants will help to develop new formulations to control infectious and allergic diseases. In this work we demonstrate that U-Omp16 from Brucella spp. delivered by the nasal route (i.n.) induced an inflammatory immune response in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissues. Nasal co-administration of U-Omp16 with the model antigen (Ag) ovalbumin (OVA) increased the amount of Ag in lung tissues and induced OVA-specific systemic IgG and T helper (Th) 1 immune responses. The usefulness of U-Omp16 was also assessed in a mouse model of food allergy. U-Omp16 i.n. administration during sensitization ameliorated the hypersensitivity responses of sensitized mice upon oral exposure to Cow’s Milk Protein (CMP), decreased clinical signs, reduced anti-CMP IgE serum antibodies and modulated the Th2 response in favor of Th1 immunity. Thus, U-Omp16 could be used as a broad Th1 mucosal adjuvant for different Ag formulations. PMID:23861971

  10. Blocking junctional adhesion molecule C enhances dendritic cell migration and boosts the immune responses against Leishmania major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Ballet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of infections and their migration to lymph nodes is fundamental for antigen processing and presentation to T cells. In the present study, we showed that antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C on endothelial cells removed JAM-C away from junctions and increased vascular permeability after L. major infection. This has multiple consequences on the output of the immune response. In resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice, we found higher numbers of innate immune cells migrating from blood to the site of infection. The subsequent migration of dendritic cells (DCs from the skin to the draining lymph node was also improved, thereby boosting the induction of the adaptive immune response. In C57BL/6 mice, JAM-C blockade after L. major injection led to an enhanced IFN-γ dominated T helper 1 (Th1 response with reduced skin lesions and parasite burden. Conversely, anti JAM-C treatment increased the IL-4-driven T helper 2 (Th2 response in BALB/c mice with disease exacerbation. Overall, our results show that JAM-C blockade can finely-tune the innate cell migration and accelerate the consequent immune response to L. major without changing the type of the T helper cell response.

  11. Enhancement of immune response induced by DNA vaccine cocktail expressing complete LACK and TSA genes against Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Jorjani, Ogholniaz; Sharifi, Zohreh; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Hassan, Zuhair M; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh; Khoshzaban, Fariba; Hezarjaribi, Hajar Ziaei

    2013-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important disease in humans. Leishmania homologue of receptor for Activated C Kinase (LACK) and thiol specific antioxidant (TSA) as immuno-dominant antigens of Leishmania major are considered the most promising molecules for a DNA vaccine. We constructed a DNA cocktail, containing plasmids encoding LACK and TSA genes of Leishmania major and evaluated the immune response and survival rate in BALB/c mice. IgG and Interferon gamma values were noticeably increased in the immunized group with DNA cocktail vaccine, which were significantly higher than those in the single-gene vaccinated and control groups (p 0.05). The immunized mice with the cocktail DNA vaccine presented a considerable reduction in diameter of lesion compared to other groups and a significant difference was observed (p < 0.05) in this regard. The survival time of the immunized mice with the cocktail DNA vaccine was significantly higher than that in the other groups (p < 0.05) after their being challenged with Leishmania major. The findings of this study indicated that the cocktail DNA vaccine increased the cellular response and survival rate and induced protection against infection with Leishmania in the mice. © 2012 The Authors © 2012 APMIS.

  12. Association of HLA-DR3 with human immune response to Lol p I and Lol p II allergens in allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Ansari, A A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1988-04-01

    Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responses to two well-characterized, antigenetically non-crossreactive components of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen extract, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II) were studied in two groups of skin-test positive (ST+) Caucasoid adults. By both nonparametric and parametric statistical methods, significant associations were found between Ab responses to both Lol I and Lol II and the possession of HLA-DR3. In view of the well-known associations of both DR3 and B8 (which are in linkage disequilibrium) with many autoimmune diseases, differences in anti-Lol I and anti-Lol II mean log[Ab] levels between B8+, DR3- vs B8-, DR3- subjects and B8+, DR3+ vs B8-, DR3+ subjects were investigated. No differences were found. Our data, along with recent RFLP and DNA sequence studies, suggest that an Ia molecule involved in immune recognition of a similar major Ia recognition site of both the Lol molecules may consist of a DR3 alpha-beta I pair. Abbreviations used: Ab: Antibody. HLA: Human leukocyte antigen. Lol p I, Lol I: Group I allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye I). Lol p II, Lol II: Group II allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye II). Mr: Relative molecular mass. Rx: Immunotherapy with grass pollen extracts. ST: Skin test.

  13. Immune invasion of the central nervous system parenchyma and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, but not leukocyte extravasation from blood, are prevented in macrophage-depleted mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Hoekstra, K; van Rooijen, N

    1998-01-01

    role of peripheral macrophages in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a Th1-mediated demyelinating disease that serves as a an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), by their depletion using mannosylated liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP). Here we describe....../J mice was abrogated by Cl2MDP-mnL treatment. CD4+ T cell and MHC II+ B220+ B cell extravasation from blood vessels and Th1 cytokine production were not inhibited. However, invasion of the central nervous system intraparenchymal tissues by lymphocytes, F4/80+, Mac-1+, and MOMA-1+ macrophages was almost...

  14. Report of a patient with complex composites of hepatitis B virus, allergic asthma and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Shamsadin Athari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available HBV is a non-cytopathic virus and cell mediated immune response against this. Humoral mediated immune response are responsible for allergic diseases. Balance between these two subsets of Th CD4+ cells are result of the immune system response. A 56 year old woman presented with chronic HBV infection, allergic asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure and high blood lipid. Patients should be followed for the allergic and autoimmune diseases along with their viral reactivation.

  15. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  16. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young......, and filaggrin mutations; levels of total IgE, FeNO, and blood-eosinophils; lung function and bronchial responsiveness to cold dry air. We found that asthma was similarly associated with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis suggesting a link between upper and lower airway diseases beyond an allergy associated...

  17. State of immune system of patients with infectious-allergic asthma subjected to transcerebral exposure to UHF electron field (27, 12 MHz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogolyubov, V.M.; Malyavin, A.G.; Pershin, S.B.; Shubina, A.V.; Kubli, S.Kh.; Myshelova, K.P.

    An attempt was made to affect immunologic reactions in infectious-allergic asthma patients by subjecting them to transcerebral exposure to UHF electric field. Seventy-six patients, aged 23 to 69 years with varying duration of the disease, were studied. The treatment consisted of 25 exposures lasting from 5 to 15 min; a sham exposure was used on ten patients serving as controls. In all, 55/66 patients experienced clinical improvement lasting 6 to 12 months; only 2/10 control patients had any improvement. After the exposure, the level of T-lymphocytes increased along with blood histamine level; no significant changes were observed in case of B-lymphocytes. This immunologic correction was most effective in patients with atopy, with decreased levels of T-lymphocytes and elevated levels of B-lymphocytes. 12 references.

  18. Immunopathogenesis of allergic rhinitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Druce HM. Allergic and non allergic rhinitis. In: Middleton EM Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF. Jr, Yunginger JW, Busse WW, eds. Allergy: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. St. Louis,. Mo: Mosby, Year-Book;1998.p.1005-16. 3. Blaiss MS. Quality of life in allergic rhinitis. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83(5):449-54. 4.

  19. Differential Impact of LPG-and PG-Deficient Leishmania major Mutants on the Immune Response of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Favila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection induces robust interleukin-12 (IL12 production in human dendritic cells (hDC, ultimately resulting in Th1-mediated immunity and clinical resolution. The surface of Leishmania parasites is covered in a dense glycocalyx consisting of primarily lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycan-containing molecules (PGs, making these glycoconjugates the likely pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS responsible for IL12 induction.Here we explored the role of parasite glycoconjugates on the hDC IL12 response by generating L. major Friedlin V1 mutants defective in LPG alone, (FV1 lpg1-, or generally deficient for all PGs, (FV1 lpg2-. Infection with metacyclic, infective stage, L. major or purified LPG induced high levels of IL12B subunit gene transcripts in hDCs, which was abrogated with FV1 lpg1- infections. In contrast, hDC infections with FV1 lpg2- displayed increased IL12B expression, suggesting other PG-related/LPG2 dependent molecules may act to dampen the immune response. Global transcriptional profiling comparing WT, FV1 lpg1-, FV1 lpg2- infections revealed that FV1 lpg1- mutants entered hDCs in a silent fashion as indicated by repression of gene expression. Transcription factor binding site analysis suggests that LPG recognition by hDCs induces IL-12 in a signaling cascade resulting in Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB and Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF mediated transcription.These data suggest that L. major LPG is a major PAMP recognized by hDC to induce IL12-mediated protective immunity and that there is a complex interplay between PG-baring Leishmania surface glycoconjugates that result in modulation of host cellular IL12.

  20. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihler F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Ihler, Martin CanisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Ragweed (Ambrosia spp. is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by

  1. A study of some aspects of auto immunity in children with thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Adham, E.K

    2008-01-01

    This study is subjected to estimate the study of the most common autoimmune complications in thalassemia and the prevalence of different auto antibodies so as to evaluate its correlation with personal data including age, sex, growth parameters, Hepatitis C virus infection ferritin level and type of iron chelation therapy methodology : Different Abs including anti cardiolipin, antitistone, ANA, Anti erythropoietin by ELISA technique Hepatitis C virus by ELISA. Ferritin by IRMA (Immune radiometric assay), Protein C, S. Antithrombin III by ELISA result of the study were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods .The results showed that age of Hepatitis C virus negative cases was significantly lower than Hepatitis C virus Positive cases, ferritin levels were significantly higher in patients on defripone than those as desferrioxamine, anti erythropoietin was detected in 93.3% of cases regarding the antithrombotic factors deficiency. Protein C was deficient in 26.67% of cases. Protein S was deficient in 13.33% only and no cases showed anti thrombin III deficiency. No special relation was found between these abnormalities and type of chelation , Conclusions: Auto immunity may be a cofactor in the development of life threatening complication

  2. Allergic Rhinitis | Sommers | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but the antihistamines are less effective for nasal congestion and minimally address the problem of inflammation. Immune-based specifically targeted molecules, such as the cloned humanised monoclonal antibody-inhibiting human IgE omalizumab, are presently being studied in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  3. Allergen-containing immune complexes used for immunotherapy of allergic asthma. Preparation of complexes and evaluation of their clinical performance in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Lundberg, L; Søndergaard, I

    1989-01-01

    Guinea pigs inbred for their ability to develop respiratory anaphylaxis to experimental antigens have been used for comparison of different forms of immunotherapy (IT). Passive, active and combined (immune complexes between antigen and specific IgG) IT were compared with placebo. The bronchial re...... groups surprisingly recovered their original sensitivity to inhalation of the antigen....

  4. Major League Baseball Anti-Trust Immunity: Examining the Legal and Financial Implications of Relocation Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Nagel; Matt, Brown; Daniel, Rascher; Chad, McEvoy

    2006-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) rules restrict the movement of any franchise into another’s territory. These territorial rules are designed to protect each team’s potential local revenue sources as well as to provide stability throughout the league. Recently, Major League Baseball approved financial compensation for the Washington Nationals’ move into the Baltimore Orioles’ territory – primarily because it was in the best interest of MLB even though it hurt the Orioles. However, the Oakland Athle...

  5. An adenoviral vector expressing lipoprotein A, a major antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, elicits robust immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozza, Marlène; Rodrigues, Valérie; Unterfinger, Yves; Galea, Sandra; Coulpier, Muriel; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Thiaucourt, François; Totté, Philippe; Richardson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC), is a devastating respiratory disease of cattle. In sub-Saharan Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, live attenuated vaccines are deployed but afford only short-lived protection. In cattle, recovery from experimental MmmSC infection has been associated with the presence of CD4(+) T lymphocytes that secrete interferon gamma in response to MmmSC, and in particular to the lipoprotein A (LppA) antigen. In an effort to develop a better vaccine against CBPP, a viral vector (Ad5-LppA) that expressed LppA was generated from human adenovirus type 5. The LppA-specific immune responses elicited by the Ad5-LppA vector were evaluated in mice, and compared to those elicited by recombinant LppA formulated with a potent adjuvant. Notably, a single administration of Ad5-LppA, but not recombinant protein, sufficed to elicit a robust LppA-specific humoral response. After a booster administration, both vector and recombinant protein elicited strong LppA-specific humoral and cell-mediated responses. Ex vivo stimulation of splenocytes induced extensive proliferation of CD4(+) T cells for mice immunized with vector or protein, and secretion of T helper 1-associated and proinflammatory cytokines for mice immunized with Ad5-LppA. Our study - by demonstrating the potential of a viral-vectored prototypic vaccine to elicit prompt and robust immune responses against a major antigen of MmmSC - represents a first step in developing a recombinant vaccine against CBPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary supplementation with Cynodon dactylon (L.) enhances innate immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeswaran, B; Ilavenil, S; Ravikumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Indian major carp (Catla catla) was subjected to study the immunostimulatory effects when the grass Cynodon dactylon(L) ethanolic extract administrated as feed supplement. C. catla was fed with 0% (Control), 0.05% (group I), 0.5% (group II) and 5% (group III) extract provided for 60 days. Blood samples were collected at every 10 days of interval up to 60 days for analyzing the non-specific humoral (lysozyme activity, antiprotease activity and haemolytic complement) and cellular (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, myeloperoxidase activity) immune response study. The results indicate that C. dactylon ethanolic extract administered as feed supplement significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the experimental diet groups, significantly increased response of non-specific immunity was seen in group III (5%). Disease resistant analysis against Aeromonas hydrophila was performed in control group and plant extract treated fish for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Relative percent survival rate (RPS) was observed in treated samples, which is directly proportional to concentration of the extract. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for Matrix Metalo Proteinase (MMPs) were examined in spleen at 7th and 28th days of feeding. Administration of C. dactylon mixed diet delayed the lymphocyte destruction with positive ultrastructural changes. An induced stress (A. hydrophila infection) was observed by using MMPs expression, which was reduced in the experimental diet groups than the control. All these experimental results prove that C. dactylon ethanolic extract enhances the immunity of Catla fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of immune function in children with thalassanemia major after partial splenic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Quelin; Liu Pengcheng; Chen Yong; Li Yanhao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of immunologic function in children with thalassanemia major after partial splenic embolization (PSE). Methods: Immunoglobulins, T cell subsets were detected by immunologic turbidimetry and APAAP with monoclonal antibody respectively in 40 children with thalassanemia major and also in 20 healthy persons before and after PSE. These immunologic indexes were compared before and after PSE. Results: The levels of IgG in serum were significantly lower one week after PSE than that before PSE. It turned to normal three weeks after PSE. The IgM, IgA levels remained unchanged during PSE. The levels of CD 3 , CD 4 ,CD 4 /CD 8 ratio in children with thalassanemia major were decreased (P<0.01) significantly in comparision with the normal controls. But , all of them were significantly increased after PSE than those before PSE (P<0.01), and returned to normal levels at the 3rd week. Conclusions: PSE is helpful for improving immunologic function of children with thalassanemia major. (authors)

  8. Epigenetic regulatory pathways involving microRNAs may modulate the host immune response following major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Helen C; Torrance, Hew D T; Jones, Timothy F; Pearse, Rupert M; Hinds, Charles J; Brohi, Karim; O'Dwyer, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic nosocomial pneumonia is a common complication resulting in significant morbidity. Trauma-induced immunocompromise is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to pneumonia. In this study, we explore the hypothesis that posttranscriptional epigenetic regulation of gene expression may be an important factor in determining this immune phenotype. We describe the pattern of production of microRNAss (miRs) and their association with nosocomial pneumonia following severe trauma. A convenience sample of 30 ventilated polytrauma patients ( 5637) and 16 healthy controls were recruited. Messenger RNA and protein levels of key cytokines were quantified within 2 hours of the injury and at 24 hours. Three miRs per cytokine were then selected based on miRBase target prediction scores and quantified using polymerase chain reaction. Nosocomial pneumonia was defined using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. Median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 29, and 47% of the patients developed nosocomial pneumonia. miR-125a and miR-202 decreased by 34% and 77%, respectively, immediately following injury, whereas their target, IL-10, increased messenger RNA levels 3-fold and protein levels 180-fold. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-12 gene expression decreased by 68% and 43%, respectively, following injury, and this was mirrored by a 10-fold increase in miR-181, an miR predicted to target TNF-α transcripts. Lower levels of miR-125a and miR-374b were associated with the later acquisition of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Alteration in the expression of miRs with highly predicted complementarity to IL-10 and TNF-α may be an important mechanism regulating the posttraumatic immunosuppressive phenotype in intensive care unit patients. Retrospective observational study, level III.

  9. Upper and lower airway pathology in young children with allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lk

    2011-01-01

    Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis...... understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...

  10. Cytokine expression in the colostral cells of healthy and allergic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdý, Jiří; Novotná, Olga; Kocourková, Ingrid; Prokešová, Ludmila

    2012-05-01

    There is no doubt about the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the newborn's immune system. It is not fully elucidated what the differences are between the colostrum/milk of healthy and allergic mothers and how beneficial breastfeeding by an allergic mother is. The gene expression of selected cytokines was tested in cells isolated from colostra of healthy and allergic mothers using quantitative real-time PCR. Allergic phenotype was evident in colostral cells of allergic mothers: gene expressions of IL-4, IL-13 and EGF were increased and those of IFN-gamma decreased in comparison with colostral cells of healthy mothers. The allergic phenotype of the colostral cells of allergic mothers supporting the bias to a Th2 type response was found. It remains a question if a small number of these cells could influence the immature newborn immune system.

  11. The major targets of acute norovirus infection are immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Katrina R; Roth, Alexa N; Zhu, Shu; Hernandez, Abel; Colliou, Natacha; DiVita, Bayli B; Philip, Drake T; Riffe, Cara; Giasson, Benoit; Wallet, Shannon M; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Karst, Stephanie M

    2017-12-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks and childhood diarrhoea globally, estimated to be responsible for 200,000 deaths in children each year 1-4 . Thus, reducing norovirus-associated disease is a critical priority. Development of vaccines and therapeutics has been hindered by the limited understanding of basic norovirus pathogenesis and cell tropism. While macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and stem-cell-derived enteroids can all support infection of certain noroviruses in vitro 5-7 , efforts to define in vivo norovirus cell tropism have generated conflicting results. Some studies detected infected intestinal immune cells 8-12 , other studies detected epithelial cells 13 , and still others detected immune and epithelial cells 14-16 . Major limitations of these studies are that they were performed on tissue sections from immunocompromised or germ-free hosts, chronically infected hosts where the timing of infection was unknown, or following non-biologically relevant inoculation routes. Here, we report that the dominant cellular targets of a murine norovirus inoculated orally into immunocompetent mice are macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and T cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Importantly, we also demonstrate that a norovirus can infect T cells, a previously unrecognized target, in vitro. These findings represent the most extensive analyses to date of in vivo norovirus cell tropism in orally inoculated, immunocompetent hosts at the peak of acute infection and thus they significantly advance our basic understanding of norovirus pathogenesis.

  12. Cyclooxygenase-2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation during Allergic Lung Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hong; Bradbury, J. Alyce; Dackor, Ryan T.; Edin, Matthew L.; Graves, Joan P.; DeGraff, Laura M.; Wang, Ping Ming; Bortner, Carl D.; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Lih, Fred B.; Cook, Donald N.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Jetten, Anton M.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Th17 cells comprise a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells that are major contributors to allergic responses. It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids regulate Th17 cells during allergic lung inflammation.

  13. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  14. The link between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Henrik Nielsen, N; Frølund, L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are manifestations of the same disease entity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. METHODS: Participants in a population-based study of 15-69-year-olds in 1990 were ...

  15. Allergen-containing immune complexes used for immunotherapy of allergic asthma. II. IgE and IgG immune response during and after hyposensitization of sensitized guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Lundberg, L; Søndergaard, I

    1991-01-01

    In a previous study guinea pigs inbred for their ability to develop respiratory anaphylaxis to experimental antigens have been used for comparison of different forms of immunotherapy (IT). Passive, active and combined (immune complexes prepared from antigen and specific IgG) IT was compared...... response and clinical symptoms. Thus, the strong IgG response during immunotherapy may not be causally related to the outcome of treatment....

  16. Major Histocompatibilty Complex-Restricted Adaptive Immune Responses to CT26 Colon Cancer Cell Line in Mixed Allogeneic Chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K W; Choi, B; Kim, Y M; Cho, C W; Park, H; Moon, J I; Choi, G-S; Park, J B; Kim, S J

    2017-06-01

    Although the induction of mixed allogeneic chimera shows promising clinical tolerance results in organ transplantation, its clinical relevance as an anti-cancer therapy is yet unknown. We introduced a mixed allogenic chimera setting with the use of a murine colon cancer cell line, CT26, by performing double bone marrow transplantation. We analyzed donor- and recipient-restricted anti-cancer T-cell responses, and phenotypes of subpopulations of T cells. The protocol involves challenging 1 × 10 5 cells of CT26 cells intra-hepatically on day 50 after bone marrow transplantation, and, by use of CT26 lysates and an H-2L d -restricted AH1 pentamer, flow cytometric analysis was performed to detect the generation of cancer-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at various time points. We found that immunocompetence against tumors depends heavily on cancer-specific CD8 + T-cell responses in a major histocompatibility complex-restricted manner; the evidence was further supported by the increase of interferon-γ-secreting CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that during the effector immune response to CT26 cancer challenge, there was a presence of central memory cells (CD62L hi CCR7 + ) as well as effector memory cells (CD62L lo CCR7 - ). Moreover, mixed allogeneic chimeras (BALB/c to C56BL/6 or vice versa) showed similar or heightened immune responses to CT26 cells compared with that of wild-type mice. Our results suggest that the responses of primary immunocompetency and of pre-existing memory T cells against allogeneic cancer are sustained and preserved long-term in a mixed allogeneic chimeric environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CXCL12 chemokine and its receptors as major players in the interactions between immune and nervous systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eGuyon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine CXCL12/SDF1a has first been described in the immune system where it functions include chemotaxis for lymphocytes and macrophages, migration of hematopoietic cells from fetal liver to bone marrow and the formation of large blood vessels. Among other chemokines, CXCL12 has recently attracted much attention in the brain as it has been shown that it can be produced not only by glial cells but also by neurons. In addition, its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, which are belonging to the G-protein coupled receptors family, are abundantly expressed in diverse brain area, CXCR4 being a major co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 entry. This chemokine system has been shown to play important roles in brain plasticity processes occurring during development but also in the physiology of the brain in normal and pathological conditions. For example, in neurons, CXCR4 stimulation has been shown regulate the synaptic release of glutamate and GABA. It can also act post-synaptically by activating a G-protein Inward Rectifier K+ (GIRK, a voltage-gated K channel Kv2.1 associated to neuronal survival, and by increasing high voltage activated (HVA Ca2+ currents. In addition, it has been recently evidenced that there are several crosstalks between the CXCL12/CXCR4-7 system and other neurotransmitter systems in the brain (such as GABA, glutamate, opioids ans cannabinoids. Overall, this chemokine system could be one of the key players of the neuro-immune interface that participates in shaping the brain in response to changes in the environment.

  18. The maternal microbiome during pregnancy and allergic disease in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuillermin, Peter J; Macia, Laurence; Nanan, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial epidemiological and mechanistic evidence that the increase in allergic disease and asthma in many parts of the world in part relates to changes in microbial exposures and diet acting via the composition and metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome. The majority...... of research in this field has focused on the gut microbiome during infancy, but it is increasingly clear that the maternal microbiome during pregnancy also has a key role in preventing an allergy-prone immune phenotype in the offspring. The mechanisms by which the maternal microbiome influences the developing...... influence on fetal immune development. However, our understanding of these pathways is at an early stage and further mechanistic studies are needed. There are also no data from human studies relating the composition and metabolic activity of the maternal microbiome during pregnancy to the offspring's immune...

  19. The allergic scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as allergic rhinitis and asthma, have increased in prevalence, particularly in industrialised .... within the alveolar macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells, platelets, basophils and ..... world allergy organization position statement. World Allergy ...

  20. Allergic Rhinitis Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis (eye allergy) or stinging insect allergy. Allergy shots often lead to lasting relief ... AAAAI Foundation Donate American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI ...

  1. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic brosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  3. The Impact of Two Different Transfusion Strategies on Patient Immune Response during Major Abdominal Surgery: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassiani Theodoraki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is associated with well-known risks. We investigated the difference between a restrictive versus a liberal transfusion strategy on the immune response, as expressed by the production of inflammatory mediators, in patients subjected to major abdominal surgery procedures. Fifty-eight patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomized preoperatively to either a restrictive transfusion protocol or a liberal transfusion protocol (with transfusion if hemoglobin dropped below 7.7 g dL−1 or 9.9 g dL−1, respectively. In a subgroup of 20 patients randomly selected from the original allocation groups, blood was sampled for measurement of IL-6, IL-10, and TNFα. Postoperative levels of IL-10 were higher in the liberal transfusion group on the first postoperative day (49.82±29.07 vs. 15.83±13.22 pg mL−1, P<0.05. Peak postoperative IL-10 levels correlated with the units of blood transfused as well as the mean duration of storage and the storage time of the oldest unit transfused (r2=0.38, P=0.032, r2=0.52, P=0.007, and r2=0.68, P<0.001, respectively. IL-10 levels were elevated in patients with a more liberal red blood cell transfusion strategy. The strength of the association between anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transfusion variables indicates that IL-10 may be an important factor in transfusion-associated immunomodulation. This trial is registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02020525.

  4. MHC class II restricted innate-like double negative T cells contribute to optimal primary and secondary immunity to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Zhirong; Liu, Dong; Okwor, Ifeoma; Jia, Ping; Orihara, Kanami; Uzonna, Jude Ezeh

    2014-09-01

    Although it is generally believed that CD4(+) T cells play important roles in anti-Leishmania immunity, some studies suggest that they may be dispensable, and that MHC II-restricted CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative, DN) T cells may be more important in regulating primary anti-Leishmania immunity. In addition, while there are reports of increased numbers of DN T cells in Leishmania-infected patients, dogs and mice, concrete evidence implicating these cells in secondary anti-Leishmania immunity has not yet been documented. Here, we report that DN T cells extensively proliferate and produce effector cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF and IL-17) and granzyme B (GrzB) in the draining lymph nodes and spleens of mice following primary and secondary L. major infections. DN T cells from healed mice display functional characteristics of protective anti-Leishmania memory-like cells: rapid and extensive proliferation and effector cytokines production following L. major challenge in vitro and in vivo. DN T cells express predominantly (> 95%) alpha-beta T cell receptor (αβ TCR), are Leishmania-specific, restricted mostly by MHC class II molecules and display transcriptional profile of innate-like genes. Using in vivo depletion and adoptive transfer studies, we show that DN T cells contribute to optimal primary and secondary anti-Leishmania immunity in mice. These results directly identify DN T cells as important players in effective and protective primary and secondary anti-L. major immunity in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  5. DDA/TDB liposomes containing soluble Leishmania major antigens induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansure Hojatizade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Leishmaniasis is a complex parasitic disease that represents a major public health problem. Despite numerous attempts over the past decades, yet there is no effective vaccine against human leishmaniasis probably due to the lack of suitable adjuvants. In this study, a first generation liposomal-based Leishmania vaccine was developed using soluble Leishmania major antigens (SLA and á, Ü-trehalose6, 6'-dibehenat (TDB as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. In this liposome structure, the cationic lipid Dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA provides intrinsic adjuvant activity and cholesterol was added as a membrane stabilizer. Liposomes containing SLA were prepared.Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were subcutaneously (sc immunized with Lip (DDA/TDB/CHOL-SLA+, Lip (DDA/TDB-SLA+, Lip (DDA-SLA+, Lip (DDA/CHOL-SLA+, SLA or Tris-HCl buffer. Immunization was done every two weeks for three weeks. The immunized mice were then challenged sc in the left footpad with 1×106 stationary phase L. major promastigotes (50 ìl, at 2 weeks after last booster injection.Results: mice immunized with any of the liposomal formulations containing SLA (Lip-SLA+, substantially increased footpad swelling and parasite loads of foot and spleen with no significant difference compared to Tris-HCl buffer or SLA alone. Lip-SLA+ formulations induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response characterized by IFN-ã and IL-4 production as well as high levels of IgG1 anti-Leishmania antibody. Conclusion: immunization with liposomes containing DDA and/or TDB in combination with SLA induces a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response and is not an appropriate strategy for preferential induction of a Th1 response and protection against leishmaniasis.

  6. Immune Cell-Mediated Protection against Vaginal Candidiasis: Evidence for a Major Role of Vaginal CD4+ T Cells and Possible Participation of Other Local Lymphocyte Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Adriani, Daniela; Lucciarini, Roberta; Amantini, Consuelo; Morrone, Stefania; Cassone, Antonio; De Bernardis, Flavia

    2002-01-01

    The protective roles of different lymphocyte subsets were investigated in a rat vaginal candidiasis model by adoptive transfer of vaginal lymphocytes (VL) or sorted, purified CD3+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or CD3− CD5+ B cells from the vaginas of naïve or immune rats following three rounds of Candida albicans infection. The adoptive transfer of total VL from nonimmune animals did not alter the course of vaginal candidiasis of the recipient rats. In contrast, the animals receiving total VL or CD3+ T cells from immune rats showed a highly significant acceleration of fungus clearance compared with animals which received nonimmune VL. The animals with vaginal CD3− CD5+ B cells transferred from immune rats also had fewer Candida CFU than the controls, but fungal clearance was significantly retarded with respect to the animals administered immune T cells. Sorted, purified CD4+ and CD8+ vaginal T cells from immune rats were also adoptively transferred to naïve animals. Although both populations were seen to accelerate the clearance of the fungus from the vagina, CD4+ T cells were much more effective than CD8+ T cells. Overall, there was no difference between the antifungal effects of immune vaginal CD4+ T cells and those achievable with the transfer of whole, immune VL. Histological observations of the vaginal tissues of rats with adoptively transferred immune T cells demonstrated a remarkable accumulation of lymphocytes in the subepithelial lamina propria and also infiltrating the mucosal epithelium. These results strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4+ T cells probably playing a major role. PMID:12183521

  7. Breastfeeding, Childhood Asthma, and Allergic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies. Breastfeeding has health benefits for the mother and child. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant's life, with continued breastfeeding for up to 2 years or longer, is recognized as the "gold" standard for infant feeding because human milk is uniquely suited to the human infant, and its nutritional content and bioactivity promote a healthy development. There is increasing concern that the practice of delaying complementary foods until 6 months may exacerbate the risk of allergic disease. Breast milk contains immunological components that protect against infections and allergic disease in infancy. The composition of human breast milk is complex, containing factors that interact with the infant immune system and intestinal milieu including allergens, cytokines, immunoglobulins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and chemokines. Transforming growth factor β is a cytokine in human milk involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, inflammation regulation, and oral tolerance development. Modern day society, with increased standards of hygiene, has changed the gut flora of Western infants, potentially impacting the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases including allergic disease and asthma. Microbial diversity is intrinsic to healthy immune maturation and function. Compared to breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had lower bacterial diversity and an altered intestinal microbiota in the first few weeks of life associated with

  8. Dominant epitopes and allergic cross-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ipsen, H

    2000-01-01

    leading to aggregation and subsequent mediator release. Thus, allergen-Ab complexes play a crucial role in the cascade leading to the allergic response. We here report the structure of a 1:1 complex between the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the Fab fragment from a murine monoclonal IgG1 Ab, BV16...

  9. Steroids vs immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids g...

  10. Environmental allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.S.; Bokhari, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to find out the common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in patients with allergic rhinitis. Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: A local allergy clinic in an urban area of Lahore during the year 2000-2001. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients with allergic rhinitis irrespective of age and sex were studied. These cases were selected on the basis of symptoms like sneezing, itching, watery nasal discharge and eosinophilia in nasal secretions. Forty matched healthy subjects as controls were also studied. Allergy test was performed on all the subjects by skin prick test to determine sensitivity to common environmental allergens using Bencard (England) allergy kit. Results: common environmental allergens responsible for sensitivity in allergic rhinitis patients were house dust (82.5 %), house dust mites (73.7%), mixed threshing (80%), straw dust (58.7%, hay dust (63.7%), mixed feathers (45%), cat fur (57.5%), cotton flock (56.2%), tree pollens (45%) and grass pollens (48.7%). Sensitivity to these allergens was observed in significantly higher (P<0.01) percentage of allergic rhinitis patients as compared with control subjects. Sensitivity to house dust, house dust mites and cat fur was of severe degree in majority of allergic rhinitis patients. While sensitivity to mixed threshing, straw dust, hay dust and mixed feathers was of moderate to severe degree in majority of these patients. Conclusion: Skin prick tests provide an effective and definitive mean to find out sensitivity to different allergens in cases with allergic rhinitis. Based on these findings, the physician can manage these patients in better way. (author)

  11. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nagata

    Full Text Available Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO, MIF transgenic (Tg and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW pollen or Japanese cedar (JC pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  12. ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY: VACCINES FOR ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Fedorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT is the most effective method of allergy treatment which consists of exposure to small doses of antigen responsible for development of allergic condition in the particular patient. Therefore, one may achieve desensitization to this antigen. The history of ASIT application lasts for more than 100 years, and, over this time, huge clinical evidence for the usage of the method has been accumulated. Use of ASIT causes reduction of allergy symptoms and treatment needs and, moreover, it has the potential for long-term clinical benefit, by preventing the development of allergy and its symptoms. The treatment affects basic immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of clinical symptoms. ASIT is an antiinflammatory, pathogenetic and prophylactic treatment of allergic airway disease. The review considers the results of major clinical trials of the ASIT applications for treatment of allergic diseases of the respiratory system (allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Various schemes of ASIT are discussed including its different variants (injectable and sublingual ASIT, the issues of preparation choice for ASIT from those currently available on the pharmaceutical market, patient selection criteria, and the issues of modern molecular allergodiagnostic (allergic sensitization mapping of the patient at molecular level, in order to optimize them. Immunological mechanisms of ASIT are also considered, since appropriate views are rather contraversial. The ASIT effect is mediated through the following basic immunological mechanisms: the suppressed increase of the eosinophil concentrations, reduced duration of the delayed hypersensitivity phase, as well as initiation and maintenance of the Th2-to-Th1-like immune response transition. Regulatory T-cells play a major role in implementation of the immunological mechanism in ASIT, they have a significant impact on the Th2 response suppression. Such suppression may proceed

  13. Oral Administration of N-Acetyl-D Glucosamine Polymer Particles Down-Regulates Airway Allergic Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shibata, Yoshimi

    2006-01-01

    ... (IL-12, IL-18 and TNFo) that down-regulate allergic immune responses. We also found that administration of chitin particles resulted in less likely induce the production of IL-10 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2...

  14. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-08-01

    This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, along with a focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system and clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the sunshine hypothesis, laboratory evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and allergic diseases, the clinical evidence for and against vitamin D playing a role in allergic diseases, and the emerging evidence regarding the potential use of vitamin D to augment the innate immune response in atopic dermatitis are reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.J. van Neerven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow’s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the development of allergies. In addition, nutrition can also have indirect effects on allergic sensitization. This includes the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, which influences intrauterine development, as well as breastmilk composition. These include the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women that influences intrauterine development as well as breastmilk composition, effects of food processing that may enhance allergenicity of foods, and effects via modulation of the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. This editorial review provides a brief overview of recent developments related to nutrition and the development and management of allergic diseases.

  16. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  17. Allergic rhinitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and is also associated with co-morbidities such as sinusitis, otitis media ... nose, chronic infective sinusitis and nasal polyps may mimic the signs .... fungal spores. Gauteng. Add: tree pollen (cypress). Farming areas. Add: Zea mays, horse, Blomia tropicalis. Table ii. Effect of medications on symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  18. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    NEW DEFINITIONS. The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)1 now state that the term hypersensitivity should be used for 'all .... leading ultimately to allergic inflamma- tion of the sinuses. Not every bacterial infection needs to be treated with an antimicrobial. This is the prime responsi-.

  19. Allergic reactions in anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, M; Garvey, L H; Menné, T

    2005-01-01

    a significant number of patients at unnecessary risk. Some patients may be labelled with a wrong allergy, leading to unnecessary warnings against harmless substances, and some patients may be put at risk of subsequent re-exposure to the real allergen. Patients with suspected allergic reactions during...

  20. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  1. The Correlation between Chitin and Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in Animal Models of Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Rui Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the result of chronic inflammation of the airways which subsequently results in airway hyper-responsiveness and airflow obstruction. It has been shown that an elicited expression of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase may be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our recent study has demonstrated that the specific suppression of elevated AMCase leads to reduced eosinophilia and Th2-mediated immune responses in an ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized mouse model of allergic asthma. In the current study, we show that the elicited expression of AMCase in the lung tissues of both ovalbumin- and Der P2-induced allergic asthma mouse models. The effects of allergic mediated molecules on AMCase expression were evaluated by utilizing promoter assay in the lung cells. In fact, the exposure of chitin, a polymerized sugar and the fundamental component of the major allergen mite and several of the inflammatory mediators, showed significant enhancement on AMCase expression. Such obtained results contribute to the basis of developing a promising therapeutic strategy for asthma by silencing AMCase expression.

  2. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Sibship Characteristics and Risk of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Tine; Rostgaard, Klaus; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2005-01-01

    asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings......asthma; birth order; hypersensitivity; rhinitis; allergic; perennial; rhinitis; allergic; seasonal; risk factors; siblings...

  4. Tumor-secreted miR-214 induces regulatory T cells: a major link between immune evasion and tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuan; Cai, Xing; Chen, Xi; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Jing; Wang, Zuoyun; Chen, Xiulan; Zhang, Wen; Yokoyama, Seiji; Wang, Cheng; Li, Liang; Li, Limin; Hou, Dongxia; Dong, Lei; Xu, Tao; Hiroi, Takachika; Yang, Fuquan; Ji, Hongbin; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    An increased population of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor-associated microenvironment plays an important role in cancer immune evasion. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed an increased secretion of miR-214 in various types of human cancers and mouse tumor models. Tumor-secreted miR-214 was sufficiently delivered into recipient T cells by microvesicles (MVs). In targeted mouse peripheral CD4+ T cells, tumor-derived miR-214 efficiently downregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and promoted Treg expansion. The miR-214-induced Tregs secreted higher levels of IL-10 and promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, in vivo studies indicated that Treg expansion mediated by cancer cell-secreted miR-214 resulted in enhanced immune suppression and tumor implantation/growth in mice. The MV delivery of anti-miR-214 antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) into mice implanted with tumors blocked Treg expansion and tumor growth. Our study reveals a novel mechanism through which cancer cell actively manipulates immune response via promoting Treg expansion. PMID:25223704

  5. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  6. New concept in allergy: Non-allergic rats becomes allergic after induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a theory, seemingly it is impossible that allergic diseases, including asthma, are the result of exposure to a transmissible agent. The fact that nearly all children with asthma are allergic, but only a small proportion of allergic children have asthma, at least raises the possibility that other factors are involved. Interestingly, non-allergic children become allergic after their parents came from working in allergic people for several months. Recent research revealed that periodontal pathogens are also transmissible from mother and caregivers to infants.Therefore, it is logical that non-allergic children could become allergic after exposed to periodontopathic bacteria. However, the mechanism is still unclear. Purpose: The objective of this study is to verify a new concept that non-allergic rat may become allergic after exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Randomized control series design experimental study was conducted to 24 male Wistar rats, two experimental groups and one control group. One group was subjected to intrasulcular injection of PgLPS1435/1450. Tissue examination were done for allergy biomarkers with peroxidase immunohistochemistry for leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in bronchus tissue. Serum level examination of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and immunoglobulin E (IgE was done with ELISA. Data were analyzes using ANOVA. Results: after four days, LTC4 and ECP expression increased significantly (p=0.001; even insignificant, IL-4 and IgE serum level also increased. Conclusion: PgLPS is able to stimulate immunocompetent cells which changed the host immune response of non-allergic rats. Therefore, it is possible that they become allergic.Latar belakang: Menurut teori, penularan penyakit alergi termasuk asma merupakan hal yang mustahil. Fakta menunjukkn bahwa hampir semua anak penderita asma mempunyai alergi, tetapi tidak semua anak alergi menderita asma, sehingga mungkin

  7. Allergic anaphylaxis due to subcutaneously injected heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heparins are one of the most used class of anticoagulants in daily clinical practice. Despite their widespread application immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to heparins are rare. Among these, the delayed-type reactions to s.c. injected heparins are well-known usually presenting as circumscribed eczematous plaques at the injection sites. In contrast, potentially life-threatening systemic immediate-type anaphylactic reactions to heparins are extremely rare. Recently, some cases of non-allergic anaphylaxis could be attributed to undesirable heparin contaminants. A 43-year-old patient developed severe anaphylaxis symptoms within 5–10 minutes after s.c. injection of enoxaparin. Titrated skin prick testing with wheal and flare responses up to an enoxaparin dilution of 1:10.000 indicated a probable allergic mechanism of the enoxaparin-induced anaphylaxis. The basophil activation test as an additional in-vitro test method was negative. Furthermore, skin prick testing showed rather broad cross-reactivity among different heparin preparations tested. In the presented case, history, symptoms, and results of skin testing strongly suggested an IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity against different heparins. Therefore, as safe alternative anticoagulants the patient could receive beneath coumarins the hirudins or direct thrombin inhibitors. Because these compounds have a completely different molecular structure compared with the heparin-polysaccharides.

  8. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Annette eKuehn; Ines eSwoboda; Karthik eArumugam; Christiane eHilger; François eHentges; François eHentges

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  9. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  10. Tyrosine-610 in the Receptor Kinase BAK1 Does Not Play a Major Role in Brassinosteroid Signaling or Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayata Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1 functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1, which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR, respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 in vivo has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag in the homozygous bak1-4 bkk1-1 double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F in the bak1-4 null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic hrpA- mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the bak1-4 background and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive

  11. Mast Cell Interactions and Crosstalk in Regulating Allergic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Tania E; Bryce, Paul J; Hulse, Kathryn E

    2018-04-17

    This review summarizes recent findings on mast cell biology with a focus on IgE-independent roles of mast cells in regulating allergic responses. Recent studies have described novel mast cell-derived molecules, both secreted and membrane-bound, that facilitate cross-talk with a variety of immune effector cells to mediate type 2 inflammatory responses. Mast cells are complex and dynamic cells that are persistent in allergy and are capable of providing signals that lead to the initiation and persistence of allergic mechanisms.

  12. Restoring conjunctival tolerance by topical nuclear factor-κB inhibitors reduces preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Mauricio; Sabbione, Florencia; Gabelloni, María Laura; Vanzulli, Silvia; Trevani, Analía Silvina; Giordano, Mirta Nilda; Galletti, Jeremías Gastón

    2014-09-04

    To evaluate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in eye drop preservative toxicity and the effect of topical NF-κB inhibitors on preservative-facilitated allergic conjunctivitis. Balb/c mice were instilled ovalbumin (OVA) combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and/or NF-κB inhibitors in both eyes. After immunization, T-cell responses and antigen-induced ocular inflammation were evaluated. Nuclear factor-κB activation and associated inflammatory changes also were assessed in murine eyes and in an epithelial cell line after BAK exposure. Benzalkonium chloride promoted allergic inflammation and leukocyte infiltration of the conjunctiva. Topical NF-κB inhibitors blocked the disruptive effect of BAK on conjunctival immunological tolerance and ameliorated subsequent ocular allergic reactions. In line with these findings, BAK induced NF-κB activation and the secretion of IL-6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor in an epithelial cell line and in the conjunctiva of instilled mice. In addition, BAK favored major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II expression in cultured epithelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent fashion after interaction with T cells. Benzalkonium chloride triggers conjunctival epithelial NF-κB activation, which seems to mediate some of its immune side effects, such as proinflammatory cytokine release and increased MHC II expression. Breakdown of conjunctival tolerance by BAK favors allergic inflammation, and this effect can be prevented in mice by topical NF-κB inhibitors. These results suggest a new pharmacological target for preservative toxicity and highlight the importance of conjunctival tolerance in ocular surface homeostasis. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Topical treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of allergic conjunctivitis. Classification and pathogenesis ... Table 1: The classification of allergic conjunctivitis1,2,5. Acute allergic ..... molecular structure which may be associated with a more rapid ... Resolvin E1, a proresolving lipid mediator.

  14. Differential immune response of congenic mice to ultraviolet-treated major histocompatibility complex class II-incompatible skin grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, B.J.; Santerse, B.; Van De Kerckhove, B.A.; Schothorst, A.A.; Claas, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet (UVB) irradiation on the survival of H-2 class II-disparate skin grafts was studied in congenic mouse strains. Isolated skin was UVB irradiated in vitro at a dose of 40 mJ/cm 2 from both sides to remove Ia immunogenicity. Immediately after irradiation the skin was transplanted onto the flank of allogeneic mice. When B10.AQR grafts were transplanted onto B10.T(6R) recipients, a significant prolongation of the survival time was observed, while 50% of the UVB-treated grafts were not rejected at all. However, in the opposite direction--i.e., B10.T(6R) grafts onto B10.AQR recipients, no significant prolongation of the survival was observed. To test whether this effect was due to a difference in susceptibility of the donor skin to UVB irradiation or to a different immune response in the recipients, (B10.T(6R) x B10.AQR) grafts were transplanted onto the parent strains. Similar results were obtained, in that UVB-treated grafts did not show a prolonged survival in B10.AQR recipients, whereas a significant prolongation (50% of the grafts survived more than 100 days) was observed in B10.T(6R) recipients. UVB-treated (B10.T(6R) x B10.AQR)F1 grafts were also transplanted onto (B10.T(6R) x C57B1/10)F1, (B10.AQR x C57B1/10)F1, (B10.T(6R) x Balb/c)F1 and (B10.AQR x Balb/c)F1 recipients--but in none of these combinations was a prolonged survival time observed. These data suggest that, in contrast to all in vitro experiments, the abrogation of the immune response by UVB treatment of the stimulator cells is, in vivo, not a general phenomenon. The genetic constitution of the responder mice seems to play an important role in determining whether or not an immune response takes place

  15. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune...... to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a past history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis proliferated vigorously in response to PSA-2 isolated from Leishmania major, whereas the antigen did not activate cells from presumably unexposed Danes....... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with previous L. major infection had varying proliferative responses to PSA-2 derived from L. donovani promastigotes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by PSA-2 from L. major produced high amounts of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor...

  16. Cholinergic Modulation of Type 2 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goele Bosmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune system has become increasingly clear, and its role in both homeostasis and inflammation has been well documented over the years. Since the introduction of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been an increased interest in parasympathetic regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 responses. Increasing evidence has been emerging suggesting a role for the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will highlight the role of cholinergic modulation by both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in several key aspects of the allergic inflammatory response, including barrier function, innate and adaptive immune responses, and effector cells responses. A better understanding of these cholinergic processes mediating key aspects of type 2 immune disorders might lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.

  17. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and prefrontal dopamine metabolism in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Theije, C.G.M.; Van Den Elsen, L.W.J.; Willemsen, L.E.M.; Milosevic, V.; Lopes Da Silva, S.; Olivier, B.; Garssen, J.; Korte, S.M.; Kraneveld, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is suggested that allergic immune activation, combined with a genetic predisposition, may contribute to the expression of aberrant social behaviour relevant to autism. We have previously shown that a food allergic response reduced social behaviour in mice, which was associated with

  18. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Karin Dam; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis compared the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or allergic asthma (AA) caused by perennial house dust mite (HDM) versus AR and/or AA caused by seasonal pollen allergy. Following a systematic search, the identified studies used the...

  19. Food and Natural Materials Target Mechanisms to Effectively Regulate Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    An immune hypersensitivity disorder called allergy is caused by diverse allergens entering the body via skin contact, injection, ingestion, and/or inhalation. These allergic responses may develop into allergic disorders, including inflammations such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Several drugs have been developed to treat these allergic disorders; however, long-term intake of these drugs could have adverse effects. As an alternative to these medicines, food and natural materials that ameliorate allergic disorder symptoms without producing any side effects can be consumed. Food and natural materials can effectively regulate successive allergic responses in an allergic chain-reaction mechanism in the following ways: [1] Inhibition of allergen permeation via paracellular diffusion into epithelial cells, [2] suppression of type 2 T-helper (Th) cell-related cytokine production by regulating Th1/Th2 balance, [3] inhibition of pathogenic effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and [4] inhibition of degranulation in mast cells. The immunomodulatory effects of food and natural materials on each target mechanism were scientifically verified and shown to alleviate allergic disorder symptoms. Furthermore, consumption of certain food and natural materials such as fenugreek, skullcap, chitin/chitosan, and cheonggukjang as anti-allergics have merits such as safety (no adverse side effects), multiple suppressive effects (as a mixture would contain various components that are active against allergic responses), and ease of consumption when required. These merits and anti-allergic properties of food and natural materials help control various allergic disorders.

  20. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Ksenzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  1. Induction of protective immunity to Theileria annulata using two major merozoite surface antigens presented by different delivery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. D'Oliveira; A. Feenstra; H.W. Vos (Helma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.R. Shiels; A.W.C.A. Cornelissen; F. Jongejan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAllelic forms (Tams1-1 and Tams1-2) of the major merozoite surface antigen gene of Theileria annulata have recently been expressed in Escherichia coli and in Salmonella typhimurium aroA vaccine strain SL3261. To test the potential of subunit vaccines against T. annulata infection, we

  2. Characterization of the local and systemic immune responses in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Veress, B; Permin, H

    1999-01-01

    In this study skin biopsies and peripheral blood samples were obtained from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major. Samples were obtained at diagnosis and during healing when the lesions had regressed to half the original size. At diagnosis most of the cells expressed HLA...

  3. dNP2-ctCTLA-4 inhibits German cockroach extract-induced allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness via inhibition of Th2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sangho; Ho Sohn, Jung; Koo, Ja-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won; Choi, Je-Min

    2017-08-04

    German cockroaches are major household allergens that can trigger allergic airway inflammatory diseases with sensitive T-cell responses. Although the use of immune modulatory biologics, such as antibodies, to mediate allergic responses has recently been examined, only systemic administration is available because of the size limitations on intranasal administration. Here we utilized a cell-permeable peptide, dNP2, to deliver the cytoplasmic domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ctCTLA-4) through the airway epithelium to modulate Th2 responses in a German cockroach extract (GCE)-induced allergic airway inflammation model. The intranasal delivery efficiency of the dNP2-dTomato protein to the lungs was higher in GCE-induced asthmatic lung parenchymal cells compared to the sham cells. Intranasal administration of the dNP2-ctCTLA-4 protein inhibited airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced airway inflammation and remodeling, including goblet cell metaplasia and collagen deposition around the bronchi. The number of infiltrated cells, including eosinophils, and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IFN-γ in the lungs were significantly reduced, presumably owing to inhibition of Th2 differentiation. However, intranasal administration of CTLA4-Ig did not inhibit airway inflammation. These results collectively suggest that dNP2-ctCTLA-4 is an efficient intranasally applicable candidate biologic for treating allergic asthma.

  4. Cathepsin B in antigen-presenting cells controls mediators of the Th1 immune response during Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris J Gonzalez-Leal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb and L (Ctsl play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC and macrophages (BMM from Ctsb-/- and Ctsl-/- mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb-/- BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT and Ctsl-/- BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb-/- mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12 expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb-/- BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl-/- counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression.

  5. Allergic granulomatous angiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic granulomatous angiitis (AGA - Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by three distinct clinical phases prodromal, eosinophilic, and vasculitic, and most of respiratory symptoms and signs begin in the first two phases of the disease. Two female patients of different age, who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AGA, and were in different phases and with the different duration of the disease are presented. The first patient (24 years of age was admitted to the hospital due to aggravation of asthma, heart failure, and polyneuropathy. The second one (45 years of age was also hospitalized due to the worsening of asthma polyneuropathy, and fever. Both were treated continuously with glucocorticoids. The older patient also received a total of six pulse doses of cyclophosphamide. Satisfactory response to such a treatment was achieved in both cases.

  6. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  7. ALLERGIC PATHOLOGY AND CELIAC DISEASE — MECHANISM OF COMMUNITY AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Revnova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the differentiation of allergic diseases and celiac in children. It covers in detail the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of immune inflammation in celiac disease, clinical picture with the main and additional symptoms and markers of this pathology. In the article the author shares data of her own experience and provides the own diagnostic algorithm.Key words: allergic pathology, celiac disease, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:76-80

  8. IL-23 and T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2009-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: To investigate T(H)17-mediated inflammation in human beings with allergic contact dermatitis; in particular, the innate response of keratinocytes to contact allergen, the induction of allergen-specific T(H)17 cells, and the presence of T(H)17-related effector cells in inflamed skin. METHODS....... CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the involvement of T(H)17-mediated immunopathology in human allergic contact dermatitis, including both innate and adaptive immune responses to contact allergens....

  9. Immune modulating effects of NKT cells in a physiologically low dose Leishmania major infection model after αGalCer analog PBS57 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griewank, Klaus G; Lorenz, Beate; Fischer, Michael R; Boon, Louis; Lopez Kostka, Susanna; von Stebut, Esther

    2014-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection affecting ∼12 million people worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Treatment options are limited and no effective vaccines exist to date. Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a conserved innate-like lymphocyte population with immunomodulating effects in various settings. A number of reports state a role of NKT cells in different models of Leishmania infection. Here, we investigated the effect of NKT cells in a physiologically relevant, intradermal low dose infection model. After inoculation of 103 infectious-stage L. major, comparable numbers of skin-immigrating NKT cells in both susceptible BALB/c mice and resistant C57BL/6 mice were noted. Compared to their wild type counterparts, NKT cell-deficient mice on a C57BL/6 background were better able to contain infection with L. major and showed decreased IL-4 production in cytokine analysis performed 5 and 8 weeks after infection. Low doses of the NKT cell stimulating αGalCer analog PBS57 applied at the time of infection led to disease exacerbation in C57BL/6 wild-type, but not NKT-deficient mice. The effect was dependent both on the timing and amount of PBS57 administered. The effect of NKT cell stimulation by PBS57 proved to be IL-4 dependent, as it was neutralized in IL-4-deficient C57BL/6 or anti-IL-4 antibody-treated wild-type mice. In contrast to C57BL/6 mice, administration of PBS57 in susceptible BALB/c mice resulted in an improved course of disease. Our results reveal a strain- and cytokine-dependent regulatory role of NKT cells in the development of immunity to low dose L. major infections. These effects, probably masked in previous studies using higher parasite inocula, should be considered in future therapy and immunization approaches.

  10. Purified Timothy grass pollen major allergen Phl p 1 may contribute to the modulation of allergic responses through a pleiotropic induction of cytokines and chemokines from airway epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röschmann, K.I.L.; van Kuijen, A.M.; Luiten, S.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; Fokkens, W.J.; Petersen, A.; van Drunen, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    By definition, allergens are proteins with the ability to elicit powerful T helper lymphocyte type 2 (Th2) responses, culminating in immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibody production. Why specific proteins cause aberrant immune responses has remained largely unanswered. Recent data suggest that there may be

  11. Purified Timothy grass pollen major allergen Phl p 1 may contribute to the modulation of allergic responses through a pleiotropic induction of cytokines and chemokines from airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röschmann, K. I. L.; van Kuijen, A.-M.; Luiten, S.; Jonker, M. J.; Breit, T. M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Petersen, A.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    By definition, allergens are proteins with the ability to elicit powerful T helper lymphocyte type 2 (Th2) responses, culminating in immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibody production. Why specific proteins cause aberrant immune responses has remained largely unanswered. Recent data suggest that there may be

  12. Chemokine Signaling in Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Toward Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2018-06-22

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that results in significant cost and morbidity. Despite its high prevalence, therapeutic options are limited. Allergic contact dermatitis is regulated primarily by T cells within the adaptive immune system, but also by natural killer and innate lymphoid cells within the innate immune system. The chemokine receptor system, consisting of chemokine peptides and chemokine G protein-coupled receptors, is a critical regulator of inflammatory processes such as ACD. Specific chemokine signaling pathways are selectively up-regulated in ACD, most prominently CXCR3 and its endogenous chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Recent research demonstrates that these 3 chemokines are not redundant and indeed activate distinct intracellular signaling profiles such as those activated by heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestin adapter proteins. Such differential signaling provides an attractive therapeutic target for novel ACD therapies and other inflammatory diseases.

  13. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-03

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Asthma and Allergic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Searing, Daniel A; Leung, Donald YM

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the scientific evidence behind the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, with a particular focus on emerging data regarding vitamin D and atopic dermatitis. Both elucidated molecular interactions of vitamin D with components of the immune system, as well as clinical data regarding vitamin D deficiency and atopic diseases are discussed. The rationale behind the “sunshine hypothesis,” laboratory evidence supporting links between vi...

  15. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Wendy C; Smith, Janet L; Affleck, Karen; Amour, Augustin

    2012-02-01

    Chronic inflammation in the lung has long been linked to the pathogenesis of asthma. Central to this airway inflammation is a T-cell response to allergens, with Th2 cytokines driving the differentiation, survival and function of the major inflammatory cells involved in the allergic cascade. PI3Kδ (phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ) is a lipid kinase, expressed predominantly in leucocytes, where it plays a critical role in immune receptor signalling. A selective PI3Kδ inhibitor is predicted to block T-cell activation in the lung, reducing the production of pro-inflammatory Th2 cytokines. PI3Kδ is also involved in B-cell and mast cell activation. Therefore the inhibition of PI3Kδ should dampen down the inflammatory cascade involved in the asthmatic response through a wide breadth of pharmacology. Current anti-inflammatory therapies, which are based on corticosteroids, are effective in controlling inflammation in mild asthmatics, but moderate/severe asthmatic patients remain poorly controlled, experiencing recurrent exacerbations. Corticosteroids have no effect on mast cell degranulation and do not act directly on B-cells, so, overall, a PI3Kδ inhibitor has the potential to deliver improvements in onset of action, efficacy and reduced exacerbations in moderate/severe asthmatics. Additionally, PI3Kδ inhibition is expected to block effects of Th17 cells, which are increasingly implicated in steroid-insensitive asthma.

  16. Parental Burden in Families with a Young Food-Allergic Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the parental burden in families with a food-allergic child under the age of four. This study was carried out using a descriptive correlational research design. The subjects of this study were 104 families with a young food-allergic child who observed a restricted diet. The majority of the children were…

  17. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  18. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  19. Allergy and allergic mediators in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The identification of inflammatory mediators in the tear fluid have been extensively used in ocular allergy to find either a 'disease marker', to better understand the immune mechanisms involved in the ocular surface inflammation, or to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions. While the clinical characteristics allow a relatively convincing diagnosis of ocular allergic diseases, in the initial, non active phases, or in the chronic stages, the diagnosis may not be clear. Although not highly specific, total tear IgE can be measured with local tests by inserting a paper strip in the lower meniscus. The measurement of tear specific inflammatory markers, such as histamine, tryptase, ECP, IL-4, IL-5 and eotaxin, may be useful for the diagnosis or monitoring ocular allergy. New technologies such as multiplex bead assays, membrane-bound antibody array and proteomic techniques can characterize the distribution of a wide range of bioactive trace proteins in tears. Dozens of mediators, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, angiogenic modulators, enzymes and inhibitors were thus identified in small tear samples using these techniques, providing the possible identification of specific biomarker for either specific disease or disease activity. However, to date, there is no a single specific laboratory test suitable for the diagnosis and monitoring of allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Probiotics and down-regulation of the allergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliomäki, Marko A; Isolauri, Erika

    2004-11-01

    The first clinical trials with probiotics, especially in the treatment of atopic eczema, have yielded encouraging results. Experimental studies have found that probiotics exert strain-specific effects in the intestinal lumen and on epithelial cells and immune cells with anti-allergic potential. These effects include enhancement in antigen degradation and gut barrier function and induction of regulatory and proinflammatory immune responses, the latter of which occurs more likely beyond the intestinal epithelium. Future studies should address more accurately how these and other possible mechanisms operate in the complex gastrointestinal macroenvironment in vivo and how these mechanisms are related to the clinical effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Allergic Aspergillus Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunaloke Chakrabarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS is a unique variety of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis usually in atopic individuals, characterized by presence of eosinophilic mucin and fungal hyphae in paranasal sinuses without invasion into surrounding mucosa. It has emerged as an important disease involving a large population across the world with geographic variation in incidence and epidemiology. The disease is surrounded by controversies regarding its definition and etiopathogenesis. A working group on “Fungal Sinusitis” under the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM addressed some of those issues, but many questions remain unanswered. The descriptions of “eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis” (EFRS, “eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis” (EMRS and mucosal invasion by hyphae in few patients have increased the problem to delineate the disease. Various hypotheses exist for etiopathogenesis of AFRS with considerable overlap, though recent extensive studies have made certain in depth understanding. The diagnosis of AFRS is a multi-disciplinary approach including the imaging, histopathology, mycology and immunological investigations. Though there is no uniform management protocol for AFRS, surgical clearing of the sinuses with steroid therapy are commonly practiced. The role of antifungal agents, leukotriene antagonists and immunomodulators is still questionable. The present review covers the controversies, recent advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AFRS.

  3. Inducing maternal inflammation promotes leptin production in offspring but does not improve allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Imai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The intrauterine environment is considered to affect immunological development in fetus, leading to an increased risk of developing allergy. In particular, maternal lipopolysaccharides (LPS administration might regulate the development of allergic disease in offspring. Several studies have shown that being obese relates to a higher prevalence of allergic diseases compared to normal weight. The present study explored the effects of inducing maternal inflammation with LPS before pregnancy on body weight, physical composition including body fat, adipokine production, and pathology of allergic rhinitis in offspring. Main methods: Female mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (2 μg/g BW. After 5 days of LPS administration, female mice were mated with males, and experimental allergic rhinitis was induced in female offspring. Immunization and nasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA were performed at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Allergic rhinitis-like symptoms, OVA-specific IgE and adipokines in sera, body weight, fat pad weight, and cytokine production by splenocytes in these 9-week-old offspring. Key findings: Maternal LPS administration results in a significant increase in body weight, visceral fat accumulation, and serum leptin concentration, and the dominance of Th1 in Th balance. Nevertheless, there was no statistical difference in OVA-specific IgE titer and allergic-like symptoms between the groups. Significance: In conclusion, maternal LPS promoted leptin production and altered Th balance in mice offspring, but not improved allergic symptoms in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. It might suggest that inflammation during pregnancy plays a role in the adipose tissue function which could diversely influence allergic inflammation in offspring. Keywords: Immunology, Metabolism, Nutrition, Health Sciences

  4. Diet Matters: Endotoxin in the Diet Impacts the Level of Allergic Sensitization in Germ-Free Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schwarzer

    Full Text Available Germ-free animals have been used to define the vital role of commensal bacteria on the maturation of the host immune system. However, the role of bacterial residues in diet in this setting is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of bacterial contamination in sterile diet on the level of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Sterile grain-based diets ST1 and R03 were tested for the level of bacterial contamination. ST1 contained higher amount of bacterial DNA, approximately ten times more endotoxin, and induced higher, TLR4-dependent, cytokine production in dendritic cells compared to R03. In a germ-free mouse model of sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, feeding on ST1 for at least two generations was associated with decreased production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies in sera in comparison to R03. Furthermore, reduced levels of allergen-specific and ConA-induced cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 accompanied by increased levels of IFN-γ were detected in splenocytes cultures of these mice. Our results show that contamination of experimental diet with bacterial residues, such as endotoxin, significantly affects the development of allergic sensitization in germ-free mice. Therefore, careful selection of sterile food is critical for the outcomes of germ-free or gnotobiotic experimental models of immune-deviated diseases.

  5. Evaluation of Some Allergic Mediators in Elderly Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, M.M.; Michael, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a physiological process characterized by decreasing adaptation of the individual and accentuation of certain mechanisms e.g. arteriosclerotic plaque formation, oxidative stress and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate immuno senescence on some allergic mediators in healthy individuals. Twenty-four male volunteers arranged into three groups according to their age were participated in this study. After their permission, personal and family history, full clinical examination and several laboratory confirmatory tests were determined to assure their healthy condition. Forty-eight h later another blood specimen was withdrawn where, complete blood picture, total immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-4 (IL4), interleukin-5 (IL5) and γ-interferon (γ-INF) were estimated. Regarding the allergic mediators estimated in the present study, the third geriatric group had relative eosinophilia, positive correlation between IgE and γ-INF and high significant decrease in IgE and IL5. These results led to the conclusion that the immuno senescence in this group of individuals did not lead to any allergic related conditions and the impairment of functions associated with aged immune response most probably had no role on the prevalence of allergic disease in elderly individuals.

  6. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  7. The Role of Leukotriene B4 in Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohnishi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 is a lipid mediator with potent chemoattractant properties and that is rapidly generated from activated innate immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells. Elevated levels of LTB4 have been reported in various allergic diseases and these levels have been related to disease activity and response to treatment. Recent studies using LTB4 receptor-1 (BLT1 antagonists or BLT1-deficient mice have revealed that ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 is important for the activation and recruitment of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes/macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, and more recently, effector T cells to inflamed tissues in various inflammatory diseases. The LTB4/BLT1 pathway appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe persistent asthma, aspirin- and exercise-induced asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis together with other mediators including cysteinyl leukotrienes, cytokines, and chemokines. LTB4 production is in general resistant to corticosteroid treatment. In fact, corticosteroids can upregulate BLT1 expression on corticosteroid-resistant inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, and effector memory CD8+ T cells. As a result, this corticosteroid-resistant LTB4/BLT1 pathway may contribute to the development of inflammation in allergic diseases that do not respond to the introduction of corticosteroids. Inhibition of this pathway has potential therapeutic benefit in various allergic diseases that have involvement of corticosteroid-insensitivity.

  8. Methylisothiazolinone in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, K; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Faurschou, A

    2015-01-01

    the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS: Nineteen MI-allergic subjects and 19 controls without MI allergy applied two liquid hand soaps five times per day on areas of 5 × 10 cm(2) on the ventral side of their forearms. One soap contained 100 ppm MI, the maximum allowed concentration......BACKGROUND: In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) has increased dramatically. Cosmetic products are one of the major sources of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether allowed concentrations of MI in cosmetic rinse-off products have...

  9. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  10. Psychological stress and its relationship with persistent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hennawi, Diaa El Din Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat; Farid, Alaa Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Allergic rhinitis is considered to be a major health problem that impairs quality of life. A possible relationship with psychological stress may exist. The aim of this study is to verify the relationship between persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) and psychological stress aiming to improve treatment and thereby quality of life (QOL) of patients. Patients with PAR (166) were diagnosed then analyzed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Patients with allergic rhinitis and who were positive on the Kessler scale (122) were randomly divided equally into a control group which received levocetirizine and a study group which received levocetirizine and imipramine. Nasal symptom assessment and QOL assessment were performed in all patients after treatment. Of the 166 patients with PAR, 122 (73.5 %) were positive on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. There was a marked improvement in the study group compared with the control group as regards nasal symptoms with better QOL in the study group (6.93) compared with the control group (2.13). Psychological stress has a strong impact on persistent allergic rhinitis. When stress is controlled by a combined treatment of imipramine and levocetirizine, allergic rhinitis symptoms improved and a better QOL was obtained. 3b.

  11. Patterns of psychosocial adaptation and allergic disorders in Korean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JinAh; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kwon, Ji-Won; Song, Young Hwa; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Hong, Soo-Jong; Shin, Yee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    To date, there is little evidence to support an association between symptoms of pediatric allergic disorders and psychosocial factors in the general population, particularly in Asian countries. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and symptoms of allergic disorders and to investigate the association between behavior problems and biomarkers of atopy. A cross-sectional survey of parental responses to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was conducted from one elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Skin prick tests for 18 major allergens were also performed. A total of 780 children with valid CBCL surveys were included in the study. Externalizing problems were significantly larger in children with asthmatic symptoms, while internalizing problems were significantly larger in children with symptoms of both asthma and allergic rhinitis. Social adaptations were significantly lower in children with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Boys with more positive allergens via the skin prick tests showed larger internalizing problems. While school children with allergic symptoms have been reported to have more difficulties with psychosocial adaptation, the patterns of psychosocial problems varied somewhat according to the types of atopic disorder. There was a positive relationship between atopy and behavior problems, especially in boys. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Association of Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder with allergic diseases in children and adolescents: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, M; Guner, S N; Karabekiroglu, K; Baykal, S; Kilic, M; Sancak, R; Karabekiroglu, A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the rate of allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in children and adolescents diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (n:26) and/or Tourette syndrome (TS) (n:32) [OCD plus TS, n:13] compared to control subjects (n:35) [total, n:80]. The symptoms of any allergic disease were assessed using the ISAAC questionnaire form. Allergy diagnoses were made by a pediatric allergy specialist. Skin prick tests were applied, and IgE levels and eosinophil counts were measured. While only one-fifth of the control subjects had allergic diseases, more than half of the children with TS and/or OCD had comorbid allergic diseases. Positive skin prick tests were greater in OCD patients compared to control subjects. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of eosinophil counts or IgE levels. Among the allergic diseases, while allergic rhinitis was diagnosed at significantly higher rates in TS patients, eczema was significantly higher in OCD patients compared to control subjects. This preliminary study shows an association between allergic diseases and TS and/or OCD. The results revealing differences in associations between types of allergic disease (rhinitis or eczema) and neuropsychiatric disorder (tic disorder or OCD) need to be investigated in further studies with higher numbers of participants, and immune markers should be examined.

  13. Comparative immunology of allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J

    2015-01-01

    Allergic responses occur in humans, rodents, non-human primates, avian species, and all of the domestic animals. These responses are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that bind to mast cells and cause release/synthesis of potent mediators. Clinical syndromes include naturally occurring asthma in humans and cats; atopic dermatitis in humans, dogs, horses, and several other species; food allergies; and anaphylactic shock. Experimental induction of asthma in mice, rats, monkeys, sheep, and cats has helped to reveal mechanisms of pathogenesis of asthma in humans. All of these species share the ability to develop a rapid and often fatal response to systemic administration of an allergen--anaphylactic shock. Genetic predisposition to development of allergic disease (atopy) has been demonstrated in humans, dogs, and horses. Application of mouse models of IgE-mediated allergic asthma has provided evidence for a role of air pollutants (ozone, diesel exhaust, environmental tobacco smoke) in enhanced sensitization to allergens.

  14. The who, where, and when of IgE in allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullaers, Melissa; De Bruyne, Ruth; Ramadani, Faruk; Gould, Hannah J; Gevaert, Philippe; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-03-01

    Allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis are characterized by a T(H)2-dominated immune response associated with increased serum IgE levels in response to inhaled allergens. Because IgE is a key player in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation, it represents a prime target for therapeutic intervention. However, our understanding of IgE biology remains fragmentary. This article puts together our current knowledge on IgE in allergic airway diseases with a special focus on the identity of IgE-secreting cells ("who"), their location ("where"), and the circumstances in which they are induced ("when"). We further consider the therapeutic implications of the insights gained. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of the eosinophil-selective chemokine, eotaxin, in allergic and non-allergic airways inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conroy Dolores M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood eosinophilia and tissue infiltration by eosinophils are frequently observed in allergic inflammation and parasitic infections. This selective accumulation of eosinophils suggested the existence of endogenous eosinophil-selective chemoattractants. We have recently discovered a novel eosinophil-selective chemoattractant which we called eotaxin in an animal model of allergic airways disease. Eotaxin is generated in both allergic and non-allergic bronchopulmonary inflammation. The early increase in eotaxin paralled eosinophil infiltration in the lung tissue in both models. An antibody to IL-5 suppressed lung eosinophilia, correlating with an inhibition of eosinophil release from bone marrow, without affecting eotaxin generation. This suggests that endogenous IL-5 is important for eosinophil migration but does not appear to be a stimulus for eotaxin production. Constitutive levels of eotaxin observed in guinea-pig lung may be responsible for the basal lung eosinophilia observed in this species. Allergen-induced eotaxin was present mainly in the epithelium and alveolar macrophages, as detected by immunostaining. In contrast there was no upregulation of eotaxin by the epithelial cells following the injection of Sephadex beads and the alveolar macrophage and mononuclear cells surrounding the granuloma were the predominant positive staining cells. Eotaxin and related chemokines acting through the CCR3 receptor may play a major role in eosinophil recruitment in allergic inflammation and parasitic diseases and thus offer an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect

  17. Cesarean section imprints cord blood immune cell distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Immune programming in early life may affect the risk of developing immune-related diseases later in life. Children born by cesarean section seem to be at higher risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and type-1 diabetes. We hypothesized that delivery by cesarean section may affect immune maturation i...

  18. Role of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, Lorenzo; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco

    2017-09-11

    The adaptive immune response orchestrated by type 2 T helper (Th2) lymphocytes, strictly cooperates with the innate response of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), in the protection from helminths infection, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. The aim of this review is to explore the pathogenic role of ILC2 in different type 2-mediated disorders. Recent studies have shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines and their responding cells, ILC2, play a pathogenic role in bronchial asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and atopic dermatitis. The growing evidences of the contribution of ILC2 in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation in such disease suggest the possibility to target them in therapy. Biological therapies blocking ILC2 activation or neutralizing their effector cytokines are currently under evaluation to be used in patients with type 2-dominated diseases.

  19. Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Dagmar García; Balmaseda, Ivones Hernández; León, Alina Alvarez; Hernández, Belkis Cancio; Montiel, Lucía Márquez; Garrido, Gabino Garrido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Hernández, René Delgado

    2006-03-01

    Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L., ethnopharmacologically used in Cuba for the treatment of some immunopathological disorders, including bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases. However, the effects of Vimang on allergic response have not been reported until now. In this study, the effects of Vimang and mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract, on different parameters of allergic response are reported. Vimang and mangiferin showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of IgE production in mice and anaphylaxis reaction in rats, histamine-induced vascular permeability and the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat mast cells, and of lymphocyte proliferative response as evidence of the reduction of the amount of B and T lymphocytes able to contribute to allergic response. In these experiments, ketotifen, promethazine and disodium cromoglicate were used as reference drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Vimang had an effect on an in-vivo model of inflammatory allergy mediated by mast cells. These results constitute the first report of the anti-allergic properties of Vimang on allergic models, as well as suggesting that this natural extract could be successfully used in the treatment of allergic disorders. Mangiferin, the major compound of Vimang, contributes to the anti-allergic effects of the extract.

  20. Immune response to allergens in sheep sensitized to house dust mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velden Joanne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background House dust mite (HDM allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma. Most studies using animal models of allergic asthma have used rodents sensitized with the 'un-natural' allergen ovalbumin. It has only recently been recognized that the use of animal models based on HDM provide a more relevant insight into the allergen-induced mechanisms that underpin human allergic disease. We have previously described a sheep model of human allergic asthma that uses Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus HDM. The present study extends our understanding of the immune effects of HDM and the allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the sheep model of asthma. Methods Peripheral blood sera from non-sensitized (control sheep and sheep sensitized to HDM was collected to determine immunoglobulin (Ig reactivities to HDM, Der p 1 and Der p 2 by ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid collected following allergen challenge was also assessed for the presence of HDM-specific antibodies. To examine the cellular immune response to HDM allergens, T cell proliferation and cutaneous responses were assessed in sensitized and control sheep. Results Strong HDM- and Der p 1-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgA serum responses were observed in sensitized sheep, while detectable levels of HDM-specific IgG1 and IgA were seen in BAL fluid of allergen-challenged lungs. In contrast, minimal antibody reactivity was observed to Der p 2. Marked T cell proliferation and late phase cutaneous responses, accompanied by the recruitment of eosinophils, indicates the induction of a cellular and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH type II response by HDM and Der p 1 allergen, but not Der p 2. Conclusion This work characterizes the humoral and cellular immune effects of HDM extract and its major constituent allergens in sheep sensitized to HDM. The effects of allergen in HDM-sensitized sheep were detectable both locally and systemically, and probably mediated via enzymatic and immune actions of the

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  2. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people do not react to vaccination and the incidence of vaccine anaphylaxis is estimated to be <1/million for all vaccines.[1] Most anaphylactic reactions occur in non-food allergic children. It is strongly recommended that anyone admin- istering vaccines has resuscitation equipment available to manage potential ...

  3. Anthropogenic Climate Change and Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have an impact on various aspects of health, including mucosal areas involved in allergic inflammatory disorders that include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis. The evidence that links climate change to the exacerbation and the development of allergic disease is increasing and appears to be linked to changes in pollen seasons (duration, onset and intensity and changes in allergen content of plants and their pollen as it relates to increased sensitization, allergenicity and exacerbations of allergic airway disease. This has significant implications for air quality and for the global food supply.

  4. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  5. Effects of dietary administration of guanosine monophosphate on the growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-10-01

    The present study explored the dietary administration effects of guanosine monophosphate (GMP) on growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (GMP-0.1), 0.2% (GMP-0.2), 0.4% (GMP-0.4) and 0.8% (GMP-0.8) purified GMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The obtained results clearly indicated that, growth performance of red sea bream enhanced by dietary GMP supplementation compared to control and significantly higher final weight was found in fish fed diet group GMP-0.4. Specific growth rate (SGR) and percent weight gain (%WG) also significantly higher in diet group GMP-0.4 in compared to control and it was not differed (P > 0.05) with diet group GMP-0.8. Feed intake significantly increased with the supplementation of GMP. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) also improved (P  0.05) by GMP supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with GMP supplementation. In terms of oxidative stress GMP-0.2 showed best condition with low oxidative stress and high antioxidant level. Moreover, the fish fed GMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream, which is also in line with the most of the growth performance and health parameters of the fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Update and clinical utility of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution 0.25% in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigbu DI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DeGaulle I Chigbu, Alissa M Coyne Pennsylvania College of Optometry Salus University, Elkins Park, PA, USA Abstract: Allergic disorders of the ocular surface are primarily characterized as IgE- and/or T-lymphocyte-mediated disorders that affect the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Approximately 40% of individuals in the developed countries have allergic conjunctivitis, and as such, it is the most common form of ocular allergy. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most prevalent type of allergic conjunctivitis that impacts the quality of life of patients. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, clinical efficacy, and safety of alcaftadine. Histamine and the pathological mechanism of ocular allergy will be briefly reviewed with the intent of providing a background for the detailed discussion on the clinical utility of alcaftadine in allergic conjunctivitis. The Medline PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on histamine and immunopathological mechanism of allergic conjunctivitis, as well as on pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and clinical efficacy of alcaftadine. The treatment and management goals of allergic conjunctivitis are to prevent or minimize the inflammatory cascade associated with allergic response in the early stages of the pathological mechanism. It is of note that activation of histamine receptors on immune and nonimmune cells are associated with allergen-induced inflammation of the conjunctiva and its associated ocular allergic manifestations, including itching, edema, hyperemia, and tearing. Alcaftadine is an efficacious multiple action antiallergic therapeutic agent with inverse agonist activity on H1, H2, and H4 receptors, as well as anti-inflammatory and mast cell stabilizing effects that could provide therapeutic benefits to patients with allergic conjunctivitis

  7. Early colonization with a group of Lactobacilli decreases the risk for allergy at five years of age despite allergic heredity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Johansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial deprivation early in life can potentially influence immune mediated disease development such as allergy. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of parental allergy on the infant gut colonization and associations between infant gut microbiota and allergic disease at five years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fecal samples were collected from 58 infants, with allergic or non-allergic parents respectively, at one and two weeks as well as at one, two and twelve months of life. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and Real time PCR, using species-specific primers, was used for detection of Bifidobacterium (B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. bifidum, Clostridium (C. difficile, a group of Lactobacilli (Lactobacillus (L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus as well as Staphylococcus (S. aureus. Infants with non-allergic parents were more frequently colonized by Lactobacilli compared to infants with allergic parents (p = 0.014. However, non-allergic five-year olds acquired Lactobacilli more frequently during their first weeks of life, than their allergic counterparts, irrespectively of parental allergy (p = 0.009, p = 0.028. Further the non-allergic children were colonized with Lactobacilli on more occasions during the first two months of life (p = 0.038. Also, significantly more non-allergic children were colonized with B. bifidum at one week of age than the children allergic at five years (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: In this study we show that heredity for allergy has an impact on the gut microbiota in infants but also that early Lactobacilli (L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus colonization seems to decrease the risk for allergy at five years of age despite allergic heredity.

  8. Accurate prediction of severe allergic reactions by a small set of environmental parameters (NDVI, temperature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notas, George; Bariotakis, Michail; Kalogrias, Vaios; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions.

  9. Cytokines related to three major types of cell-mediated immunity in short- and long-term exposures to lead compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Boroń, Marta; Czuba, Zenon P; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Machoń-Grecka, Anna; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-11-01

    Many investigators have posited on the significant influence of lead on the immune system function. However, available data on this topic are not conclusive. Therefore, a study was undertaken to examine associations between lead exposure and levels of cytokines related to the T-helper (T H )-1, T H 2, and T H 17 types of immune response in humans. For these analyses, three population groups were examined: the first consisted of male workers exposed to lead for a short period of time (36-44 days); the second included male workers chronically exposed to lead (13 ± 10 years); and a control group that was composed of male administrative workers with blood lead levels (BLL) immune responses, while chronic exposure modifies their levels. Taken together, these modifications do not evidence an ability of lead to promote specifically one type of immune response in an exposed host.

  10. Allergic conditions and risk of hematological malignancies in adults: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartzbaum Judith

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two contradictory hypotheses have been proposed to explain the relationship between allergic conditions and malignancies, the immune surveillance hypothesis and the antigenic stimulation hypothesis. The former advocates that allergic conditions may be protective against development of cancer, whereas the latter proposes an increased risk. This relationship has been studied in several case-control studies, but only in a few cohort studies. Methods The association between allergic conditions and risk of developing leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma was investigated in a cohort of 16,539 Swedish twins born 1886–1925. Prospectively collected, self-reported information about allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever or eczema was obtained through questionnaires administered in 1967. The cohort was followed 1969–99 and cancer incidence was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results Hives and asthma tended to increase the risk of leukemia (relative risk [RR] = 2.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0–4.5 and RR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.5, respectively. There was also an indication of an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with eczema during childhood (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.3. Conclusion In contrast to most previous studies, our results do not indicate a protective effect of allergic conditions on the risk of developing hematological malignancies. Rather, they suggest that allergic conditions might increase the risk of some hematological malignancies.

  11. Japanese Guideline for Allergic Conjunctival Diseases

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    Etsuko Takamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  12. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Takamura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  13. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective......Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence...... of these were judged to be of high, five moderate and three low quality. These reviews suggested that, in carefully selected patients, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy resulted in significant reductions in symptom scores and medication requirements. Serious adverse outcomes were rare...

  14. Safe foods for allergic people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    Introduction Recently a 7-year-old British boy died after drinking pineapple & coconut juice drink. The boy was allergic to milk. The juice drink contained milk, which was declared in the ingredient list as required in the labelling law. The mother to the boy did not read the ingredient list......, as she did not expect to find milk in a juice drink. The juice drink had pictures of pineapple and coconut but none of milk despite that it contained greater amounts of milk than coconut. At the moment the British authorities investigate if the company behind the juice drink has broken the law. How can...... allergy in 10 different European languages. Conclusion: If the company behind the pineapple & coconut fruit juice had asked an allergy expert for advice or had thought about allergic people themselves during the development of their product, the tragic story probably could have been avoided. An expert...

  15. Targeting kit activation: a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of allergic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Metcalfe, Dean D; Gilfillan, Alasdair M

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide. Hence, there is continued need for novel pharmacological therapies for the treatment of these disorders. As the mast cell is one of the essential cells that contributes to the inflammation associated with allergic diseases, this cell type......E-receptor) on the cell surface. These mediators also contribute to the late and chronic stages of allergic inflammation. Thus, the IgE/antigen response has been a major focus in the development of new drugs targeting mast cells. The essential role that stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, Kit, play in mast cell...... remains an attractive target for such pharmacological intervention. Mast cells are major players in the early phase of the allergic response since they generate and release a variety of inflammatory mediators following antigen-dependent aggregation of IgE-bound FcepsilonRI (high affinity Ig...

  16. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis METHODS: We searched 15 international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened by two reviewers against pre-defined eligibility criteria...... and critically appraised using established instruments. Our primary outcomes of interest were symptom, medication and combined symptom and medication scores. Secondary outcomes of interest included cost-effectiveness and safety. Data were descriptively summarized and then quantitatively synthesized using random...

  17. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  18. Allergic laryngitis: unraveling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Robert J; Dworkin-Valenti, James P

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a thorough review of the literature highlighting the articles that have advanced our knowledge about the sensitivity of the larynx to allergens in the air or ones consumed. This area of inquiry requires continued interest and investigation. As the field of clinical laryngology changes, and more information is discovered about the possible causal association between allergy and vocal pathologies, practicing otolaryngologists, allergists, and other medical professionals may discover more comprehensive methods to evaluate and treat their allergic patients, particularly those who present with complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and/or dyspnea. There continues to be epidemiological studies designed to describe the relationship of allergy to vocal symptoms and signs. Both population and smaller studies have recently attempted to link these two conditions. Unfortunately, the patient with chronic laryngeal complaints is often tagged by default with the diagnosis of LPR and treated with proton pump inhibitors, which are not always beneficial. The endoscopic assessment may not be as reliable to make the diagnosis of LPR as the examination is subjective and the inter-rater reliability is low. It has been demonstrated by direct laryngeal provocation studies that sticky-viscous endo-laryngeal mucous is the only reliable finding consistently associated with allergy potential allergic tissue reactivity. The interrelationship of allergic sensitivity and chronic laryngitis in certain individuals is becoming clearer because our knowledge of inquiry has increased and the available routine technology to diagnose these conditions has remarkably improved. Notwithstanding these advancements, much more research is needed on this subject to reduce the frequency of mis-diagnoses and mis-management of allergic patients.

  19. Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is often of multifactorial origin, and it is difficult to determine the relative significance of the various contributing factors. Contact allergies are relevant in 20-50% of recognised occupational contact dermatitis cases. The reported frequency in different...... of the reported contact allergies is often uncertain. Many occupational contact dermatitis patients with documented contact allergies develop chronic eczema, in spite of work changes and attempted allergen avoidance. Recognition/non-recognition of a notified case may be based on circumstantial evidence, because......-effect relationships to be established with increased certainty. For prevention of allergic contact dermatitis it was a major step forward, with mandatory ingredient labelling of cosmetic products. However, improved labelling of the presence of contact allergens in household and industrial products is needed...

  20. Elaeocarpusin Inhibits Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jong Kim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are major effector cells for allergic responses that act by releasing inflammatory mediators, such as histamine and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, different strategies have been pursued to develop anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory candidates by regulating the function of mast cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of elaeocarpusin (EL on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation. We isolated EL from Elaeocarpus sylvestris L. (Elaeocarpaceae, which is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. For this study, various sources of mast cells and mouse anaphylaxis models were used. EL suppressed the induction of markers for mast cell degranulation, such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase, by reducing intracellular calcium levels. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-4, was significantly decreased in activated mast cells by EL. This inhibitory effect was related to inhibition of the phosphorylation of Fyn, Lyn, Syk, and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. To confirm the effect of EL in vivo, immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA and ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA models were induced. EL reduced the PCA reaction in a dose dependent manner. In addition, EL attenuated ASA reactions such as hypothemia, histamine release, and IgE production. Our results suggest that EL is a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts via the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

  1. Diagnostic and treatment challenges in management of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bahadur Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among infections pertaining to head and neck rhinosinusitis holds a significant position both with regard to the prevalence and morbidity. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS was initially considered a counterpart of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis when first diagnosed by Sa firstein in 1976 due to its clinical presentations and seemingly similar pathogenesis. Initially only Aspergillus was known as the causative, but now various other fungal species are known to cause chronic rhinosinusitis; hence, the terminology allergic fungal sinusitis was preferred. Exposure to fungi results in similar as asthma in atopic individuals, but then, some nonatopic individuals may also present with similar symptoms. It has also been studied that the presence of serum immunoglobulin E does not ensure the presence of allergy. Till date, there are several controversies regarding pathogenesis, whether humoral or immune mediated, population at risk, variations in presentations, diagnostic parameters, and treatment protocols. In this review, we try to revisit and learn from past documented experiences to further our attempt toward better understanding of the disease process, its diagnosis, and management.

  2. Indoor air and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkel, G.; Rudolph, R.; Muckelmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infections of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chemico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  3. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takuma; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Wang, Linan; Murata, Mariko; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa

    2013-01-01

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  4. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takuma, E-mail: katotaku@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Wang, Linan [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kuribayashi, Kagemasa [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  5. Characterization of immune response to killed leishmania major promastigotes plus BCG vaccine in Sudanese volunteers: a double-blind placebo controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sati, Iman Nasr Eldin

    1996-12-01

    This work was examined whether intradermal immunization of healthy adult Sudanese volunteers with killed leishmania major (KLM) promastigotes plus BCG would induce antigen-specific T cell responses. Only healthy Sudanese volunteers with negative reactivity to leishmania skin test and with ≤20 mm induration of reactivity to purified protein derivative (PPD) were included in the trial. Group (A) (n=3): received a single dose (0.1ml) at a concentration of 10 mg protein of a whole cell component of KLM promastigotes/ml BCG, group (B) (n=12): received as a single dose of viable attenuated BCG alone (0.1 ml) at a concentration of 1 mg protein/ml diluent, group (C) (n=11): received the vaccine diluent only (Placebo) (o.1 ml). Study subjects were tested for their immunological and clinical responses before intervention, . Following vaccination 65% of group (A) subjects converted in their reactivity to leishmanin skin testing,non of the BCG vaccinated subjects converted in leishmanin skin test and only one subject of group (C) became leishmanin positive. Levels of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured by a double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A vaccine was considered as a positive responder in terms of cytokine production when the level of the produced cytokine was equal to the 80th percentile of the levels produced by the volunteers in the placebo group. 92% of the group vaccinated with KLM=BCG had circulating T cells. No significant of IL-5 or Il-10 was reported in any of the volunteers in the three group. Levels of anti l eishmania specific IgG were measured by ELISA in optical densities. Volunteers with mean antibody titre above the cut-off point (mean=3X standard deviation) were considered to have positive scores. Accordingly after vaccination 7.69% one volunteers in group (A) had a positive antibody response corresponding to 0% in the other two groups. No serious side effects were reported

  6. Protective Effects of Intratracheally-Administered Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Asthma in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common chronic disease characterized by bronchial inflammation, reversible airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Current therapeutic options for the management of asthma include inhaled corticosteroids and β2 agonists, which elicit harmful side effects. In the present study, we examined the capacity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2, one of the major components of bee venom (BV, to reduce airway inflammation and improve lung function in an experimental model of asthma. Allergic asthma was induced in female BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal administration of ovalbumin (OVA on days 0 and 14, followed by intratracheal challenge with 1% OVA six times between days 22 and 30. The infiltration of immune cells, such as Th2 cytokines in the lungs, and the lung histology, were assessed in the OVA-challenged mice in the presence and absence of an intratracheal administration of bvPLA2. We showed that the intratracheal administration of bvPLA2 markedly suppressed the OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation by reducing AHR, overall area of inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, the suppression was associated with a significant decrease in the production of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and a reduction in the number of total cells, including eosinophils, macrophages, and neutrophils in the airway.

  7. Investigational new drugs for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Peter A; Alandijani, Sultan; Lin, Chen Hsing; Casale, Thomas B

    2017-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a multifactorial disease characterized by paroxysmal symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and nasal congestion. For over a century, subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) has been recognized as the most effective therapy to date that may modify the underlying disease course and provide long-term benefits for individuals refractory to pharmacotherapy. However, over the past 25 years, there has been substantial growth in developing alternative therapies to traditional SCIT. Areas covered: This article will review the most current literature focusing on advancements of AR therapies. Novel AR therapies that are currently under investigation include: the addition of omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) monoclonal antibody (mAb), to SCIT; altering the method of delivery of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) including sublingual (SLIT), epicutaneous (EIT), intralymphatic (ILIT), intranasal (INIT) and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT); use of capsaicin spray; novel H3 and H4 antihistamines; activation of the innate immune system through Toll-like receptor agonists; and the use of chemically altered allergens, allergoids, recombinant allergens and relevant T-cell epitope peptides to improve the efficacy and safety of AIT. Expert opinion: These promising novel therapies may offer more effective and/or safer treatment options for AR patients, and in some instances, induce immunologic tolerance.

  8. Allergic asthma biomarkers using systems approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab eSircar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by lung inflammation caused by complex interaction between the immune system and environmental factors such as allergens and inorganic pollutants. Recent research in this field is focused on discovering new biomarkers associated with asthma pathogenesis. This review illustrates updated research associating biomarkers of allergic asthma and their potential use in systems biology of the disease. We focus on biomolecules with altered expression, which may serve as inflammatory, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of asthma discovered in human or experimental asthma model using genomic, proteomic and epigenomic approaches for gene and protein expression profiling. These include high-throughput technologies such as state of the art microarray and proteomics Mass Spectrometry (MS platforms. Emerging concepts of molecular interactions and pathways may provide new insights in searching potential clinical biomarkers. We summarized certain pathways with significant linkage to asthma pathophysiology by analyzing the compiled biomarkers. Systems approaches with this data can identify the regulating networks, which will eventually identify the key biomarkers to be used for diagnostics and drug discovery.

  9. Birth order and paediatric allergic disease: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Yorifuji, T; Fujii, Y; Yashiro, M; Okada, A; Ikeda, M; Doi, H; Tsukahara, H

    2018-05-01

    Environmental factors seem to be related to the incidence of allergic disease. Children with a later birth order are often exposed to environments, where pathogens and endotoxins can be found, and thus have a higher risk of developing infectious diseases. Therefore, birth order is regarded as an indicator that reflects post-natal environment. However, longitudinal studies are limited on this subject. This study sought to elucidate the relationships between birth order and allergic disease. From a nationwide longitudinal study that followed children born in 2001 (n = 47 015), we selected doctors' visits for 3 types of allergic disease-bronchial asthma, food allergy and atopic dermatitis-from infancy to 12 years of age and conducted binomial log-linear regression analysis to evaluate the associations between birth order and these diseases. We adjusted for the child and parental factors and estimated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. The associations between birth order and bronchial asthma were diverse; later birth order increased the risk in early childhood, but decreased the risks during school age. For example, the adjusted RR comparing third-born or higher and first-born children was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) between 30 and 42 months of age, but was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89) between 10 and 11 years. Later birth order was generally protective for food allergy but increased the risk of atopic dermatitis. The influence of birth order depended on the type of allergic disease and the childhood period. Childhood is unique in terms of physical and immunological development, and the immune response to the post-natal environment in childhood appears to be heterogeneous. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Divergent effects of urban particulate air pollution on allergic airway responses in experimental asthma: a comparison of field exposure studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner James G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in ambient particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5 are associated with asthma morbidity and mortality. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that PM2.5 derived from two distinct urban U.S. communities would induce variable responses to aggravate airway symptoms during experimental asthma. Methods We used a mobile laboratory to conduct community-based inhalation exposures to laboratory rats with ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease. In Grand Rapids exposures were conducted within 60 m of a major roadway, whereas the Detroit was located in an industrial area more than 400 m from roadways. Immediately after nasal allergen challenge, Brown Norway rats were exposed by whole body inhalation to either concentrated air particles (CAPs or filtered air for 8 h (7:00 AM - 3:00 PM. Both ambient and concentrated PM2.5 was assessed for mass, size fractionation, and major component analyses, and trace element content. Sixteen hours after exposures, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung lobes were collected and evaluated for airway inflammatory and mucus responses. Results Similar CAPs mass concentrations were generated in Detroit (542 μg/m3 and Grand Rapids (519 μg/m3. Exposure to CAPs at either site had no effects in lungs of non-allergic rats. In contrast, asthmatic rats had 200% increases in airway mucus and had more BALF neutrophils (250% increase, eosinophils (90%, and total protein (300% compared to controls. Exposure to Detroit CAPs enhanced all allergic inflammatory endpoints by 30-100%, whereas inhalation of Grand Rapids CAPs suppressed all allergic responses by 50%. Detroit CAPs were characterized by high sulfate, smaller sized particles and were derived from local combustion sources. Conversely Grand Rapids CAPs were derived primarily from motor vehicle sources. Conclusions Despite inhalation exposure to the same mass concentration of urban PM2

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops.Keywords: allergic contact dermatitis, dorzolamide, side effects

  12. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno...

  13. Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.

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    Wafa Kammoun-Rebai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. papatasi salivary gland extracts (SGE in individuals living in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL old or emerging foci (OF, EF. OF was characterized by a higher infection prevalence as assessed by higher proportions of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals compared to EF. Subjects were further subdivided into healed, asymptomatic or naïve groups. We showed anti-SGE proliferation in less than 30% of the individuals, regardless of the immune status, in both foci. IFN-γ production was higher in OF and only observed in immune individuals from OF and naïve subjects from EF. Although IL-10 was not detected, addition of anti-human IL-10 antibodies revealed an increase in proliferation and IFN-γ production only in individuals from OF. The percentage of seropositive individuals was similar in immune and naïves groups but was significantly higher in OF. No correlation was observed between anti-saliva immune responses and LST response. High anti-SGE-IgG responses were associated with an increased risk of developing ZCL. No differences were observed for anti-SGE humoral or cellular responses among naïve individuals who converted or not their LST response or developed or not ZCL after the transmission season.These data suggest that individuals living in an old focus characterized by a frequent exposure to sand fly bites and a high prevalence of infection, develop higher anti-saliva IgG responses and IFN-γ levels and a skew towards a Th2-type cellular response, probably in favor of parasite establishment

  14. Allergic complications of L-asparaginase therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

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    Konstantinidis Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. L-asparaginase (L-ASP is one of the most effective medications for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL in children, and allergic reactions to the therapy are considered the most significant side effects. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of allergic reactions, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the development of allergic reactions during L-ASP therapy in children with ALL. Methods. The study encompassed 70 patients under 18 years of age, who were treated at the Institute for Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina, Novi Sad in the period January 2000 - June 2009. We analyzed the frequency and type of allergic reactions during the administration of L-ASP, the onset of allergic reaction in relation to the phase of therapy of underlying disease, as well as the prevalence of allergic reactions in relation to drug administration method. Results. Allergic reaction manifested in 17 patients (24%. In 14 patients (82% allergic reaction to L-ASP manifested as urticaria, bronchospasm or anaphylaxis, whereas a mild local reaction was observed in only three patients (18%. In a group treated, according to the high-risk protocol, the prevalence of allergic reactions was statistically significantly higher in the intermediate-risk group of patients (p<0.01, i.e. statistically significantly more frequent, as compared to the standard-risk group of patients (p<0.05. The majority of patients (11; 65% developed allergic reactions to the 9th dose of L-ASP, i.e. the first dose during the reinduction phase. The time interval between the last L-ASP dose in the induction phase and the 1st dose in the reinduction phase was at least four weeks. With respect to administration method, the majority of patients (16; 94% developed allergic reaction after intravenous application of L-ASP. Conclusion. Potential risk factors for the development of allergic reaction to L-ASP are a high-risk therapy

  15. Occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis in patients with asthma: An Eastern India experience

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    Sarkar Anirban

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM is a clinical syndrome associated with immune sensitivity to various fungi notably Aspergillus spp. that colonize the airways of asthmatics. Early diagnosis and treatment with systemic corticosteroids is the key in preventing the progression of the disease to irreversible lung fibrosis. Aims: To study the occurrence of ABPM among asthma patients with fungal sensitization attending a chest clinic of a tertiary hospital of eastern India. The clinico-radiological and aetiological profiles are also described. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients with asthma presenting to the chest clinic over a period of one year were screened for cutaneous hypersensitivity to 12 common fungal antigens. The skin test positive cases were further evaluated for ABPM using standard criteria. Results: One hundred and twenty-six asthma patients were screened using twelve common fungal antigens; forty patients (31.74% were found to be skin test positive, and ABPM was diagnosed in ten patients (7.93%. Of the 10 cases of ABPM, nine cases were those of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and one case was identified as caused by sensitization to Penicillium spp. A majority of the cases of ABPM had advanced disease and had significantly lower FEV1 compared to non-ABPM skin test positive asthmatics. Central bronchiectasis on high resolution CT scan was the most sensitive and specific among the diagnostic parameters. Conclusion: There is a significant prevalence of ABPM in asthma patients attending our hospital and this reinforces the need to screen asthma patients for fungal sensitisation. This will help in early diagnosis and prevention of irreversible lung damage.

  16. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Ruge, W.; Mueller, W.; Pavelka, K.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 μCi yttrium 90( 90 Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 μCi. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with 90 Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of 90 Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with 90 Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for 90 Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment. (U.K.)

  17. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Ruge, W [Sandoz A.G., Basel (Switzerland); Mueller, W; Pavelka, K

    1976-02-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 ..mu..Ci yttrium 90(/sup 90/Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 ..mu..Ci. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with /sup 90/Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of /sup 90/Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with /sup 90/Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for /sup 90/Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment.

  18. Sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Röder (Esther)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAllergic rhinitis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Europe. Besides nose symptoms such as sneezing and a blocked nose, patients also suffer from general complaints like fatigue, sleeping problems and difficulty concentrating. Allergic rhinitis can have a serious impact on

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  20. The Missing Link in Epstein-Barr Virus Immune Evasion: the BDLF3 Gene Induces Ubiquitination and Downregulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Laura L; Williams, Luke R; White, Claire; Forrest, Calum; Zuo, Jianmin; Rowe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to spread and persist in human populations relies on a balance between host immune responses and EBV immune evasion. CD8(+) cells specific for EBV late lytic cycle antigens show poor recognition of target cells compared to immediate early and early antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. This phenomenon is due in part to the early EBV protein BILF1, whose immunosuppressive activity increases with lytic cycle progression. However, published data suggest the existence of a hitherto unidentified immune evasion protein further enhancing protection against late EBV antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. We have now identified the late lytic BDLF3 gene as the missing link accounting for efficient evasion during the late lytic cycle. Interestingly, BDLF3 also contributes to evasion of CD4(+) cell responses to EBV. We report that BDLF3 downregulates expression of surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules in the absence of any effect upon other surface molecules screened, including CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD71 (transferrin receptor). BDLF3 both enhanced internalization of surface MHC molecules and reduced the rate of their appearance at the cell surface. The reduced expression of surface MHC molecules correlated with functional protection against CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell recognition. The molecular mechanism was identified as BDLF3-induced ubiquitination of MHC molecules and their subsequent downregulation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Immune evasion is a necessary feature of viruses that establish lifelong persistent infections in the face of strong immune responses. EBV is an important human pathogen whose immune evasion mechanisms are only partly understood. Of the EBV immune evasion mechanisms identified to date, none could explain why CD8(+) T cell responses to late lytic cycle genes are so infrequent and, when present, recognize lytically infected target cells so poorly relative to CD8(+) T cells specific for

  1. Induction of Oral Tolerance with Transgenic Plants Expressing Antigens for Prevention/Treatment of Autoimmune, Allergic and Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengwu; Liao, Yu-Cai; Jevnikar, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of autoimmune and allergic diseases have increased dramatically over the last several decades, especially in the developed world. The treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases is typically with the use of non-specific immunosuppressive agents that compromise the integrity of the host immune system and therefore, increase the risk of infections. Antigenspecific immunotherapy by reinstating immunological tolerance towards self antigens without compromising immune functions is a much desired goal for the treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Mucosal administration of antigen is a long-recognized method of inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance known as oral tolerance, which is viewed as having promising potential in the treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. Plant-based expression and delivery of recombinant antigens provide a promising new platform to induce oral tolerance, having considerable advantages including reduced cost and increased safety. Indeed, in recent years the use of tolerogenic plants for oral tolerance induction has attracted increasing attention, and considerable progress has been made. This review summarizes recent advances in using plants to deliver tolerogens for induction of oral tolerance in the treatment of autoimmune, allergic and inflammatory diseases.

  2. Orphan immunotherapies for allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    As confirmed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, allergen immunotherapy is clinically effective in the treatment of allergic diseases. In particular, subcutaneous immunotherapy is a pivotal treatment in patients with severe reactions to Hymenoptera venom, whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma by inhalant allergens. Other allergies related to animal dander (other than cat, which is the most studied), such as dog, molds, occupational allergens, and insects, have also been recognized. For these allergens, immunotherapy is poorly studied and often unavailable. Thus, use of the term orphan immunotherapies is appropriate. We used MEDLINE to search the medical literature for English-language articles. Randomized, controlled, masked studies for orphan immunotherapies were selected. In the remaining cases, the available reports were described. The literature on food desensitization is abundant, but for other orphan allergens, such as mosquito, Argas reflexus, dog, or occupational allergens, there are only a few studies, and most are small studies or case reports. Orphan immunotherapy is associated with insufficient evidence of efficacy from controlled trials, an erroneous belief of the limited importance of some allergen sources, and the unlikelihood for producers to have a profit in making commercially available extracts (with an expensive process for registration) to be used in few patients. It should be taken into consideration that adequate preparations should be available also for orphan allergens. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Khan, Ajmal; Garg, Mandeep; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT) of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S). The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB) as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM), encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild), ABPA-CB (moderate), and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe), as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses

  4. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  5. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  6. Quality of life in children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Silva, Taís Estevão da; Morales, Nívea Macedo O; Fernandes, Karla P; Pinto, Rogério M C

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) remains a significant pediatric health problem because of the burden of uncontrolled symptoms on daily activities and on general well being. to assess the impact of AR on health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children and adolescents using a generic instrument, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ - PF50). Between January and November 2004, parents or caregivers of 23 children and adolescents with AR without comorbidities and with positive prick tests for at least one air allergen were invited to participate of a cross-sectional study and asked to answer the self-administered CHQ-PF50. The scores were compared to those of healthy children and adolescents. Patient scores were lower (psize effect was higher in the physical score compared to the psychosocial summary score. allergic rhinitis has a global negative impact on the HRQL of children and adolescents, with major repercussions in physical function; AR also negatively affects family relations.

  7. Self-reported prevalence of childhood allergic diseases in three cities of China: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the 1990s indicated that childhood allergic diseases were increasing worldwide, but more recent investigations in some Western countries have suggested that the trend is stabilizing or may even be reversing. However, few data are available on the current status of allergic disease prevalence in Chinese children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in children of three major cities of China, to determine the status of allergic diseases among Chinese children generally, and to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases in children of different ages. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October 2008 and May 2009 in three major cities of China (Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou to evaluate the prevalence rates of childhood allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, using a questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC group. A total of 24,290 children aged 0-14 years were interviewed, using a multi-stage sampling method. To acquire data on children aged 3-14 years, we visited schools and kindergartens. To access children too young to attend school or kindergarten, we extended our survey to community health service centers. Each questionnaire was completed by a parent or guardian of a child after an informed consent form was signed. Results Of the 24,290 children in our study, 12,908 (53.14% were males and 11,382 (46.86% females; 10,372 (42.70% were from Beijing, 9,846 (40.53% from Chongqing, and 4,072 (16.77% from Guangzhou. Our survey indicated that in Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou, the prevalence rates of asthma were 3.15%, 7.45%, and 2.09%, respectively; the rates of allergic rhinitis were 14.46%, 20.42%, and 7.83%; and the rates of eczema were 20.64%, 10.02%, and 7.22%. The prevalence of allergic diseases varied with age. Asthma was

  8. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  9. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousif Atia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus exerts immunomodulatory effect in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We Aim to investigate the frequency of nasal S.aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and its possible influence on their symptoms and immune markers. We chosed 20 non smoker patients with house dust mite (HDM allergy causing allergic rhinitis and 20 non smoker healthy subjects matched for age and sex. For all subjects rhinoscopy was done, skin prick test, nasal culture for S.aureus, nasal interleukin 4,nasal total IgE, serum total IgE and serum specific IgE(SSIgE for HDM. Nasal S.aureus was detected in 16/20 patients (80% and 5/20 (25% in healthy subjects with highly significant statistical difference plt0.01. Correlation of nasal staph.aureus count and different systemic and local immune markers revealed highly significant positive correlation between nasal S.aureus count and serum total IgE (r = 0.78, plt0.01 and significant positive correlation with SSIgE (HDM (r = 0.53, plt0.05, nasal total IgE (r = 0.39, plt0.05 and nasal IL-4 (r = 0.55, plt0.05. Nasal staph.aureus actively modulated the immune reaction in persistent allergic rhinitis patients by promoting local IgE production, so we recommend early detection and treatment of S.aureus carriage in patients

  10. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. The Effect of PM10 on Allergy Symptoms in Allergic Rhinitis Patients During Spring Season

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    Il Gyu Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asian sand dust (ASD that originates in the Mongolian Desert in the spring induces serious respiratory health problems throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan. PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm is a major air pollutant component in ASD. We studied the effects of PM10 on allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the spring season, when ASD frequently develops. Methods: We investigated the changes in allergic symptoms in 108 allergic patients and 47 healthy subjects by comparing their 120-day symptom scores from February to May 2012. At the same time, the contributions of pollen count and PM10 concentration were also assessed. We also compared symptom scores before and 2 days after the daily PM10 concentration was >100 μg/m3. Results: The PM10 concentration during the 120 days was <150 μg/m3. No significant correlations were observed between changes in the PM10 concentration and allergic symptom scores (p > 0.05. However, allergic symptoms were significantly correlated with outdoor activity time (p < 0.001. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that a PM10 concentration <150 μg/m3 did not influence allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the 2012 ASD season.

  12. Allergic rhinitis in northern vietnam: increased risk of urban living according to a large population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâm Hoàng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms among adults in Vietnam. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factor patterns and co-morbidities of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms in one urban and one rural area in northern Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from August 2007 to January 2008 in urban Hoankiem and rural Bavi in Hanoi among adults aged 21-70 years. Of 7008 randomly selected subjects, 91.7% participated in Bavi and 70.3% in Hoankiem. Results Allergic rhinitis ever or chronic nasal symptoms were reported by 50.2%. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis ever was considerably higher in Hoankiem compared to Bavi, 29.6% vs 10.0% (p Conclusions Allergic rhinitis ever was considerably more common in the urban area. Nasal blocking and runny nose was each reported by about one third of the studied sample with no major urban-rural difference. Further, exposure to air pollution at work was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis ever, nasal blocking and runny nose.

  13. Allergic rhinitis is associated with poor asthma control in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Eric P; Nijkamp, Anke; Duiverman, Eric J; Brand, Paul L P

    2012-07-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are the two most common chronic disorders in childhood and adolescence. To date, no study has examined the impact of comorbid allergic rhinitis on asthma control in children. To examine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma, and the impact of the disease and its treatment on asthma control. A cross-sectional survey in 203 children with asthma (5-18 years) using validated questionnaires on rhinitis symptoms (stuffy or runny nose outside a cold) and its treatment, and the paediatric Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). Fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) was measured with a Niox Mino analyser; total and specific IgE levels were assessed by the Immunocap system. 157 children (76.2%) had symptoms of allergic rhinitis but only 88 of these (56.1%) had been diagnosed with the condition by a physician. ACQ scores were worse in children with allergic rhinitis than in those without the condition (p=0.012). An ACQ score ≥ 1.0 (incomplete asthma control) was significantly more likely in children with allergic rhinitis than in those without (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.91, p=0.0081), also after adjustment for FeNO levels and total serum IgE. After adjustment for nasal corticosteroid therapy, allergic rhinitis was no longer associated with incomplete asthma control (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.12, p=0.150). Allergic rhinitis is common in children with asthma, and has a major impact on asthma control. The authors hypothesise that recognition and treatment of this condition with nasal corticosteroids may improve asthma control in children, but randomised clinical trials are needed to test this hypothesis.

  14. Are allergic multimorbidities and IgE polysensitization associated with the persistence or re-occurrence of foetal type 2 signalling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Wickman, M

    2015-01-01

    -occurrence of foetal type 2 signalling. Asthma, rhinitis and AD are manifestations of a common systemic immune imbalance (mesodermal origin) with specific patterns of remodelling (ectodermal or endodermal origin). This study proposes a new classification of IgE-mediated allergic diseases that allows the definition...... of novel phenotypes to (i) better understand genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, (ii) better stratify allergic preschool children for prognosis and (iii) propose novel strategies of treatment and prevention....

  15. Early life exposure to antibiotics and the risk of childhood allergic diseases: an update from the perspective of the hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Hung; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Huang, Ching-Hua; Yang, San-Nan; Lee, Min-Sheng; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been growing rapidly in industrial countries during recent decades. It is postulated that growing up with less microbial exposure may render the immune system susceptible to a T helper type 2 (Th2)-predominant allergic response-also known as the hygiene hypothesis. This review delineates recent epidemiological and experimental evidence for the hygiene hypothesis, and integrates this hypothesis into the association between early life exposure to antibiotics and the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Several retrospective or prospective epidemiological studies reveal that early exposure to antibiotics may be positively associated with the development of allergic diseases and asthma. However, the conclusion is inconsistent. Experimental studies show that antibiotics may induce the Th2-skewed response by suppressing the T helper type 1 (Th1) response through inhibition of Th1 cytokines and disruption of the natural course of infection, or by disturbing the microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and therefore jeopardizing the establishment of oral tolerance and regulatory T cell immune responses. The hygiene hypothesis may not be the only explanation for the rapid increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma. Further epidemiological and experimental studies addressing the issue of the impact of environmental factors on the development of allergic diseases and the underlying mechanisms may unveil novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in the future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of Ex Vivo y-Tocopherol on Airway Macrophage Function in Healthy and Mild Allergic Asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated inflammation and altered immune responses are features found in atopic asthmatic airways. Recent studies indicate y-tocopherol (GT) supplementation can suppress airway inflammation in allergic asthma. We studied the effects of in vitro GT supplementation on receptor-med...

  17. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P  0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural Killer Receptor 1 Dampens the Development of Allergic Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Elhaik Goldman

    Full Text Available The function of NCR1 was studied in a model of experimental asthma, classified as a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction, in mice. IgE levels were significantly increased in the serum of OVA immunized NCR1 deficient (NCR1gfp/gfp mice in comparison to OVA immunized wild type (NCR1+/+ and adjuvant immunized mice. Histological analysis of OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice revealed no preservation of the lung structure and overwhelming peribronchial and perivascular granulocytes together with mononuclear cells infiltration. OVA immunized NCR+/+ mice demonstrated preserved lung structure and peribronchial and perivascular immune cell infiltration to a lower extent than that in NCR1gfp/gfp mice. Adjuvant immunized mice demonstrated lung structure preservation and no immune cell infiltration. OVA immunization caused an increase in PAS production independently of NCR1 presence. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL revealed NCR1 dependent decreased percentages of eosinophils and increased percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages following OVA immunization. In the OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice the protein levels of eosinophils' (CCL24 and Th2 CD4+ T-cells' chemoattractants (CCL17, and CCL24 in the BAL are increased in comparison with OVA immunized NCR+/+ mice. In the presence of NCR1, OVA immunization caused an increase in NK cells numbers and decreased NCR1 ligand expression on CD11c+GR1+ cells and decreased NCR1 mRNA expression in the BAL. OVA immunization resulted in significantly increased IL-13, IL-4 and CCL17 mRNA expression in NCR1+/+ and NCR1gfp/gfp mice. IL-17 and TNFα expression increased only in OVA-immunized NCR1+/+mice. IL-6 mRNA increased only in OVA immunized NCR1gfp/gfp mice. Collectively, it is demonstrated that NCR1 dampens allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  20. [Allergic asthma and interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 and gamma interferon levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Segura, Diana Lyzbeth; López Velásquez, Benjamin; Castrejón Vázquez, María Isabel; Galicia Tapía, Jorge; Cano Altamirano, Silvia; Miranda Feria, Alfonso Javier

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory chronic illness, in which mastocyt cells, basophils, T lymphocytes, eosinophils and cytokines play a role. Its association with the production of TH2 cytokines is not well known, but it is considered an aberrant immune response, yielding the activation and recruitment of a number of effector cells (mastocyts/eosinophils) and the appearance of clinical symptoms. To determine the serum values of the interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 and gamma interferon in relation to the severity degree of asthma and the time of immunotherapy in patients with stable chronic allergic bronchial asthma. Clinical records of allergic asthmatic patients from the external consultation at Servicio de Alergia e Immunología Clínica were reviewed in a period of 12 months (1st January 2002 to 1st January 2003) and those of healthy volunteers, forming three groups: Group 1, allergic asthmatics with immunotherapy less than 24 months; Group 2, allergic asthmatics with more than 24 months of immunotherapy, and Group 3, healthy volunteers (control group). Previous informed consent, a serum sample was taken of all subjects. Ninety-two subjects were included: 41 (45%) allergic asthmatics and 51 (55%) healthy volunteers. Significant differences were found in interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 levels between healthy volunteers and asthmatics without relating the immunotherapy time. In the total group gamma interferon levels were not found. A relation of interleukins Th2 levels with the severity degree of asthma was not found. Differences of serum interleukins Th1 and Th2 in allergic patients related to immunotherapy time were not significant; even though, irrespective of immunotherapy time, IgG levels were always high. Patients with allergic asthma have a predominance of serum interleukins Th2 and, despite of the immunotherapy, in the maintaining phase, these continue high, which may be due to an immune system dysregulation maybe including other factors. Immunotherapy continues

  1. Complementary roles for lipid and protein allergens in triggering innate and adaptive immune systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russano, A M; Agea, E; Casciari, C; de Benedictis, F M; Spinozzi, F

    2008-11-01

    Recent advances in allergy research mostly focussed on two major headings: improving protein allergen purification, which is aimed towards a better characterization of IgE- and T-cell reactive epitopes, and the potential new role for unconventional innate and regulatory T cells in controlling airway inflammation. These advancements could appear to be in conflict each other, as innate T cells have a poorly-defined antigen specificity that is often directed toward nonprotein substances, such as lipids. To reconcile these contrasting findings, the model of cypress pollinosis as paradigmatic for studying allergic diseases in adults is suggested. The biochemical characterization of major native protein allergens from undenatured pollen grain demonstrated that the most relevant substance with IgE-binding activity is a glycohydrolase enzyme, which easily denaturizes in stored grains. Moreover, lipids from the pollen membrane are implicated in early pollen grain capture and recognition by CD1(+) dendritic cells (DC) and CD1-restricted T lymphocytes. These T cells display Th0/Th2 functional activity and are also able to produce regulatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. CD1(+) immature DCs expand in the respiratory mucosa of allergic subjects and are able to process both proteins and lipids. A final scenario may suggest that expansion and functional activation of CD1(+) DCs is a key step for mounting a Th0/Th2-deviated immune response, and that such innate response does not confer long-lasting protective immunity.

  2. The challenges for nut-allergic consumers of eating out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, J; Barnett, J; Muncer, K; Shepherd, R; Raats, M M; Hazel Gowland, M; Lucas, J S

    2011-02-01

    For individuals with a nut allergy, the avoidance of allergens is particularly challenging in situations where they are not preparing their own food. Many allergic reactions occur when eating outside the home. To identify and explore the challenges faced by nut-allergic individuals (NAIs) when they are eating in restaurants and other eating establishments. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 32 adults with a clinical history of allergy to peanuts and/or tree nuts. The main strategies that participants adopted to manage the risk of allergic reactions when eating outside the home were avoidance and communication. They avoided types of restaurants, meal courses or particular foods. Seeking familiarity was a key strategy that enabled NAIs to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. Language differences were a major barrier to confident communication about food content. The need to check whether the food on offer may contain nuts was a source of social embarrassment for many participants and the desire to avoid this sometimes led to increased risk taking. Some did not disclose their allergy to restaurant staff as they feared a conservative reaction that would further constrain food choices. NAIs often have to plan where to eat out. The consequent lack of spontaneity was a source of regret to some. Communication patterns of nut-allergic adults are often grounded in legitimate everyday social considerations around embarrassment, choice and spontaneity. Education and training strategies are needed that recognize and take account of this. Focusing on communication deficits of NAIs may be unhelpful; responsibility for food safety must be shared with the food industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    esophageal dysfunction (i.e. dysphagia, anorexia, early satiety, failure to thrive) in whom gastro - esophageal reflux disease has been ruled out by...W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB

  4. [Examination of acute phase proteins concentrations in children with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Iwona; Sobieska, Magdalena; Pucher, Beata; Grzegorowski, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of upper respiratory tract (about 15 per cent of the population in industrialized countries suffer from this condition), characterized by frequent sneezing and a runny or stuffy nose sometimes accompanied by watery eyes. As the most common allergic condition, allergic rhinitis affects people of all ages. Boys are twice as likely to get allergic rhinitis than girls. The median age of onset of the condition is 10 years old, meaning that equal numbers of children develop the condition before and after age 10. Symptoms usually appear in childhood first and then lessen by the age of 30 or 40. Seasonal allergic rhinitis usually results from tree, grass or weed pollen. With this type of rhinitis, symptoms will decrease with the arrival of cold weather. Perennial allergic rhinitis can cause year-round symptoms. This allergic reaction is the result of indoor irritants such as feathers, mold spores, animal dander (hair and skin shed by pets) or dust mites. It is often aggravated by a food allergy, the most common being an allergy to milk. Acute phase proteins (APP) belong to the most ancient part of the unspecific immunity and contribute markedly to the keeping of homeostasis. As much as 30 various proteins are for the moment regarded as APP. Being multifunctional regulators and effectors APP stay in multiple relations to practically all types of cells and molecules. Among APP following functional groups may be described: transport proteins (transferrin, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin), clotting factors (fibrinogen), antiproteases (alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, alpha2-macroglobulin), complement components (C3, C4) and several proteins of hardly known function, like C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A, acid alpha1-glycoprotein (AGP) and others. From a group of 32 children, aged from 5 to 14 years, with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and from a control group of 10 healthy children sex and age matched

  5. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2017-04-01

    To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA, this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  6. Recent Advances in Type-2-Cell-Mediated Immunity: Insights from Helminth Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicola L; Loke, P'ng

    2017-12-19

    Type-2-cell-mediated immune responses play a critical role in mediating both host-resistance and disease-tolerance mechanisms during helminth infections. Recently, type 2 cell responses have emerged as major regulators of tissue repair and metabolic homeostasis even under steady-state conditions. In this review, we consider how studies of helminth infection have contributed toward our expanding cellular and molecular understanding of type-2-cell-mediated immunity, as well as new areas such as the microbiome. By studying how these successful parasites form chronic infections without overt pathology, we are gaining additional insights into allergic and inflammatory diseases, as well as normal physiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-IgE treatment, airway inflammation and remodelling in severe allergic asthma: current knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Samitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving various inflammatory cells and mediators and characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness, chronic inflammation and structural alterations in the airways, also known as remodelling. IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions and has a central role in allergic asthma pathophysiology, as it is implicated in both the early and late phase allergic response. Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting IgE, such as omalizumab, has proven very effective in improving respiratory symptoms and quality of life, while reducing asthma exacerbations, emergency room visits and the use of systemic corticosteroids in allergic severe asthma. These effects are believed to be mainly mediated by omalizumab's inhibitory effect on the initiation and further propagation of the allergic inflammation cascade. However, there is evidence to suggest that anti-IgE treatment remains effective long after it has been discontinued. In part, these findings could be attributed to the possible ameliorating effects of anti-IgE treatment on airway remodelling. In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes.

  9. Immunological Changes on Allergic Response after Beevenom Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ha Han

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Beevenom immunotherapy(BVIT in allergic patients is a well-established treatment modality for the prevention of systemic anaphylactic reactions caused by insect stings. BVIT is accompanied by increases in allergen-specific IgG, particularly the IgG4 isotype, which blocks not only IgE-dependent histamine release from basophils but also IgE-mediated antigen presentation to T cells. Inhibition of T cells after BVIT also involves decreased induction of the costimulatory molecule ICOS, which, in turn, seems to be dependent on the presence of IL-10, also associated with the inhibited status of T cells after BVIT. Suppression of T cells by IL-10 is an active process, which depends on the expression and participation of CD28. Immune tolerance in specific allergen immunotherapy might be a consequence of decreased Th2 or increased Th1 response of allergen specific T lymphocytes. BVIT shifted cytokine responses to allergen from a TH-2 to a TH-1 dominant pattern, suggesting direct effects on T cells. Many studies showed that severe side effects due to venom immunotherapy are rare. These results suggest that immunological changes after BVIT may be applied to be therapeutic alternative of general allergic diseases including beevenom allergy.

  10. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Yanchenko; A. V. Malyshev; S. N. Sakhnov; N. V. Fedotova; O. Yu. Orlova; I. V. Grishenko; Z. A. Exuzyan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes) were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day), cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day), and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day). Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day). 10 controls (20 eyes) were ...

  11. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Garrelds

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells. This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients.

  12. Chicken major histocompatibility complex-encoded B-G antigens are found on many cell types that are important for the immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, J; Dunon, D; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    B-G antigens are a polymorphic multigene family of cell surface molecules encoded by the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). They have previously been described only on cells of the erythroid lineage. By using flow cytometry, section staining, and immunoprecipitation with monoclonal a...

  13. Risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Christer; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Foucard, Tony; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, S Lennart

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for asthma have been investigated in a large number of studies in adults and children, with little progress in the primary and secondary prevention of asthma. The aim of this investigation was to investigate risk factors associated with allergic and non-allergic asthma in adolescents. In this study, 959 schoolchildren (13-14 years old) answered a questionnaire and performed exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements. All children (n = 238) with reported asthma, asthma-related symptoms and/or increased NO levels were invited to a clinical follow-up which included a physician evaluation and skin-prick testing. Asthma was diagnosed in 96 adolescents, whereof half had allergic and half non-allergic asthma. Children with both allergic and non-allergic asthma had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (20.8 and 20.7 vs. 19.8 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of parental asthma (30% and 32% vs. 16%) (p < 0.05). Early-life infection (otitis and croup) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.99 (1.02-3.88) and 2.80 (1.44-5.42), respectively], pets during the first year of life [2.17 (1.16-4.04)], window pane condensation [2.45 (1.11-5.40)] and unsatisfactory school cleaning [(2.50 (1.28-4.89)] was associated with non-allergic but not with allergic asthma. This study indicates the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of asthma when assessing the effect of different risk factors. While the risk of both allergic and non-allergic asthma increased with increasing BMI, associations between early-life and current environmental exposure were primarily found in relation to non-allergic asthma.

  14. Repeated intranasal TLR7 stimulation reduces allergen responsiveness in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiff Lennart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Th1 and Th2 immune responses are of importance to the onset and development of allergic disorders. A Toll-like receptor 7 agonist such as AZD8848 may have potential as a treatment for allergic airway disease by skewing the immune system away from a Th2 profile. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal AZD8848. Methods In a placebo-controlled single ascending dose study, AZD8848 (0.3-600 μg was given intranasally to 48 healthy subjects and 12 patients with allergic rhinitis (NCT00688779. In a placebo-controlled repeat challenge/treatment study, AZD8848 (30 and 60 μg was given once weekly for five weeks to 74 patients with allergic rhinitis out of season: starting 24 hours after the final dose, daily allergen challenges were given for seven days (NCT00770003. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and biomarkers were monitored. During the allergen challenge series, nasal symptoms and lavage fluid levels of tryptase and α2-macroglobulin, reflecting mast cell activity and plasma exudation, were monitored. Results AZD8848 produced reversible blood lymphocyte reductions and dose-dependent flu-like symptoms: 30–100 μg produced consistent yet tolerable effects. Plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was elevated after administration of AZD8848, reflecting interferon production secondary to TLR7 stimulation. At repeat challenge/treatment, AZD8848 reduced nasal symptoms recorded ten minutes after allergen challenge up to eight days after the final dose. Tryptase and α2-macroglobulin were also reduced by AZD8848. Conclusions Repeated intranasal stimulation of Toll-like receptor 7 by AZD8848 was safe and produced a sustained reduction in the responsiveness to allergen in allergic rhinitis. Trial registration NCT00688779 and NCT00770003 as indicated above.

  15. Bilirubin nanoparticles ameliorate allergic lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Eon; Lee, Yonghyun; Kim, MinGyo; Lee, Soyoung; Jon, Sangyong; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2017-09-01

    Although asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is relatively well-managed by inhaled corticosteroids, the side effects associated with the long-term use of these agents precipitate the need for alternative therapeutic options based on differing modes of action. Bilirubin, a potent endogenous antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory molecule have been shown to ameliorate asthmatic symptoms; however, its clinical translation has been limited owing to its water insolubility and associated potential toxicity. Here we report the first application of bilirubin-based nanoparticles (BRNPs) as a nanomedicine for the treatment of allergic lung inflammatory disease. BRNPs were prepared directly from self-assembly of PEGylated bilirubin in aqueous solution and had a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼100 nm. Because allergen-specific type 2 T-helper (Th2) cells play a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of allergic asthma, the effects of BRNPs on Th2 immune responses were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. BRNPs after intravenous injection (i.v.) showed much higher serum concentration and a longer circulation time of bilirubin than the intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of BRNPs or unconjugated bilirubin (UCB). The anti-asthmatic effects of BRNPs were assessed in a mouse model of allergen-induced asthma. Compared with UCB, treatment with BRNPs suppressed the symptoms of experimental allergic asthma and dramatically ameliorated Th2-related allergic lung inflammation. Consistent with these results, BRNPs caused a reduction of Th2 cell populations and the expression of related cytokines by antibody-stimulated CD4 + T cells in vitro. Therefore, our results establish BRNPs as an important immunomodulatory agent that may be useful as a therapeutic for allergic lung inflammatory disease and other immune-mediated disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Semaphorin 4C Protects against Allergic Inflammation: Requirement of Regulatory CD138+ Plasma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Di; Kaufman, Gabriel N; Dembele, Marieme; Beland, Marianne; Massoud, Amir H; Mindt, Barbara C; Fiter, Ryan; Fixman, Elizabeth D; Martin, James G; Friedel, Roland H; Divangahi, Maziar; Fritz, Jörg H; Mazer, Bruce D

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory properties of B cells have been studied in autoimmune diseases; however, their role in allergic diseases is poorly understood. We demonstrate that Semaphorin 4C (Sema4C), an axonal guidance molecule, plays a crucial role in B cell regulatory function. Mice deficient in Sema4C exhibited increased airway inflammation after allergen exposure, with massive eosinophilic lung infiltrates and increased Th2 cytokines. This phenotype was reproduced by mixed bone marrow chimeric mice with Sema4C deficient only in B cells, indicating that B lymphocytes were the key cells affected by the absence of Sema4C expression in allergic inflammation. We determined that Sema4C-deficient CD19 + CD138 + cells exhibited decreased IL-10 and increased IL-4 expression in vivo and in vitro. Adoptive transfer of Sema4c -/- CD19 + CD138 + cells induced marked pulmonary inflammation, eosinophilia, and increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid IL-4 and IL-5, whereas adoptive transfer of wild-type CD19 + CD138 + IL-10 + cells dramatically decreased allergic airway inflammation in wild-type and Sema4c -/- mice. This study identifies a novel pathway by which Th2-mediated immune responses are regulated. It highlights the importance of plasma cells as regulatory cells in allergic inflammation and suggests that CD138 + B cells contribute to cytokine balance and are important for maintenance of immune homeostasis in allergic airways disease. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Sema4C is critical for optimal regulatory cytokine production in CD138 + B cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Role of inhaled amphotericin in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I S Sehgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by immune reactions mounted against the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease clinically manifests with poorly controlled asthma, hemoptysis, systemic manifestations like fever, anorexia and weight loss, fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. The natural course of the disease is characterized by repeated episodes of exacerbations. Almost 30-40% of the patients require prolonged therapy, which currently consists of corticosteroids and anti-fungal azoles; both these agents have significant adverse reactions. Amphotericin B administered via the inhaled route can achieve a high concentration in the small airways with minimal systemic side-effects. Nebulized amphotericin B has been used in the management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The aim of this review is to study the utility of inhaled amphotericin in ABPA.

  18. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in an adult with Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-08-06

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder resulting from immune responses directed against inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. It manifests with poorly controlled asthma, fleeting pulmonary opacities and structural lung damage in the form of bronchiectasis. Initially defined in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis, it has also been described in patients with other structural lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, idiopathic bronchiectasis and others. Kartagener syndrome is a manifestation of primary ciliary dyskinesia characterised by the presence of dextrocardia, bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis. We report a case of ABPA in an adult suffering from Kartagener syndrome. We also performed a systematic review of the literature on the association between Kartagener syndrome and ABPA. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  20. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  1. Potential immunotoxic effects of trichloroethylene-induced IV allergic reaction in renal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE is known to induce allergic contact dermatitis and subsequent occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLD with multi-system injuries, including liver, kidney, and skin injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying immune system dysfunction that result in organ injury have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we measured the levels of secreted cytokines by effect or T cells in TCE-treated guinea pigs to better understand the contribution of allergic disorders in renal injuries. We immunized guinea pigs with trichloroethylene using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT and scored the inflammation on the guinea pigs’ skin. The kidney function and ultra-structural changes in the kidneys were detected using biochemical methods and electron microscopy. The deposition of cytokines was determined using immunohistochemistry. The sensitization rate was 63.16% in the TCE-sensitized groups. The electron microscopy results showed tubular epithelial cell mitochondrial swelling, vacuolar degeneration, and atrophy of the microvillus in the sensitized groups. A high degree of cytokine deposition was observed in the renal tubular proximal epithelial cells in the TCE-sensitized groups. As observed in this study, the variation in the level of immune system activation not only indicates that TCE can largely magnify the immune reaction but also suggests a potential role of immune dysfunction in renal impairment.

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P red sea bream aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TEAR AND SERUM EOSINOPHIL CATIONIC PROTEIN AS A MARKER OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN ALLERGIC OCULAR DISEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.ET.; KHALIFA, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Eosinophil is a major cellular component in the late allergic response. In its activated state, the Eosinophil liberates performed basic proteins; the most sensitively quantifiable of them is the Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP).In the present study ECP was measured in tear and serum in different forms of ocular allergy to assess its value as a marker of disease severity and usefulness to evaluate topical therapy.Tears and serum were collected from 65 patients with allergic Keratoconjunctivitis, 20 healthy volunteers (6 of them children) with no history or evidence of allergic diseases, as well as, 5 patients with non allergic and untreated blepharo-conjunctivitis. Patients were classified according to their clinical signs and symptoms into four groups:Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), 15 patients, Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 15 Palpebral and 6 Limbal, Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), 17 patients and, Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC), 8 contact lens-induced and 4 suture-induced.Tears were collected by capillary tubes for cytological examination and measurement of ECP using radioimmunoassay methods. Serum was collected for measurement of ECP and atopy screening.Tear-ECP evaluation showed statistically significant elevation in all allergic subjects (p<0.001). Patients with VKC and AKC had significantly higher tear ECP values than patients with GPC and SAC. There was significant correlation between tear ECP values and disease severity.On the contrary, serum ECP values were only elevated significantly in atopic patients, and did not correlate to tear ECP values. Tear cytology was not sensitive to evaluate disease severity. These data demonstrated that tear ECP in contrast to serum ECP is a useful marker for disease severity in allergic ocular diseases and as such could become a valuable objective variable in treatment studies and as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in chronic conditions

  4. Estrogen signaling modulates allergic inflammation and contributes to sex differences in asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander eKeselman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease that afflicts approximately 300 million people worldwide. It is characterized by airway constriction that leads to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. The most common treatments are corticosteroids and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, which target inflammation and airway smooth muscle constriction, respectively. The incidence and severity of asthma is greater in women than in men, and women are more prone to develop corticosteroid-resistant or hard-to-treat asthma. Puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, and oral contraceptives are known to contribute to disease outcome in women, potentially suggesting a role for estrogen and other hormones impacting allergic inflammation. Currently, the mechanisms underlying these sex differences are poorly understood, although the effect of sex hormones, such as estrogen, on allergic inflammation is gaining interest. Asthma presents as a heterogeneous disease. In typical Th2-type allergic asthma, interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 predominate, driving IgE production and recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Chronic Th2-inflammation in the lung results in structural changes and activation of multiple immune cell types, leading to a deterioration of lung function over time. Most immune cells express estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, or the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor to varying degrees and can respond to the hormone. Together these receptors have demonstrated the capacity to regulate a spectrum of immune functions, including adhesion, migration, survival, wound healing, and antibody and cytokine production. This review will cover the current understanding of estrogen signaling in allergic inflammation and discuss how this signaling may contribute to sex differences in asthma and allergy.

  5. Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; Long, Stuart; London, Stephanie J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. Objective: We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Methods: Using the 2005–2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed. We used polytomous regression models adjusted for age, BMI, state, smoking, and current asthma, as well as for days applying pesticides and days driving diesel tractors. We defined allergic wheeze as reporting both wheeze and doctor-diagnosed hay fever (n = 1,310, 6%) and non-allergic wheeze as reporting wheeze but not hay fever (n = 3,939, 18%); men without wheeze were the referent. Results: In models evaluating current use of specific pesticides, 19 pesticides were significantly associated (p pyraclostrobin) had significantly different associations for allergic and non-allergic wheeze. In exposure–response models with up to five exposure categories, we saw evidence of an exposure–response relationship for several pesticides including the commonly used herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate, the insecticides permethrin and carbaryl, and the rodenticide warfarin. Conclusions: These results for farmers implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. Citation: Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, Long S, London SJ, Henneberger PK, Blair A, Alavanja M, Beane Freeman LE, Sandler DP. 2017. Pesticides are associated with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Environ Health Perspect 125:535–543; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP315 PMID:27384423

  6. Maternal obesity alters immune cell frequencies and responses in umbilical cord blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Marshall, Nicole E; Jeske, Daniel R; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Thornburg, Kent; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-06-01

    Maternal obesity is one of the several key factors thought to modulate neonatal immune system development. Data from murine studies demonstrate worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization in offspring of obese dams. In humans, children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for asthma. These findings suggest a dysregulation of immune function in the children of obese mothers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. Compared to babies born to lean mothers, babies of obese mothers had fewer eosinophils and CD4 T helper cells, reduced monocyte and dendritic cell responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and increased plasma levels of IFN-α2 and IL-6 in cord blood. These results support the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences programming of the neonatal immune system, providing a potential link to increased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  8. Transforming growth factor beta and platelets in allergic rhinitis and sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro; Valencia, Martha P; Sánchez, Manuel; Bautista, Maura; Rico, Guadalupe; Vega, Gloria B

    2011-01-01

    To determine the TGF-? concentration in plasma and platelets in patients with allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis. The study group included 36 adult females, 6 with clinical and laboratory diagnoses of allergic rhinitis, 18 with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis (rhino-sinusitis) and 12 clinically healthy controls. The samples were obtained from venous blood. TGF-? was measured in plasma and in the supernatant fluid of platelets by a solid phase Enzymo-immun assay, and IL-11 was quantified using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. In both patient groups platelet numbers (106/mL) were greater than in controls. Plasma concentration (pg/ml) of TGF-? in the allergic rhinitis group (276 ± 16) was lower than in control group (932 ± 99) (p platelet TGF-? concentration was smaller than in control, but only significant (p platelet number and intraplatelet TGF-? levels. The inverse correlation between intra-platelet TGF-? and circulating platelets number found in all individuals studied suggests that platelets do not alter the regulating mechanism of TGF-? production in allergy or infection.

  9. Vaccines and immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    vaccines for malaria and HIV infection. Despite the ... decades, effective vaccines against the major causes of ... challenge antibodies, specific helper and effector T lymphocytes ... materials to produced immunity to a disease. It was originally ...

  10. Para-phenylenediamine and allergic sensitization : risk modification by N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemeke, B.; Brans, R.; Coenraads, P. -J.; Dickel, H.; Bruckner, T.; Hein, D. W.; Heesen, M.; Merk, H. -F.; Kawakubo, Y.; Blomeke, B.

    Background Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a common contact sensitizer causing allergic contact dermatitis, a major skin problem. As PPD may need activation to become immunogenic, the balance between activation and/or detoxification processes may influence an individual's susceptibility. PPD is

  11. The role of perivascular and meningeal macrophages in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polfliet, Machteld M. J.; van de Veerdonk, F.; Döpp, Ed A.; van Kesteren-Hendrikx, Esther M. L.; van Rooijen, Nico; Dijkstra, Christine D.; van den Berg, Timo K.

    2002-01-01

    The perivascular (PVM) and meningeal (MM) macrophages constitute a major population of resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate a possible role of PVM and MM during CNS inflammation, we have analysed PVM and MM during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an

  12. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually. Not surprisingly, myriad diagnostic tests and treatments are used in managing this disorder, yet there is considerable variation in their use. This clinical practice guideline was undertaken to optimize the care of patients with AR by addressing quality improvement opportunities through an evaluation of the available evidence and an assessment of the harm-benefit balance of various diagnostic and management options. The primary purpose of this guideline is to address quality improvement opportunities for all clinicians, in any setting, who are likely to manage patients with AR as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The guideline is intended to be applicable for both pediatric and adult patients with AR. Children under the age of 2 years were excluded from the clinical practice guideline because rhinitis in this population may be different than in older patients and is not informed by the same evidence base. The guideline is intended to focus on a limited number of quality improvement opportunities deemed most important by the working group and is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for diagnosing and managing AR. The recommendations outlined in the guideline are not intended to represent the standard of care for patient management, nor are the recommendations intended to limit treatment or care provided to individual patients. The development group made a strong

  13. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  14. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergic reactions seen in orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Görücü Coşkuner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy can be defined as inappropriate and harmful response to harmless and ordinary materials. Allergic reactions, like in other fields of dentistry, can also be seen in the field of orthodontics. The reactions that occur against orthodontic materials can be seen as irritant or hypersensitivity reactions. The main reason of the irritant reactions is friction between soft tissues and orthodontic appliances. However, the reason of the hypersensitivity reactions is usually the antigenicity of the materials. Hypersensitivity reactions are usually seen as allergic contact dermatitis on face and neck; the occurrence of mucosal-gingival reactions and dermal and systemic reactions are rare. Latex, metal and acrylic resins are the most common allergens in orthodontics. Apart from these materials, allergic reactions can occur against bonding materials, extraoral appliances, disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The reactions that occur against extraoral appliances usually result from metallic and elastic parts of the appliances or the appliance parts that are in contact with skin. Orthodontists should be aware of the allergic reactions to protect their patients’ health. The aim of this review was to evaluate the allergic reactions seen in orthodontic patients and discuss the cautions that orthodontists can take.

  16. Clinical verification in homeopathy and allergic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on clinical research in allergic conditions treated with homeopathy includes a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for hay fever with positive conclusions and two positive RCTs in asthma. Cohort surveys using validated Quality of Life questionnaires have shown improvement in asthma in children, general allergic conditions and skin diseases. Economic surveys have shown positive results in eczema, allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and chronic allergic rhinitis. This paper reports clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms in all patients and especially in various allergic conditions in my own primary care practice. For preventive treatments in hay fever patients, Arsenicum album was the most effective homeopathic medicine followed by Nux vomica, Pulsatilla pratensis, Gelsemium, Sarsaparilla, Silicea and Natrum muriaticum. For asthma patients, Arsenicum iodatum appeared most effective, followed by Lachesis, Calcarea arsenicosa, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. For eczema and urticaria, Mezereum was most effective, followed by Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum iodatum, Calcarea carbonica and Psorinum. The choice of homeopathic medicine depends on the presence of other associated symptoms and 'constitutional' features. Repertories should be updated by including results of such clinical verifications of homeopathic prescribing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, D.A.; Buonomo, C.; Fishman, S.J.; Furuta, G.; Nurko, S.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  18. The soft computing-based approach to investigate allergic diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarisco, Gennaro; Tonacci, Alessandro; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Billeci, Lucia; Pioggia, Giovanni; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Early recognition of inflammatory markers and their relation to asthma, adverse drug reactions, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases is an important goal in allergy. The vast majority of studies in the literature are based on classic statistical methods; however, developments in computational techniques such as soft computing-based approaches hold new promise in this field. The aim of this manuscript is to systematically review the main soft computing-based techniques such as artificial neural networks, support vector machines, bayesian networks and fuzzy logic to investigate their performances in the field of allergic diseases. The review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines and the protocol was registered within PROSPERO database (CRD42016038894). The research was performed on PubMed and ScienceDirect, covering the period starting from September 1, 1990 through April 19, 2016. The review included 27 studies related to allergic diseases and soft computing performances. We observed promising results with an overall accuracy of 86.5%, mainly focused on asthmatic disease. The review reveals that soft computing-based approaches are suitable for big data analysis and can be very powerful, especially when dealing with uncertainty and poorly characterized parameters. Furthermore, they can provide valuable support in case of lack of data and entangled cause-effect relationships, which make it difficult to assess the evolution of disease. Although most works deal with asthma, we believe the soft computing approach could be a real breakthrough and foster new insights into other allergic diseases as well.

  19. Hot topics in paediatric immunology: IgE-mediated food allergy and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueter, Kristina; Prescott, Susan

    2014-10-01

    The epidemic of allergic disease is a major public health crisis. The greatest burden of allergies is in childhood, when rapidly rising rates of disease are also most evident. General practitioners (GP) have a key role in recognising and addressing aller-gy-related problems and identifying whether a child requires referral to a paediatric allergist. This article focuses on IgE-mediated food allergies and allergic rhinitis, the most commonly seen conditions in paediatric im-munology. We will discuss prevention, diagnosis, management and treatment strategies. Currently there is no cure for food allergy. Oral tolerance induction continues to be a significant focus of research. All children with a possible food allergy should be referred to an allergist for further testing and advice. Children who develop allergic rhinitis need a regular review by their GP. Immunotherapy should be discussed early in the disease process and needs to be com-menced by an allergist.

  20. Advances and Evolving Concepts in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hui-Ying; Li, Evan; Landers, Cameron; Nguyen, An; Kheradmand, Farrah; Knight, J Morgan; Corry, David B

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis. Phthalates, another common class of chemical pollutant found in the built environment, are emerging as potentially important mediators or attenuators of asthma. Other biological products such as endotoxin have also been confirmed to be protective in both the indoor and outdoor contexts. Proasthmatic factors are believed to activate, and in some instances initiate, pathologic inflammatory cascades through complex interactions with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on many cell types, but especially airway epithelial cells. PRRs initiate the release of proallergic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-33, IL-25, and others that coordinate activation of innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2), T helper type 2 cells, and immunoglobulin E-secreting B cells that together promote additional inflammation and the major airway remodeling events (airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion) that promote airway obstruction. Proteinases, with airway fungi and viruses being potentially important sources, are emerging as critically important initiators of these inflammatory cascades in part through their effects on clotting

  1. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe Nygaard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

  2. Allergic rhinitis is associated with otitis media with effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, E; Chawes, B L K; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2012-01-01

    Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested.......Childhood otitis media with effusion is a common disease and a link to allergic diseases has been suggested....

  3. Climate change, air pollution, and allergic respiratory diseases: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The rising trend in prevalence of allergic respiratory disease and bronchial asthma, observed over the last decades, can be explained by changes occurring in the environment, with increasing presence of biologic, such as allergens, and chemical atmospheric trigger factors able to stimulate the sensitization and symptoms of these diseases. Many studies have shown changes in production, dispersion, and allergen content of pollen and spores because of climate change with an increasing effect of aeroallergens on allergic patients. Over the last 50 years, global earth's temperature has markedly risen likely because of growing emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by human activity, have a major impact on the biosphere and human environment.Urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions are correlated to an increase in the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy prevalent in people who live in urban areas compared with those who live in rural areas. Measures of mitigation need to be applied for reducing future impacts of climate change on our planet, but until global emissions continue to rise, adaptation to the impacts of future climate variability will also be required.

  4. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  5. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

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    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  6. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid leak mimicking allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketti, Anthony J; Cleri, Dennis J; Porwancher, Richard B; Panesar, Mandip; Villota, Francisco J; Seelagy, Marc M

    2005-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinorrhea are common clinical complaints that may be allergic or nonallergic in etiology. Distinguishing between allergic and nonallergic etiologies can be difficult but necessary for treatment. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman with > 20 years of rhinorrhea before a diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and a life-threatening complication occurred. It is essential that no symptom, especially that which persists and resists treatment, is trivialized. Here, we establish how a careful history and evaluation will direct the clinician to the correct diagnosis.

  9. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

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    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  10. Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Sharma, Gainda L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus has been a major cause of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which has five main stages--the acute, remission, exacerbation, glucocorticoid dependent and fibrotic stage. The diagnosis of ABPA remains difficult due to its overlapping clinical and radiological features with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. From past few decades, the crude fractions of A. fumigatus have been used for immunodiagnosis of ABPA. Most of the detection kits based on crude fractions of A. fumigatus are quite sensitive but have low specificity. Till date 21 known and 25 predicted allergens of A. fumigatus have been identified. Of these allergens, only five recombinants (rAsp f1-f4 and f6) are commercially used for diagnosis of allergic aspergillosis. Remaining allergens of A. fumigatus have been restricted for use in specific diagnosis of ABPA, due to sharing of common antigenic epitopes with other allergens. Complete sequencing of A. fumigatus genome identified 9926 genes and the reports on the proteome of A. fumigatus have shown the presence of large number of their corresponding proteins in the pathogen. The analysis of immunoproteomes developed from crude fractions of A. fumigatus by IgG/IgE reactivity with ABPA patients and animal sera have identified the panel of new antigens. A brief description on the current status of A. fumigatus antigens is provided in this review. The implementation of advance recombinant expression and peptidomic approaches on the A. fumigatus antigens may help in the selection of appropriate molecules for the development of tools for more specific early diagnosis of ABPA, and desensitization therapies for patients of allergic disorders.

  11. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, Mario M.; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W.; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D.; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R.; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host’s immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions. PMID:26522986

  12. Helminth-induced regulatory T cells and suppression of allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jayden; Navarro, Severine; Loukas, Alex; Giacomin, Paul

    2018-05-28

    Infection with helminths has been associated with lower rates of asthma and other allergic diseases. This has been attributed, in part, to the ability of helminths to induce regulatory T cells that suppress inappropriate immune responses to allergens. Recent compelling evidence suggests that helminths may promote regulatory T cell expansion or effector functions through either direct (secretion of excretory/secretory molecules) or indirect mechanisms (regulation of the microbiome). This review will discuss key findings from human immunoepidemiological observations, studies using animal models of disease, and clinical trials with live worm infections, discussing the therapeutic potential for worms and their secreted products for treating allergic inflammation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  14. Differential effects of rapamycin and dexamethasone in mouse models of established allergic asthma.

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    Elizabeth M Mushaben

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR plays an important role in cell growth/differentiation, integrating environmental cues, and regulating immune responses. Our lab previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin prevented house dust mite (HDM-induced allergic asthma in mice. Here, we utilized two treatment protocols to investigate whether rapamycin, compared to the steroid, dexamethasone, could inhibit allergic responses during the later stages of the disease process, namely allergen re-exposure and/or during progression of chronic allergic disease. In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized to HDM (three i.p. injections and administered two intranasal HDM exposures. After 6 weeks of rest/recovery, mice were re-exposed to HDM while being treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone. In protocol 2, mice were exposed to HDM for 3 or 6 weeks and treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone during weeks 4-6. Characteristic features of allergic asthma, including IgE, goblet cells, airway hyperreactivity (AHR, inflammatory cells, cytokines/chemokines, and T cell responses were assessed. In protocol 1, both rapamycin and dexamethasone suppressed goblet cells and total CD4(+ T cells including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells in the lung tissue, with no effect on AHR or total inflammatory cell numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Rapamycin also suppressed IgE, although IL-4 and eotaxin 1 levels were augmented. In protocol 2, both drugs suppressed total CD4(+ T cells, including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells and IgE levels. IL-4, eotaxin, and inflammatory cell numbers were increased after rapamycin and no effect on AHR was observed. Dexamethasone suppressed inflammatory cell numbers, especially eosinophils, but had limited effects on AHR. We conclude that while mTOR signaling is critical during the early phases of allergic asthma, its role is much more limited once disease is established.

  15. Diet Quality throughout Early Life in Relation to Allergic Sensitization and Atopic Diseases in Childhood

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    Anh N. Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child’s immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Diet was assessed during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We calculated food-based diet quality scores (0–10 or 0–15, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was assessed with skin prick tests. Information on physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma was obtained with questionnaires. We observed no associations between diet quality during pregnancy and allergic sensitization (odds ratio (OR = 1.05 per point in the diet score, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99, 1.13, allergies (0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04, eczema (0.99, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.06, or asthma (0.93, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03 in childhood. Also, diet quality in infancy or childhood were not associated with atopic outcomes in childhood. Our findings do not support our hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in early life is associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitization or atopic diseases in childhood.

  16. [Consensus position document on the child with an allergic reaction after vaccination or an allergy to vaccine components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría Zudaire, L; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Alonso Lebrero, E; Álvarez García, F J; Cortés Álvarez, N; García Sánchez, N; Martorell Aragonés, A

    2015-07-01

    Vaccinations are one of the main public health tools for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. If a child is labeled to have had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, the next immunizations will probably be suspended in that child, with the risks involved in this decision. The rate of severe allergic reactions is very low, ranging between 0.5-1/100,000 doses. The causes of allergic reactions to vaccines, more than the vaccine itself, are often due to residual protein components in the manufacturing process, such as gelatin or egg, and rarely to yeast or latex. Most of vaccine reactions are mild, localized at the site of injection, but in some circumstances, severe anaphylactic reactions can occur. If an immediate-type allergic reaction is suspected when vaccinating, or a child allergic to some of the vaccine components has to be vaccinated, a correct diagnosis of the possible allergy has to be made. The usual components of each vaccine should be known, in order to determine if vaccination can be performed safely on the child. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Allergic fungal sinusitis - new aspects of clinical features, laboratory diagnosis and therapy

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    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS is a chronic non­invasive disease. Hypersensitive immune response is usually initiated by allergens of filamentous fungi Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Bipolaris, Curvularia and Alternaria. AFS is a clinical and immune analogue of the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA as the sinus exudate resembles that of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL in ABPA. Patients with AFS are usually immunocompetent, atopic and males. The most common symptoms are headache, fullness in the paranasal sinuses, and difficult breathing through the nose. Clinically, there is a chronic mucosal inflammation and histopathologic finding shows allergic mucin and eosinophils. Specific staining methods, Gomori’s Methenamine Silver (GMS or periodic acid­Schiff (PAS, are used for microscopic visualisation of hyphae, which are, in addition to the isolated fungi, most reliable evidence of AFS. Computerized tomography (CT of paranasal sinuses shows the areas of hyperdensity. In cases where AFS is complicated by the erosion of bone tissue, discontinuation of the sinus bone wall can be seen. Significant laboratory finding, which correlate highly with the AFS, are high immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies specific for fungi, detected by the skin prick test or in serum. Treatment is often surgical, and after removal of the allergic mucin, therapy involves oral and nasal corticosteroids, immunotherapy and locally applied antimycotics (with verified fungal etiology. During treatment, the total/specific IgE is monitored - concentration increases with the development of AFS, and decreases during the improvement process. Knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms of AFS is scarce, and represents the focus of further research in order to define an optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke republike Srbije, br. OI175034

  18. Differential activation of airway eosinophils induces IL-13-mediated allergic Th2 pulmonary responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, E A; Doyle, A D; Colbert, D C; Zellner, K R; Protheroe, C A; LeSuer, W E; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Wild-type or cytokine-deficient (IL-13(-/-) or IL-4(-/-) ) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophil deficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or in the lung draining lymph nodes (LDLN), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLN. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4, and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4(+) T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13, whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differential Activation of Airway Eosinophils Induces IL-13 Mediated Allergic Th2 Pulmonary Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, EA; Doyle, AD; Colbert, DC; Zellner, KR; Protheroe, CA; LeSuer, WE; Lee, NA.; Lee, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Methods Wild type or cytokine deficient (IL-13−/− or IL-4−/−) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. Results In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophildeficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLNs. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4 and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4+ T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13 whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. Conclusion The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. PMID:26009788

  20. Current issues on sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Zorica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology was the first official organization to recognize that sublingual administration could be “promising route” for allergic desensitization. A few years later, the World Health Organization recommended this therapy as “a viable alternative to the injection route in adults.” The first meta-analysis showed sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy (SLIT effectiveness for allergic rhinitis and another study showed SLIT can actually help prevent the development of asthma both in adults and in children. The main goal of this review article is to present insight into the most up-to-date understanding of the clinical efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in the treatment of pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. A literature review was performed on PubMed from 1990 to 2015 using the terms “asthma,” “allergic rhinitis,” “children,” “allergen specific immune therapy.” Evaluating data from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (DB-PC-RCTs, the clinical efficacy (assessed as the reduction of symptom score and the need of rescue medicament of SLIT for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, has been confirmed in various meta-analysis Outcomes such as rhinoconjunctivitis score and medication scores, combined scores, quality of life, days with severe symptoms, immunological endpoints, and safety parameters were all improved in the SLIT-tablet compared with placebo group. SLIT safety has been already proven in many DB-PC-RCTs and real-life settings. In accordance with all of the above mentioned, the goals for future trials and studies are the development of comprehensive guidelines for clinical practice on immunotherapy, embracing all the different potential participants. The importance of allergen immunotherapy is of special relevance in the pediatric age, when the plasticity and modulability of the immune system are maximal, and when

  1. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  2. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. ► Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. ► Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. ► Silibinin suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-κB activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  3. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Compositae sensitization are routinely warned against the ingestion of vegetables, spices, teas and herbal remedies from this family of plants. The evidence for the occurrence of systemic allergic dermatitis caused by sesquiterpene lactone-containing plants is mostly anecdotal...

  4. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled cli...

  5. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Ramesh; Neupane, Saraswoti; Kandel, Ishwar Sharma

    2004-12-01

    A 24 years old male presented with recurrent symptoms of cough and breathlessness for 6 years but increased in past 6 months. Fleeting radiological opacities, peripheral eosinophilia and central type bronchiectasus in high resolution CT scan gave the suspicion of allergic bronchopolmonary aspergilosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis was done by skin prick and immunological tests. The patient showed an excellent response to oral prednisolone.

  6. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghan Yang

    Full Text Available Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.

  7. Report of Allergic Reaction After Application of Botulinum Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careta, Mariana Figueiroa; Delgado, Livia; Patriota, Régia

    2015-07-01

    Botulinum toxin is a widely used treatment with satisfactory results, and it is relatively safe in the doses used for cosmetic procedures. The authors report a case of allergic reaction to Chinese botulinum toxin serotype A (CBTX-A). Although this is a rare adverse event, it is nonetheless clinically relevant to healthcare professionals. A 44-year-old woman presented to the authors' hospital complaining of dynamic wrinkles. CBTX-A was used to treat her. Minutes after application, she developed urticarial plaques proximal to the injection site. The patient had an allergic reaction, as documented by a positive skin test, which was controlled by the administration of antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids. This report is intended to guide healthcare professionals faced with this type of adverse event regarding how to proceed without hindering the delivery and effectiveness of the treatment. When performed by a qualified health professional, this treatment brings excellent results in the vast majority of cases. 5 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  9. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  10. Innate Immune Cytokines, Fibroblast Phenotypes, and Regulation of Extracellular Matrix in Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Carl D

    2017-02-01

    Chronic inflammation can be caused by adaptive immune responses in autoimmune and allergic conditions, driven by a T lymphocyte subset balance (TH1, TH2, Th17, Th22, and/or Treg) and skewed cellular profiles in an antigen-specific manner. However, several chronic inflammatory diseases have no clearly defined adaptive immune mechanisms that drive chronicity. These conditions include those that affect the lung such as nonatopic asthma or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis comprising significant health problems. The remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) causes organ dysfunction, and it is largely generated by fibroblasts as the major cell controlling net ECM. As such, these are potential targets of treatment approaches in the context of ECM pathology. Fibroblast phenotypes contribute to ECM and inflammatory cell accumulation, and they are integrated into chronic disease mechanisms including cancer. Evidence suggests that innate cytokine responses may be critical in nonallergic/nonautoimmune disease, and they enable environmental agent exposure mechanisms that are independent of adaptive immunity. Innate immune cytokines derived from macrophage subsets (M1/M2) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets can directly regulate fibroblast function. We also suggest that STAT3-activating gp130 cytokines can sensitize fibroblasts to the innate cytokine milieu to drive phenotypes and exacerbate existing adaptive responses. Here, we review evidence exploring innate cytokine regulation of fibroblast behavior.

  11. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Plan Global Health Observatory (GHO) data - Immunization More information on vaccines and immunization News 1 in 10 ...

  12. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M.; Engin, Ayse Basak; Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M.; Rezaee, Ramin; Karimi, Gholamreza; Drozd, Vladimir A.; Nikitina, Anna V.; Solomennik, Sergey F.; Kudryavkina, Olga R.; Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Golokhvast, Kirill S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500 mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500 mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. - Highlights: • Basophil sensitization is more important than cell count in VEP exposure. • CD16+ cells are more effective than basophils on CD4+ T cell proliferation. • CD16+ and CD16- monocytes respond to VEP exposure in opposite directions. • CD8+ T cell proliferation is inhibited by all doses of VEPs. • Globally, more stringent standards are needed for vehicle particle emissions.

  13. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M; Engin, Ayse Basak; Chernyshev, Valery V; Chaika, Vladimir V; Ugay, Sergey M; Rezaee, Ramin; Karimi, Gholamreza; Drozd, Vladimir A; Nikitina, Anna V; Solomennik, Sergey F; Kudryavkina, Olga R; Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Golokhvast, Kirill S

    2017-01-01

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted particles exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharenko, Alexander M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Engin, Ayse Basak [Gazi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology, 06330, Hipodrom, Ankara (Turkey); Chernyshev, Valery V.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Ugay, Sergey M. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Rezaee, Ramin [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Gholamreza [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Drozd, Vladimir A.; Nikitina, Anna V.; Solomennik, Sergey F.; Kudryavkina, Olga R. [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Xin, Liu; Wenpeng, Yuan [Biology Institute Shandong Academy of Science, Jinan 250014 (China); Tzatzarakis, Manolis [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Golokhvast, Kirill S., E-mail: droopy@mail.ru [Far Eastern Federal University, Engineering School, Scientific Educational Centre of Nanotechnology, 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Despite of the fact that engine manufacturers develop a new technology to reduce exhaust emissions, insufficient attention given to particulate emissions. However, diesel exhaust particles are a major source of air-borne pollution, contain vast amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and may have deleterious effects on the immune system, resulting in the induction and enhancement of pro-allergic processes. In the current study, vehicle emitted particles (VEP) from 2 different types of cars (diesel - D and gasoline - G) and locomotive (L) were collected. Overall, 129 four-week-old, male SPF-class Kunming mice were subcutaneously instilled with either low dose 100, 250 or high dose, 500 mg/kg VEP and 15 mice were assigned as control group. The systemic toxicity was evaluated and alterations in the percentages of the CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD25 expressing cells, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were determined. Basophil percentages were inversely associated with the PAH content of the VEPs, however basophil sensitization was more important than cell count in VEP exposure. Thus, the effects of VEP-PAHs emerge with the activation of basophils in an allergen independent fashion. Despite the increased percentage of CD4+ T cells, a sharp decrease in basophil counts at 500 mg/kg of VEP indicates a decreased inhibitory effect of CD16+ monocytes on the proliferation of CD4+ T cell and suppressed polarization into a Th2 phenotype. Therefore, although the restrictions for vehicles emissions differ between countries, follow up studies and strict regulations are needed. - Highlights: • Basophil sensitization is more important than cell count in VEP exposure. • CD16+ cells are more effective than basophils on CD4+ T cell proliferation. • CD16+ and CD16- monocytes respond to VEP exposure in opposite directions. • CD8+ T cell proliferation is inhibited by all doses of VEPs. • Globally, more stringent standards are needed for vehicle particle emissions.

  15. Innate lymphoid cells are pivotal actors in allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanati, Golshid; Aryan, Zahra; Barbadi, Mehri; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells that do not express V(D)J-rearranged receptors and play a role in the innate immune system. ILCs are categorized into three groups with respect to their function in the immune system. ILC1 induces production of IFN-γ via T-box expressed on T cells, ILC2 promotes production of type 2 cytokines via GATA-binding protein-3 and ILC3 promotes IL-17 and IL-22 production via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt. ILCs can maintain homeostasis in epithelial surfaces by responding to locally produced cytokines or direct recognition of danger patterns. Altered epithelial barrier function seems to be a key point in inappropriate activation of ILCs to promote inflammatory and allergic responses. ILCs play an essential role in initiation and maintenance of defense against infections as well as immune-mediated diseases. In this paper, we discuss the role of ILCs in inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  16. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Haruo

    1987-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  17. μ-opioid Receptor-Mediated Alterations of Allergen-Induced Immune Responses of Bronchial Lymph Node Cells in a Murine Model of Stress Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Okuyama

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Restraint stress aggravated allergic airway inflammation in association with alterations in local immunity characterized by greater Th2-associated cytokine production and a reduced development of regulatory T cells, mediated by MORs.

  18. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  19. IgE antibodies of fish allergic patients cross-react with frog parvalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Thill, L; Grigioni, F; Lehners, C; Falagiani, P; Ferrara, A; Romano, C; Stevens, W; Hentges, F

    2004-06-01

    The major allergens in fish are parvalbumins. Important immunoglobulin (Ig)E cross-recognition of parvalbumins from different fish species has been shown. Recently frog parvalbumin alpha has been found to be responsible for a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis triggered by the ingestion of frog meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IgE antibodies of fish allergic persons cross-react with frog parvalbumin and to appreciate its clinical relevance. The sera of 15 fish allergic patients and one fish and frog allergic patient were tested by IgE-immunoblotting against frog muscle extract. Sera were tested against recombinant parvalbumin alpha and beta from Rana esculenta. Skin prick tests were performed in selected patients with recombinant frog parvalbumin. Ca(2+) depletion experiments and inhibition studies with purified cod and frog recombinant parvalbumin were done to characterize the cross-reactive pattern. Fourteen of the sera tested had IgE antibodies recognizing low molecular weight components in frog muscle extract. Calcium depletion experiments or inhibition of patient sera with purified cod parvalbumin led to a significant or complete decrease in IgE binding. When tested against recombinant parvalbumins, three of 13 sera reacted with alpha parvalbumin and 11 of 12 reacted with beta parvalbumin from R. esculenta. Skin prick tests performed with recombinant frog parvalbumin were positive in fish allergic patients. Inhibition studies showed that a fish and frog allergic patient was primarily sensitized to fish parvalbumin. Cod parvalbumin, a major cross-reactive allergen among different fish species, shares IgE binding epitopes with frog parvalbumin. This in vitro cross-reactivity seems to be also clinically relevant. Parvalbumins probably represent a new family of cross-reactive allergens.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  2. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch...... contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients...... tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. SUMMARY: Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic...

  3. Severe chronic allergic (and related) diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Demoly, P

    2012-01-01

    -up. Control is the degree to which therapy goals are currently met. These concepts have evolved over time for asthma in guidelines, task forces or consensus meetings. The aim of this paper is to generalize the approach of the uniform definition of severe asthma presented to WHO for chronic allergic...... and associated diseases (rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis) in order to have a uniform definition of severity, control and risk, usable in most situations. It is based on the appropriate diagnosis, availability and accessibility of treatments, treatment responsiveness...... and associated factors such as comorbidities and risk factors. This uniform definition will allow a better definition of the phenotypes of severe allergic (and related) diseases for clinical practice, research (including epidemiology), public health purposes, education and the discovery of novel therapies....

  4. Allergen recognition by innate immune cells: critical role of dendritic and epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSalazar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergy is an exacerbated response of the immune system against non-self-proteins called allergens and is typically characterized by biased type-2 T helper cell and deleterious IgE mediated immune responses. The allergic cascade starts with the recognition of allergens by antigen presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells, culminating in mast cell sensitization and triggering. Dendritic cells have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in orchestrating allergic diseases. Using different C-type lectin receptors dendritic cells are able to recognize and internalize a number of allergens from diverse sources leading to sensitization. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence highlighting the role of epithelial cells in triggering and modulating immune responses to allergens. As well as providing a physical barrier, epithelial cells can interact with allergens and influence dendritic cells behaviour through the release of a number of Th2 promoting cytokines. In this review we will summarise current understanding of how allergens are recognised by dendritic cells and epithelial cells and what are the consequences of such interaction in the context of allergic sensitisation and downstream events leading to allergic inflammation. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of allergen recognition and associated signalling pathways could enable developing more effective therapeutic strategies that target the initial steps of allergic sensitisation hence hindering development or progression of allergic diseases.

  5. Topical therapy for facial allergic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kondratyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to assess clinical dynamics and morphofunctional skin parameters of patients with facial allergic dermatoses on the background of combined topical therapy. Materials and methods. 45 patients with various facial allergic dermatoses in dry and sensitive skin took part in the research. The methods included anamnesis taking, poll, objective examination and assessment of morphofunctional parameters of skin, as well as estimation of life quality dynamic index (LQDI. Main results. After a course of treatment with 0,05% solution of alclometasone dipropionate inflammation of dermatosis ceased in 45 (100% patients, itching and pains in 39 (86,7% patients, but complaints about dryness and peeling of facial skin remained in 41 (91,1% and 40 (88,8% patients respectively. On the background of therapy including emollient Aflocream the above mentioned symptoms did not appear in 43 (95,6% patients, wherein maximum effect was achieved in patients with allergic contact dermatitis - 14 (93,3%. After a course of topical therapy all patients showed statistically significant increase of epidermal moisture level, alongside with reduction of skin relief and degree of keratinization. During the assessment of LQDI a tendency to reduction of proportion of patients on whom the disease has a strong and extremely strong impact was noted in 10 patients (i.e. 22,2%, moderate influence - in 5 of them (11,45%, insignificant influence or its absence - in 30 (66,7% people. Conclusion. Combined therapy including the use of a topical corticosteroid Afloderm and an emollient Aflocream showed good clinical efficiency in patients with facial allergic dermatoses. The efficiency is also confirmed with improvements in morphofunctional characteristics of patients’ skin on the background of therapy.

  6. Compare of the effect of doxepin and citerizine in treatment of allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Barsari F

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Allergic rhinitis is a common disease which is present in 20% of general population. Major symptoms include sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and nasal pruritus. It seems that tricyclic antidepressants blocking histamine receptors may be used as an effective treatment in allergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 84 patients with allergic rhinitis entered the study and randomly divided into two groups. Patients of 1st group received cetirizine and 2nd group received doxepin for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks patients were evaluated about sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and nasal pruritus. Results: The results of our study showed that clinical score of patients after 2 weeks was not different in both groups (p=0.261. The only symptom that was affected by the kind of treatment and was significantly different between groups was sneezing (p=0.005. Conclusion: It seems that there is not much difference in using cetirizine and doxepin in treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis sympotoms. It is recommended that future studies use TCAs with more potent blocking anti-histamine receptors feature and on more samples.

  7. Proactive penicillin allergy testing in primary care patients labeled as allergic: outcomes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Britta K; Bowen, Brady J; Otabor, Uwa; Celestin, Jocelyn; Sorum, Paul C

    2017-11-01

    To promote penicillin allergy testing in an outpatient setting in patients labeled as penicillin allergic, to determine the number of those who are truly allergic, evaluate patient satisfaction with the testing, and educate both patients and clinicians about testing. Patients with a history of penicillin allergy listed in their EHR were screened and recruited by their primary care office and referred for penicillin allergy testing. The results of allergy testing and patient satisfaction after testing were the main outcomes. We also surveyed the primary care physicians about perceived barriers to recruitment. A total of 82 patients were recruited, although only 37 actually underwent testing. None of these 37 had a positive skin test, and none of 36 had a positive oral challenge (1 refused it). Following testing, 2 patients (5%) had subjective reactions within 24 h. Thirty-one patients (84%) responded to a post-testing follow-up questionnaire; 3 (10%) were subsequently treated with a beta-lactam, and all reported that testing provided important information to their medical history. Providers identified time constraints, either their or their patients lack of time, as the major barrier to recruitment. Penicillin allergy testing safely evaluates patients labeled as penicillin allergic. It is well tolerated, and embraced by the patients who undergo testing. In our study, none of the patients tested had an allergic reaction, but we identified multiple barriers to developing a protocol for testing patients from the primary care setting.

  8. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  9. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Fenoy

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+FoxP3(+ cells.

  10. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  11. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eKuehn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1 isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens.New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings will be useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis but also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  12. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  13. Novel complex therapy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yanchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effectivity of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis complex therapy.Methods. 25 autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis patients (50 eyes were examined before and after complex treatment that included olopatadine hydrochloride 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day, cetirizine 10 mg (1 tablet a day, and steroid drug (insufflations 2 times a day. Dry eye patients additionally received hyaluronic acid 1 mg / ml (instillations 2 times a day. 10 controls (20 eyes were prescribed only the above-mentioned treatment. In 15 study group patients (30 eyes, Blepharogel 1 was applied on lid margins. Routine eye examination, clinical symptom assessment, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests, xerosis meter and lissamine green staining evaluation, and anterior segment photography with computed morphometry were performed.Results. Compositae allergy was diagnosed in all patients. Dry eye due to tear film instability, lipid deficiency, and mucin deficiency and epitheliopathy were diagnosed in 55 %, 35.5 % and 28.3 %, respectively. In study group, the treatment significantly and rapidly reduced patient-reported symptoms and blepharoconjunctivitis signs as well as significantly improved tear stability, lipid deficiency, mucin deficiency, and epitheliopathy as compared with controls.Conclusion. Blepharogel 1 as a component of complex therapy increases the efficacy of autumnal allergic blepharoconjuctivitis treatment.

  14. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cocamide diethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-07-01

    Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Mee [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-412 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mun-Chual, E-mail: rho-m@kribb.re.kr [Bio-Materials Research Institute, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  17. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4 + cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders

  18. Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Neelkamal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF. The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed.

  19. Gene transcripts as potential diagnostic markers for allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis is to perform a patch test. Because this has several disadvantages, the development of a new in vitro test system would be of immense value. Gene transcripts that distinguish allergics from non-allergics may have the potential...... widely available. The 26 differentially expressed genes identified in this study may potentially function as diagnostic markers for contact sensitivity....

  20. Allergen immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis: current use and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Pfaar, Oliver; Bousquet, Jean; Senti, Gabriela; Kündig, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Type-1 allergies are among the most chronic common diseases of humans. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causative and disease-modifying treatment option besides allergen avoidance. Severe systemic adverse allergic reactions may be induced by every AIT treatment. Different approaches have been used to provide safer AIT preparations to lower or even totally overcome this risk. Areas covered: A structured literature recherche in Medline and Pubmed under inclusion of national and international guidelines and Cochrane meta-analyses has been performed aiming at reviewing clinical use of such approaches in AIT. New allergen preparations may include allergoids, recombinant allergens (recA) and modified recombinant allergens (recA) in subcutaneous as well as in mucosal immunotherapies (application e.g. using bronchial, nasal, oral and sublingual application) with sublingual being the established mucosal application route and new ways of application like intralymphatic and epicutaneous immunotherapy. Expert commentary: Immune-modifying agents like Virus-like particles and CpG-motifs, adjuvants like MPL and aluminum hydroxide are evaluated and found to increase and direct the immunological response toward immunological tolerance. New forms of allergen extracts can improve safety and efficacy of AIT and may change our way of performing allergen immunotherapy in the future.

  1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed Janahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. In most published studies, the prevalence of ABPA is about 8.9% in patients with CF. Since the clinical features of this condition overlap significantly with that of CF, ABPA is challenging to diagnose and remains underdiagnosed in many patients. Diagnosis of ABPA in CF patients should be sought in those with evidence of clinical and radiologic deterioration that is not attributable to another etiology, a markedly elevated total serum IgE level (while off steroid therapy and evidence of A. fumigatus sensitization. Management of ABPA involves the use of systemic steroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response. In patients who do not respond to steroids or cannot tolerate them, antifungal agents should be used to reduce the burden of A. fumigatus allergens. Recent studies suggest that omalizumab may be an effective option to reduce the frequency of ABPA exacerbations in patients with CF. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to better establish the efficacy of omalizumab in managing patients with CF and ABPA.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Parents of Food-Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sheila Ohlsson; Mao, Guangyun; Caruso, Deanna; Hong, Xiumei; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that chronic stress may induce immune system malfunction and a broad range of adverse health outcomes; however, the underlying pathways for this relationship are unclear. Our study aimed to elucidate this question by examining the relationship between parental cardiovascular risk factors including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and maternal psychological stress score (MPSS) relative to the severity of the child's food allergy (FA) and number of affected children. SBP, DBP, BMI, and WHR were measured and calculated at the time of recruitment by trained nurses. MPSS was obtained based on self-report questionnaires covering lifestyle adjustments, perceived chronic stress, and quality of life. General linear models examined whether caregiver chronic stress was associated with FA. For mothers with children under age 5 years, SBP, DBP and number of affected children had strong and graded relationships with severity of the child's FA. MPSS was also significantly and positively associated with child FA severity (P parent. This was also the case for paternal SBP, DBP, and number of affected children of any age. There is a strong and graded link between cardiovascular risk and perceived stress in mothers of food-allergic children under age 5. Findings may have important implications for family-centered care of FA, may generalize to caregivers of children with chronic conditions, and extend the literature on allostatic load.

  3. A Population-based Clinical Study of Allergic and Non-allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T.B.; Thomsen, S.F.; Nolte, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to describe differences between allergic and non-allergic asthma in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents and adults. Methods. A total of 1,186 subjects, 14 to 44 years of age, who in a screening questionnaire had reported a history of airway...... symptoms suggestive of asthma and/or allergy, or who were taking any medication for these conditions were clinically examined. All participants were interviewed about respiratory symptoms, and furthermore skin test reactivity, lung function, and airway responsiveness were measured. Results. A total of 489...

  4. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddman Rolf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors enable the host to recognize a large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA and flagellin. Toll-like receptors have also been shown to play a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of Toll-like receptors as a primary part of our microbe defense system has been shown in several studies, but their possible function as mediators in allergy and asthma remains to be established. The present study was designed to examine the expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, focusing on changes induced by exposure to pollen. Methods 27 healthy controls and 42 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis volunteered for the study. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and during pollen season as well as before and after allergen challenge. The seasonal material was used for mRNA quantification of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 with real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas specimens achieved in conjunction with allergen challenge were used for immunohistochemical localization and quantification of corresponding proteins. Results mRNA and protein representing Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 could be demonstrated in all specimens. An increase in protein expression for all three receptors could be seen following allergen challenge, whereas a significant increase of mRNA only could be obtained for Toll-like receptor 3 during pollen season. Conclusion The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation.

  5. Nitration of β-Lactoglobulin but Not of Ovomucoid Enhances Anaphylactic Responses in Food Allergic Mice.

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    Susanne C Diesner

    Full Text Available We revealed in previous studies that nitration of food proteins reduces the risk of de novo sensitization in a murine food allergy model. In contrast, in situations with preformed specific IgE antibodies, in vitro experiments suggested an increased capacity of effector cell activation by nitrated food proteins.The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of protein nitration on the effector phase of food allergy.BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (i.p. with the milk allergen β-lactoglobulin (BLG or the egg allergen ovomucoid (OVM, followed by intragastric (i.g. gavages to induce a strong local inflammatory response and allergen-specific antibodies. Subsequently, naïve and allergic mice were intravenously (i.v. challenged with untreated, sham-nitrated or nitrated BLG or OVM. Anaphylaxis was monitored by measuring core body temperature and determination of mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1 levels in blood.A significant drop of body temperature accompanied with significantly elevated concentrations of the anaphylaxis marker mMCP-1 were only observed in BLG allergic animals challenged with nitrated BLG and not in OVM allergic mice challenged with nitrated OVM. SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism analysis of the differentially modified allergens revealed an effect of nitration on the secondary protein structure exclusively for BLG together with enhanced protein aggregation.Our data suggest that nitration affects differently the food allergens BLG and OVM. In the case of BLG, structural changes favored dimerization possibly explaining the increased anaphylactic reactivity in BLG allergic animals.

  6. Black seed oil ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Yang, Xudong; Raza Asim, M B; Sun, Qingzhu; Han, Yan; Zhang, Fujun; Cao, Yongxiao; Lu, Shemin

    2009-02-01

    The black seeds, from the Ranunculaceae family, have been traditionally used by various cultures as a natural remedy for several ailments. In this study, we examined the effect of black seed oil as an immunomodulator in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation. Rats sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin to induce an allergic inflammatory response were compared to ovalbumin-sensitized, intranasally ovalbumin-exposed rats pretreated with intraperitoneally administered black seed oil and to control rats. The levels of IgE, IgG1 and ova-specific T-cell proliferation in spleen were measured by ELISA. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The intraperitoneal administration of black seed oil inhibited the Th2 type immune response in rats by preventing inflammatory cell infiltration and pathological lesions in the lungs. It significantly decreased the nitric oxide production in BALF, total serum IgE, IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG1 along with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression. Black seed oil treatment resulted in decreased T-cell response evident by lesser delayed type hypersensitivity and lower T-cell proliferation in spleen. In conclusion, black seed oil exhibited a significant reduction in all the markers of allergic inflammation mainly by inhibiting the delayed type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. The data suggests that inhibition of T-cell response may be responsible for immunomodulatory effect of black seed oil in the rat model of allergic airway inflammation.

  7. Surfactant protein D attenuates sub-epithelial fibrosis in allergic airways disease through TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirohisa; Ledford, Julie G; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Aono, Yoshinori; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Lee, James J; Izumi, Keisuke; Hollingsworth, John W

    2014-11-29

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) can regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. Recently, SP-D has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of airway allergic inflammation and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. However, in allergic airways disease, the role of SP-D in airway remodeling remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of functional SP-D in regulating sub-epithelial fibrosis in a mouse chronic house dust mite model of allergic airways disease. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and SP-D-/- mice (C57BL/6 background) were chronically challenged with house dust mite antigen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dp). Studies with SP-D rescue and neutralization of TGF-β were conducted. Lung histopathology and the concentrations of collagen, growth factors, and cytokines present in the airspace and lung tissue were determined. Cultured eosinophils were stimulated by Dp in presence or absence of SP-D. Dp-challenged SP-D-/- mice demonstrate increased sub-epithelial fibrosis, collagen production, eosinophil infiltration, TGF-β1, and IL-13 production, when compared to Dp-challenged WT mice. By immunohistology, we detected an increase in TGF-β1 and IL-13 positive eosinophils in SP-D-/- mice. Purified eosinophils stimulated with Dp produced TGF-β1 and IL-13, which was prevented by co-incubation with SP-D. Additionally, treatment of Dp challenged SP-D-/- mice with exogenous SP-D was able to rescue the phenotypes observed in SP-D-/- mice and neutralization of TGF-β1 reduced sub-epithelial fibrosis in Dp-challenged SP-D-/- mice. These data support a protective role for SP-D in the pathogenesis of sub-epithelial fibrosis in a mouse model of allergic inflammation through regulation of eosinophil-derived TGF-β.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by nail acrylates in Europe. An EECDRG study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalo, Margarida; Pinho, André; Agner, Tove

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by nail acrylates, also including methacrylates and cyanoacrylates here, is being increasingly reported. METHODS: A retrospective study in 11 European Environmental Contact Dermatitis Research Group (EECDRG) clinics collected information on cases......-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (88.6%), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (69.2%), and ethyl cyanoacrylate (9.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Nail cosmetics were responsible for the majority of ACD cases caused by acrylates, affecting nail beauticians and consumers, and therefore calling for stricter regulation and preventive...

  9. Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor Regression: Plausibility of Mediating Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. Erkes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptens are small molecule irritants that bind to proteins and elicit an immune response. Haptens have been commonly used to study allergic contact dermatitis (ACD using animal contact hypersensitivity (CHS models. However, extensive research into contact hypersensitivity has offered a confusing and intriguing mechanism of allergic reactions occurring in the skin. The abilities of haptens to induce such reactions have been frequently utilized to study the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to induce autoimmune-like responses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia and to elicit viral wart and tumor regression. Hapten-induced tumor regression has been studied since the mid-1900s and relies on four major concepts: (1 ex vivo haptenation, (2 in situ haptenation, (3 epifocal hapten application, and (4 antigen-hapten conjugate injection. Each of these approaches elicits unique responses in mice and humans. The present review attempts to provide a critical appraisal of the hapten-mediated tumor treatments and offers insights for future development of the field.

  10. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity and its importance in the formationof chronic allergic gastritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrova V.I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the clinical and pathogenetic role in the formation of gastrointestinal hyperactivity and chronic allergic gastritis in children. Patients and methods. We observed 82 children aged 6 to 16 years. To verify the diagnosis all the children performed endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, intragastric pHmeter. To confirm the genesis of atopic disease of patients determined the level general IgE in the serum by ELISA. Results. As a result of studies we find, that in majority (92.7±2.9% patients examined early symptoms of gastrointestinal hyperactivity were diagnosed in the first six months of life. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity in infants is manifested by increased functional reaction of the gastrointestinal system, namely the disorders of the digestive and motorevacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract and symptoms of atopic dermatitis. In older children gastrointestinal hyperactivity transformed intoallergic gastritis, which is manifested by destructive changes of the gastric mucosa, increased production of hydrochloric acid , motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract mainly in the form of duodenogastric reflux. It was found that the determining factors of the formation of allergic inflammation should be considered a high percentage of family history as a gastroenterological and allergic diseases, disorders physiological feeding graphics and nutrition of children from the first days of life. A characteristic feature of current gastroenterological diseases in patients with gastrointestinal hyperactivity was the absence of seasonal exacerbations, severe pain in the right upper quadrant, belching and flatulence, against the background of destructive changes in the gastric mucosa. Conclusions. We have identified specific clinical symptoms is pathognomonic for children with gastrointestinal hyperactivity and provides the opportunity to be watchful for the diagnosis of allergic changes in the gastric

  11. Alterations of the murine gut microbiome in allergic airway disease are independent of surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Roggenbuck, Michael; Al-Shuweli, Suzan

    2017-01-01

    Background SP-D is an important host defense lectin in innate immunity and SP-D deficient mice show several abnormal immune effects and are susceptible to allergen-induced airway disease. At the same time, host microbiome interactions play an important role in the development of allergic airway...... disease, and alterations to gut microbiota have been linked to airway disease through the gut-lung axis. Currently, it is unknown if the genotype (Sftpd-/- or Sftpd+/+) of the standard SP-D mouse model can affect the host microbiota to such an degree that it would overcome the cohousing effect...... on microbiota and interfere with the interpretation of immunological data from the model. Generally, little is known about the effect of the SP-D protein in itself and in combination with airway disease on the microbiota. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that microbiome composition would change...

  12. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  13. Difference in the Breast Milk Proteome between Allergic and Non-Allergic Mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Reina, F.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Zhang, L.; Koppelman, G.H.; Postma, D.S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Wijga, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has been linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergy and asthma. However, studies on this relationship vary in outcome, which may partly be related to differences in breast milk composition. In particular breast milk composition may differ between allergic and

  14. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  15. Aspergillus-Associated Airway Disease, Inflammation, and the Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H.; Al-Alawi, Mazen; Logan, P. Mark; Greene, Catherine M.; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus moulds exist ubiquitously as spores that are inhaled in large numbers daily. Whilst most are removed by anatomical barriers, disease may occur in certain circumstances. Depending on the underlying state of the human immune system, clinical consequences can ensue ranging from an excessive immune response during allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis to the formation of an aspergilloma in the immunocompetent state. The severest infections occur in those who are immunocompromised where invasive pulmonary aspergillosis results in high mortality rates. The diagnosis of Aspergillus-associated pulmonary disease is based on clinical, radiological, and immunological testing. An understanding of the innate and inflammatory consequences of exposure to Aspergillus species is critical in accounting for disease manifestations and preventing sequelae. The major components of the innate immune system involved in recognition and removal of the fungus include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptide production, and recognition by pattern recognition receptors. The cytokine response is also critical facilitating cell-to-cell communication and promoting the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of the host response. In the following review, we discuss the above areas with a focus on the innate and inflammatory response to airway Aspergillus exposure and how these responses may be modulated for therapeutic benefit. PMID:23971044

  16. Aspergillus-Associated Airway Disease, Inflammation, and the Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay H. Chotirmall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus moulds exist ubiquitously as spores that are inhaled in large numbers daily. Whilst most are removed by anatomical barriers, disease may occur in certain circumstances. Depending on the underlying state of the human immune system, clinical consequences can ensue ranging from an excessive immune response during allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis to the formation of an aspergilloma in the immunocompetent state. The severest infections occur in those who are immunocompromised where invasive pulmonary aspergillosis results in high mortality rates. The diagnosis of Aspergillus-associated pulmonary disease is based on clinical, radiological, and immunological testing. An understanding of the innate and inflammatory consequences of exposure to Aspergillus species is critical in accounting for disease manifestations and preventing sequelae. The major components of the innate immune system involved in recognition and removal of the fungus include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptide production, and recognition by pattern recognition receptors. The cytokine response is also critical facilitating cell-to-cell communication and promoting the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of the host response. In the following review, we discuss the above areas with a focus on the innate and inflammatory response to airway Aspergillus exposure and how these responses may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

  17. CT in childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Bhagat, R.; Panchal, N.; Pant, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    CT of the thorax done during acute severe asthma in two paediatric patients demonstrated central bronchiectasis, a sine qua non for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchography, regarded as the gold standard, was done subsequently on recovery. A comparative segmental analysis revealed that CT was able to identify immediately 24 of 27 segments which showed central bronchiectasis on bronchography. Early diagnosis with the aid of CT enabled immediate intervention which may have helped to prevent further lung damage in the paediatric patients. (orig.)

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kaminogawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is rapidly accumulating as to the beneficial effects of foods. However, it is not always clear whether the information is based on data evaluated impartially in a scientific fashion. Human research into whether foods modulate immune functions in either intervention studies or randomized controlled trials can be classified into three categories according to the physical state of subjects enrolled for investigation: (i studies examining the effect of foods in healthy individuals; (ii studies analyzing the effect of foods on patients with hypersensitivity; and (iii studies checking the effect of foods on immunocompromized subjects, including patients who had undergone surgical resection of cancer and newborns. The systematization of reported studies has made it reasonable to conclude that foods are able to modulate immune functions manifesting as either innate immunity (phagocytic activity, NK cell activity or acquired immunity (T cell response, antibody production. Moreover, improvement of immune functions by foods can normalize the physical state of allergic patients or cancer patients, and may reduce the risk of diseases in healthy individuals. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the immune-modulating abilities of foods by measuring at least one parameter of either innate or acquired immunity.

  20. Absence of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells during allergen provocation does not exacerbate murine allergic airway inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mannan Baru

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play a non-redundant role in maintenance of immune homeostasis. This is achieved by suppressing both, priming of naïve cells and effector cell functions. Although Tregs have been implicated in modulating allergic immune responses, their influence on distinct phases of development of allergies remains unclear. In this study, by using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-transgenic Foxp3-DTR (DEREG mice we demonstrate that the absence of Foxp3(+ Tregs during the allergen challenge surprisingly does not exacerbate allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. As genetic disposition due to strain specificity may contribute significantly to development of allergies, we performed similar experiment in C57BL/6 mice, which are less susceptible to allergy in the model of sensitization used in this study. We report that the genetic background does not influence the consequence of this depletion regimen. These results signify the temporal regulation exerted by Foxp3(+ Tregs in limiting allergic airway inflammation and may influence their application as potential therapeutics.

  1. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected Regulatory T Cells Suppress Experimental Allergic Airway Inflammation, a Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Skuljec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected cytotoxic T cells has shown impressive efficacy in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. We explored a regulatory T cell (Treg-based therapy in the treatment of allergic airway inflammation, a model for asthma, which is characterized by an airway hyper-reactivity (AHR and a chronic, T helper-2 (Th2 cell-dominated immune response to allergen. To restore the immune balance in the lung, we redirected Tregs by a CAR toward lung epithelia in mice upon experimentally induced allergic asthma, closely mimicking the clinical situation. Adoptively transferred CAR Tregs accumulated in the lung and in tracheobronchial lymph nodes, reduced AHR and diminished eosinophilic airway inflammation, indicated by lower cell numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased cell infiltrates in the lung. CAR Treg cells furthermore prevented excessive pulmonary mucus production as well as increase in allergen-specific IgE and Th2 cytokine levels in exposed animals. CAR Tregs were more efficient in controlling asthma than non-modified Tregs, indicating the pivotal role of specific Treg cell activation in the affected organ. Data demonstrate that lung targeting CAR Treg cells ameliorate key features of experimental airway inflammation, paving the way for cell therapy of severe allergic asthma.

  2. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  3. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae 558 ) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507 ); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as

  4. PREMEDICATION PROTOCOLS IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN ALLERGIC PATIENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Kisselova; Adriana Krasteva; Assya Krasteva

    2011-01-01

    The problem with choosing a suitable pre-medication protocols before local anesthesia in dentistry in allergic patients is always discussed, as in the dental practice different schemes are already proven (3,5). The propose of this communication is to share the experience on those pre-medication schemes in allergic patients during and outside pollen season.

  5. Expression of Pendrin Periostin in Allergic Rhinitis Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: : Production of pendrin and periostin is upregulated in allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin-induced asthma. These findings suggest that pendrin can induce mucus production and that periostin can induce tissue fibrosis and remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Therefore, these mediators may be therapeutic target candidates for allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin- induced asthma.

  6. Advances in pharmacotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    , surpassing the efficacy of gold standard treatment, intranasal corticosteroids (INS), for the first time. It is indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis when monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or INS is NOT considered...

  7. Hyposensitization in nickel allergic contact dermatitis: Clinical and immunologic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.J. Troost (Roger); M.M.A. Kozel (M. M A); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; Th. van Joost (Theo); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); R. Benner (Robbert); E.P. Prens (Errol)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) previously sensitized T cells cause skin damage. If an ubiquitous allergen such as nickel is involved, no effective treatment is available. Down-regulation of this allergic response has been described after antigen presentation in the

  8. Leukotrienes and leukotriene modifiers in pediatric allergic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    ... 12(1):3-12. 3. Leukotrienes and leukotriene modifiers in pediatric allergic diseases ... childhood allergic diseases. This review ... produce cysteinyl-LTs and LTB4 spontaneously in vitro.8. Although nonleukocyte cells generally do not have sufficient 5-LO and FLAP to synthesize .... uninterrupted sleep in these patients.55.

  9. Prevalence, severity and risk factors of allergic disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the prevalence and risk factors of allergic disorders. Methods: Data ..... with being continuously alert to their eating habits due to fear of allergic ... and fish.6,13,20,23 Genetic factors are known to be incrim- inated with ...

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...... from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates....

  11. An update on mycobacteria and the development of allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria can diminish allergic and asthmatic manifestations. This means that mycobacteria could offer therapeutical opportunities as an 'anti-allergic' vaccine.In humans, the genetic background and the environment probably contribute to the development of allergies. Over the last 20. years, a

  12. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, though not life threatening, causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life. Confirmation of allergen as etiological agent is cumbersome. Hence need for a simple test is vital and eosinophil parameters were looked at to answer the quest. AIM: To find out the prevalence of e osinophilia in Allergic rhinitis . To assess the value of nasal cytogram as an alternative investigation in diagnosing allergic rhinitis . MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective study of 200 cases divided into two groups of 100 each was done. One group clinically with allergic rhinitis and other without. All cases had clinical examination after history was taken, Blood Absolute eosinophil count, Nasal smear for eosinophils done and assessed. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients examined in two groups of 100 each, mean age of allergic rhinitis patients was 26.22 years . Allergic rhinitis was more common in males than females. Prevalence of nasal eosinophilia was 61%.and blood eosinophilia was 57% in allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal smear sensitivity was 61% and specificity w as 87% . CONCLUSION: Nasal smear eosinophilia is a valid test, can be quickly and easily performed and read. Being an in - expensive test can be used to screen the patients of allergic rhinitis

  13. Immune mediated liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  14. Selective suppression of leukocyte recruitment in allergic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Weller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases result in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The incidence of allergic diseases, notably allergic asthma, has risen to high levels for reasons that are not entirely understood. With an increasing knowledge of underlying mechanisms, there is now more potential to target the inflammatory process rather than the overt symptoms. This focuses attention on the role of leukocytes especially Th2 lymphocytes that regulate allergic inflammation and effector cells where eosinophils have received much attention. Eosinophils are thought to be important based on the high numbers that are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation and the potential of these cells to effect both tissue injury and remodelling. It is hoped that future therapy will be directed towards specific leukocyte types, without overtly compromising essential host defence responses. One obvious target is leukocyte recruitment. This necessitates a detailed understanding of underlying mechanisms, particularly those involving soluble che-moattractants signals and cell-cell adhesion molecules.

  15. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C D; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of sensitivity to the cosmetic preservative methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) has increased significantly in Europe. Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from...... series of MDBGN to determine their patch test threshold values. RESULTS: Seven presensitized individuals (37%) developed allergic contact dermatitis from the soap containing MDBGN. The mean dose of MDBGN per application was 2.2 micro g cm-2 and the reactions appeared between days 6 and 34. All nine...... rinse-off products has been less studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the allergic response elicited in presensitized individuals from exposure to a rinse-off product preserved with the maximum permitted level of MDBGN. METHODS: Nineteen contact allergic individuals and nine controls participated...

  16. Diagnosing Allergic Contact Dermatitis Through Elimination, Perception, Detection and Deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Puangpet, Pailin; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P

    2017-10-01

    Several authors have commented upon the skills of detection required in making a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we emphasise the search for clues in a systematic manner. We describe four stages as part of a systematic method for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Firstly, elimination (or inclusion) of non-allergic diagnoses. Secondly, perception: the pre-patch test diagnosis and the 'three scenarios' principle. Thirdly, detection: optimising the sensitivity of the patch test process. Fourthly, deduction: diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis by associating the dermatitis with the allergen exposure. We further compare and contrast the pre-patch test history and examination with the markedly different one ('microhistory' and 'microexamination') used after patch testing. The importance of knowledge of contact dermatitis literature is emphasised with a review of recent publications. Finally, we also highlight the use of contact allergy profiling as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikov Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. Case report. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Conclusion. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.

  18. Occupational allergic rhinitis from guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tupasela, O; Jolanki, R; Vaheri, E; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H

    1988-05-01

    Three cases of allergic rhinitis from a vegetable gum, guar gum, have been detected. Two subjects were exposed to fine guar gum powder (Emco Gum 563, Meyhall Chemical AG, Switzerland), an insulator in rubber cables, when opening cables in a power cable laboratory. After 1-2 years' exposure the patients developed rhinitis. Scratch-chamber tests, nasal provocation tests, nasal eosinophilia and a RAST test proved their allergy. A third subject developed allergic rhinitis from another guar gum product (Meyproid 5306, Meyhall Chemical AG) after 2 years' exposure in a paper factory. A positive skin test and nasal provocation test confirmed the diagnosis. A fourth case of possible allergy to guar gum after exposure to Meyproid 5306 in a paper factory is also presented. No final diagnosis was reached in this case (in 1974). The present subjects, only one of whom was atopic, developed allergy within 2 years, although their exposure to guar gum was not especially heavy. Therefore, when handling guar, adequate ventilation facilities should be provided and protective clothing, including a respiratory mask, should be worn.

  19. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  20. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber Karsten

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD, allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330. Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD, 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis.

  1. Innate immunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ronnie Anderson is Director of the Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity. ... field have included macrophage, T cell, cytokine and cytokine activated killer cell interactions .... monocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, eccrine.

  2. Low breast milk levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in allergic women, despite frequent fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Wold, A E; Sandberg, A-S

    2011-04-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. However, their role in allergic disease is unclear. Allergic diseases are immunologically heterogeneous, and we hypothesized that n-3 fatty acid composition in serum and breast milk may vary according to clinical manifestations. Further, animal studies have shown reduction of serum-PUFA levels during allergic inflammation. To investigate fatty acid composition in breast milk and serum from women with different atopic disease manifestations. Secondly, to determine whether low PUFA levels reflected insufficient intakes. Fatty acids were analysed in breast milk and serum of women with atopic eczema and respiratory allergy (n=16), only respiratory allergy (n=7), as well as healthy women (n=22). Dietary intake of foods expected to affect long-chain n-3 PUFA levels were estimated by food-frequency questionnaire. The fatty acid pattern was related to diagnostic group and intake of relevant food items using a multivariate pattern recognition method (partial least squares projections to latent structures and discriminant analysis). Results Women with a combination of eczema and respiratory allergy had lower breast milk levels of several PUFAs (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid, DPA), and a lower ratio of long-chain n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs. Their PUFA levels differed not only from that of healthy women, but also from that of women with only respiratory allergy. The latter had a fatty acid pattern similar to that of healthy women. Despite low EPA, DHA and DPA levels women with eczema and respiratory allergy consumed no less fish than did healthy women. Our data suggest that reduced levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in serum and breast milk characterize women with extensive allergic disease including eczema, and are not related to low fish intake. Consumption of PUFAs during the allergic process may explain

  3. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of TSLP Function in Human Allergic Disorders - TSLP Programs the “Th2 code” in Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoki; Liu, Yong-Jun; Arima, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been recently implicated as a key molecule for initiating allergic inflammation at the epithelial cell-dendritic cell (DC) interface. In humans, aberrant TSLP expression is observed in allergic tissues, such as lesional skins of atopic dermatitis, lungs of asthmatics, nasal mucosa of atopic rhinitis and nasal polyps, and ocular surface of allergic keratoconjunctivitis. TSLP is produced predominantly by damaged epithelial cells and stimulates myeloid DCs (mDCs). TSLP-activated mDCs can promote the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into a Th2 phenotype and the expansion of CD4+ Th2 memory cells in a unique manner dependent on OX40L, one of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily members with Th2-promoting function, and lack of production of IL-12. From a genetic point of view, multiple genome-wide association studies have repeatedly identified the TSLP gene as one of the loci associated with susceptibility to allergic diseases. Thus, TSLP is a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic disorders. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate TSLP expression and the effects of TSLP on orchestrating the immune response toward a Th2 phenotype is essential for developing anti-TSLP therapy. PMID:22189594

  4. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  5. Mucosal immunity to poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Pearay L; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Sutter, Roland W

    2011-10-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) currently based on use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has identified suboptimal immunogenicity of this vaccine as a major impediment to eradication, with a failure to induce protection against paralytic poliomyelitis in certain population segments in some parts of the world. The Mucosal Immunity and Poliovirus Vaccines: Impact on Wild Poliovirus Infection, Transmission and Vaccine Failure conference was organized to obtain a better understanding of the current status of global control of poliomyelitis and identify approaches to improve the immune responsiveness and effectiveness of the orally administered poliovirus vaccines in order to accelerate the global eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

  6. Dysregulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells and TH2 cells impairs pollutant-induced allergic airway responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grove, Katrien C; Provoost, Sharen; Hendriks, Rudi W; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Seys, Leen J M; Kumar, Smitha; Maes, Tania; Brusselle, Guy G; Joos, Guy F

    2017-01-01

    Although the prominent role of T H 2 cells in type 2 immune responses is well established, the newly identified type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can also contribute to orchestration of allergic responses. Several experimental and epidemiologic studies have provided evidence that allergen-induced airway responses can be further enhanced on exposure to environmental pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). However, the components and pathways responsible remain incompletely known. We sought to investigate the relative contribution of ILC2 and adaptive T H 2 cell responses in a murine model of DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. Wild-type, Gata-3 +/nlslacZ (Gata-3-haploinsufficient), RAR-related orphan receptor α (RORα) fl/fl IL7R Cre (ILC2-deficient), and recombination-activating gene (Rag) 2 -/- mice were challenged with saline, DEPs, or house dust mite (HDM) or DEP+HDM. Airway hyperresponsiveness, as well as inflammation, and intracellular cytokine expression in ILC2s and T H 2 cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were assessed. Concomitant DEP+HDM exposure significantly enhanced allergic airway inflammation, as characterized by increased airway eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, accumulation of ILC2s and T H 2 cells, type 2 cytokine production, and airway hyperresponsiveness compared with sole DEPs or HDM. Reduced Gata-3 expression decreased the number of functional ILC2s and T H 2 cells in DEP+HDM-exposed mice, resulting in an impaired DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. Interestingly, although the DEP-enhanced allergic inflammation was marginally reduced in ILC2-deficient mice that received combined DEP+HDM, it was abolished in DEP+HDM-exposed Rag2 -/- mice. These data indicate that dysregulation of ILC2s and T H 2 cells attenuates DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. In addition, a crucial role for the adaptive immune system was shown on concomitant DEP+HDM exposure. Copyright © 2016 American

  7. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides as a Future Vaccine for Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Sano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An astounding feature of the DNA sequences termed CpG motifs is the induction of immune and inflammatory responses in a senseless manner. CpG motifs exist abundantly in microbes and evoke innate immunity that constitutes the first line of defense against microbial infections in vertebrates. CpG motifs that essentially work in an antigen-nonspecific fashion, however, turn into novel immunomodulators that can manipulate acquired immunity in an antigen-specific manner if oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODNs are directly conjugated to the antigen. CpG ODNs with potent polyclonal Th1-inducing ability show promise for application in immunotherapy whereby neutralization of dominant allergy-prone Th2 cells is achieved by inducing allergen-specific Th1 cells. The underlying mechanisms include an unexpected enhancement of dendritic cell function as a linker between innate and acquired immunity. In the foreseeable future the mainstream therapeutic role of corticosteroids in anti-inflammatory therapy for allergic diseases could possibly be replaced by immunotherapy using CpG ODN-conjugated antigens.

  8. Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønborg SM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of

  9. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  10. Behavior of Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes during the course of infection and immune response development in resistant versus susceptible hosts Comportamento de promastigoteas metacíclicos de Leishmania major durante o curso da infecção e da resposta imune em hospedeiros resistentes versus suscetíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known on the epitopes derived from metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania that are important on the regulation or destruction of the parasite, as targets of immune attack in the vertebrate host. In this study we investigated an alternative method to obtain metacyclic promasigotes of Leishmania major, as evaluated by the course of infection and delayed-type hipersensitivity (DTH in resistant versus susceptible inbred mice. Non-infective (procyclic promastigotes of L. major recently transformed from tissue amastigotes were attached to a negatively charged glass-wool column, whereas metacyclic promastigotes were not bound to columns and could be easily recovered. Optimal chromatography conditions were validated through statistical analyses. Parasite average yield from glass wool columns and promastigote viability were estimated by light microscopy. Metacyclic promastigotes yielded 43.5% to 57.5%. Different patterns of cutaneous lesions were obtained in BALB/c (susceptible and C57BL/6 (resistant mice, the former with highly infective lesions induced by metacyclic promastigotes. DTH responses proved to be higher in groups of C57BL/6 mice which were infected with metacyclic promastigotes. These results indicate that the new method could be integrated with the investigation of metacyclogenesis of Leishmania in vivo.Pouco se conhece sobre os epítopos derivados de promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania que são importantes para a regulação ou destruição do parasita, como alvos de ação imunológica no hospedeiro vertebrado. Neste estudo, nós investigamos um método alternativo para obter promastigotas metacíclicos de Leishmania major, pela avaliação do curso da infecção e reação de hipersensibilidade do tipo retardado (HTR em hospedeiros resistentes e susceptíveis. Promastigotas não-infectantes (procíclicos de L. major, recentemente isolados de amastigotas, foram selecionados pela adesão a colunas de lã de vidro

  11. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  12. Prevention of allergic disease in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    rhinoconjunctivitis. In one prospective observational study of a birth cohort of unselected infants we evaluated possible predictive/risk factors. In two prospective intervention studies including 1 yr birth cohorts of high-risk(HR) infants we investigated the effect of feeding HR infants exclusively breast milk (BM......The development and phenotypic expression of atopic diseases depends on a complex interaction between genetic factors, environmental exposure to allergens,and non-specific adjuvant factors, such as tobacco smoke, air pollution and infections. Preventive measures may include both exposure...... to allergens and adjuvant risk/protective factors and pharmacological treatment. These measures may address the general population, children at risk for development of atopic disease (high-risk infants), children with early symptoms of allergic disease or children with chronic disease. The objective...

  13. Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicated by Nocardiosis

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    Brijesh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 70-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma who presented with increasing breathlessness for 5 months. He was diagnosed to have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA by serological and radiographic criteria. He was treated with steroids and itraconazole. After initial improvement, he developed fever with cough and mucopurulent sputum. X-ray chest revealed multiple cavities with air fluid level. Patient was treated with antibiotics without any response. Sputum was negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB. Sputum culture for bacteria and fungus did not reveal any significant growth; however a delayed growth of Nocardia was noted on fungal plates. Modified Ziehl Nelsen stain was positive for AFB. Patient was treated with cotrimoxazole. We discuss the serological and radiological criteria of ABPA, presentation and treatment of nocardia pulmonary infection and other possible causes of necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised settings.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  16. Lower Expression of TLR2 and SOCS-3 Is Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection and with Lower Risk for Allergic Reactivity in Children Living in a Rural Area in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgers, Franca C.; Obeng, Benedicta B.; Kruize, Yvonne C. M.; Duijvestein, Marjolijn; de Breij, Anna; Amoah, Abena; Larbi, Irene A.; van Ree, Ronald; Wilson, Michael D.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background: Helminth infections are prevalent in rural areas of developing countries and have in some studies been negatively associated with allergic disorders and atopy. In this context little is known of the molecular mechanisms of modulation involved. We have characterized the innate immune

  17. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Treatment of Allergic Respiratory Disease During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazy, Jai; Schatz, M

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy may be complicated by new-onset or preexisting asthma and allergic rhinitis.This article reviews the recognition and management of asthma and allergic rhinitis during pregnancy, paying close attention to the general principles of allergy and use of asthma medication during pregnancy. Both allergic rhinitis and asthma can adversely affect both maternal quality of life and, in the case of maternal asthma, perinatal outcomes. Optimal management is thus important for both mother and baby. This article reviews the safety of asthma and allergy medications commonly used during pregnancy.

  19. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bobby W. S.; Stadhouders, Ralph; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Lukkes, Melanie; Beerens, Dior M. J. M.; Brem, Maarten D.; KleinJan, Alex; Bergen, Ingrid; Vroman, Heleen; Kool, Mirjam; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Hendriks, Rudi W.

    2017-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than previously thought

  20. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby W. S. Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than

  1. Wasp venom is appropriate for immunotherapy of patients with allergic reaction to the European hornet sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter; Silar, Mira; Music, Ema; Erzen, Renato

    2002-02-01

    To identify whether it is the yellow jacket (Vespula germanica) or European hornet (Vespa crabro) venom that induces sensitization in patients with IgE-mediated allergic reaction to the venom from the sting of a European hornet. Since these patients usually have positive skin tests and specific IgE to all vespid venoms, it would be useful to distinguish cross-reactors from non-cross-reactors to perform immunotherapy with the venom that induced the sensitization. We performed inhibition tests in 24 patients who had experienced anaphylactic reaction after being stung by a European hornet. Of 24 patients with allergic reaction after Vespa crabro sting, 17 were sensitized only to epitopes of Vespula germanica venom. Only 4 out of 24 patients were sensitized to epitopes completely cross-reactive with Dolichovespula arenaria venom. In Slovenia, the vast majority of patients with anaphylactic reaction to Vespa crabro sting seem to be sensitized to Vespula germanica venom. We consider wasp venom an appropriate immunotherapeutic agent for such patients, except for those with proven primary sensitization to specific epitopes of Vespa crabro venom. Fluorescence enzyme immunoassay inhibition should be considered a convenient tool for the identification of primary sensitization in patients allergic to vespid venoms.

  2. Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-02-01

    From the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (CRE), several major constituents including the sesquiterpene derivatives (valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide), monoterpenes (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) and 4-cymene were isolated and examined for their anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells, the sesquiterpenes strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed leukotrienes production. In addition, they inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, with valencene having the highest inhibitory effect. CRE inhibited leukotrienes production and β-hexosaminidase release at 300 μg/mL. It was also found that the most active sesquiterpene (valencene) and CRE inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation by inhibiting the initial activation reaction, Lyn phosphorylation, in IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, CRE, valencene and nootkatone significantly inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice when administered orally at 50-300 mg/kg. In conclusion, C. rotundus and its constituents, valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide, exert anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. These sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of C. rotundus.

  3. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2006-07-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported primarily in the Journal in 2005. Although studies documented deficiencies in community management of anaphylaxis, guidelines and National Institutes of Health summary reports provide direction toward improved research and education. At least 9% of young children "outgrow" a tree nut allergy. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include reports of probability of reactions to peanut at various peanut-specific IgE concentrations and skin test response size and the utility of evaluating IgE binding to specific epitopes. Future food allergy treatments might include selection of "less allergenic" fruit cultivars, genetic silencing of major allergens, and treatment of allergic patients with Chinese herbal remedies. Osteopontin might be a useful biomarker for success of venom immunotherapy. Progress in our understanding of the immunology of atopic dermatitis and autoimmune urticaria has also been made. These observations will likely contribute toward optimizing management of these common allergic disorders.

  4. Air Pollution and Allergic Airway Diseases: Social Determinantsand Sustainability in the Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2018-04-01

    Air pollution, global warming and climate change are the major contributing factors in causing the increase prevalence of allergic airway diseases like asthma and allergic rhinitis and they will be the defining issues for health system in the twenty-first century. Asthma is an early onset non-communicable environmental disease with global epidemic and contributes a greatest psycho socio economic burden. Nearly 8 million global deaths are from air pollution. Over one billion population are the sufferers during 2015 and will increase to 4 billion by 2050. Air pollution not only triggers the asthma episodes but also changes the genetic pattern in initiating the disease process. Over the years our concept of management of allergic airway disease has changed from control of symptoms to prevention of the disease. To achieve this we need positive development on clean air policies with standard norms, tracking progress, monitoring and evaluation, partnership and conventions with local and global authorities. We do have challenges to overcome like rapid urbanization, lack of multisectorial policy making, lack of finance for research and development and lack of monitoring exposure to health burden from air pollution. We need to prioritize our strategy by sustainable, safe, human settlement, cities, sustainable energy, industrialization, and research. The measures to be adopted are highlighted in this review article. With effective measures by all stake holders we can reduce air pollution and prevent the global warming by 2030, along with 194 countries as adopted by WHO in May 2015.

  5. Probiotics as Additives on Therapy in Allergic Airway Diseases: A Systematic Review of Benefits and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a systematic review to find out the role of probiotics in treatment of allergic airway diseases.  Methods. A comprehensive search of the major electronic databases was done till March 2013. Trials comparing the effect of probiotics versus placebo were included. A predefined set of outcome measures were assessed. Continuous data were expressed as standardized mean difference with 95% CI. Dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio with 95% CI. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. A total of 12 studies were included. Probiotic intake was associated with a significantly improved quality of life score in patients with allergic rhinitis (SMD −1.9 (95% CI −3.62, −0.19; P = 0.03, though there was a high degree of heterogeneity. No improvement in quality of life score was noted in asthmatics. Probiotic intake also improved the following parameters: longer time free from episodes of asthma and rhinitis and decrease in the number of episodes of rhinitis per year. Adverse events were not significant. Conclusion. As the current evidence was generated from few trials with high degree of heterogeneity, routine use of probiotics as an additive on therapy in subjects with allergic airway diseases cannot be recommended.

  6. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmi Tanaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin-3A (SEMA3A in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS: Experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC mice model induced by short ragweed pollen (SRW in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, immunofluorescence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A (10 U, 100 U, 1000 U eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total IgE levels in EAC mice. Moreover, Treatment of SEMA3A suppressed Th2-related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice. CONCLUSIONS: SEMA3A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future.

  7. Diesel effects in allergic diseases: modulation of chemokines synthesis and development of an in vivo allergic model; Effets du diesel dans les maladies allergiques: modulation de la synthese de chimiokines et developpement d'un modele allergique in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senechal, St.

    2003-09-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent inflammatory reaction, presenting a type 2 cytokines profile (IL-4 and IL-5), and by the presence of eosinophils. The particulate pollution in urban areas comes mainly from diesel engines. Diesel particulates and their associated hydrocarbons, are probably involved in the recent increase of allergic pathologies thanks to their capability to induce a type-2 immune response. In this work, the effect of organic extracts of diesel particulates on the development of a Th2-type inflammatory response are analyzed, in particular by the evaluation of the synthesis modulation of chemokines, molecules known for their attraction capacities with respect to inflammatory cells, and of Th1 or Th2-type lymphocytes. It is shown that the exposure of mono-nucleated cells and alveolar macrophages from people allergic to diesel particulates induces a diminution of IP-10 production (pro-Th1), and in conjunction with the allergen, an increase of MDC (pro-Th2), mediated by the CD28 route. The functional consequence is an increased capability to attract human Th2 clones, non-completely inhibited by an anti-MDC neutralizing Ac, suggesting the participation of some other chemokines. Other analyses have shown that the diesel alone induces an I-309 production (pro-Th2) and that the diesel/allergen combination leads to a production of PARC (pro-Th2) but also of MIG (pro-Th1), the functional result being an attraction of Th2 cells again. In parallel and surprisingly, an increase of the expression of chemokine receptors expressed on Th1 cells has been evidenced, in particular the CXCR3, combined to a loss of its chemo-attractive power. These properties have been linked to a clearance function of the receptors with respect to their ligands. These results suggest that diesel can amplify a type-2 noxious response to allergic patients, firstly by inducing pro-Th2 chemokines, and secondly by facilitating the clearance of pro-Th1

  8. Pharmacokinetics and Differential Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Type 1 Allergic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Tadatoshi; Komada, Akira; Ueda, Koji; Bando, Toru; Nojiri, Yukie; Ueda, Yukari; Sakurai, Eiichi

    2016-12-01

    Type 1 allergic diseases are characterized by elevated production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) for each antigen and have become a significant health problem worldwide. This study investigated the effect of IgE-mediated allergy on drug pharmacokinetics. To further understand differential suppression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) activity, we examined the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide (NO), a marker of allergic conditions. Seven days after primary sensitization (PS7) or secondary sensitization (SS7), hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2C, CYP2E1, and CYP3A activities were decreased to 45%-75% of the corresponding control; however, CYP2D activity was not downregulated. PS7 and SS7 did not change the expression levels of five P450 proteins. Disappearance of CYP1A2 and CYP2D substrates from the plasma was not significantly different between allergic mice and control mice. In contrast, the area under the curve of a CYP1A2-mediated metabolite in PS7 and SS7 mice was reduced by 50% of control values. Total clearances of a CYP2E1 substrate in PS7 and SS7 mice were significantly decreased to 70% and 50% respectively, of the control without altering plasma protein binding. Hepatic amounts of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 substrates were enhanced by allergic induction, being responsible for each downregulated activity. NO scavenger treatment completely improved the downregulated P450 activities. Therefore, our data suggest that the onset of IgE-mediated allergy alters the pharmacokinetics of major P450-metabolic capacity-limited drugs except for CYP2D drugs. NO is highly expected to participate in regulatory mechanisms of the four P450 isoforms. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Systemic Toll-like receptor stimulation suppresses experimental allergic asthma and autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Aumeunier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections may be associated with exacerbation of allergic and autoimmune diseases. Paradoxically, epidemiological and experimental data have shown that some microorganisms can also prevent these pathologies. This observation is at the origin of the hygiene hypothesis according to which the decline of infections in western countries is at the origin of the increased incidence of both Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases and Th2-mediated allergic diseases over the last decades. We have tested whether Toll-like receptor (TLR stimulation can recapitulate the protective effect of infectious agents on allergy and autoimmunity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we performed a systematic study of the disease-modifying effects of a set of natural or synthetic TLR agonists using two experimental models, ovalbumin (OVA-induced asthma and spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, presenting the same genetic background of the non obese diabetic mouse (NOD that is highly susceptible to both pathologies. In the same models, we also investigated the effect of probiotics. Additionally, we examined the effect of the genetic invalidation of MyD88 on the development of allergic asthma and spontaneous diabetes. We demonstrate that multiple TLR agonists prevent from both allergy and autoimmunity when administered parenterally. Probiotics which stimulate TLRs also protect from these two diseases. The physiological relevance of these findings is further suggested by the major acceleration of OVA-induced asthma in MyD88 invalidated mice. Our results strongly indicate that the TLR-mediated effects involve immunoregulatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta and different subsets of regulatory T cells, notably CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells for TLR4 agonists and NKT cells for TLR3 agonists. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations demonstrate that systemic administration of TLR ligands can suppress both allergic and autoimmune responses

  10. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Jo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days followed by intradermal OVA injection. Administration of SHHTE significantly reduced edema formation and inflammatory-cell infiltration in ear tissues. Total and OVA-specific IgEs as well as proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 levels were lower in the SHHTE-treated group than in the vehicle. SHHTE treatment significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in OVA-stimulated splenocytes. SHHTE decreased Th1 (IFN-γ and Th17 (IL-17a cytokine mRNA expression but increased Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1. Moreover, SHHTE significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, SHHTE efficiently inhibited the allergic symptoms in an OVA-sensitized mouse model and its action may correlate with the suppression of IgE production by increasing IL-10 and TGF-β1, which can limit the function of other T helper cells and prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. These results suggest that SHHTE could be a therapeutic agent for treating various allergic diseases.

  11. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Enhances the Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy in Experimental Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Despite recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology, asthma remains a major public health problem and, at present, there are no effective interventions capable of reversing airway remodeling. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC-based therapy mitigates lung inflammation in experimental allergic asthma; however, its ability to reduce airway remodeling is limited. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA potentiates the therapeutic properties of MSCs in experimental allergic asthma. Seventy-two C57BL/6 mice were used. House dust mite (HDM extract was intranasally administered to induce severe allergic asthma in mice. Unstimulated or EPA-stimulated MSCs were administered intratracheally 24 h after final HDM challenge. Lung mechanics, histology, protein levels of biomarkers, and cellularity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, thymus, lymph nodes, and bone marrow were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of EPA on lipid body formation and secretion of resolvin-D1 (RvD1, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin (IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 by MSCs were evaluated in vitro. EPA-stimulated MSCs, compared to unstimulated MSCs, yielded greater therapeutic effects by further reducing bronchoconstriction, alveolar collapse, total cell counts (in BALF, bone marrow, and lymph nodes, and collagen fiber content in airways, while increasing IL-10 levels in BALF and M2 macrophage counts in lungs. In conclusion, EPA potentiated MSC-based therapy in experimental allergic asthma, leading to increased secretion of pro-resolution and anti-inflammatory mediators (RvD1, PGE2, IL-10, and TGF-β, modulation of macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype, and reduction in the remodeling process. Taken together, these modifications may explain the greater improvement in lung mechanics obtained. This may be a promising novel

  12. Early-life antibiotic use and subsequent diagnosis of food allergy and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A G; Pollak, J; Glass, T A; Poulsen, M N; Bailey-Davis, L; Mowery, J; Schwartz, B S

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotic use in early life has been linked to disruptions in the microbiome. Such changes can disturb immune system development. Differences have been observed in the microbiota of children with and without allergies, but there have been few studies on antibiotic use and allergic disease. We evaluated associations of early-life antibiotic use with subsequent occurrence of food allergy and other allergies in childhood using electronic health record data. We used longitudinal data on 30 060 children up to age 7 years from Geisinger Clinic's electronic health record to conduct a sex- and age-matched case-control study to evaluate the association between antibiotic use and milk allergy, non-milk food allergies, and other allergies. For each outcome, we estimated conditional logistic regression models adjusting for race/ethnicity, history of Medical Assistance, and mode of birth delivery. Models were repeated separately for penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides. There were 484 milk allergy cases, 598 non-milk food allergy cases and 3652 other allergy cases. Children with three or more antibiotic orders had a greater odds of milk allergy (Odds Ratio; 95% Confidence interval) (1.78; 1.28-2.48), non-milk food allergy (1.65; 1.27-2.14), and other allergies (3.07; 2.72-3.46) compared with children with no antibiotic orders. Associations were strongest at younger ages and differed by antibiotic class. We observed associations between antibiotic orders and allergic diseases, providing evidence of a potentially modifiable clinical practice associated with paediatric allergic disease. Differences by antibiotic class should be further explored, as this knowledge could inform paediatric treatment decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells: at the cross-roads in allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijt, Leonie; von Richthofen, Helen; van Ree, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways that affects millions of people worldwide. Allergic asthma is a T helper 2 cell (Th2)-mediated disease, in which Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are closely associated with the symptoms. IL-4 is needed by B cells to switch toward an IgE response, IL-5 recruits and activates eosinophils while IL-13 increases mucus production. The identification of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), which are able to rapidly produce large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to epithelial derived cytokines, implicated a new key player besides Th2 cells. ILCs constitute a family of innate lymphocytes distinct from T and B cells. ILC2s are located in various epithelial compartments in mice and human, including the lung. The recent finding of increased numbers of ILC2s in the airways of severe asthma patients prompts further research to clarify their immunological function. Murine studies have shown that ILC2s are an early innate source of IL-5 and IL-13 after allergen exposure, which induce airway eosinophilic infiltration, mucus hyperproduction, and airway hyperresponsiveness but not allergen-specific IgE production. ILC2s contribute to the initiation as well as to the maintenance of the adaptive type 2 immune response. Here, we review the recent progress on our understanding of the role of ILC2s in the immunopathology of allergic asthma, in particular by studies using murine models which have elucidated fundamental mechanisms by which ILC2s act.

  14. Categorization of allergic disorders in the new World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises A; Goldberg, Bruce J; Akdis, Cezmi A; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Demoly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Although efforts to improve the classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases have been made, they have not been considered a top-level category in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 and still are not in the ICD-11 beta phase linearization. ICD-10 is the most used classification system by the allergy community worldwide but it is not considered as appropriate for clinical practice. The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) on the other hand contains a tightly integrated classification of hypersensitivity/allergic disorders based on the EAACI/WAO nomenclature and the World Health Organization (WHO) may plan to align ICD-11 with SNOMED CT so that they share a common ontological basis. With the aim of actively supporting the ongoing ICD-11 revision and the optimal practice of Allergology, we performed a careful comparison of ICD-10 and 11 beta phase linearization codes to identify gaps, areas of regression in allergy coding and possibly reach solutions, in collaboration with committees in charge of the ICD-11 revision. We have found a significant degree of misclassification of terms in the allergy-related hierarchies. This stems not only from unclear definitions of these conditions but also the use of common names that falsely imply allergy. The lack of understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying some of the conditions contributes to the difficulty in classification. More than providing data to support specific changes into the ongoing linearization, these results highlight the need for either a new chapter entitled Hypersensitivity/Allergic Disorders as in SNOMED CT or a high level structure in the Immunology chapter in order to make classification more appropriate and usable.

  15. Intrinsic functional defects of type 2 innate lymphoid cells impair innate allergic inflammation in promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF)-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Philip A; Constantinides, Michael G; McDonald, Benjamin D; Urban, Joseph F; Sperling, Anne I; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-02-01

    The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is transiently expressed during development of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) but is not present at the mature stage. We hypothesized that PLZF-deficient ILC2s have functional defects in the innate allergic response and represent a tool for studying innate immunity in a mouse with a functional adaptive immune response. We determined the consequences of PLZF deficiency on ILC2 function in response to innate and adaptive immune stimuli by using PLZF(-/-) mice and mixed wild-type:PLZF(-/-) bone marrow chimeras. PLZF(-/-) mice, wild-type littermates, or mixed bone marrow chimeras were treated with the protease allergen papain or the cytokines IL-25 and IL-33 or infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis to induce innate type 2 allergic responses. Mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin-alum, followed by intranasal challenge with ovalbumin alone, to induce adaptive TH2 responses. Lungs were analyzed for immune cell subsets, and alveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for ILC2-derived cytokines. In addition, ILC2s were stimulated ex vivo for their capacity to release type 2 cytokines. PLZF-deficient lung ILC2s exhibit a cell-intrinsic defect in the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to innate stimuli, resulting in defective recruitment of eosinophils and goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, the adaptive allergic inflammatory response to ovalbumin and alum was unimpaired. PLZF expression at the innate lymphoid cell precursor stage has a long-range effect on the functional properties of mature ILC2s and highlights the importance of these cells for innate allergic responses in otherwise immunocompetent mice. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy, but not the allergic status, influences spontaneous and induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudruz, Petra; Minang, Jacob Taku; Sundström, Yvonne; Nilsson, Caroline; Lilja, Gunnar; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we investigated how pregnancy influences cytokine production in response to stimulation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic (n = 44) and non-allergic (n = 36) women were collected at three time-points: during the third trimester, at delivery and at a non-pregnant state 2 years after delivery. The production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The spontaneous cytokine production, and the response following stimulation with agents that primarily activate the adaptive part of the immune system [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), allergen extracts from cat and birch], or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that activate innate immunity was measured in vitro. There was a significantly higher spontaneous in vitro production of IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PBMCs during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy, and this was not affected by the allergic status of the women. Conversely, in PHA-stimulated cell cultures there was a lower production of IL-10 and IL-12 during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy. LPS-induced IL-6 levels were significantly lower in PBMCs obtained during pregnancy than at 2 years after pregnancy. In addition, we made the interesting observation that in allergic women total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly lower 2 years after pregnancy compared to the levels during pregnancy. Taken together, our results indicate that while atopic allergy in women does not have a substantial effect on cytokine production, pregnancy has an obvious effect on the immune system in terms of cytokine production as well as on the total IgE levels.

  17. Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiellaro, Marília; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. - Highlights: • Formaldehyde exposure does not cause lung inflammation in pregnant rats. • Formaldehyde exposure suppresses allergic lung inflammation in the offspring. • Formaldehyde exposure induces oxidative stress in uterine environment

  18. Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiellaro, Marília [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Correa-Costa, Matheus [Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva [Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana, E-mail: adrilino@usp.br [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. - Highlights: • Formaldehyde exposure does not cause lung inflammation in pregnant rats. • Formaldehyde exposure suppresses allergic lung inflammation in the offspring. • Formaldehyde exposure induces oxidative stress in uterine environment.

  19. Allergic rhinitis and its associated co-morbidities at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania; A prospective review of 190 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Said A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis is one of the commonest atopic diseases which contribute to significant morbidity world wide while its epidemiology in Tanzania remains sparse. There was paucity of information regarding allergic rhinitis in our setting; therefore it was important to conduct this study to describe our experience on allergic rhinitis, associated co-morbidities and treatment outcome in patients attending Bugando Medical Centre. Methods This was descriptive cross-sectional study involving all patients with a clinical diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at Bugando Medical Centre over a three-month period between June 2011 and August 2011. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical computer software version 17.0. Results A total of 190 patients were studied giving the prevalence of allergic rhinitis 14.7%. The median age of the patients was 8.5 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Adenoid hypertrophy, tonsillitis, hypertrophy of inferior turbinate, nasal polyps, otitis media and sinusitis were the most common co-morbidities affecting 92.6% of cases and were the major reason for attending hospital services. Sleep disturbance was common in children with adenoids hypertrophy (χ2 = 28.691, P = 0.000. Allergic conjunctivitis was found in 51.9%. The most common identified triggers were dust, strong perfume odors and cold weather (P χ2 = 4.583, P = 0.032. In this study family history of allergic rhinitis was not a significant risk factor (P =0.423. The majority of patients (68.8% were treated surgically for allergic rhinitis co morbidities. Post operative complication and mortality rates were 2.9% and 1.6% respectively. The overall median duration of hospital stay of in-patients was 3 days (2 – 28 days. Most patients (98.4% had satisfactory results at discharge. Conclusion The study shows that allergic rhinitis is common in our settings representing 14.7% of all

  20. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  1. Immunizing Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Vaccines aren’t just for kids; adults also need to get immunized. Overall, far too many people 19 years and older aren’t getting the vaccines they need and remain unprotected. In this podcast, Dr. Walter Williams discuss the importance of adults being fully vaccinated.

  2. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  3. CT-semiotics and clinical aspects of extrinsic allergic alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrynnikova, I.P.; Momot, N.V.; Vakulenko, I.P.; Tanasichuk-Gazhieva, N.V

    2003-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be a difficult diagnostic problem. The comparison of the results of CT research with the clinical immunological and morphological data allowed to define the forms and diagnose the characteristic symptoms of the disease

  4. Hyperleukotrieneuria in Patients with Allergic and Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Taniguchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs: leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4 have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and several allergic diseases. LTE4 has been identified as a major metabolite of LTC4, and urinary LTE4 (U-LTE4 is considered as the most reliable analytic parameter for monitoring the endogenous synthesis of CysLTs. From recent studies on the U-LTE4 associated with adult stable asthma we identified four factors for hyperleukotrieneuria, namely, aspirin intolerance, eosinophilic nasal polyposis (ENP, vasculitis, and severe asthma. In ENP, there is prominent infiltration of eosinophils in the sinus and polyp tissues, which is linked to adult asthma and aspirin sensitivity, and ENP is the most important factor for the overproduction of CysLTs in asthmatics. We also demonstrated that anaphylaxis and eosinophilic pneumonia (EP are associated with a marked increase in the U-LTE4 concentration. Under these disease conditions, U-LTE4 may be one of the candidate biomarkers. Moreover, the changes in U-LTE4 concentrations may provide valuable information concerning therapeutic targets.

  5. Impact of diet on the immunological microenvironment of the pregnant uterus and its relationship to allergic disease in the offspring: a review of the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Campelo Batalha Cox Moore

    Full Text Available Medical progress has reduced the mortality from infectious diseases in most countries, but allergic diseases have become more prevalent worldwide over the same period, especially in industrialized countries. This has prompted speculation that modern lifestyles have altered the relationship between heredity and environment so as to promote development of an atopic phenotype when exposure to infection decreases. A healthy uterine microenvironment is known to favor Th2 lymphocyte development. However, some evidence suggests that persistence of the Th2 pattern of immunity directs the developing organism's immune response towards a long-lasting atopic phenotype. Even though the outcome also depends on other factors (such as infection, functional state of the intestinal microflora, and exposure to environmental allergens at times critical to development, it seems that the immune system during the perinatal period is responsive to interventions that are no longer effective in adulthood. We have reviewed the literature accessible through Medline to identify recent advances in the prevention of allergic disease through interventions in the fetal-maternal relationship. Diet seems to have a significant impact on the immunological profile of the pregnant uterus, as well as on the postnatal development of allergic disease in the offspring, as suggested by the effects of probiotic bacteria and by manipulations of the dietary content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. This highlights the need for further studies, in order to define the best intervention methods, the most appropriate time interval and the individuals who will most likely benefit from them.

  6. Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases: Airway diseases and atopic dermatitis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bieber, Thomas; Casale, Thomas B; Jutel, Marek; Ong, Peck Y; Poulsen, Lars K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Seys, Sven F; Agache, Ioana

    2016-05-01

    In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction, and design of disease-modifying strategies. Progress has been made in profiling the type 2 immune response-driven asthma. The endotype driven approach for non-type 2 immune response asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is lagging behind. Validation and qualification of biomarkers are needed to facilitate their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Suppression of allergic reactions in ovalbumin-sensitized mice by yam storage proteins dioscorins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Jhen; Weng, Ching-Feng; Lin, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2013-11-27

    To study the biomedical functions of dioscorins isolated from various species of Dioscorea , we investigated their antiallergic potential using an OVA-induced allergy mouse model. All the dioscorins suppressed allergic reactions by decreasing the serum IgE and histamine levels. The serum IFN-γ and IgG2a levels increased in all the dioscorin-treated mice. The spleen cells from the dioscorin-treated mice also exhibited an up-regulation of IFN-γ secretion in response to ConA stimulation. Although dioscorins did not affect the IgG1 levels, the IL-5 levels decreased to basal levels in mice treated with dioscorins of D. alata or D. japonica and in most of the lymphoid cells of the dioscorin-treated mice in response to ConA stimulation. The decrease of IgE and histamine levels was concomitant with an increase in IFN-γ and IgG2a levels and with a decrease in IL-5 levels, suggesting that dioscorins suppressed the OVA-induced allergic reactions, possibly through modulating an imbalanced Th1/Th2 immune response.

  8. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-jun Ren

    Full Text Available Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect.The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve were examined.Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD or cesarean delivery (CD for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T(Treg cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated.Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes.CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells.

  9. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-jun; Yu, Zhao; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lv, Dan; Hung, Shi; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Liu, Shi-Xi; Zhang, Nan; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect. The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve) were examined. Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD) or cesarean delivery (CD) for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA) to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T(Treg) cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated. Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes. CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells.

  10. IL-18 Does not Increase Allergic Airway Disease in Mice When Produced by BCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniai, L.; Biet, F.; Marquillies, P.; Locht, C.; Pestel, J.; Tonnel, A.-B.; Duez, C.

    2007-01-01

    Whilst BCG inhibits allergic airway responses in murine models, IL-18 has adversary effects depending on its environment. We therefore constructed a BCG strain producing murine IL-18 (BCG-IL-18) and evaluated its efficiency to prevent an asthma-like reaction in mice. BALB/cByJ mice were sensitized (day (D) 1 and D10) by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and primary (D20–22) and secondary (D62, 63) challenged with OVA aerosols. BCG or BCG-IL-18 were intraperitonealy administered 1 hour before each immunization (D1 and D10). BCG-IL-18 and BCG were shown to similarly inhibit the development of AHR, mucus production, eosinophil influx, and local Th2 cytokine production in BAL, both after the primary and secondary challenge. These data show that IL-18 did not increase allergic airway responses in the context of the mycobacterial infection, and suggest that BCG-IL-18 and BCG are able to prevent the development of local Th2 responses and therefore inhibit allergen-induced airway responses even after restimulation. PMID:18299704

  11. A functional CD86 polymorphism associated with asthma and related allergic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Haagerup, Annette; Jensen, Thomas Gryesten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have documented a substantial genetic component in the aetiology of allergic diseases and a number of atopy susceptibility loci have been suggested. One of these loci is 3q21, at which linkage to multiple atopy phenotypes has been reported. This region harbours the CD8......, and specifically the Ile179Val polymorphism, may be a novel aetiological factor in the development of asthma and related allergic disorders....... gene encoding the costimulatory B7.2 protein. The costimulatory system, consisting of receptor proteins, cytokines and associated factors, activates T cells and regulates the immune response upon allergen challenge. METHODS: We sequenced the CD86 gene in patients with atopy from 10 families that showed...... evidence of linkage to 3q21. Identified polymorphisms were analysed in a subsequent family-based association study of two independent Danish samples, respectively comprising 135 and 100 trios of children with atopy and their parents. Functional analysis of the costimulatory effect on cytokine production...

  12. Prevention and treatment of allergic asthma in pregnancy: from conventional drugs to new therapeutical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, Angela P; Bannenberg, Gérard L; Arck, Petra C; Fitzgerald, Justine S; Markert, Udo R

    2011-05-01

    Different conventional anti-asthmatic and anti-allergic drugs are commonly used in pregnancy, including inhaled corticosteroids, long- and short-acting β-agonists, leukotriene modifiers, cromolyn, and theophylline. Alternatively, immunotherapy with allergens before and during pregnancy is accepted as a causal treatment of allergies, but the allergy specifity and severity in combination with a variety of application protocols and procedures cause wide heterogenity of this treatment principle. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic characteristics and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classification of conventional anti-allergic drugs and immunological implications of immunotherapy are summarized in this review, and insights on fetal programming of allergies are introduced. We propose a potential perspective of treatment with anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators, such as lipoxins, resolvins and protectins; these are lipid mediators physiologically generated during the immune response from arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This proposal fits with the recently appreciated approaches to allergy prevention for the newborn child by a balanced maternal nutrition and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of topical THC in DNFB-mediated mouse allergic contact dermatitis independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffal, E; Cron, M; Glodde, N; Tüting, T

    2013-08-01

    ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active constituent of Cannabis sativa, exerts its biological effects in part through the G-protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors, which were initially discovered in brain and spleen tissue, respectively. However, THC also has CB1/2 receptor-independent effects. Because of its immune-inhibitory potential, THC and related cannabinoids are being considered for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Here we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of THC and the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors. We evaluated the impact of topically applied THC on DNFB-mediated allergic contact dermatitis in wild-type and CB1/2 receptor-deficient mice. We performed immunohistochemical analyses for infiltrating immune cells and studied the influence of THC on the interaction between T cells, keratinocytes and myeloid immune cells in vitro. Topical THC application effectively decreased contact allergic ear swelling and myeloid immune cell infiltration not only in wild-type but also in CB1/2 receptor-deficient mice. We found that THC (1) inhibited the production of IFNγ by T cells, (2) decreased the production of CCL2 and of IFNγ-induced CCL8 and CXL10 by epidermal keratinocytes and (3) thereby limited the recruitment of myeloid immune cells in vitro in a CB1/2 receptor-independent manner. Topically applied THC can effectively attenuate contact allergic inflammation by decreasing keratinocyte-derived pro-inflammatory mediators that orchestrate myeloid immune cell infiltration independent of CB1/2 receptors. This has important implications for the future development of strategies to harness cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Anti-allergic role of cholinergic neuronal pathway via α7 nicotinic ACh receptors on mucosal mast cells in a murine food allergy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The prevalence of food allergy (FA has increased in developed countries over the past few decades. However, no effective drug therapies are currently available. Therefore, we investigated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway as a regulatory system to ameliorate disrupted mucosal immune homeostasis in the gut based on the pathophysiological elucidation of mucosal mast cells (MMCs in a murine FA model. BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin received repeated oral ovalbumin for the development of FA. FA mice developed severe allergic diarrhea and exhibited enhanced type 2 helper T (Th2 cell immune responses in both systemic immunity and mucosal immunity, along with MMCs hyperplasia in the colon. MMCs were localized primarily in the strategic position of the mucosal epithelium. Furthermore, the allergic symptoms did not develop in p85α disrupted phosphoinositide-3 kinase-deficient mice that lacked mast cells in the gut. Vagal stimulation by 2-deoxy-D-glucose and drug treatment with nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR agonists (nicotine and α7 nAChR agonist GTS-21 alleviated the allergic symptoms in the FA mice. Nicotine treatment suppressed MMCs hyperplasia, enhanced MPO and upregulated mRNA expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the FA mice colon. MMCs, which are negatively regulated by α7 nAChRs, were often located in close proximity to cholinergic CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the FA mice colon. The present results reveal that the cholinergic neuroimmune interaction via α7 nAChRs on MMCs is largely involved in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis and can be a target for a new therapy against mucosal immune diseases with homeostatic disturbances such as FA.

  15. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented.

  17. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  18. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  19. Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Pregnancy: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pali-Sch?ll, Isabella; Motala, Cassim; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Asthma and allergic disorders can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy itself may also affect the course of asthma and related diseases. Optimal management of these disorders during pregnancy is vital to ensure the welfare of the mother and the baby. Specific pharmacological agents for treatment of asthma or allergic diseases must be cautiously selected and are discussed here with respect to safety considerations in pregnancy. Although most drugs do not harm the fetus, this k...

  20. The R213G polymorphism in SOD3 protects against allergic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaurav, Rohit; Varasteh, Jason T; Weaver, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    ) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and reduced type II innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in lungs. SOD mimetic (Mn (III) tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin) attenuated Alternaria-induced expression of IL-33 and IL-8 release in BEAS-2B cells. These results suggest that R213G SNP potentially benefits its carriers...... by resulting in high EC-SOD in airway-lining fluid, which ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by dampening the innate immune response, including IL-33/ST2-mediated changes in ILC2s....

  1. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  2. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ying Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very few studies investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis patients using heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Methods. Eleven patients with allergic rhinitis and 13 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 40 years old, were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on clinical history, symptoms, and positive Phadiatop test. Electrocardiographic recordings on the sitting and supine positions were obtained for HRV analysis. Results. In the supine position, there were no significant statistical differences in very-low-frequency power (VLF, ≤0.04 Hz, low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz, high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz, and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF between the patient and control groups. The mean RR intervals significantly increased, while LF% and LF/HF significantly decreased in the patient group in the sitting position. Moreover, mean RR intervals, LF, and LF/HF, which were significantly different between the two positions in the control group, did not show a significant change with the posture change in the patient group. Conclusion. These suggest that patients with allergic rhinitis may have poor sympathetic modulation in the sitting position. Autonomic dysfunction may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis.

  3. Phthalate exposure through different pathways and allergic sensitization in preschool children with asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Callesen, Michael; Weschler, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in rodents indicate that phthalates can function as adjuvants, increasing the potency of allergens. Meanwhile, epidemiological studies have produced inconsistent findings regarding relationships between phthalate exposures and allergic disease in humans. The present study examined phthala...

  4. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture and Their Relevance to Allergic Rhinitis: A Narrative Review and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McDonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical literature indicates that acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat numerous inflammatory conditions, including allergic rhinitis. Recent research has examined some of the mechanisms underpinning acupuncture's anti-inflammatory effects which include mediation by sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis has been reported to mediate the antioedema effects of acupuncture, but not antihyperalgesic actions during inflammation. Other reported anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture include an antihistamine action and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, proinflammatory neuropeptides (such as SP, CGRP, and VIP, and neurotrophins (such as NGF and BDNF which can enhance and prolong inflammatory response. Acupuncture has been reported to suppress the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and iNOS during experimentally induced inflammation. Downregulation of the expression and sensitivity of the transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1 after acupuncture has been reported. In summary, acupuncture may exert anti-inflammatory effects through a complex neuro-endocrino-immunological network of actions. Many of these generic anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture are of direct relevance to allergic rhinitis; however, more research is needed to elucidate specifically how immune mechanisms might be modulated by acupuncture in allergic rhinitis, and to this end a proposed model is offered to guide further research.

  6. Impact of lactic Acid bacteria on dendritic cells from allergic patients in an experimental model of intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Céline; Duez, Catherine; Grangette, Corinne; Pochard, Pierre; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2007-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram positive nonpathogenic commensal organisms present in human gastrointestinal tract. In vivo, LAB are separated from antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC) by the intestinal epithelial barrier. In this study, the impact of one LAB strain (Lactobacillus casei ATCC393) on human monocyte-derived DC from allergic and healthy donors was assessed by using a polarized epithelium model. Confocal and flow cytometer analyses showed that immature DC efficiently captured FITC-labelled L. casei through the epithelial layer. After interaction with L. casei, DC acquired a partial maturation status (i.e., CD86 and CD54 increase) and increased their interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 production. Interestingly, after activation by L. casei in the presence of experimental epithelium, DC from allergic patients instructed autologous naïve CD4(+) T cells to produce more interferon-gamma than without the epithelium. Thus by modulating human DC reactivity, LAB and intestinal epithelium might modify T cell immune response and regulate the development of allergic reaction.

  7. Impact of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Dendritic Cells from Allergic Patients in an Experimental Model of Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Ratajczak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram positive nonpathogenic commensal organisms present in human gastrointestinal tract. In vivo, LAB are separated from antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC by the intestinal epithelial barrier. In this study, the impact of one LAB strain (Lactobacillus casei ATCC393 on human monocyte-derived DC from allergic and healthy donors was assessed by using a polarized epithelium model. Confocal and flow cytometer analyses showed that immature DC efficiently captured FITC-labelled L. casei through the epithelial layer. After interaction with L. casei, DC acquired a partial maturation status (i.e., CD86 and CD54 increase and increased their interleukin (IL-10 and IL-12 production. Interestingly, after activation by L. casei in the presence of experimental epithelium, DC from allergic patients instructed autologous naïve CD4+ T cells to produce more interferon-γ than without the epithelium. Thus by modulating human DC reactivity, LAB and intestinal epithelium might modify T cell immune response and regulate the development of allergic reaction.

  8. Memory and multitasking performance during acute allergic inflammation in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikojat, K; Buske-Kirschbaum, A; Plessow, F; Schmitt, J; Fischer, R

    2017-04-01

    In previous research, patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) showed poorer school and work performance during periods of acute allergic inflammation, supporting the idea of an impact of SAR on cognitive functions. However, the specific cognitive domains particularly vulnerable to inflammatory processes are unclear. In this study, the influence of SAR on memory and multitasking performance, as two potentially vulnerable cognitive domains essential in everyday life functioning, was investigated in patients with SAR. Non-medicated patients with SAR (n = 41) and healthy non-allergic controls (n = 42) performed a dual-task paradigm and a verbal learning and memory test during and out of symptomatic allergy periods (pollen vs. non-pollen season). Disease-related factors (e.g. symptom severity, duration of symptoms, duration of disease) and allergy-related quality of life were evaluated as potential influences of cognitive performance. During the symptomatic allergy period, patients showed (1) poorer performance in word list-based learning (P = 0.028) and (2) a general slowing in processing speed (P multitasking. Yet, typical parameters indicating specific multitasking costs were not affected. A significant negative association was found between learning performance and duration of disease (r = -0.451, P = 0.004), whereas symptom severity (r = 0.326; P = 0.037) and quality of life (r = 0.379; P = 0.015) were positively associated with multitasking strategy. Our findings suggest that SAR has a differentiated and complex impact on cognitive functions, which should be considered in the management of SAR symptoms. They also call attention to the importance of selecting sensitive measures and carefully interpreting cognitive outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  10. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  11. Allergic fungal sinusitis: clinico-pathological aspects. Findings on CT and MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Bueno, A.; Conde, M. A.; Trigo, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) represents the most recently described form of chronic sinusitis caused by fungi. It occurs in affects teenagers and young adults with atopic antecedents. This disease is a non-invasive chronic sinusitis, fungus acts as the allergen, causing a host immune response, mediated by type I and III reactions. Typically, several paranasal sinuses are usually involved with unilateral predominance. Most common clinical findings are headache, different grades of nasal obstruction and proptosis. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for this entity, including imaging findings obtained with computed tomography (CT). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings together have recently been postulated as practically pathognomonic. Treatment and prognosis of this entity, different from other types of fungal sinusitis, makes important to achieve a correct diagnosis. On this task, imaging studies as CT and MR play an important role. (Author) 23 refs

  12. Biosignature for airway inflammation in a house dust mite-challenged murine model of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeesha Piyadasa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available House dust mite (HDM challenge is commonly used in murine models of allergic asthma for preclinical pathophysiological studies. However, few studies define objective readouts or biomarkers in this model. In this study we characterized immune responses and defined molecular markers that are specifically altered after HDM challenge. In this murine model, we used repeated HDM challenge for two weeks which induced hallmarks of allergic asthma seen in humans, including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR and elevated levels of circulating total and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1. Kinetic studies showed that at least 24 h after last HDM challenge results in significant AHR along with eosinophil infiltration in the lungs. Histologic assessment of lung revealed increased epithelial thickness and goblet cell hyperplasia, in the absence of airway wall collagen deposition, suggesting ongoing tissue repair concomitant with acute allergic lung inflammation. Thus, this model may be suitable to delineate airway inflammation processes that precede airway remodeling and development of fixed airway obstruction. We observed that a panel of cytokines e.g. IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, KC, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-33, MDC and TARC were elevated in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar fluid, indicating local lung inflammation. However, levels of these cytokines remained unchanged in serum, reflecting lack of systemic inflammation in this model. Based on these findings, we further monitored the expression of 84 selected genes in lung tissues by quantitative real-time PCR array, and identified 31 mRNAs that were significantly up-regulated in lung tissue from HDM-challenged mice. These included genes associated with human asthma (e.g. clca3, ear11, il-13, il-13ra2, il-10, il-21, arg1 and chia1 and leukocyte recruitment in the lungs (e.g. ccl11, ccl12 and ccl24. This study describes a biosignature to enable broad and systematic interrogation of molecular mechanisms and intervention

  13. Immunization of Epidemics in Multiplex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks. PMID:25401755

  14. Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks.

  15. Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Zhao

    Full Text Available Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted immunization and layer node-based random (targeted immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF networks.

  16. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  17. Spirochetal Lipoproteins and Immune Evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, Alexei; Boyadjian, Ani; Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment. PMID:28424696

  18. The role of heparanase in pulmonary cell recruitment in response to an allergic but not non-allergic stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morris

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix. Expression of this enzyme is increased in several pathological conditions including inflammation. We have investigated the role of heparanase in pulmonary inflammation in the context of allergic and non-allergic pulmonary cell recruitment using heparanase knockout (Hpa-/- mice as a model. Following local delivery of LPS or zymosan, no significant difference was found in the recruitment of neutrophils to the lung between Hpa-/- and wild type (WT control. Similarly neutrophil recruitment was not inhibited in WT mice treated with a heparanase inhibitor. However, in allergic inflammatory models, Hpa-/- mice displayed a significantly reduced eosinophil (but not neutrophil recruitment to the airways and this was also associated with a reduction in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, indicating that heparanase expression is associated with allergic reactions. This was further demonstrated by pharmacological treatment with a heparanase inhibitor in the WT allergic mice. Examination of lung specimens from patients with different severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD found increased heparanase expression. Thus, it is established that heparanase contributes to allergen-induced eosinophil recruitment to the lung and could provide a novel therapeutic target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to turmeric in kumkum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendranath Lal M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty-three year old house-wife developed dermatitis over the center of forehead following application of kumkum, bindi and sticker (except one brand since six months. Patch testing with various brands of kumkum and regularly available sticker used by the patient elicited positive reaction except one brand used by the patient. Kumkum is made by mixing turmeric (Curcuma longa powder with small amount of lime (calcium hydroxide. She was patch tested with turmeric, to which she developed positive reaction. Subsequently she was patch tested with turmeric powder boiled and air-dried and also the acetone-extract and precipitate of the powder. She tested positive to all the extracts and precipitates, but the turmeric powder which was dried by boiling did not elicit positive reaction. She was advised to use boiled and dried turmeric to make kumkum for use. However, the kumkum powder prepared following boiling had lost its adhesive property and hence was unacceptable. She was offered Castellani′s paint and eosin with starch for application. Both were acceptable for 2 months, but she subsequently developed irritant reaction to the paint with starch. She continues to use the non-allergic sticker (Kanchan sticker kumkum while we are trying to find other alternatives to kumkum.

  20. Dysregulated Th1 and Th2 responses in food-allergic children--does elimination diet contribute to the dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicić, Sara; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås

    2010-06-01

    Infants with eczema and sensitization to foods are recommended skin care and, if food allergy is proven, an elimination diet. Although most of these children tolerate foods before 3 yr of age, some children experience prolonged food allergy. To our knowledge, no prospective study has investigated the cytokine profile in food-sensitized eczematous children with prolonged food intolerance. The aim of the study was to prospectively investigate the development of cytokine production induced by food allergen in food-sensitized eczematous children who, at 4(1/2) yr of age, were allergic or tolerant to egg or milk. Twenty-one eczematous infants, [age 5 (3-10) months; median and range], sensitized to egg and/or milk were included, put on elimination diet and followed prospectively. At 4(1/2) yr of age, the children were defined as tolerant or allergic to egg and/or milk based on open or double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the children on inclusion, after 6 wk of elimination diet, and at 3 and 4(1/2) yr of age. Ovalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and tetanus toxoid-induced IL-4, -5, -10, -13 and IFN-gamma production from PBMC were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The IFN-gamma and IL-5 secretion induced by food allergen at 4(1/2) yr was higher in cell cultures from children who were allergic to egg or milk than in tolerant children. In food-allergic children, the levels of IFN-gamma and IL-5 were higher at 4(1/2) yr compared with inclusion levels, but this increase was generally not observed in the tolerant children who consumed milk and egg. In conclusion, immune cells from food-allergic children on an elimination diet respond with up-regulated T helper 1 and T helper 2 cytokine secretion induced by food allergen. We hypothesize that allergen elimination may influence the regulatory mechanisms maintaining balanced immune responses to innocuous food antigens.

  1. Components of Streptococcus pneumoniae suppress allergic airways disease and NKT cells by inducing regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Alison N; Foster, Paul S; Gibson, Peter G; Hansbro, Philip M

    2012-05-01

    Asthma is an allergic airways disease (AAD) caused by dysregulated immune responses and characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). NKT cells have been shown to contribute to AHR in some mouse models. Conversely, regulatory T cells (Tregs) control aberrant immune responses and maintain homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae induces Tregs that have potential to be harnessed therapeutically for asthma. In this study, mouse models of AAD were used to identify the S. pneumoniae components that have suppressive properties, and the mechanisms underlying suppression were investigated. We tested the suppressive capacity of type-3-polysaccharide (T3P), isolated cell walls, pneumolysoid (Ply) and CpG. When coadministered, T3P + Ply suppressed the development of: eosinophilic inflammation, Th2 cytokine release, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. Importantly, T3P + Ply also attenuated features of AAD when administered during established disease. We show that NKT cells contributed to the development of AAD and also were suppressed by T3P + Ply treatment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NKT cells induced AHR, which also could be reversed by T3P + Ply. T3P + Ply-induced Tregs were essential for the suppression of NKT cells and AAD, which was demonstrated by Treg depletion. Collectively, our results show that the S. pneumoniae components T3P + Ply suppress AAD through the induction of Tregs that blocked the activity of NKT cells. These data suggest that S. pneumoniae components may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of allergic asthma through the induction of Tregs and suppression of NKT cells.

  2. Interaction effects of dietary supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and β-glucan on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-07-01

    Both heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) and β-glucan (BG) play important roles in growth performance, feed utilization and health status of fish. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary HK-LP and BG on growth performance, digestibility, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between HK-LP and BG on final body weight, total plasma protein, glucose, serum bactericidal activity (BA), total serum protein, serum alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity, protein and dry matter digestibility coefficients (P 0.05). Interestingly, fish fed with both HK-LP at (0.025 and 0.1%) in combination with BG at (0 and 0.1%) showed higher oxidative stress resistance. Under the experimental conditions, dietary HK-LP and BG had a significant interaction on enhancing the growth, digestibility and immune responses of red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacological study of anti-allergic activity of Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrtaceae is a plant family widely used in folk medicine and Syzygium and Eugenia are among the most important genera. We investigated the anti-allergic properties of an aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (SC. HPLC analysis revealed that hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids are the major components of the extract. Oral administration of SC (25-100 mg/kg in Swiss mice (20-25 g; N = 7/group inhibited paw edema induced by compound 48/80 (50% inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P <= 0.05 and, to a lesser extent, the allergic paw edema (23% inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P <= 0.05. SC treatment also inhibited the edema induced by histamine (58% inhibition; P <= 0.05 and 5-HT (52% inhibition; P <= 0.05 but had no effect on platelet-aggregating factor-induced paw edema. SC prevented mast cell degranulation and the consequent histamine release in Wistar rat (180-200 g; N = 7/group peritoneal mast cells (50% inhibition, 1 µg/mL; P <= 0.05 induced by compound 48/80. Pre-treatment of BALB/c mice (18-20 g; N = 7/group with 100 mg/kg of the extract significantly inhibited eosinophil accumulation in allergic pleurisy (from 7.662 ± 1.524 to 1.89 ± 0.336 x 10(6/cavity; P <= 0.001. This effect was related to the inhibition of IL-5 (from 70.9 ± 25.2 to 12.05 ± 7.165 pg/mL and CCL11/eotaxin levels (from 60.4 ± 8.54 to 32.8 ± 8.4 ng/mL in pleural lavage fluid, using ELISA. These findings demonstrate an anti-allergic effect of SC, and indicate that its anti-edematogenic effect is due to the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and of histamine and serotonin effects, whereas the inhibition of eosinophil accumulation in the allergic pleurisy model is probably due to an impairment of CCL11/eotaxin and IL-5 production.

  4. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations For Preterm Babies Safety & ...

  5. Weakened Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Weakened Immune Systems Safety & Prevention ...

  6. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  7. Anti-Allergic Inflammatory Activity of Interleukin-37 Is Mediated by Novel Signaling Cascades in Human Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available IL-1 family regulatory cytokine IL-37b can suppress innate immunity and inflammatory activity in inflammatory diseases. In this study, IL-37b showed remarkable in vitro suppression of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL8 production in the coculture of human primary eosinophils and human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells with the stimulation of bacterial toll-like receptor-2 ligand peptidoglycan, while antagonizing the activation of intracellular nuclear factor-κB, PI3K–Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and suppressing the gene transcription of allergic inflammation-related PYCARD, S100A9, and CAMP as demonstrated by flow cytometry, RNA-sequencing, and bioinformatics. Results therefore elucidated the novel anti-inflammation-related molecular mechanisms mediated by IL-37b. Using the house dust mite (HDM-induced humanized asthmatic NOD/SCID mice for preclinical study, intravenous administration of IL-37b restored the normal plasma levels of eosinophil activators CCL11 and IL-5, suppressed the elevated concentrations of Th2 and asthma-related cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-13 and inflammatory IL-17, CCL5, and CCL11 in lung homogenate of asthmatic mice. Histopathological results of lung tissue illustrated that IL-37b could mitigate the enhanced mucus, eosinophil infiltration, thickened airway wall, and goblet cells. Together with similar findings using the ovalbumin- and HDM-induced allergic asthmatic mice further validated the therapeutic potential of IL-37b in allergic asthma. The above results illustrate the novel IL-37-mediated regulation of intracellular inflammation mechanism linking bacterial infection and the activation of human eosinophils and confirm the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of IL-37b on human allergic asthma.

  8. Allergic reaction induced by dermal and/or respiratory exposure to low-dose phenoxyacetic acid, organophosphorus, and carbamate pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Shutoh, Yasufumi; Harada, Takanori; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Several types of pesticides, such as organophosphates, phenoxyacetic acid, and carbamate have a high risk of affecting human health, causing allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma-like diseases. We used our long-term sensitization method and a local lymph node assay to examine the allergic reactions caused by several types of pesticides. BALB/c mice were topically sensitized (9 times in 3 weeks), then challenged dermally or intratracheally with 2,4-D, BRP, or furathiocarb. One day post-challenge, the mice were processed to obtain biologic materials for use in assays of total IgE levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); differential cell counts and chemokine levels in BALF; lymphocyte counts and surface antigen expression on B-cells within regional lymph nodes (LNs); and, ex situ cytokine production by cells from these LNs. 2,4-D-induced immune responses characteristic of immediate-type respiratory reactions, as evidenced by increased total IgE levels in both serum and BALF; an influx of eosinophils, neutrophils, and chemokines (MCP-1, eotaxin, and MIP-1β) in BALF; increased surface antigen expression on B-cells IgE and MHC class II production) in both auricular and the lung-associated LNs; and increased Th2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13) in both auricular and the lung-associated LN cells. In contrast, BRP and furathiocarb treatment yielded, at most, non-significant increases in all respiratory allergic parameters. BRP and furathiocarb induced marked proliferation of MHC Class II-positive B-cells and Th1 cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) in only auricular LN cells. These results suggest that 2,4-D is a respiratory allergen and BRP and furathiocarb are contact allergens. As our protocol detected classified allergic responses to low-molecular-weight chemicals, it thus may be useful for detecting environmental chemical-related allergy.

  9. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Zaki, Amirah Mohd; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety – median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress – median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5)control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis(p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety.

  10. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Mohd Zaki, Amirah; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-02-07

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety - median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress - median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5) control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis (p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Early life innate immune signatures of persistent food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Melanie R; Koplin, Jennifer J; Dang, Thanh D; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L; Prescott, Susan L; Saffery, Richard; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-11-14

    Food allergy naturally resolves in a proportion of food-allergic children without intervention; however the underlying mechanisms governing the persistence or resolution of food allergy in childhood are not understood. This study aimed to define the innate immune profiles associated with egg allergy at age 1 year, determine the phenotypic changes that occur with the development of natural tolerance in childhood, and explore the relationship between early life innate immune function and serum vitamin D. This study used longitudinally collected PBMC samples from a population-based cohort of challenge-confirmed egg-allergic infants with either persistent or transient egg allergy outcomes in childhood to phenotype and quantify the functional innate immune response associated with clinical phenotypes of egg allergy. We show that infants with persistent egg allergy exhibit a unique innate immune signature, characterized by increased numbers of circulating monocytes and dendritic cells that produce more inflammatory cytokines both at baseline and following endotoxin exposure when compared with infants with transient egg allergy. Follow-up analysis revealed that this unique innate immune signature continues into childhood in those with persistent egg allergy and that increased serum vitamin D levels correlate with changes in innate immune profiles observed in children who developed natural tolerance to egg. Early life innate immune dysfunction may represent a key immunological driver and predictor of persistent food allergy in childhood. Serum vitamin D may play an immune-modulatory role in the development of natural tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peculiarities of changes in indices of immunological reactivity in experimental allergic alveolitis under adrenalin myocardial injury and their correction with thiotriazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Pyndus

    2015-10-01

      Abstract Allergic diseases cover more than 20% of people living on the earth, among who exogenous allergic alveolitis (AA occupies a prominent place. However, the frequency of this disease increases and there is a number of complications with not only medical but also socio-economic values. Today the question remains to be not studied that concerns changes of selected indicators of clinical and humoral immunity in the blood for experimental allergic alveoli (EAA and adrenaline myocardial injury (AMI and the possibility of their correction with antioxidants. The goal of study was to elucidate peculiarities of changes of immunological reactivity in the EAA in terms of AMI and set the effect of  thiotriazoline on them. The study of individual markers of cellular and humoral immunity showed a malfunction of the immune system in the formation of EAA and AMI and set monocristalline the effect of thiotriazolin on the level of T and B-lymphocytes and  CIC in blood.   Key words: experimental allergic alveolitis, adrenaline myocardial injury, thiotriazolin. Ключові слова: експериментальний алергічний альвеоліт, адреналінове пошкодження міокарда, тіотриазолін.

  13. Genetics of allergy and allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sparks, Rachel; Waage, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    information about shared genetics between allergy, related phenotypes and autoimmunity. Studies of monogenic diseases have elucidated critical cellular pathways and protein functions responsible for allergy. These complementary approaches imply genetic mechanisms involved in Th2 immunity, T......Our understanding of the specific genetic lesions in allergy has improved in recent years due to identification of common risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and studies of rare, monogenic diseases. Large-scale GWAS have identified novel susceptibility loci and provided...

  14. March1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Modulates Features of Allergic Asthma in an Ovalbumin-Induced Mouse Model of Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Kishta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-associated RING-CH-1 (March1 is a member of the March family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. March1 downregulates cell surface expression of MHC II and CD86 by targeting them to lysosomal degradation. Given the key roles of MHC class II and CD86 in T cell activation and to get further insights into the development of allergic inflammation, we asked whether March1 deficiency exacerbates or attenuates features of allergic asthma in mice. Herein, we used an acute model of allergy to compare the asthmatic phenotype of March1-deficient and -sufficient mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA and later challenged by intranasal instillation of OVA in the lungs. We found that eosinophilic inflammation in airways and lung tissue was similar between WT and March1−/− allergic mice, whereas neutrophilic inflammation was significant only in March1−/− mice. Airway hyperresponsiveness as well as levels of IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-6, and IL-10 was lower in the lungs of asthmatic March1−/− mice compared to WT, whereas lung levels of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were not significantly different. Interestingly, in the serum, levels of total and ova-specific IgE were reduced in March1-deficient mice as compared to WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role of March1 E3 ubiquitin ligase in modulating allergic responses.

  15. Chest radiographic staging in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: relationship with immunological findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, J L

    2012-02-03

    The question of whether a chest radiographic severity staging system could be correlated with standard blood\\/serum diagnostic indices in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) was addressed in 41 patients. Asthma and positive Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) serology were considered essential diagnostic inclusion criteria. Eosinophil count, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and immediate skin hypersensitivity were also tested to grade patients as "definite" or "likely" ABPA. Definite cases had all five of these factors present, whereas likely cases had three or more. Chest radiographs were examined by experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical data. The six-stage radiographic score (0-5) was based on the severity and duration of changes seen: stage 0: normal; stage 1: transient hyperinflation; stage 2: transient minor changes; stage 3: transient major changes; stage 4: permanent minor changes; and stage 5: permanent major changes. Significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were observed between peak AF titres (expressed as an index), peak eosinophil count and radiographic severity stage. When considered as subgroups, these correlations approached, but did not reach, significance for the group with "likely" ABPA (n=28), but in the group with definite ABPA (n=13), there was a high correlation between radiographic score and peak AF index (r=0.59), as well as peak eosinophil count (r=0.62). This study suggests that the peak Aspergillus fumigatus index and eosinophil counts correlate best with the severity of radiographic stages in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This chest radiographic staging system may be useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, particularly in those patients with more severe radiographic stages.

  16. Human CD4+ T cell responses to the dog major allergen Can f 1 and its human homologue tear lipocalin resemble each other.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino L K Liukko

    Full Text Available Lipocalin allergens form a notable group of proteins, as they contain most of the significant respiratory allergens from mammals. The basis for the allergenic capacity of allergens in the lipocalin family, that is, the development of T-helper type 2 immunity against them, is still unresolved. As immunogenicity has been proposed to be a decisive feature of allergens, the purpose of this work was to examine human CD4+ T cell responses to the major dog allergen Can f 1 and to compare them with those to its human homologue, tear lipocalin (TL. For this, specific T cell lines were induced in vitro from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Can f 1-allergic and healthy dog dust-exposed subjects with peptides containing the immunodominant T cell epitopes of Can f 1 and the corresponding TL peptides. We found that the frequency of Can f 1 and TL-specific T cells in both subject groups was low and close to each other, the difference being about two-fold. Importantly, we found that the proliferative responses of both Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines from allergic subjects were stronger than those from healthy subjects, but that the strength of the responses within the subject groups did not differ between these two antigens. Moreover, the phenotype of the Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines, determined by cytokine production and expression of cell surface markers, resembled each other. The HLA system appeared to have a minimal role in explaining the allergenicity of Can f 1, as the allergic and healthy subjects' HLA background did not differ, and HLA binding was very similar between Can f 1 and TL peptides. Along with existing data on lipocalin allergens, we conclude that strong antigenicity is not decisive for the allergenicity of Can f 1.

  17. Myeloid differentiation-2 is a potential biomarker for the amplification process of allergic airway sensitization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Koyama

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest MD-2 is a critical regulator of the establishment of allergic airway sensitization to HDM in mice. Serum MD-2 may represent a potential biomarker for the amplification of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation.

  18. Single systemic administration of Ag85B of mycobacteria DNA inhibits allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamatsu K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Katsuo Karamatsu,1,2 Kazuhiro Matsuo,3 Hiroyasu Inada,4 Yusuke Tsujimura,1 Yumiko Shiogama,1,2 Akihiro Matsubara,1,2 Mitsuo Kawano,5 Yasuhiro Yasutomi1,21Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Vaccine Research, Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Tsukuba, 2Division of Immunoregulation, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, 3Department of Research and Development, Japan BCG Laboratory, Tokyo, 4Department of Pathology, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 5Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, JapanAbstract: The immune responses of T-helper (Th and T-regulatory cells are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation observed in asthma. The correction of immune response by these cells should be considered in the prevention and treatment of asthma. Native antigen 85B (Ag85B of mycobacteria, which cross-reacts among mycobacteria species, may play an important biological role in host–pathogen interaction since it elicits various immune responses by activation of Th cells. The current study investigated the antiallergic inflammatory effects of DNA administration of Ag85B from Mycobacterium kansasii in a mouse model of asthma. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alum-adsorbed ovalbumin followed by aspiration with aerosolized ovalbumin resulted in the development of allergic airway inflammation. Administration of Ag85B DNA before the aerosolized ovalbumin challenge protected the mice from subsequent induction of allergic airway inflammation. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage immunoglobulin E levels, extent of eosinophil infiltration, and levels of Th2-type cytokines in Ag85B DNA-administered mice were significantly lower than those in control plasmid-immunized mice, and levels of Th1- and T-regulatory-type cytokines were enhanced by Ag85B

  19. Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Milton M; Nguyen, Andrew L; Bielory, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and dry eye syndrome (DES) are 2 of the most common anterior inflammatory disorders of the ocular surface and one does not preclude the coexistence of the other. To examine the potential overlap between AC and DES as comorbidities. Using the validated questionnaire known as Subjective Evaluation of Symptom of Dryness, we studied self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness. In an outpatient optometric setting, 689 patients treated from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2011, were surveyed for their ocular history and categorized according to their reported level of discomfort of itchiness, dryness, and redness. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 90 years (median age, 25 years; 39.5% male; 60.5% female). In the studied 689 patients, clinically significant itchiness was found in 194 (28.2%), dry eyes in 247 (35.8%), and redness in 194 (28.2%). Symptom overlap was demonstrated in many of the patients. Of the 194 patients with itchiness, 112 (57.7%) had clinically significant dryness. In the 247 patients with dry eyes, 112 (45.3%) had clinically significant itch. Redness was apparent in 120 of the 194 patients with itch (61.9%) and 122 of the 247 patients with dryness (49.4%). Statistical analysis demonstrated that self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness were not independent of each other (Peyes" also experiencing dry eyes were 2.11 times and the odds of these patients also experiencing redness were 7.34 times that of patients with nonitchy eyes. Most patients with "itchy eyes" consistent with AC also have dry eyes and redness. These results suggest that some symptomatic patients concomitantly have features of AC and DES. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Student pharmacists' perceptions of immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Kara; McBane, Sarah; Hirsch, Jan D; Lorentz, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore changes in knowledge level, perceived importance and apprehension of immunizations by first year pharmacy students pre- vs. post-immunization education and training. First year pharmacy students at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UC San Diego SSPPS) completed a pre- and post-immunization training course questionnaire. Knowledge base and perceived importance level of immunizations including hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal and human papilloma virus (HPV) were assessed. In addition, apprehension of needle administration and fears regarding safety and efficacy were evaluated. Of 120 students, 85 (71%) completed pre- and post-course questionnaires for this study. Mean knowledge test scores increased from 56% pre-course to 83% post-course. Pre-course, 73% of participants considered immunizations as very important in preventing future disease outbreaks. Post-course, this percentage climbed to 94%. Prior to taking the course, 52% of students were apprehensive about administering injections; however, after completing the course this percentage declined to 33%. The majority of students who had been fearful prior to the course retained their fears of receiving needle injections. The proportion of students believing immunizations should be a personal choice, not mandatory, did not significantly change from pre-course (49%) to post-course (44%). The UC San Diego SSPPS immunization course increased student knowledge of immunization facts and the perceived importance of immunizations. However, a substantial portion of students retained apprehension about administering and receiving needle injections and the proportion believing immunizations should be a personal choice, almost half, did not change appreciably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Allergic Inflammation Leads to Neuropathic Pain via Glial Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Ryo; Fujii, Takayuki; Wang, Bing; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Kido, Mizuho A; Yoshida, Mari; Matsushita, Takuya; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-23

    Allergic and atopic disorders have increased over the past few decades and have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and asthmatic amyotrophy. Myelitis presenting with neuropathic pain can occur in patients with atopic disorder; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and the underlying mechanism, remains to be established. We studied whether allergic inflammation affects the spinal nociceptive system. We found that mice with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or atopic diathesis had widespread and significantly more activated microglia and astroglia in the spinal cord than those without atopy, and displayed tactile allodynia. Microarray analysis of isolated microglia revealed a dysregulated phenotype showing upregulation of M1 macrophage markers and downregulation of M2 markers in atopic mice. Among the cell surface protein genes, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) was most upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that EDNRB expression was enhanced in microglia and astroglia, whereas endothelin-1, an EDNRB ligand, was increased in serum, lungs, and epidermis of atopic mice. No EDNRA expression was found in the spinal cord. Expression of FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B was significantly higher in the dorsal horn neurons of asthma mice than nonatopic mice. The EDNRB antagonist BQ788 abolished glial and neural activation and allodynia. We found increased serum endothelin-1 in atopic patients with myelitis and neuropathic pain, and activation of spinal microglia and astroglia with EDNRB upregulation in an autopsied case. These results suggest that allergic inflammation induces diffuse glial activation, influencing the nociceptive system via the EDNRB pathway. The prevalence of allergic disorders has markedly increased over the past few decades. Allergic disorders are associated with neuropsychiatric conditions; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation

  2. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) 2008 update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA(2)LEN and AllerGen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Khaltaev, N.; Cruz, A. A.; Denburg, J.; Fokkens, W. J.; Togias, A.; Zuberbier, T.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Canonica, G. W.; van Weel, C.; Agache, I.; Aït-Khaled, N.; Bachert, C.; Blaiss, M. S.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L.-P.; Bousquet, P.-J.; Camargos, P.; Carlsen, K.-H.; Chen, Y.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Demoly, P.; Douagui, H.; Durham, S. R.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Kalayci, O.; Kaliner, M. A.; Kim, Y.-Y.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kuna, P.; Le, L. T. T.; Lemiere, C.; Li, J.; Lockey, R. F.; Mavale-Manuel, S.; Meltzer, E. O.; Mohammad, Y.; Mullol, J.; Naclerio, R.; O'Hehir, R. E.; Ohta, K.; Ouedraogo, S.; Palkonen, S.; Papadopoulos, N.; Passalacqua, G.; Pawankar, R.; Popov, T. A.; Rabe, K. F.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Scadding, G. K.; Simons, F. E. R.; Toskala, E.; Valovirta, E.; van Cauwenberge, P.; Wang, D.-Y.; Wickman, M.; Yawn, B. P.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Bateman, E. D.; Ben Kheder, A.; Boakye, D. A.; Bouchard, J.; Burney, P.; Busse, W. W.; Chan-Yeung, M.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chuchalin, A.; Dolen, W. K.; Emuzyte, R.; Grouse, L.; Humbert, M.; Jackson, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Keith, P. K.; Kemp, J. P.; Klossek, J.-M.; Larenas-Linnemann, D.; Lipworth, B.; Malo, J.-L.; Marshall, G. D.; Naspitz, C.; Nekam, K.; Niggemann, B.; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E.; Okamoto, Y.; Orru, M. P.; Potter, P.; Price, D.; Stoloff, S. W.; Vandenplas, O.; Viegi, G.; Williams, D.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a symptomatic disorder of the nose induced after allergen exposure by an IgE-mediated inflammation of the membranes lining the nose. It is a global health problem that causes major illness and disability worldwide. Over 600 million patients from all countries, all ethnic groups

  3. The cost of productivity losses associated with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal-Peters, J; Crown, W H; Goetzel, R Z; Schutt, D C

    2000-03-01

    To measure the cost of absenteeism and reduced productivity associated with allergic rhinitis. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to obtain information on days lost from work and lost productivity due to allergic rhinitis. Wage estimates for occupations obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) were used to calculate the costs. Productivity losses associated with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in the 1995 NHIS were estimated to be $601 million. When additional survey information on the use of sedating over-the-counter (OTC) allergy medications, as well as workers' self-assessments of their reduction in at-work productivity due to allergic rhinitis, were considered, the estimated productivity loss increased dramatically. At-work productivity losses were estimated to range from $2.4 billion to $4.6 billion. Despite the inherent difficulty of measuring productivity losses, our lowest estimate is several times higher than previous estimates of the indirect medical costs associated with allergic rhinitis treatment. The most significant productivity losses resulted not from absenteeism but from reduced at-work productivity associated with the use of sedating OTC antihistamines.

  4. Methotrexate use in allergic contact dermatitis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashaki; Burns, Erin; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2018-03-01

    Methotrexate, a folate antimetabolite, is used to treat atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although methotrexate's therapeutic efficacy has been noted in the literature, there are few data on the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of methotrexate in treating allergic contact dermatitis at a single institution, and also to assess methotrexate efficacy in patients with chronic, unavoidable allergen exposure. We performed a retrospective chart review of 32 patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis by positive patch test reactions, and who received treatment with methotrexate from November 2010 to November 2014. Demographic and treatment-associated data were collected from electronic medical records. Ten patients were identified as allergen non-avoiders secondary to their occupation, and were subgrouped as such. Seventy-eight per cent (25/32) of patients showed either a partial or a complete response. Methotrexate had a comparable efficacy rate in the allergen non-avoiders subset, at 10 of 10. Of the 32 patients, 23% (5/22) had complete clearance of their dermatitis, and 1/10 of allergen non-avoiders had complete clearance of their dermatitis. Methotrexate is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for allergic contact dermatitis, and shows comparable efficacy to immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporine and azathioprine, with robust efficacy despite persistent allergen exposure in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Asthma and allergic rhinitis in adoptees and their adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Cadoret, R J; Burns, T L; Troughton, E P

    1998-08-01

    Since the highest risk for the development of atopic disease is in early life, environmental risk factors need to be separated from the genetic component in this high risk period. Adoptees removed at birth and placed in adoptive families present a way to separate environmental and genetic factors at this early susceptible age. An opportunity for a pilot study of asthma and allergic rhinitis in adoptive families was presented when a psychiatrist (RC) was planning a behavioral study of young adult adoptees and their adoptive parents. A detailed questionnaire about allergic rhinitis and asthma was added after the psychiatrists' interview. Placement was not influenced by a history of allergy in adoptive or natural parents. The adoptee and at least one adoptive parent completed questionnaires in 367 families. The adoptees had been removed at birth and placed in the adoptive family within 3 months (83% within 1 month). Compared with adoptive families without asthma or allergic rhinitis, an adoptive mother with asthma or rhinitis, when the adoptive father was not affected, increased the risk for asthma in the adoptee (OR = 3.2, P adoptive mother alone (OR = 3.2, P Adoptive father asthma or allergic rhinitis showed a trend toward increased asthma in the adoptee (OR = 1.9, P adoption by parents with asthma or allergic rhinitis suggests that further well planned adoptee studies should be made.

  6. 389 Allergic Reactions to Local Anesthetics: Detection by Skin Tests and Subcutaneous Provocation. Analysis of 160 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Luiz; Gonçalves Tavares, Tania Maria; Delcourt, Nathalia; Baroni, Juliana; Rios, João; Rios, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to local anesthetics (LA) are frequent and often referred to as allergic. Although immune-mediated reactions are rare, it should be investigated for suspected cases. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive skin test to these drugs in patients with a suspected history of allergic reactions and describe the main socio-demographic characteristics of these individuals. Methods Retrospective study of medical records of patients attended at Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro Allergic Clinic, between 2008 and 2011. The parameters evaluated were the test indication and the patient ages and gender. The drug tested was that the patient had a history of suspicion. Patients underwent skin prick and intradermal tests and subcutaneous provocation. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed. Results It was performed 160 tests (125 female). Three of this total was excluded due to inconclusive results. In women, the highest proportion of tests was in the age group from 41 to 60 years (43%), while in males the higher concentration was at a youngest age group: 21 to 40 years (41%). The most common indication (103 cases, 65%) for the tests was a previous suspected anaphylactic reaction by LA. Seven of 157 tests had a positive result (4.4%), 6 of them occurred in women (4.8%). Only one test resulted in a type of anaphylactic reaction response (0.67%). All patients who presented positive response to the test had a history of per-anesthetic reaction that suggested an immune-mediated mechanism. Conclusions In patients with a history of previous reaction to local anesthetics, the skin tests with these drugs have a key role in the prevention of anaphylaxis, and on guidance for adequate anesthetic procedures.

  7. Role of Cellular Immunity in Cow’s Milk Allergy: Pathogenesis, Tolerance Induction, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juandy Jo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an aberrant immune-mediated reaction against harmless food substances, such as cow’s milk proteins. Due to its very early introduction, cow’s milk allergy is one of the earliest and most common food allergies. For this reason cow’s milk allergy can be recognized as one of the first indications of an aberrant inflammatory response in early life. Classically, cow’s milk allergy, as is true for most other allergies as well, is primarily associated with abnormal humoral immune responses, that is, elevation of specific immunoglobulin E levels. There is growing evidence indicating that cellular components of both innate and adaptive immunity play significant roles during the pathogenesis of cow’s milk allergy. This is true for the initiation of the allergic phenotype (stimulation and skewing towards sensitization, development and outgrowth of the allergic disease. This review discusses findings pertaining to roles of cellular immunity in allergic inflammation, and tolerance induction against cow’s milk proteins. In addition, a possible interaction between immune mechanisms underlying cow’s milk allergy and other types of inflammation (infections and noncommunicable diseases is discussed.

  8. Perillyl alcohol suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Oh; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hiroaki; Kawahata, Kimito; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Dohi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits the mevalonate pathway. •We examined whether POH suppresses immune responses with a mouse model of asthma. •POH treatment during sensitization suppressed Ag-induced priming of CD4 + T cells. •POH suppressed airway eosinophila and cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes. -- Abstract: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4 + T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects

  9. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Recommendations for the pharmacologic management of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Flavia C L; Meltzer, Eli O; Ostrom, Nancy K; Nelson, Harold S; Bensch, Greg W; Spangler, Dennis L; Storms, William W; Weinstein, Steven F; Katial, Rohit K

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects at least 60 million people in the United States each year, resulting in a major impact on patient quality of life, productivity, and direct and indirect costs. As new therapies, data, and literature eme